Sample records for ageless vision glare

  1. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev


    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  2. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements. (United States)

    Ellison, Kirsten L


    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream.

  3. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast...... and attractive renderings of bright light sources. Based on the anatomy of the human eye, we propose a model that enables real-time simulation of dynamic glare on a GPU. This allows an improved depiction of HDR images on LDR media for interactive applications like games, feature films, or even by adding movement...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene....

  4. Evaluation on Glare Response to Car Headlight and Drivers' Visibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dianye; Wang Wuhong; Cao Qi


    This paper proposes an ideal setof glare rating scales,shows how it affects the vision legibility for driving, and simulates the situation in which cars are moving at the relative speed of 120 km/h and 180 km/h,and the light quantity change caused by the moving light sources affects vision legibility. It will offer quantitative vision data for engineers.

  5. Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance%Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shengyong; Guan Qiu; Liu Sheng; Bi Dexue


    This paper presents some human-inspired strategies for lighting control in a robot system for best scene interpretation, where the main intention is to avoid possible glares or highlights occurring in images. It firstly compares the characteristics of human eyes and robot eyes. Then some evaluation criteria are addressed to assess the lighting conditions. A bio-inspired method is adopted to avoid the visual glare which is caused by either direct illumination from large light sources or indirect illumination reflected by smooth surfaces. Appropriate methods are proposed to optimize the pose and optical parameters of the light source and the vision camera.

  6. The assessment of glare in street-lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, W. & Schreuder, D.A.


    Quantitative measures for glare restriction can be introduced only if a- both disability glare and discomfort glare are included; b- the glare of a full installation not of one single lantern only-can be assessed at the design stage; and c- the system under considerations allows simple and fast calc

  7. Glare suppression by coherence gated negation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei


    Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively 'gates out' the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods 'gate in' the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

  8. On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.J.


    Background: In the 1920s and 1930s, disability glare was a topic of great interest in the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE). The Second World War prevented agreement being reached on a standard to quantify disability glare but the Stiles-Holladay formula was widely accepted as such. In

  9. Evaluation of discomfort glare in the 50+ elderly: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wolska


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze discomfort glare sensation in subjects aged 50 years and more in comparison with younger subjects (i.e. younger than 35 years of age. Material and Methods: The experiments were performed on a computer workstation placed in controlled lighting environment where 2 discomfort glare conditions were modeled. Each participant performed for about 1 h specially designed visual tasks, including the tests with Landolt's rings presented on the screen by a computer program. The glare evaluation method consisted of subjective evaluation of discomfort glare on the semantic glare rating scale, tests of mesopic contrast and glare sensitivity, subjective assessment of lighting quality and asthenopic symptoms. The time needed to perform the task and the number of mistakes were also recorded. The subjective evaluation of glare was compared with the Unified Glare Rating (UGR index calculated by the DIALux simulation program. Results: A higher percentage of the younger group subjects assessed glare after the experimental session as uncomfortable and intolerable than in the 50+ group, who more often assessed glare as acceptable. The assessment of discomfort glare in the younger group corresponded to higher UGR value compared to UGR value calculated by DIALux. In the 50+ group, such correlation was found only for lower discomfort glare (UGR = 19. The results showed that younger participants more frequently suffered from visual fatigue and assessed lighting as less comfortable. However, the mesopic glare sensitivity increased significantly after the experiments only in the 50+ group under both glare conditions. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that discomfort glare sensation changes with age. The younger population seems to be more sensitive and demanding than the older one in relation to discomfort glare limiting, in spite of the lack of significant objective measures of fatigue. The exposure of the elderly to

  10. Eldercare at Home: Vision Problems (United States)

    ... peripheral vision. There are many aids on the market for people with macular degeneration, such as: Magnifying ... sunglasses indoors. People who have cataracts sometimes use dark glasses indoors to lessen the glare caused by ...

  11. Pattern glare: the effects of contrast and color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMonger


    Full Text Available Aim: To test a theory of visual stress by investigating the inter-relationships between (1 the threshold contrast/saturation at which individuals first report discomfort when viewing colored gratings of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation; (2 the choice of a colored overlay for reading; (3 any increase in reading speed when the overlay is used. Method: Ninety-five young adults, with normal color vision, reported illusions from square-wave gratings (Pattern Glare Test, chose any colored overlays that improved clarity (Intuitive Color Overlays and read aloud randomly ordered common words (Wilkins Rate of Reading Test. This was followed by an automated choice of tints for text using various screen colors on a tablet, and a test of discomfort from patterns of progressively increasing contrast and decreasing saturation, using software developed for this study. All participants wore their optimal refractive correction throughout the procedure.Results: Fifty-eight participants chose a colored overlay and reported that it made text easier and more comfortable to read. On average, these individuals had a greater improvement in reading speed with their overlays (p=0.003, a lower contrast threshold at which discomfort from achromatic gratings was first reported (p=0.015, and a tendency to report more pattern glare (p=0.052, compared to the other participants. Participants who chose both a most and least preferred tint for text using the automated procedure reported discomfort from colored gratings at a significantly higher contrast with their most preferred color compared to their least preferred color (p=0.003. The choice of a colored tint was therefore moderately consistent across tests. The most and least preferred colors tended to be complementary.Conclusion: Colored tints that improved reading speed reduced pattern glare both in terms of the illusion susceptibility and in terms of discomfort contrast threshold, supporting a

  12. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  13. Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.B. & Schreuder, D.A.


    A simple method is given for determining the degree of discomfort glare in street lighting installations. This method is derived from results obtained partly from new investigations and partly from previous tests. Results arrived at by this method are compared with the glare produced in existing lig

  14. An experimental investigation of glare and restructured fiber metal laminates (United States)

    Benedict, Adelina Vanessa

    Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are a group of materials fabricated by bonding glass/epoxy layers within metal layers. This class of materials can provide good mechanical properties, as well as weight savings. An FML known as Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE) was studied. An experimental investigation comprising of microscopy and tensile testing was carried out using different grades of GLARE. Microscopy revealed the construction details of GLARE, while tensile testing provided means of measuring and analyzing its stress-strain responses. Next, different metal surface pretreatment methods were explored. These included sandblasting, Phosphoric Acid Anodizing (PAA), and AC-130 Sol-Gel treatment. Woven S-2 glass, an epoxy adhesive, and aluminum alloy sheet metal were used to fabricate restructured FMLs using time and cost effective procedures. Additional microscopy and tensile testing allowed for comparisons with GLARE and aircraft grade aluminum alloys. The restructured FMLs showed similar behaviors to GLARE with potential significant improvements in fabrication efficiency.

  15. Practical assessment of veiling glare in camera lens system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić


    Full Text Available Veiling glare can be defined as an unwanted or stray light in an optical system caused by internal reflections between elements of the camera lens. It leads to image fogging and degradation of both image density and contrast, diminishing its overall quality. Each lens is susceptible to veiling glare to some extent - sometimes it is negligible, but it most cases it leads to the visible defects in an image. Unlike the other flaws and errors, lens flare is not easy to correct. Hence, it is highly recommended to prevent it during the capturing phase, if possible. For some applications, it can also be useful to estimate the susceptibility to a lens glare i.e. the degree of a glare in the lens system. Few methods are usually used for this types of testing. Some of the methods are hard to implement and often do not lead to consistent results. In this paper, we assessed one relatively easy method for practical evaluation of veiling glare. Method contains three steps: creating an appropriate scene, capturing the target image and analyzing it. In order to evaluate its applicability, we tested four lenses for Nikon 700 digital camera. Lenses used were with the fixed focal length of 35 and 85 mm and differed by the coatings of their elements. Furthermore, we evaluated the influence of aperture on veiling glare value. It was shown that presented method is not applicable for testing the lenses with short focal length and that the new generation of lenses, equipped with Nano crystal coatings are less susceptible to veiling glare. Aperture did not affect veiling glare value significantly.

  16. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram


    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  17. A modification of the method for the appraisal of glare in street lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, W. & D.A. Schreuder


    Description of a modification of a method to appraise glare in street lighting. The alteration concerns the assessment of discomfort and disability glare if the photometrical and geometrical data the lantern and the installation are provided.

  18. Veiling Glare and Perceived Black in High Dynamic Range Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdoch, M.J.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.


    A perceptual experiment was conducted to measure the visibility of black-level differences in the proximity of a bright glare source. In a controlled viewing environment, visual difference thresholds were adaptively measured using dark, shadow-detail images shown on a high dynamic range liquid crys

  19. Night vision of the post-LASIK myope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hansraj


    Full Text Available Purpose: Poor night vision has been reported as one of the side-effects of LASIK,  however, this area has not been widely studied.  This study therefore set out to assess and quantify the visual status of the post-LASIK patient in dim illumination as an indication of visual performance at night.  This was achieved by assessing the night vision threshold, glare vision threshold and glare recovery time.Setting: The study was carried out in Durban, Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa.Method: This study used the Night Sight Meter for assessment of the night vision thresholds, glare vision thresholds and glare  recovery times of individuals who had had LASIK at least one year before commencement of the study.  The inclusion criteria were post-surgical interval following LASIK of at least one year and willingness to participate in the study.  The exclusion criteria included previous ocular surgery other than LASIK, current ocular disease and any systemic illnesses.   One hundred subjects were selected from participating ophthalmologists’ records, using convenience sampling, at different post-operative periods that ranged from 12 to 57 months.  Other refractive findings taken included post-LASIK visual acuity measured using the Snellen Visual Acuity chart and post-LASIK refractive error, measured with the standard subjective refraction tests which included duochrome, Jackson crossed-cylinder and Humphrey’s Immediate Contrast test, which are used for comparison in this study.Results: Post-operatively, the majority of the eyes (89.2% were classified as having ‘poor’ night vision thresholds.  A similar trend was observed in the case of the glare vision thresholds as 84.7% of the eyes fell into the classification of below average.  The degree of pre-operative myopia appears to have an effect on the post-LASIK night vision and glare  thresholds.  Only glare recovery  time was not affected as 51.2% of the subjects displayed good recovery

  20. Experimental investigation on impact performances of GLARE laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qi


    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was carried out on the damage resistance to a concentrated quasi-static indentation force and low-velocity impact of four kinds of glass-reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE for short. Compared with the experimental results of the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics laminates, the performance of GLARE was determined. By means of concentrated quasi-static indentation force test, typical force–displacement response, the maximum contact force and dent depth were received. Through drop-weight low-velocity impact tests, impact force histories, indentation depths (through a new method and dissipated energy were obtained. The test results show that the force–displacement response of GLARE 4 laminates under the concentrated quasi-static indentation force has an obvious flat roof and the failure is instantaneous, which are different from CFRP laminates. The indention will be visible once the impact happens. C-scan results find that there is no delamination besides the impact area after both the concentrated quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact. The dissipated energy approximately equals the impact energy.

  1. Experimental investigation on impact performances of GLARE laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qi; Guan Zhidong; Li Zengshan; Ji Zhaojie; Zhuo Yue


    An experimental investigation was carried out on the damage resistance to a concen-trated quasi-static indentation force and low-velocity impact of four kinds of glass-reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE for short). Compared with the experimental results of the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) laminates, the performance of GLARE was determined. By means of concentrated quasi-static indentation force test, typical force–displacement response, the maximum contact force and dent depth were received. Through drop-weight low-velocity impact tests, impact force histories, indentation depths (through a new method) and dissipated energy were obtained. The test results show that the force–displacement response of GLARE 4 laminates under the concentrated quasi-static indentation force has an obvious flat roof and the failure is instantaneous, which are different from CFRP laminates. The indention will be visible once the impact happens. C-scan results find that there is no delamination besides the impact area after both the concentrated quasi-static indentation and low-velocity impact. The dissipated energy approximately equals the impact energy.

  2. Applying artificial intelligence to clinical guidelines: the GLARE approach. (United States)

    Terenziani, Paolo; Montani, Stefania; Bottrighi, Alessio; Molino, Gianpaolo; Torchio, Mauro


    We present GLARE, a domain-independent system for acquiring, representing and executing clinical guidelines (GL). GLARE is characterized by the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the definition and implementation of the system. First of all, a high-level and user-friendly knowledge representation language has been designed. Second, a user-friendly acquisition tool, which provides expert physicians with various forms of help, has been implemented. Third, a tool for executing GL on a specific patient has been made available. At all the levels above, advanced AI techniques have been exploited, in order to enhance flexibility and user-friendliness and to provide decision support. Specifically, this chapter focuses on the methods we have developed in order to cope with (i) automatic resource-based adaptation of GL, (ii) representation and reasoning about temporal constraints in GL, (iii) decision making support, and (iv) model-based verification. We stress that, although we have devised such techniques within the GLARE project, they are mostly system-independent, so that they might be applied to other guideline management systems.

  3. Rainbow glare after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M


    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1,2 Jordan D Desautels,3 Tyler S Quist,4 David F Skanchy,5 Mark T Williams,6 Ryan T Wallace7 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 2HDR Research Center, Hoopes Vision, Draper, UT, 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 5McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 6University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, 7Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA Abstract: This article reviews the current literature pertaining to rainbow glare (RG, including incidence rate, clinical presentation, etiology, prognosis, and management. RG is a rare optical complication of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis that results in patients seeing an array of spectral bands surrounding point sources of light under mesopic and scotopic conditions. The mechanism is thought to be a consequence of the formation of a transmissive diffraction grating on the posterior surface of the corneal flap created by the FS laser. RG has a good prognosis and is usually self-limiting. Persistent RG with concomitant residual refractive error may warrant lifting the flap and photoablating the posterior surface of the flap. Patients with persistent RG and no residual refractive error should be considered candidates for phototherapeutic keratectomy on the posterior flap surface. Keywords: rainbow glare, femtosecond, LASIK, keratomileusis, phototherapeutic keratectomy

  4. Keeping Older Adults with Vision Loss Safe: Chronic Conditions and Comorbidities that Influence Functional Mobility (United States)

    Riddering, Anne T.


    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans aged 60 and older. The loss of central vision from AMD can decrease visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, color discrimination, and the ability to adapt to changes in lighting conditions. Older adults with vision loss often have other chronic,…

  5. Efficient Fruit Defect Detection and Glare removal Algorithm by anisotropic diffusion and 2D Gabor filter


    Katyal, Vini; Srivastava, Deepesh


    This paper focuses on fruit defect detection and glare removal using morphological operations, Glare removal can be considered as an important preprocessing step as uneven lighting may introduce it in images, which hamper the results produced through segmentation by Gabor filters .The problem of glare in images is very pronounced sometimes due to the unusual reflectance from the camera sensor or stray light entering, this method counteracts this problem and makes the defect detection much mor...

  6. Computer vision syndrome: a review. (United States)

    Blehm, Clayton; Vishnu, Seema; Khattak, Ashbala; Mitra, Shrabanee; Yee, Richard W


    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome symptoms may be the cause of ocular (ocular-surface abnormalities or accommodative spasms) and/or extraocular (ergonomic) etiologies. However, the major contributor to computer vision syndrome symptoms by far appears to be dry eye. The visual effects of various display characteristics such as lighting, glare, display quality, refresh rates, and radiation are also discussed. Treatment requires a multidirectional approach combining ocular therapy with adjustment of the workstation. Proper lighting, anti-glare filters, ergonomic positioning of computer monitor and regular work breaks may help improve visual comfort. Lubricating eye drops and special computer glasses help relieve ocular surface-related symptoms. More work needs to be done to specifically define the processes that cause computer vision syndrome and to develop and improve effective treatments that successfully address these causes.

  7. Observers' Judgments of the Effects of Glare on Their Visual Acuity for High and Low Contrast Stimuli. (United States)

    Sewall, Ashley A Stafford; Borzendowski, Stephanie A Whetsel; Tyrrell, Richard A; Stephens, Benjamin R; Rosopa, Patrick J


    Disability glare refers to a reduction in the ability to discern a stimulus that is positioned near another stimulus that has a much higher luminance. While it is common for drivers to report that they have been "blinded" by oncoming headlights, it is unclear whether observers can accurately judge when they are visually disabled by glare. This experiment sought to quantify the accuracy with which observers can judge when a glare source reduces their visual acuity. Seventeen observers estimated their disability glare threshold (DGT)-the luminance of a glare source that would be just sufficient to impair their ability to discern the orientation of a Landolt C that was surrounded by the glare source. These estimated DGTs were compared to the participant's actual DGTs. Participants consistently underestimated the intensity of glare that was required to impair their acuity. On average, estimates of glare threshold were 88% lower than actual glare threshold intensities. Participants' judgments were affected by stimulus size but not stimulus contrast. These results suggest that observers can exaggerate the debilitating effects of glare and that they can fail to appreciate that high contrast stimuli are more robust to glare. A driver who believes that even the lowest intensities of headlight glare can visually impair an oncoming driver may be reluctant to use high beam headlamps, despite their significant visibility advantages.

  8. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li


    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  9. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome. (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc


    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  10. Verification of simple illuminance based measures for indication of discomfort glare from windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida


    predictions of discomfort glare from windows already in the early design stage when decisions regarding the façade are taken. This study focus on verifying if simple illuminance based measures like vertical illuminance at eye level or horizontal illuminance at the desk are correlated with the perceived glare...... confirm that there is a statistically significant correlation between both vertical eye illuminance and horizontal illuminance at the desk and the occupants’ perception of glare in a perimeter zone office environment, which is promising evidence towards utilizing such simple measures for indication...... of discomfort glare in early building design. Further, the observed response indicate that the participants in the present study were more tolerant to low illuminance levels and more sensitive to high illuminance levels than the DGPs model would predict. More and larger studies are needed to confirm or enfeeble...

  11. Efficient Fruit Defect Detection and Glare removal Algorithm by anisotropic diffusion and 2D Gabor filter

    CERN Document Server

    Katyal, Vini


    This paper focuses on fruit defect detection and glare removal using morphological operations, Glare removal can be considered as an important preprocessing step as uneven lighting may introduce it in images, which hamper the results produced through segmentation by Gabor filters .The problem of glare in images is very pronounced sometimes due to the unusual reflectance from the camera sensor or stray light entering, this method counteracts this problem and makes the defect detection much more pronounced. Anisotropic diffusion is used for further smoothening of the images and removing the high energy regions in an image for better defect detection and makes the defects more retrievable. Our algorithm is robust and scalable the employability of a particular mask for glare removal has been checked and proved useful for counteracting.this problem, anisotropic diffusion further enhances the defects with its use further Optimal Gabor filter at various orientations is used for defect detection.

  12. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander


    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms.

  13. Glare Recovery of a Two Dimensional Tracking Task with Respect to Various Colors (United States)


    transparent, yellowish tinged crystalline material of complex bio-chemical structure. Yellowing of the lens will continue with age, and thus increase... headlamps to remain on for approximately five seconds. After the end of the five seconds the timer will 29 turn off the headlamps and recycle for the...Comparator button 104 is then pressed high which activates the glare source which consists of two automotive type headlights. The glare source is

  14. Improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery


    Elliott, D; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.


    AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery.
METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...

  15. Review of Efforts to Develop a Low-Luminance-Level Disability Glare Tester (United States)


    Visual Science. 33(3): 618-625. De Wit, G. C. 2002. Development of a stray light meter for driver licensing. Chapter 1. In EU project: 1- TREN E3 200...Licence Holders, final report EU project I- TREN E3 200/7/SI2.282826 (2003). van den Berg, T. J. T. P. and Boltjes...American Journal of Ophthalmology 132 (2): 204-210. van Rijn, L. J. 2002. Clinical studies on straylight and glare. In EU project: 1- TREN E3 200/7

  16. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib


    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  17. Low Vision (United States)

    ... HHS USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  18. Session IV. Problem Solving. Vehicle lighting system. Four steps in glare reduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.


    A number of proposals are described that may help to reduce glare. The systems are either only a partial improvement, or they are expensive, or their introduction raises severe problems. One solution, already widely in use, is applica- tion of overhead lighting. In order to really improve the situa

  19. Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morinière, F.D.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Tooski, M.Y.; Benedictus, R.


    An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the

  20. Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests (United States)

    Morinière, Freddy; Alderliesten, René; Tooski, Mehdi; Benedictus, Rinze


    An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

  1. GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the 3D surface of palaeoglaciers (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramón; Rea, Brice R.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig R.; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Lukas, Sven; Renssen, Hans


    Glacier reconstructions are widely used in palaeoclimatic studies and this paper presents a new semi-automated method for generating glacier reconstructions: GlaRe, is a toolbox coded in Python and operating in ArcGIS. This toolbox provides tools to generate the ice thickness from the bed topography along a palaeoglacier flowline applying the standard flow law for ice, and generates the 3D surface of the palaeoglacier using multiple interpolation methods. The toolbox performance has been evaluated using two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known, using the basic reconstruction routine in GlaRe. Results in terms of ice surface, ice extent and equilibrium line altitude show excellent agreement that confirms the robustness of this procedure in the reconstruction of palaeoglaciers from glacial landforms such as frontal moraines.

  2. Microstructured glazing for daylighting, glare protection, seasonal thermal control and clear view


    Kostro, André Gabriel


    The appropriate choice of glazing in a facade depends on many factors. They include amongst other criteria: location, orientation, climatic condition, energetic efficiency, usage of the building, required user comfort, and the architectural concept. On the south facade of high-rise buildings in particular, it is a challenge to have simultaneously large glazed area, no glare, no excessive cooling loads, a clear view and sufficient natural light flux. In Switzerland, electric lighting, heating ...

  3. Effects of aliskiren- and ramipril-based treatment on central aortic blood pressure in elderly with systolic hypertension: a substudy of AGELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschiera F


    Full Text Available Fabio Baschiera,1 William Chang,2 Patrick Brunel1 On behalf of the AGELESS Study Group 1Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Background: Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in elderly patients. There is increasing evidence that measurement of central aortic pressure (CAP better accounts for cardiovascular risk than brachial blood pressure (BP. The Aliskiren for GEriatric LowEring of SyStolic hypertension (AGELESS study in elderly patients with systolic hypertension showed that aliskiren-based therapy provided greater reductions in peripheral BP than ramipril-based therapy over 12 and 36 weeks of treatment. Here, we present CAP results in a substudy of elderly patients from the AGELESS study. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a 36-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, optional-titration study in patients ≥65 years of age with systolic BP ≥140 mmHg. Changes in both central and peripheral BP and pulse pressure (PP and changes in systolic and PP amplification ratios from baseline to the week 36 end point with aliskiren-based versus ramipril-based therapy were analyzed. Results: Of the 901 patients randomized in the overall study, 154 patients (aliskiren, n=78; ramipril, n=76 had CAP data. Numerically comparable reductions were seen for central aortic systolic pressure (CASP in aliskiren-based therapy (baseline: 143.7±15.0; week 36: −20.3±16.2 compared with ramipril-based therapy (baseline: 147.9±11.9; week 36: −20.7±14.6. However, for the change in central aortic diastolic pressure, the least squares mean between-treatment difference (−3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, −6.76, −0.43; P=0.0263] was in favor of aliskiren, while the other changes were comparable between the two groups with a trend in favor of aliskiren for CASP as well (−2.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, −7.38, 2.19; P=0

  4. Evaluation of anti-glare applications for a tactical helmet-mounted display (United States)

    Roll, Jason L.; Trew, Noel J. M.; Geis, Matthew R.; Havig, Paul R.


    Non see-through, monocular helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide warfighters with unprecedented amounts of information at a glance. The US Air Force recognizes their usefulness, and has included such an HMD as part of a kit for ground-based, Battlefield Airmen. Despite their many advantages, non see-through HMDs occlude a large portion of the visual field when worn as designed, directly in front of the eye. To address this limitation, operators have chosen to wear it just above the cheek, angled up toward the eye. However, wearing the HMD in this position exposes the display to glare, causing a potential viewing problem. In order to address this problem, we tested several film and HMD hood applications for their effect on glare. The first experiment objectively examined the amount of light reflected off the display with each application in a controlled environment. The second experiment used human participants to subjectively evaluate display readability/legibility with each film and HMD hood covering under normal office lighting and under a simulated sunlight condition. In this test paradigm, participants had to correctly identify different icons on a map and different words on a white background. Our results indicate that though some applications do reduce glare, they do not significantly improve the HMD's readability/legibility compared with an uncovered screen. This suggests that these post-production modifications will not completely solve this problem and underscores the importance of employing a user-centered approach early in the design cycle to determine an operator's use-case before manufacturing an HMD for a particular user community.

  5. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  6. Vision Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  7. Three Lyman-alpha Emitters at z approx 6: Early GMOS/Gemini Data from the GLARE Project

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, E R; Bunker, A J; Abraham, R G; Hook, I; Rhoads, J; McCarthy, P J; Boyle, B; Colless, M; Crampton, D; Couch, W; Jorgensen, I; Malhotra, S; Murowinski, R; Roth, K; Savaglio, S; Tsvetanov, Z I; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Glazebrook, Karl; Bunker, Andrew J.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Hook, Isobel; Rhoads, James; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc; Boyle, Brian; Colless, Matthew; Crampton, David; Couch, Warrick; J{\\o}rgensen, Inger; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Murowinski, Rick; Roth, Kathy; Savaglio, Sandra; Tsvetanov., Zlatan


    We report spectroscopic detection of three z \\sim 6 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies, in the vicinity of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from the early data of the Gemini Lyman-alpha at Reionisation Era (GLARE) project. Two objects, GLARE#3001 (z =5.79) and GLARE#3011 (z =5.94), are new detections and are fainter in z' (z'_AB = 26.37 and 27.15) than any continuum-selected objects previously detected in Lyman-alpha. A third object, GLARE#1042 (z =5.83) has previously been detected in line emission from the ground; we report here a new spectroscopic continuum detection. Gemini/GMOS-S spectra of these objects, obtained using nod & shuffle, are presented together with a discussion of their photometric properties. All three objects were selected for spectroscopy via the i-drop Lyman Break technique, the two new detections from the GOODS v1.0 imaging data. The red i'-z' colors and high equivalent widths of these objects suggest a high-confidence z>5 Lyman-alpha identification of the emission lines. This brings the to...

  8. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.


    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  9. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the permanent dent depth and energy absorption of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.


    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  10. Living with vision loss (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  11. The GLARE Survey II. Faint z=6 Ly-alpha Line Emitters in the HUDF

    CERN Document Server

    Stanway, Elizabeth R; Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Crampton, David; Colless, Matthew; Chiu, Kuenley; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11469.x


    The galaxy population at z~6 has been the subject of intense study in recent years, culminating in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) -- the deepest imaging survey yet. A large number of high redshift galaxy candidates have been identified within the HUDF, but until now analysis of their properties has been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining spectroscopic redshifts for these faint galaxies. Our ''Gemini Lyman-Alpha at Reionisation Era'' (GLARE) project has been designed to undertake spectroscopic follow up of faint (z'5.5, and a further nine possible line emitters with detections at lower significance. We also place tight constraints on the equivalent width of Lyman-alpha emission for a further ten i'-drop galaxies and examine the equivalent width distribution of this faint spectroscopic sample of z~6 galaxies. We find that the fraction of galaxies with little or no emission is similar to that at z~3, but that the z~6 population has a tail of sources with high rest frame equivalent widths. Possible expla...

  12. Micro Vision


    Ohba, Kohtaro; OHARA, Kenichi


    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  13. From bed topography to ice thickness: GlaRe, a GIS tool to reconstruct the surface of palaeoglaciers (United States)

    Pellitero, Ramon; Rea, Brice; Spagnolo, Matteo; Bakke, Jostein; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Frew, Craig; Hughes, Philip; Ribolini, Adriano; Renssen, Hans; Lukas, Sven


    We present GlaRe, A GIS tool that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometry for palaeoglaciers given the bed topography. This tool utilises a numerical approach and can work using a minimum of morphological evidence i.e. the position of the palaeoglacier front. The numerical approach is based on an iterative solution to the perfect plasticity assumption for ice rheology, explained in Benn and Hulton (2010). The tool can be run in ArcGIS 10.1 (ArcInfo license) and later updates and the toolset is written in Python code. The GlaRe toolbox presented in this paper implements a well-established approach for the determination of palaeoglacier equilibrium profiles. Significantly it permits users to quickly run multiple glacier reconstructions which were previously very laborious and time consuming (typically days for a single valley glacier). The implementation of GlaRe will facilitate the reconstruction of large numbers of palaeoglaciers which will provide opportunities for such research addressing at least two fundamental problems: 1. Investigation of the dynamics of palaeoglaciers. Glacier reconstructions are often based on a rigorous interpretation of glacial landforms but not always sufficient attention and/or time has been given to the actual reconstruction of the glacier surface, which is crucial for the calculation of palaeoglacier ELAs and subsequent derivation of quantitative palaeoclimatic data. 2. the ability to run large numbers of reconstructions and over much larger spatial areas provides an opportunity to undertake palaeoglaciers reconstructions across entire mountain, ranges, regions or even continents, allowing climatic gradients and atmospheric circulation patterns to be elucidated. The tool performance has been evaluated by comparing two extant glaciers, an icefield and a cirque/valley glacier from which the subglacial topography is known with a basic reconstruction using GlaRe. Results from the comparisons between extant glacier surfaces and modelled

  14. Computer vision (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.


    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  15. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  16. Pregnancy and Your Vision (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. What Is Low Vision? (United States)

    ... Condition Eye Health Low Vision What Is Low Vision? What "Low Vision" Means Signs and Symptoms of ... Services The Low Vision Pilot Project What "Low Vision" Means As we age, our eyes change too. ...

  18. All Vision Impairment (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  19. Nanocellulose: a new ageless bionanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne


    Full Text Available Owing to the hierarchical structure of cellulose, nanoparticles can be extracted from this naturally occurring polymer. Multiple mechanical shearing actions allow the release of more or fewer individual microfibrils. Longitudinal cutting of these microfibrils can be achieved by a strong acid hydrolysis treatment, allowing dissolution of amorphous domains. The impressive mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of these nanoparticles make them ideal candidates for the processing of polymer nanocomposites. With a Young's modulus in the range 100–130 GPa and a surface area of several hundred m2 g−1, new promising properties can be considered for cellulose.

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Glare Applications for a Tactical Helmet-Mounted Display (United States)


    participants wore a hat or head covering that would shield the projected light. After instruction, the participant was given a color blindness test...using a series of pseudoisochromatic plates. If the participant passed the color blindness test, they continued on to a second vision test that

  1. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole


    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... of the experienc e achieved during the project is provided. The project is industrial oriented. An essential part of the project has been focused on the possi-bilities for immediate use of the results. A full implemented application doing vision ba sed positioning is described. It is concluded that visionbased...

  2. Vision Loss, Sudden (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  3. Healthy Vision Tips (United States)

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  4. Blindness and vision loss (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  5. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan


    The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...

  6. Pleiades Visions (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.


    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  7. Lambda Vision (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael


    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  8. Cartesian visions. (United States)

    Fara, Patricia


    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  9. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R


    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  10. Comparison of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers to BK7 glass in night vision goggle objectives (United States)

    Stevens, James S.


    The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of Topas cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) as an optical plastic for use in military-grade night vision goggle (NVG) lens objectives. Test objective lenses that could include either a Topas COC window element or BK7 glass window element were manufactured. The test objectives were evaluated for low light resolution, MTF, off-axis veiling glare, and on-axis stray light. Additionally, the spectral transmittance of the individual windows elements was measured. This paper compares the evaluation results of test objectives containing Topas COC with test objectives containing BK7 glass.

  11. A facile fabrication of light diffusing film with LDP/polyacrylates composites coating for anti-glare LED application (United States)

    Song, Shisen; Sun, Yaojie; Lin, Yandan; You, Bo


    In this paper, we present a facile coating technique to fabricate the light diffusing film with hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The coating was prepared by different ratio of light-diffusing particles (LDP)/polyacrylates composites via in situ radical polymerization, with the H2SO4 and vinyl triethoxysilane (A-151) pretreatment made the LDP better dispersed and incorporated with polyacrylate polymer chains. When the mass ratio (LDP/polyacrylate) was 0.5, the film obtained the highest light-diffusing effect and more than 90% transmittance due to the formation of hemispherical surface convex micro-structure. The light diffusing films have excellent anti-glare property if applied to LED light system.

  12. Pediatric Low Vision (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  13. Low Vision FAQs (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety ...

  14. Color vision. (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C


    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  15. Impairments to Vision (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  16. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E


    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  17. Near Vision Test for Adults (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Evaluation of Workpiece Temperature during Drilling of GLARE Fiber Metal Laminates Using Infrared Techniques: Effect of Cutting Parameters, Fiber Orientation and Spray Mist Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Giasin


    Full Text Available The rise in cutting temperatures during the machining process can influence the final quality of the machined part. The impact of cutting temperatures is more critical when machining composite-metal stacks and fiber metal laminates due to the stacking nature of those hybrids which subjects the composite to heat from direct contact with metallic part of the stack and the evacuated hot chips. In this paper, the workpiece surface temperature of two grades of fiber metal laminates commercially know as GLARE is investigated. An experimental study was carried out using thermocouples and infrared thermography to determine the emissivity of the upper, lower and side surfaces of GLARE laminates. In addition, infrared thermography was used to determine the maximum temperature of the bottom surface of machined holes during drilling GLARE under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL cooling conditions under different cutting parameters. The results showed that during the machining process, the workpiece surface temperature increased with the increase in feed rate and fiber orientation influenced the developed temperature in the laminate.

  19. Living with Low Vision (United States)

    ... Life TIPS To Its Fullest LIVING WITH LOW VISION Savings Medical Bills A VARIETY OF EYE CONDITIONS, ... which occupational therapy practitioners help people with low vision to function at the highest possible level. • Prevent ...

  20. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  1. Home vision tests (United States)

    ... the distance vision test above, but it is held only 14 inches (36 centimeters) away. If you ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  2. Robot Vision Library (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.


    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  3. The Influence of Features of Aluminium Alloys 2024, 6061 and 7075 on the Properties of Glare-Type Composites / Wpływ Właściwości Stopów Aluminium 2024, 6061, 7075 Na Cechy Kompozytu Typu Glare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk M.S.


    Full Text Available The above paper presents the assumptions and results of the research whose aim was to determine the influence of 2024, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys on the final properties of GLARE-type composites. GLARE 3 2/1 type composites, made of two layers of the epoxy prepreg, reinforced with unidirectional glass fibers, arranged in the direction of 0°/90°, and two sheets of aluminum with a thickness of 0.4 mm, were investigated. Composites of various stacking configurations of alloy layers, made of one type of aluminum alloy (so-called ‘homogeneous composites’, and two different alloys (mixed composites, were analyzed. The properties of the composites were evaluated with the use of the mixing rule and compared with the test results.

  4. Computational approaches to vision (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.


    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  5. Vision and multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene


    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  6. A child's vision. (United States)

    Nye, Christina


    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.

  7. Acquired color vision deficiency. (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P


    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  8. Mathematical leadership vision. (United States)

    Hamburger, Y A


    This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision.

  9. Computational Design of Ageless Structural Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crack initiation and propagation is a dominant failure mode for many materials and applications – usually managed via damage tolerance approaches." ...

  10. FPGA Vision Data Architecture (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.


    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  11. Measuring Vision in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Verweyen


    Full Text Available Measuring vision in children is a special skill requiring time, patience and understanding. Methods should be adapted to the child’s age, abilities, knowledge and experience. Young children are not able to describe their vision or explain their visual symptoms. Through observation, and with information from the mother or guardian, functional vision can be evaluated. While testing and observing children, an experienced assessor notices their responses to visual stimuli. These must be compared with the expected functional vision for children of the same age and abilities, so it is important to know the normal visual development.

  12. Artificial human vision. (United States)

    Dowling, Jason


    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  13. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew


    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  14. Practice of Ergonomic Principles and Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS among Undergraduates Students in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthunarayanan Logaraj


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: With increasing use of computers by young adults in educational institutions as well as at home there is a need to investigate whether students are adopting ergonomic principles when using computers. Objective: To assess the practice of students on ergonomic principles while working on computers and their association with the symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the undergraduate students using pre-tested structured questionnaire on the demographic profile, practice of ergonomic principles and symptoms of CVS experienced while on continuous computer work within the past one month duration. Results: Out of 416 students studied, 50% of them viewed computer at a distance of 20 to 28 inches, 61 % viewed the computer screen at the same level, 42.8% placed the reference material between monitor and key board, 24.5% tilted screen backward, 75.7% took frequent breaks and 56.0% blinked frequently to prevent CVS. Students who viewed the computer at a distance of less than 20 inches, viewed upwards or downwards to see the computer, who did not avoid glare and did not took frequent breaks were at higher risk of developing CVS. Students who did not used adjustable chair, height adjustable keyboard and anti-glare screen were at higher risk of developing CVS. Conclusion: The students who were not practicing ergonomics principle and did not check posture and make ergonomic alteration were at higher risk of developing CVS. Keywords: Ergonomic principles, computer vision syndrome, undergraduate students. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 111-116

  15. Synthesized night vision goggle (United States)

    Zhou, Haixian


    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  16. New Term, New Vision? (United States)

    Ravenhall, Mark


    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in…

  17. New Term, New Vision? (United States)

    Ravenhall, Mark


    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…

  18. A Poet's Vision. (United States)

    Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan


    Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…

  19. Clinical Trials in Vision Research (United States)

    ... Eye Health Information > Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people ... vision research in the United States. Basics of Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? Clinical trials are ...

  20. Taking Care of Your Vision (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  1. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server


    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  2. Panoramic stereo sphere vision (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian


    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  3. Color vision and dentistry. (United States)

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N


    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  4. Literature and information in vision care and vision science. (United States)

    Goss, David A


    The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians.

  5. 基于视觉仿真的飞机座舱风挡眩光分布影响研究%Cockpit Windshield Glare Analysis Based on Optical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓金萍; 李闻; 俞金海; 陈迎春


    Cockpit interior lighting, integrated displays, and other light-emitting display units have been found increased application in the modern cockpit. As a result the optical environment within the cockpit becomes more complicated. Inappropriate lighting and furnishing design or cockpit spatial layout generates glare and af fects flight safety. The effects of center pedestal control display unit (CDU) orientation and position changes on resultant windshield glare are analyzed. It is found that, for curved windshield, CDU orientation has limited in fluence on glare distribution while CDU position has a pronounced impact on glare distribution. Hence in CDU position changes are effective for alleviating or eliminating glare.%现代飞机座舱内照明灯具、综合显示器以及其他发光显示器件的大量应用,使得座舱内光学环境越来越复杂。不合理的照明和内饰设计,或者不合适的舱内空间布局,将会导致各种有害光的出现,影响飞行安全。采用视觉仿真方法,从操纵台控制显示装置的布置角度、布置位置等方面对其在前风挡形成的有害光进行分析,结果表明:针对大弧度曲面造型风挡,调整控制显示装置布置角度对有害光分布的影响有限,调整布置位置对有害光分布的影响显著,可以大大改善或避免眩光对飞行员的影响。

  6. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism itself.......Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...

  7. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper


    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  8. Vision Problems in the U.S. (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  9. Color vision test (United States)

    ... vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/ ...

  10. Cataract Vision Simulator (United States)

    ... vision. Privacy Policy Related Pet Fish Fitted with Fake Eye in Rare Procedure Jun 30, 2016 Firework ... 28, 2016 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy ...

  11. Vision and Motion Pictures. (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory


    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  12. Rhetorical Visions of Unmarried Mothers. (United States)

    Endres, Thomas G.


    Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)

  13. Biofeedback for Better Vision (United States)


    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  14. IDA's Energy Vision 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth

    IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...

  15. Colour, vision and ergonomics. (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira


    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  16. Insect vision as model for machine vision (United States)

    Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.


    The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.

  17. Artificial vision workbench. (United States)

    Frenger, P


    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  18. Overview of sports vision (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.


    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  19. OfficeVISION; OfficeVISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OfficeVISION is a wide range of projects with the same goal: development of technology meeting future demands for good working conditions, health, environment- and energy conservation, the increased productivity. This project shows if it in few years will be possible to build with an energy producing building envelope in high-insulated glass. The officeVISION project is however so visionary that the Technological Institute will have to wait wait some years to build the house until the necessary building components has gone into production. Though the construction is deferred a number of interesting results have come out of the project. By designing a wide range of solutions to the energy producing glass building envelope, we have gradually gotten a good grasp of arrangement possibilities and use of glass buildings. There are many possibilities in this type of construction especially as regards to daylight. But there is also limitations as regards to acoustic and the possibility to use IT presentation screens. Thus the conclusion is that glass buildings are suitable as frames around informal meetings and thought fulness, but hardly the answer to all challenges in the future office. The main objects are: Good daylight conditions; Minimal energy consumption and maximal solar-electricity; Optimum conditions for high productivity in the office function; Good healthy indoor climate and good comfort; Export design high productive building technology; Minimal environmental impact; and A landmark for Technological Institute's technological spearheads. (EHS)

  20. Bio-inspired vision (United States)

    Posch, C.


    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  1. Developmental disorders of vision. (United States)

    Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C


    This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.

  2. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole


    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  3. Is binocular vision worth considering in people with low vision? (United States)

    Uzdrowska, Marta; Crossland, Michael; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna


    In someone with good vision, binocular vision provides benefits which could not be obtained by monocular viewing only. People with visual impairment often have abnormal binocularity. However, they often use both eyes simultaneously in their everyday activities. Much remains to be known about binocular vision in people with visual impairment. As the binocular status of people with low vision strongly influences their treatment and rehabilitation, it should be evaluated and considered before diagnosis and further recommendations.

  4. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision (United States)

    Walker, Mike


    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  5. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions. (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  6. Computer Vision Systems (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.

  7. Dynamic Vision for Control (United States)


    motion. Intl. .1. of Computer Vision, 68(l):7-25, 2006. [59] R. Vidal. S. Soatto, and S. Sastry. An algebraic geometric approach to the identification...D. Durbin , 10S-3D, INC.). Patents None during the period covered by this grant. AFRL Point of Contact Prof. William M. McEneaney, Program

  8. Visions That Blind. (United States)

    Fullan, Michael G.


    Overattachment to particular innovations or overreliance on a charismatic leader can restrict consideration of alternatives and produce short-term gains or superficial solutions. To encourage lasting school improvement, principals should build collaborative cultures instead of imposing their own visions or change agendas. A sidebar illustrates a…

  9. SEDD - Our Vision (United States)


    EPA’s Vision • To become the leader in the development and implementation of paperless data generation, transfer/exchange, review and management...3/31/2011 9 Current Programs Using SEDD • EPA’s Contract Laboratory Program • EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office • USACE FUDS/MMRP Program

  10. Demokratiske stemmer og visioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne


    Artiklen knytter den amerikanske digter Walt Whitmans demokratiske og litterære visioner i det 19. århundrede til den svenske stemmeretsforkæmper Elin Wägners overvejelser over køn, krig og demokrati i det 20. århundrede. Den slutter med referencer til "Democracy Incorporated" fra 2008 af den...

  11. Unconventional colour vision. (United States)

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro


    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough.

  12. Embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav


    Brings together experiences from researchers in the field of embedded computer vision, from both academic and industrial research centers, and covers a broad range of challenges and trade-offs brought about by this paradigm shift. This title offers emphasis on tackling important problems for society, safety, security, health, and mobility.

  13. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L


    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  14. A Vision Chip, (United States)


    the time-derivative of the image at the point is also represented. The development of the theory of edge detection was motivated by the need to...E. (1979) " Theory of Edge Detection ," MIT Al Lab. Memo 518. Marr, D. & Poggio, T. (1977) "A Theory of Human Stereo Vision," MIT Al Lab. Memo 451

  15. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne


    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  16. Vision: Essential Scaffolding (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela


    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  17. Vision eller verklighet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E


    and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...

  18. KiWi Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter

    This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...

  19. Cataract Vision Mimicked By Means Of Protein Denaturation In Egg Albumen

    CERN Document Server

    Mandracchia, Biagio; Ferraro, Pietro


    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing or reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. Moreover, for the doctors it can be very difficult to explain and give comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. We built and tested an optic device that uses egg albumen to mimic the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts and that is able to visualize how the cataract impairs vision. At best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental system developed at this aim. This can be a valuable tool, which can be of help in education for students in medical sciences as well as to provid...

  20. Vision in water. (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit


    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  1. Comparison of contrast sensitivity and glare contrast sensitivity following implantation of photochromic, blue-light filtering ,and conventional clear intraocular lenses%光变色IOL、蓝光滤过IOL和普通IOL植入术后对比敏感度、眩光对比敏感度对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琛; 韦秋红; 刘超; 杜卫静


    Objective To compare contrast sensitivity (CS) and glare CS following implantation of photochromic, blue-light filtering and conventional clear intraocular lenses. Methods Sixty senile cataract patients (60 eyes) were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the type of IOL. Group A was implanted MATRITM 400,group B was implanted Acrysof Natural SN60AT,and group C was implanted LENSTEC SofTec I. The CS and glare CS were measured with CSV-1000E at 3 months after surgery. Results Preoperative best corrected vision were 0. 27 ±0. 10 in group A,0. 27 ± 0. 09 in group B ,0.27 ± 0. 09 in group C, and postoperative best corrected vision were 0. 75 ± 0.08 in group A.0.70 ±0.09 in group B,0.70 ±0.09 in group C. There was no statisticaldifference among three groups preoperatively and postoperatively ( all P > 0. 05). But there were statistical differences in each group about the corrected vision between pre-operation and post-operation (all P 0.05). Compared with CS,the glare CS was improved in group A at each spatial frequency (all P 0.05). The CS curve was at normal value in group A, but lower than that of normal people in group B and group C. Conclusion Photochromic MATRIX? 400 intraocular lens has better visual quality than that with blue-light filtering Acrysof Natural SN60AT or conventional clear intraocular lens LENSTEC SofTec I.%目的 观察光变色人工晶状体( intraocular lens,IOL)、蓝光滤过IOL和普通非蓝光滤过IOL植入术后的对比敏感度( contrast sensitivity,CS)和眩光CS的差异.方法 60例老年性白内障随机分为3组,均行白内障超声乳化吸出联合IOL植入术,分别植入光变色MATRIXTM400型IOL(A组)、Acrysof Nutural SN60AT蓝光滤过IOL(B组)、不具有光线滤过功能的LEN-STEC SofTec Ⅰ普通折叠IOL(C组),术后3个月对3组患者进行最佳矫正视力、CS和眩光CS检查.结果 术前A组最佳矫正视力为0.27±0.10,B组为0.27±0.09,C组为0.27±0.09,术后分别为0.75±0.08、0.70±0

  2. Vision as Adaptive Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio


    In the last years the debate on complexity has been developing and developing in transdisciplinary way to meet the need of explanation for highly organized collective behaviors and sophisticated hierarchical arrangements in physical, biological, cognitive and social systems. Unfortunately, no clear definition has been reached, so complexity appears like an anti-reductionist paradigm in search of a theory. In our short survey we aim to suggest a clarification in relation to the notions of computational and intrinsic emergence, and to show how the latter is deeply connected to the new Logical Openness Theory, an original extension of Godel theorems to the model theory. The epistemological scenario we are going to make use of is that of the theory of vision, a particularly instructive one. Vision is an element of our primordial relationship with the world;consequently it comes as no surprise that carefully taking into consideration the processes of visual perception can lead us straight to some significant quest...

  3. Advanced night vision goggles (United States)

    Thacker, Clinton


    The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

  4. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...... of 100% RE can be achieved in a socio-economic and resource efficient way in Denmark, but local involvement is required to ensure the implementation of a Smart Energy System approach. A Smart Energy System perspective, which considers electricity, heating and transport, is applied in this study using...... the EnergyPLAN model. The model simulates the electricity, heating, cooling, industrial, and transport sectors on an hourly basis and enables the identification of new synergies between the sectors to 1) improve the efficiency of the energy system and 2) accommodate the short-term fluctuations in renewable...

  5. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  6. Bird Vision System (United States)


    The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.

  7. From Vision to Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two scales were and are importantfor our work. The concept scale:1:10,000, or 1:1,000, or 1:500,depending on the size of the project,and the scale 1:1. The concept scale describes the vision: what is it about,where we want to go. The otherscales that architects use are purelyinstructive in nature and thereforeunimportant as far as the effect of abuilding is concerned.

  8. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  9. Research for VISION 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ackland


    Full Text Available We need good quality information to be able to carry out our eye care programmes in support of VISION 2020, to measure (and improve our performance, and to advocate for the resources and support we need to succeed. Much of this information can be collected, analysed, and used as part of our daily work, as many of the articles in this issue show.

  10. Lentes de contato filtrantes coloridas nas discromatopsias: relato de casos Absorptive and colored contact lenses in color-vision defects: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chaves Fernandes


    test. Subject # 2 showed an subjective reduced glare, in external and internal environment. Visual acuity and color vision remained the same. The findings suggest the use of absorptive colored contact lenses to increase color judgement and reduce glare sensitivity in dichromatic subjects.

  11. Ecstasy and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hultgård


    Full Text Available In this paper we shall present some observations on the role played by ecstasy in the activity of the seer, as he emerges in ancient Jewish and Iranian texts. In the Jewish religious literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, visions are described on almost every page, and visions were the most important means of divine revelation. Specific techniques for inducing the ecstatic state are not recorded in the Jewish sources. Some elements in the pattern leading up to the vision may be interpreted as parts of a method for inducing the final ecstasy; i.e. fasting and prayer. The Iranian material shows clearly the importance of ecstasy in the activity of the seer. The ecstatic seeing also means that the visionary shares with Ahura Mazda a divine quality, the "wisdom of omniscience". The granting of the "wisdom of omniscience" appears as a temporary and it conveys to the visionary a supernatural seeing. There is evidence to suggest that chanting was an important method of inducing ecstasy within the early Zoroastrian community. We do not find in the Jewish material a clear correspondence to the Iranian notion of "omniscient wisdom".

  12. Beyond Strategic Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Michael


    Hoshin is a system which was developed in Japan in the 1960's, and is a derivative of Management By Objectives (MBO). It is a Management System for determining the appropriate course of action for an organization, and effectively accomplishing the relevant actions and results. Having recognized the power of this system, Beyond Strategic Vision tailors the Hoshin system to fit the culture of North American and European organizations. It is a "how-to" guide to the Hoshin method for executives, managers, and any other professionals who must plan as part of their normal job. The management of an o

  13. Vision in flying insects. (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland


    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  14. Birth and evolution of visionics (United States)

    Wiseman, Robert S.


    The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

  15. Assessing Binocular Advantage in Aided Vision (United States)


    Night /day Imaging Technologies, ANIT, Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Aided Vision , Binocular...advantage of binocularity in aided vision . Key Words: Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Stereopsis, Modulation Transfer Function...veridical perception allows the operator to navigate and manipulate the environment in a natural and efficient manner. Night vision goggles (NVGs),

  16. Benchmarking neuromorphic vision: lessons learnt from computer vision. (United States)

    Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick


    Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.

  17. Energy visions 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well

  18. Industrial robot's vision systems (United States)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.


    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  19. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)


    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  20. An overview of computer vision (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.


    An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.

  1. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello


    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  2. 3D vision system assessment (United States)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad


    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.

  3. Autophagy supports color vision. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A


    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  4. Vision Sensors and Cameras (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  5. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.


    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  6. National Hydrogen Vision Meeting Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.

  7. 2020 vision for KAUST

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Felicitas Pauss, Head of International Relations at CERN, greets Members of the Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST, who visited CERN on Friday 6 August.   Members of Board of Trustees of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology upon their arrival at CERN. KAUST, which is situated on Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coast, is a new, forward-looking co-educational and research university with a vision to become one of the world’s top ten science and technology Universities by 2020, stimulating the intellectual life of Saudi Arabia and making significant contributions to the country’s economy. CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer, is a member of the Board of Trustees. “I accepted the invitation to join the board because I believe that KAUST’s values can make a real difference to the region and to the world,” he said. The University’s mission statement emphasises achiev...

  8. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test (United States)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing


    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  9. View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision (United States)

    ... inbox. Sign up View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision Normal Vision This is an example of normal vision. This is also an example of how someone ... gradual and often imperceptible failing of side (peripheral) vision. Intermediate Glaucoma As glaucoma progresses, the center of ...

  10. Artificial intelligence and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yujie


    This edited book presents essential findings in the research fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision, with a primary focus on new research ideas and results for mathematical problems involved in computer vision systems. The book provides an international forum for researchers to summarize the most recent developments and ideas in the field, with a special emphasis on the technical and observational results obtained in the past few years.

  11. [Acquired disorders of color vision]. (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela


    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  12. Low vision rehabilitation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingolo EM


    Full Text Available Enzo Maria Vingolo, Vittoria De Rosa, Daniela Domanico, Federico Anselmucci  Department of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza of Rome, Terracina, Italy Abstract: Quality of life in low vision patients is deeply conditioned by their visual ability, and increased rates of depression, domestic injury, and need for caregiver assistance can be expected as a result of low performance. Much effort have been made recently in order to develop new tools and aids for rehabilitation of low vision, and this research has led to better knowledge of visual function and increased the likelihood of new therapies in the future. Modern low vision rehabilitation is the result of recent advances in science and technology, and will soon have an important role in people with vision impairment, numbers of whom are likely to increase, give the increasing age of the population. This review outlines scientific developments in low vision rehabilitation based on a search of the literature, covers the role of digital technology and advances in neurofunctional rehabilitation, and the possibility of restoring vision by use of retinal prostheses and cellular therapy. Keywords: AMD, retinal dystrophy, biofeedback training, retinal prosthesis, stem cells

  13. Machine Learning for Computer Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni


    Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. It is concerned with the theory, design and implementation of algorithms that can automatically process visual data to recognize objects, track and recover their shape and spatial layout. The International Computer Vision Summer School - ICVSS was established in 2007 to provide both an objective and clear overview and an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art research in Computer Vision. The courses are delivered by world renowned experts in the field, from both academia and industry, and cover both theoretical and practical aspects of real Computer Vision problems. The school is organized every year by University of Cambridge (Computer Vision and Robotics Group) and University of Catania (Image Processing Lab). Different topics are covered each year. A summary of the past Computer Vision Summer Schools can be found at: This edited volume contains a selection of articles covering some of the talks and t...



    Lynn, Gary S.; Faruk KALAY


    A strong vision is a main predictor for both organizational and team success. Although many studies conclude that vision is important at the organizational level, the impacts of vision on innovation/teams have received far less attention. The purpose of this paper is to discuss vision components and explore its impacts on team performance. After studying the vision on a series of 12 innovations at three companies (Apple, IBM, and HP), we empirically tested the impact of the three components o...

  15. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish (United States)

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo


    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a λmax of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision. PMID:19805066

  16. Vision Loss in Older Adults. (United States)

    Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis


    Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.

  17. The Visioner Role of School Administrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydar DURUKAN


    Full Text Available Vision is dreaming which is desired to happen in the future.Vision is the road map of an individual or an institution related to future.Vision is to create a new horizon starting from our existing conditions.There is a close relationship between vision and creativity.With the help of creativity which develops vision can balance realities and future dreams.The flourish of problems in the organisations means that there is a need of vision and the people who does not contented seek for the new.Vision who works in the schools create an excitement and alliance.The schools who have vision does not waste time with unnessary problems.School administrators,with the visioner leadership role requirement can manage the school dynamically and productive by aroused oganisation soul.

  18. The unsolved mystery of vision. (United States)

    Masland, Richard H; Martin, Paul R


    Vision looms large in neuroscience--it is the subject of a gigantic literature and four Nobel prizes--but there is a growing realization that there are problems with the textbook explanation of how mammalian vision works. Here we will summarize the evidence behind this disquiet. In effect, we shall present a portrait of a field that is 'stuck'. Our initial focus, because it is our area of expertise, is on evidence that the early steps of mammalian vision are more diverse and more interesting than is usually imagined, so that our understanding of the later stages is in trouble right from the start. But we will also summarize problems, raised by others, with the later stages themselves.

  19. Research on stereo vision odometry (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Baofeng; Tian, Xiuzhen


    The stereo visual odometer in vision based on the navigation system is proposed in the paper. The stereo visual odometer can obtain the motion data to implement the position and attitude estimation of ALV(Autonomous Land Vehicle). Two key technology in the stereo vision odometer are dissertated. The first is using SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform) to extract suitable feature, match points pairs in the feature, and track the feature of fore and after frames of the same point on the object. The second is using matching and tracking to obtain the different 3-D coordinate of the feature of the point on the object, and to compute the motion parameters by motion estimate. The unknown outdoor environment is adopted in the experiment. The results show that the stereo vision odometer is more accurate, and the measurement error dose not increase with the movement distance increasing. It can be used as an important supplement of conventional odometer.

  20. Vision par ordinateur: outils fondamentaux


    Horaud, Radu; Monga, Olivier


    National audience; Cet ouvrage présente les outils fondamentaux de la vision par ordinateur dans un langage mathématique accessible aux étudiants de niveau DEUG en mathématiques ou informatique. Il donne également de nombreux exemples d'utilisation de la vision par ordinateur dans deux domaines de technologie de pointe : la robotique et l'imagerie médicale. Cette deuxième édition largement augmentée est un manuel de référence. Les outils fondamentaux sont présentés dans un langage mathématiqu...

  1. Christina Mosegaards barok-vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta


      Christina Mosegaards barok-vision: om folder, ansigter og stilhed Det mest fængslende ved Christinas billeder er ved første øjekast den slående kontrast mellem roen i hendes ikonagtige ansigter og den dramatiske drejende bevægelse i stoffolderne. Men er de nu så radikalt forskellige i deres nat...... under sløret. Hun forbliver tro mod sin særegne vision i ikonerne, som i deres hudvæv gentager det opal-agtige og iriserende i marmorfoldens årer....

  2. Advances in embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav


    This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog

  3. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C;


    of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  4. Visions and Re-Visions of Charles Joseph Minard. (United States)

    Friendly, Michael


    Describes the contributions of Charles Joseph Minard to statistical graphics, noting the time course of his work and providing background on his famous effort, the flow-map depiction of Napoleon's march on Moscow. Explores some modern re-visions of this famous graphic from an information visualization perspective. (SLD)

  5. Visions of Vision: An Exploratory Study of the Role College and University Presidents Play in Developing Institutional Vision (United States)

    McWade, Jessica C.


    This qualitative research explores how college and university presidents engage in the process of developing formal institutional vision. The inquiry identifies roles presidents play in vision development, which is often undertaken as part of strategic-planning initiatives. Two constructs of leadership and institutional vision are used to examine…

  6. Ageless and Timeless: Perspectives on Giftedness across the Life Span (United States)

    Fiedler, Ellen D.


    Annemarie Roeper's timeless perspectives were demonstrated throughout her long and productive life. Her prolific writings and speeches continue to influence our understanding of giftedness at all ages and stages of life, and the time I spent with her had a profound and meaningful effect on my work. Annemarie incorporated her inner view of…

  7. Can Aspirin and Cancer Prevention be Ageless Companions? (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed


    Over the past few decades, the rate of cancer diagnosis has increased worldwide due to the increase in population and average life expectancy, and also, due to the advances in diagnostic medical technology that facilitate early cancer detection and recognition. Nonetheless, the treatment options have not been developed proportional to this increase, with a huge number of patients frequently being diagnosed with different types of fatal cancer. This has prompted different health organizations to search for novel strategies to prevent cancer, or even halt its progression. Having failed to provide optimum vascular protection benefits, especially with the introduction of relatively superior antiplatelets, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors; clopidogrel and ticagrelor, regular aspirin use was proposed to reduce the risk of common cancers like colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and haematological malignancies, as suggested by epidemiological studies. However, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions on such weak data, as this could raise false hopes among patients and physicians and could potentially mislead scientific research. Clearly, current evidence highlights a gap in medical research and emphasizes the need to carry out interventional studies in high risk for cancer patients using specific aspirin doses in order to validate the data. This should also shed some light on the risk-benefit profile in view of the potential for bleeding complications, especially with the higher doses.

  8. Could Regular Pot Smoking Harm Vision? (United States)

    ... fullstory_162441.html Could Regular Pot Smoking Harm Vision? Study suggests that it might slow signaling among ... may be linked to a limited degree of vision impairment, a new French study suggests. The finding ...

  9. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  10. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects (United States)

    ... page: Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  11. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused fal

  12. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  13. Unshackled by Visions and Values. (United States)

    Brokenleg, Martin


    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  14. A Vision for Teaching Practice (United States)

    Hollins, Etta R.


    "Teaching practice" refers to the professional discourse, knowledge, skills, tools, and habits of mind underlying the interpretive processes that characterize expert teaching practice. Such expert practice is located within and responsive to micro- and macrocontexts and situations. In a well-articulated vision, learning teaching practice is…

  15. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision (United States)

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.


    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  16. Frame Rate and Human Vision (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.


    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  17. 'Popper'-induced vision loss. (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Thompson, Julia; Atik, Alp; Lusthaus, Jed; Jankelowitz, Stacey


    Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation. Their use is becoming increasingly common around the world, including approximately 60% of Australia's male homosexual community. We report the first case of 'popper'-induced vision loss in Australasia.

  18. Entrepreneurial Vision, Information, and Cash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boot; V. Vladimirov


    We analyze when entrepreneurial firms hoard more cash and when instead they raise more external financing to co-finance new investments. Our simple dynamic model focuses on differences in vision between the firm's manager and financiers: they may disagree about the attractiveness of new investment o

  19. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.


    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations suc

  20. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books. (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John


    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  1. Automated Vision Test Development and Validation (United States)


    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0020 Automated Vision Test Development and Validation Steve Wright, Darrell Rousse, Alex van Atta...Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) April 2014 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automated Vision Test Development and Validation 5a...23 Nov 2016. 14. ABSTRACT The Optec Vision Test , originally produced in 1951 as the Armed Forces Vision Tester, is the sole device used to qualify

  2. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.


    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  3. Topographic Mapping of Residual Vision by Computer (United States)

    MacKeben, Manfred


    Many persons with low vision have diseases that damage the retina only in selected areas, which can lead to scotomas (blind spots) in perception. The most frequent of these diseases is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which foveal vision is often impaired by a central scotoma that impairs vision of fine detail and causes problems with…

  4. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting (United States)

    Guy, Tiffany A.


    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  5. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.


    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  6. Evolution of colour vision in mammals. (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H


    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  7. Computer vision in microstructural analysis (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malur N.; Massarweh, W.; Hough, C. L.


    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to be performed by advanced-high school and beginning-college students. It is hoped that this experiment will create an interest in and further understanding of materials science. The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate that the microstructure of engineered materials is affected by the processing conditions in manufacture, and that it is possible to characterize the microstructure using image analysis with a computer. The principle of computer vision will first be introduced followed by the description of the system developed at Texas A&M University. This in turn will be followed by the description of the experiment to obtain differences in microstructure and the characterization of the microstructure using computer vision.

  8. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient...... care in real time. Today only an early prototype of 3DMC exists. To better understand 3DMC's potential for adoption and use in emergency healthcare before large amounts of development resources are invested we conducted a visioning study. That is, we shared our vision of 3DMC with emergency room...... physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof...

  9. New development in robot vision

    CERN Document Server

    Behal, Aman; Chung, Chi-Kit


    The field of robotic vision has advanced dramatically recently with the development of new range sensors.  Tremendous progress has been made resulting in significant impact on areas such as robotic navigation, scene/environment understanding, and visual learning. This edited book provides a solid and diversified reference source for some of the most recent important advancements in the field of robotic vision. The book starts with articles that describe new techniques to understand scenes from 2D/3D data such as estimation of planar structures, recognition of multiple objects in the scene using different kinds of features as well as their spatial and semantic relationships, generation of 3D object models, approach to recognize partially occluded objects, etc. Novel techniques are introduced to improve 3D perception accuracy with other sensors such as a gyroscope, positioning accuracy with a visual servoing based alignment strategy for microassembly, and increasing object recognition reliability using related...

  10. Vision Screening by Color Photography (United States)

    Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.


    Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.

  11. Low vision rehabilitation: current perspectives


    Vingolo EM; De Rosa V; Domanico D; Anselmucci F


    Enzo Maria Vingolo, Vittoria De Rosa, Daniela Domanico, Federico Anselmucci  Department of Ophthalmology, University La Sapienza of Rome, Terracina, Italy Abstract: Quality of life in low vision patients is deeply conditioned by their visual ability, and increased rates of depression, domestic injury, and need for caregiver assistance can be expected as a result of low performance. Much effort have been made recently in order to develop new tools and aids for rehabilitation of low v...

  12. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision. (United States)

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology


    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  13. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision. (United States)


    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  14. A vision for photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Perezagua, E. [Isofoton, Madrid (Spain); Demarcq, F.; Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Paris (France); Alferov, Z.I.; Andreev, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); De Segundo, K. [Shell International Renewables, London (United Kingdom); Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Solar GMBH und Co.KG, Marbach am Neckar (Germany); Goetzberger, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Itoiz Beunza, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Lojkowski, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Nowak, S. [NET Nowak nergy and Technology Ltd, St. Ursen (Switzerland); Vleuten, P. van der [Free Energy International, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Shell Solar, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The report identifies the major technical and non-technical barriers to the uptake of the technology and outlines a strategic research agenda designed to ensure a breakthrough of PV (photovoltaics) and an increase in deployment in the Union and worldwide. The Council proposes the use of a European Technology Platform as a mechanism to implement the strategy and achieve the wider goals defined in the vision.

  15. Procedures for Testing Color Vision, (United States)


    uased on the principles of Helmholtz’s theory of color vision. Helmholtz (1866) had tentatively proposed that color blindness could manifest itself in...purple) specifically to detect the three proposed types of color blindness . As a result, the Holmgren test is based on an erroneous and misleading set...of color blindness categories and an unwise choice of test and match skeins. Pseudoisochromatic plates were first introduced by Stilling (1873). The

  16. Computational Vision Based on Neurobiology (United States)


    the limits for short range apparent motion perception." Vision Research, 25, 803-812. 1985. 9. M. Wertheimer. "Untersuchungen zur Lehre der Gestalt ...Press, Chicago. 25. Koffka, K. (1935) Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt, Brace and World, NY. 26. Kulikowski J.J., Marcelja S., Bishop P.O...coherence. Nature. 358:412-414, 1992. 18. Petter, G. Nuove ricerche sperimentali sulla totalizzazione percettiva. Rivista di psicologia . 50: 213-227

  17. Machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R


    In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl

  18. The Computational Study of Vision. (United States)


    provide only partial information about the 2-D velocity field, due to the aperture problem (Wallach, 1976; Fennema and Thompson, 1979; Burt vision studies and in biological models of motion measurement (for example, Lappin and Bell, 1976; Pantle and Picciano, 1976; Fennema and...830. Fennema , C. L., Thompson, W. B. 1979. Velocity determination in scenes containing several moving objects. Comput. Graph. Image Proc. 9:301-315

  19. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj


    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  20. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  1. Computer vision in control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi


    Volume 1 : This book is focused on the recent advances in computer vision methodologies and technical solutions using conventional and intelligent paradigms. The Contributions include: ·         Morphological Image Analysis for Computer Vision Applications. ·         Methods for Detecting of Structural Changes in Computer Vision Systems. ·         Hierarchical Adaptive KL-based Transform: Algorithms and Applications. ·         Automatic Estimation for Parameters of Image Projective Transforms Based on Object-invariant Cores. ·         A Way of Energy Analysis for Image and Video Sequence Processing. ·         Optimal Measurement of Visual Motion Across Spatial and Temporal Scales. ·         Scene Analysis Using Morphological Mathematics and Fuzzy Logic. ·         Digital Video Stabilization in Static and Dynamic Scenes. ·         Implementation of Hadamard Matrices for Image Processing. ·         A Generalized Criterion ...

  2. Ames vision group research overview (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.


    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  3. Drosophila's view on insect vision. (United States)

    Borst, Alexander


    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  4. Beauty and Cuteness in Peripheral Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana eKuraguchi


    Full Text Available Guo, Liu, & Roebuck (2011 showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006, we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45 observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter. The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  5. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi


    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  6. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision. (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi


    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  7. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision. (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A


    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  8. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A


    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis.

  9. Women and the vision thing. (United States)

    Ibarra, Herminia; Obodaru, Otilia


    Are women rated lower than men in evaluations of their leadership capabilities because of lingering gender bias? No, according to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected by Insead's executive education program. That analysis showed that women tend to outshine men in all areas but one: vision. Unfortunately, that exception is a big one. At the top tiers of management, the ability to see opportunities, craft strategy based on a broad view of the business, and inspire others is a must-have. To explore the nature of the deficit, and whether it is a perception or reality, Insead professor Ibarra and doctoral candidate Obodaru interviewed female executives and studied the evaluation data. They developed three possible explanations. First, women may do just as much as men to shape the future but go about it in a different way; a leader who is less directive, includes more people, and shares credit might not fit people's mental model of a visionary. Second, women may believe they have less license to go out on a limb. Those who have built careers on detail-focused, shoulder-to-the-wheel execution may hesitate to stray from facts into unprovable assertions about the future. Third, women may choose not to cultivate reputations as big visionaries. Having seen bluster passed off as vision, they may dismiss the importance of selling visions. The top two candidates for the Democratic nomination for U.S. president in 2008 offer an instructive parallel. The runner-up, Hillary Clinton, was viewed as a get-it-done type with an impressive, if uninspiring, grasp of policy detail. The winner, Barack Obama, was seen as a charismatic visionary offering a hopeful, if undetailed, future. The good news is that every dimension of leadership is learned, not inborn. As more women become skilled at, and known for, envisioning the future, nothing will hold them back.

  10. Night vision: changing the way we drive (United States)

    Klapper, Stuart H.; Kyle, Robert J. S.; Nicklin, Robert L.; Kormos, Alexander L.


    A revolutionary new Night Vision System has been designed to help drivers see well beyond their headlights. From luxury automobiles to heavy trucks, Night Vision is helping drivers see better, see further, and react sooner. This paper describes how Night Vision Systems are being used in transportation and their viability for the future. It describes recent improvements to the system currently in the second year of production. It also addresses consumer education and awareness, cost reduction, product reliability, market expansion and future improvements.

  11. Evolution of colour vision in mammals


    Jacobs, Gerald H.


    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available AIM: to clinically analyze 50 cases of low vision patients attending tertiary care hospital, their acceptance of low visual aids and to identify common ocular conditions leading to low vision. METHODS: A two year prospective study was done and fifty patients with low vision who attended the low vision clinic were examined for low visual aids acceptance and improvement of acuity, fields or ability to carry out daily activities. Patients underwent clinical low vision examination and they were assessed for low visual aids prescription and the kind of low visual prescribed for distance and near tasks. RESULTS: The age distribution showed maximum number of patients were in the age group of 51 - 60 years with male preponderance of 72 %. The most common disease causing low vision were retinitis pigmentosa followed my macular dystrophy, diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration. Other diseases were POAG, myopic macular degeneration, optic atrophy and nystagmus. Spectacle magnifiers were most commonly prescribed in 44% for distant vision followed by telescopes in 38% of patients for near vision. Field expanders were prescribed for patients with advances glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa. Other near vision aids included hand magnifiers, stand magnifiers and CCTV. Both the distant telescopes and magnifiers for near vision improved the visual acuity by three lines which improved further on increasing the illumination. In patients with extensive scotomas of near fixation point, hand and stand magnifiers were better than spectacle magnifier. CONCLUSI ON: The study shows that low visual aids can be prescribed in various ocular diseases depending upon occupation, age and needs of the patient. Low visual aids help patients to make use of remaining vision to maximum extent so that they utilize residual vision effectively to meet their daily requirement

  13. Low Vision Rehabilitation in Older Adults (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; İdil, Aysun; Seza Petriçli, İkbal; Özdemir, Özdemir


    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnosis distribution, low vision rehabilitation methods and utilization of low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted persons over 65 years old. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine partially sighted geriatric patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled to the study between May 2012 and September 2013. Patients’ age, gender and the distribution of diagnosis were recorded. The visual acuity of the patients both for near and distance were examined with and without low vision devices and the methods of low vision rehabilitation were evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 79.7 years and the median age was 80 years. Ninety-six (69.1%) of the patients were male and 43 (30.9%) were female. According to the distribution of diagnosis, the most frequent diagnosis was senile macular degeneration for both presenile and senile age groups. The mean best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.92±0.37 logMAR and 4.75±3.47 M for near. The most frequently used low vision rehabilitation methods were telescopic glasses (59.0%) for distance and hyperocular glasses (66.9%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: The causes of low vision in presenile and senile patients in our study were similar to those of patients from developed countries. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted geriatric patients. It is important to guide them to low vision rehabilitation. PMID:27800274

  14. Low Vision Rehabilitation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Özen Tunay


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the diagnosis distribution, low vision rehabilitation methods and utilization of low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted persons over 65 years old. Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine partially sighted geriatric patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled to the study between May 2012 and September 2013. Patients’ age, gender and the distribution of diagnosis were recorded. The visual acuity of the patients both for near and distance were examined with and without low vision devices and the methods of low vision rehabilitation were evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 79.7 years and the median age was 80 years. Ninety-six (69.1% of the patients were male and 43 (30.9% were female. According to the distribution of diagnosis, the most frequent diagnosis was senile macular degeneration for both presenile and senile age groups. The mean best corrected visual acuity for distance was 0.92±0.37 logMAR and 4.75±3.47 M for near. The most frequently used low vision rehabilitation methods were telescopic glasses (59.0% for distance and hyperocular glasses (66.9% for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: The causes of low vision in presenile and senile patients in our study were similar to those of patients from developed countries. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted geriatric patients. It is important to guide them to low vision rehabilitation.

  15. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup


    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  16. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen


    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  17. Visiones de fin de siglo


    Acchini, Leonardo Martínez; Alejo, Esteban Ticona; Angulo, Salvador; Berthin, Elizabeth Cécile; Bravo, Carmen Giona; Bravo, María Celia; Burke, Melvin; C., Javier Sanjinés; Campi,Daniel; Canqui, Roberto Choque; Capra, Ana María Seoane de; Contreras, Manuel E.; Coro, Víctor Hugo Quintanilla; Correa, Loreto; Guerrero, Alicia Castellanos


    La presente publicación concentra los trabajos presentados por investigadores nacionales y extranjeros en el "Il Encuentro Internacional de Historia. El siglo XX en Bolivia y América Latina. Visiones de fin de siglo", que se realizó en la ciudad de Cochabamba entre el 27 y el 31 de julio de 1998. El encuentro fue organizado por la "Coordinadora de Historia. Investigadores Asociados" y contó con el auspicio del Centro Cultural Portales con sede en esa ciudad, así como con el apoyo de las sigui...

  18. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.


    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  19. Applications of AI, machine vision and robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H


    This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr

  20. Biological Basis For Computer Vision: Some Perspectives (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.


    Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.

  1. Color in Computer Vision Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark


    While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor

  2. Bringing Vision-Based Measurements into our Daily Life: A Grand Challenge for Computer Vision Systems


    Scharcanski, Jacob


    Bringing computer vision into our daily life has been challenging researchers in industry and in academia over the past decades. However, the continuous development of cameras and computing systems turned computer vision-based measurements into a viable option, allowing new solutions to known problems. In this context, computer vision is a generic tool that can be used to measure and monitor phenomena in wide range of fields. The idea of using vision-based measurements is appealing, since the...

  3. Managing Dreams and Ambitions: A Psychological Analysis of Vision Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Stam (Daan)


    textabstractThe communication of inspiring visions is arguably the sine qua non of change-oriented leadership. Visions are images of the future. Vision communication refers to the expression of a vision with the aim of convincing others (usually followers) that the vision is valid. Despite the fact

  4. Low Vision Care: The Need to Maximise Visual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Pararajasegaram


    Full Text Available People with low vision have residual vision with some light perception, but their vision loss does not lend itself to improvement by standard spectacles or medical or surgical treatment. Such persons have the potential for enhanced functional vision if they receive appropriate low vision care services.

  5. Early vision and focal attention (United States)

    Julesz, Bela


    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom


    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  7. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems (United States)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha


    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  8. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi


    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  9. Visions for Danish bio-ethanol; Visioner for dansk bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K. [BioCentrum-DTU (Denmark); Felby, C. [Det Biovidenskabelige Fakultet -KU (Denmark); Jensen, Arne [Syddansk Univ., Ledelsessekretariatet (Denmark); Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy (Denmark); Skytte, K. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept. - DTU (Denmark); Wormslev, E.C. [NIRAS A/S (Denmark); Zinck, A.M. [Dansk Landbrug (DK)] (eds.)


    In 2006 the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences set up a working group to prepare a brief and factual presentation of visions for Danish bioenergy targeted at political actors in that area. This report presents the working group's conclusions and recommendations with focus on bioethanol. Denmark has powerful actors and good opportunities to develop and commercialize this particular type of biofuel. Bioethanol has the potential to create large gains for Denmark within supply, environment and export, and the working group considers bioethanol to be the only alternative to petrol for the transport sector in the short term. However, in order to establish Denmark as a strong and relevant partner in international development, it is crucial for the Danish actors to concentrate on a joint effort. (BA)

  10. Profile of Low Vision Population Attending Low Vision Clinic in a Peripheral Eye Hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safal Khanal, BOptom


    Full Text Available Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a peripheral eye hospital in Nepal.Methods: The low vision evaluation report cards of all the patients attending the low vision clinic at Biratnagar Eye Hospital between January 1, 2010 to March 31, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.Results: Out of 396 low vision patients, 280 (70.71% were males and 116 (29.29% were females. The age range of patients was from six to 89 years, with a mean of 43.29 ±11.06 years. Retinitis pigmentosa (70, 18% and macular diseases except age related macular degeneration (AMD (55, 14% were the most common causes of low vision. Nystagmus and amblyopia (34, 26.36%, retinitis pigmentosa (49, 23.33% and AMD (16, 28.07% were the most common causes of low vision in the 0-15, 16-60, and >60 years age groups, respectively. Telescopes (52, 39.10% and stand magnifiers (45, 33.83% were the most commonly prescribed low vision devices.Conclusion: Hereditary anomalies and age related degeneration constitute the major causes of low vision in the study population. Telescopes and stand magnifiers were the most commonly prescribed and preferred low vision devices. The burden of visual impairment can be tackled in an effective way through the provision of quality and affordable low vision services and also provide a basis for national and regional level planning to combat visual impairment.

  11. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition. (United States)

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins


    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  12. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test. (United States)

    Watson, G. R.; And Others


    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  13. INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership Inaugural Issue, 2001. (United States)

    McGraw, Tammy, Ed.


    This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "Customizable Content" (Walter Koetke);…

  14. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy (United States)

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda


    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  15. The Institutional Vision of Tribal Community Colleges (United States)

    Abelman, Robert


    This investigation provides a base-line measurement of the inspirational and pragmatic rhetoric in declarations of institutional vision at tribal community colleges. By comparing it to nontribal community colleges, this content analysis reveals the current state of utility of the mission and vision statements of tribal community colleges, their…

  16. Binocular Vision Function Analysis of 75 Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping Gao; Hai-ying Wang; Xiu-rong Tang; Ying Zhang; Xiao-tong Huo


    @@ We randomly chose 75 subjects; 34 men and 41 womenwith an average age of 21 years. Our study method included subject interviews, and evamuination of their refractive and binocular vision functions.We recorded, basic biographical data, medical history, family history, lifestyle factors that relate to their use of vision and history of wearing glasses.

  17. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong


    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  18. Computer vision in the poultry industry (United States)

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  19. The Democratic Vision of Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid


    The main purpose of this paper is to justify two propositions. One, that Schmitt’s political vision is indeed democratic and second, that Schmitt’s democratic vision, plebiscitary or leadership democracy, is better adapted to our modern political condition and the challenges confronting modern...

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States. (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  1. Implementing Vision Research in Special Needs Education (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor Birkeland; Aanstad, Monica L.; Leirvik, Eva Iren B.


    This article presents experiences from vision research implemented in education and argues for the need for teachers with visual competence and insight into suitable methods for stimulation and learning. A new type of continuing professional development (CPD) focuses on the role of vision in children's learning and development, the consequences of…

  2. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision. (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G


    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  3. Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors (United States)

    Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo


    Vision is essential to the implementation of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model. Drawing from research in organizational leadership, this article provides a conceptual framework for how school counselors can incorporate vision as a strategy for implementing school counseling programs within the context of practice.…

  4. Vision and Leadership: Paying Attention to Intention. (United States)

    Manasse, A. Lorri


    A review of literature regarding the concept of visionary leadership identifies and discusses four types of vision (organizational, future, personal, and strategic) and factors that contribute to this vision (information processing skills; diagnostic tools; conceptual knowledge; creative thinking; and self-awareness). (CB)

  5. The Role of Optometry in VISION 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brien A Holden


    Full Text Available The global initiative, Vision 2020: The Right to Sight, established by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness, has created valuable and effective collaborations of organisations involved in a wide range of eyecare and community healthcare activities aimed at the elimination of avoidable blindness and impaired vision.

  6. Vision status among foster children in NYC: a research note. (United States)

    Festinger, Trudy; Duckman, Robert H


    A summary of the results of research on the vision status of foster children. Results indicate that the vision screenings being provided at mandated annual physical examinations are not sufficiently identifying children's vision dysfunctions.

  7. 77 FR 539 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... for exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. If granted...) in interstate commerce without meeting the Federal vision requirement. DATES: Comments must...

  8. 77 FR 541 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision.... SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to exempt seven individuals from the vision requirement in the... commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce without meeting the prescribed vision...

  9. 78 FR 797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  10. 76 FR 1499 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision.... SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to exempt 15 individuals from the vision requirement in the Federal... commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce without meeting the prescribed vision standard....

  11. Soft Computing Techniques in Vision Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yeon-Mo


    This Special Edited Volume is a unique approach towards Computational solution for the upcoming field of study called Vision Science. From a scientific firmament Optics, Ophthalmology, and Optical Science has surpassed an Odyssey of optimizing configurations of Optical systems, Surveillance Cameras and other Nano optical devices with the metaphor of Nano Science and Technology. Still these systems are falling short of its computational aspect to achieve the pinnacle of human vision system. In this edited volume much attention has been given to address the coupling issues Computational Science and Vision Studies.  It is a comprehensive collection of research works addressing various related areas of Vision Science like Visual Perception and Visual system, Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, Psychophysics and Ophthalmology, linguistic relativity, color vision etc. This issue carries some latest developments in the form of research articles and presentations. The volume is rich of contents with technical tools ...

  12. Dense image correspondences for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ce


    This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems.   ·         Provides i...

  13. Vision based systems for UAV applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuś, Zygmunt


    This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.

  14. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency in Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad khalaj


    Full Text Available Background: Color vision deficiency (CVD is an X chromosome-linked recessive autosomal dominant. Determine the prevalence of color blindness in Qazvin population. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study color vision deficiency examined in 1853 individuals with age 10-25 years old who participated in private clinics and eye clinic of Bu-Ali hospital in Qazvin in 2010. The screening of color vision deficiency was performed using Ishihara test. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 with χP2P test with p<0.05. Results: Mean age of participant was 17.86±4.48 years. 59.5% of them were female. 3.49% of the total population had color vision deficiency that 0.93% and 2.56% were female and male respectively. Conclusion: color vision deficiency must be noticed by decision makers in health field for screen planning.

  15. Impact of low vision services on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo


    Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana.Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana

  16. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler


    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  17. Bioinspired vision sensors with hyperacuity (United States)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.


    Musca domestica, the common house fly, possesses a powerful vision system that exhibits features such as fast, analog, parallel operation and motion hyperacuity -- the ability to detect the movement of objects at far better resolution than predicted by their photoreceptor spacing. Researchers at the Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics (WISPR) Laboratory have investigated these features for over a decade to develop an analog sensor inspired by the fly. Research efforts have been divided into electrophysiology; mathematical, optical and MATLAB based sensor modeling; physical sensor development; and applications. This paper will provide an in depth review of recent key results in some of these areas including development of a multiple, light adapting cartridge based sensor constructed on both a planar and co-planar surface using off-the-shelf components. Both a photodiode-based approach and a fiber based sensor will be discussed. Applications in UAV obstacle avoidance, long term building monitoring and autonomous robot navigation are also discussed.

  18. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    planning. The investigations in this thesis is done as initial work on a planning and logistic system for timber harvesting called logTracker. In this thesis we have focused on three methods for the logTracker project, which includes image segmentation, image classification, and image retrieval...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the logTracker project and ideas for further development of the system is provided. Building a complete logTracker system is a very demanding task and the conclusion is that it is important to focus on the elements that can bring most value to timber harvest planning. Besides contributing...

  19. New Media Vision for IYA (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Koppelman, M.


    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Committee seeks to provide and promote online astronomy experiences in the places that people work, play and learn; create content that will expose people to astronomy, provide them regular content, and create special opportunities for learning; distribute content for active (pull) and passive (push) channels and through guerilla marketing technique; use a diverse suite of technologies to reach people on multiple platforms and in diverse online settings. To make these goals a reality we have brought together a diverse group of astronomy new media practitioners to both mentor grass roots efforts and spearhead national initiatives. You are invited to partner you programs with the New Media Task Group. In this paper we lay out are goals and define our vision.

  20. Handling qualities comparison of panoramic night vision goggles and 46-deg. night vision goggles (United States)

    Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion; Thorndycraft, David


    Night Vision Goggles allow the user to see in extremely low illumination levels but the visual information provided by Night Vision Goggles has a limited field-of-view that diminishes handling-qualities in the night flying environment. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles were designed to correct this problem by providing a 100° horizontal field-of-view which is larger than currently used Night Vision Goggles. However, in the first generation Panoramic Night Vision Goggle, the improved field of view came at the cost of diminished resolution, contrast and central overlap area when compared to conventional Night Vision Goggles. This paper describes an evaluation that was conducted in the variable stability NRC Bell-205 helicopter to examine the influence on system handling qualities of the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles and a 46° field-of-view UK Night Vision Goggle. Five pilots flew the ADS-33D hover, sidestep and pirouette manoeuvres in simulated night conditions with the UK Night Vision Goggle and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle. Both subjective and objective measures of task performance were obtained. Handling-qualities ratings showed the pirouette was performed better with the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. This was the only manoeuvre where there was a clear-cut handling qualities improvement when using the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles. Other manoeuvres such as the sidestep and hover did not show definitive handling qualities rating differences between the two Night Vision Goggle types. The flight test results were interpreted in terms of the design trade-offs of the two night vision systems, with regard to the different acuity, binocular overlaps and fields-of-view.

  1. Critical decisions on Cosmic Vision (United States)


    Eddington had two aims, both remarkable and very pertinent to front-line astronomical interests. The first was to look for Earth-like planets outside our solar system - one of the key goals in the search to understand how life came to be, how it is that we live where we do in the universe and whether there are other potential life-supporting environments 'out there'. At the same time it was going to follow the path that the ESA-NASA mission SOHO had taken with the Sun of using astroseismology to look 'inside' stars. In the longer term, the loss of this one mission will not stop ESA and the scientific community pursuing the grand quests to which it would have contributed. The loss of the BepiColombo lander is also hard to take scientifically. ESA, in conjunction with the Japanese space agency, JAXA, will still put two orbiters around Mercury but the ‘ground truth’ provided by the lander is a big loss. However, to land on a planet so near the Sun is no small matter and was a bridge too far in present circumstances, and this chance for Europe to be first has probably been lost. The origins of the problems were recognised at the ESA Council meeting held in June. Several sudden demands on finance occurred in the spring, the most obvious and public being the unforeseen Ariane 5 grounding in January, delaying the launches of Rosetta and Smart-1. A temporary loan of EUR 100 million was granted, but must be paid back out of present resources by the end of 2006. ESA's SPC was therefore caught in a vice. Immediate mission starts had to be severely limited and the overall envelope of the programme contained. With this week’s decisions, the SPC has brought the scope of the Cosmic Vision programme down to a level that necessarily reflects the financial conditions rather than the ambitions of the scientific community. A long and painful discussion during the SPC meeting resulted in the conclusion that only one new mission can be started at this time, namely LISA Pathfinder

  2. Color in machine vision and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Color is the phenomenon of human visual perception and the module of machine vision. Color information is widely used in the areas of virtual reality and humancomputer interaction. Color is the product of a visual environment, illumination and the human brain. Research on color information representation and its processing is typically interdisciplinary. Based on our research work on human color perception and machine color vision and its application, we summarized the hotspots of color studies in recent developments and new approaches to color vision,including basic theories and the application of color information in virtual reality, content-based image retrieval, and face recognition.

  3. Strategic Vision: A Leader and a Process (United States)


    Thousand Years, A Vision of Man’s Future in the Universe. New York: Saturday Review Press/E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1974. Burton, Daniel F ., Jr...34Economic Realities and Strategic Choices." In Vision for the 1990’s: U.S. Strategy and the Global Economy, ed. Daniel F . Burton, Jr., Victor Gotbaum, and...34U.S. Technology in an International Context." In Visions for the 1990’s: U.S. Strategy and the Global Economy, ed. Daniel F . Burton, Jr., Victor

  4. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu


    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  5. Dichromatic confusion lines and color vision models. (United States)

    Fry, G A


    An attempt has been made to explain how dichromatic confusion lines can be used in building a model for color vision. In the König color vision model the fundamental colors are located on the mixture diagram at the copunctal points for protanopes, deuteranopes, and tritanopes. In Fry's model the copunctal points fall on the alychne and cannot represent the fundamental colors. On a constant luminance diagram the confusion lines for the different dichromats are sets of parallel lines. This arrangement of the confusion lines can be explained in terms of a zone theory of color vision.

  6. Machine vision for real time orbital operations (United States)

    Vinz, Frank L.


    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  7. Light and the evolution of vision. (United States)

    Williams, D L


    It might seem a little ridiculous to cover the period over which vision evolved, perhaps 1.5 billion years, in only 3000 words. Yet, if we examine the photoreceptor molecules of the most basic eukaryote protists and even before that, in those of prokaryote bacteria and cyanobacteria, we see how similar they are to those of mammalian rod and cone photoreceptor opsins and the photoreceptive molecules of light sensitive ganglion cells. This shows us much with regard the development of vision once these proteins existed, but there is much more to discover about the evolution of even more primitive vision systems.

  8. Clinical governance: vision or mirage? (United States)

    Goodman, Neville W


    Clinical governance was intended to ensure clinical quality in the National Health Service. Its first full description, in the British Medical Journal in 1998, seemed to some to be more rhetoric than substance. Now, 3 years on, its proponents believe it is starting to achieve its purpose. The British Medical Journal has again published a paper, this time subtitled 'turning vision into reality'. Expectations might have been that this paper would present evidence of how clinical governance is changing practice to ensure quality, but analysis of the paper shows that it does little more than repeat the rhetoric of the earlier description. It describes how clinical governance might be organized and what it might do, but not what it has done. Its authors repeat the idea that everyone can be 'the best' and achieve 'exellence', which is not reality at all. Anyone introducing a new method of managing the National Health System has the same obligation as those who introduce new treatments to provide evidence that the method works, and that the financial and non-financial costs are not too high. The new paper fails to provide that evidence.

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2014. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  10. Color Vision Defects: What Teachers Should Know. (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.; And Others


    Discusses the nature of color vision defects as they relate to reading instruction. Suggests ways that teachers can adapt instruction to help provide maximal learning opportunities for the color deficient child. (RS)

  11. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration (United States)

    Kim, W.


    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  12. Transfer color to night vision images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Liu; Zhenhua Li


    @@ Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana A. Bade


    Full Text Available As the developments and customer expectations in the high quality foods are increasing day by day, it becomes very essential for the food industries to maintain the quality of the product. Therefore it is necessary to have the quality inspection system for the product before packaging. Automation in the industry gives better inspection speed as compared to the human vision. The automation based on the computer vision is cost effective, flexible and provides one of the best alternatives for more accurate, fast inspection system. Image processing and image analysis are the vital part of the computer vision system. In this paper, we discuss real time quality inspection of the biscuits of premium class using computer vision. It contains the designing of the system, implementing, verifying it and installation of the complete system at the biscuit industry. Overall system contains Image acquisition, Preprocessing, Important feature extraction using segmentation, Color variations and Interpretation and the system hardware.

  14. International Conference on Computational Vision and Robotics

    CERN Document Server


    Computer Vision and Robotic is one of the most challenging areas of 21st century. Its application ranges from Agriculture to Medicine, Household applications to Humanoid, Deep-sea-application to Space application, and Industry applications to Man-less-plant. Today’s technologies demand to produce intelligent machine, which are enabling applications in various domains and services. Robotics is one such area which encompasses number of technology in it and its application is widespread. Computational vision or Machine vision is one of the most challenging tools for the robot to make it intelligent.   This volume covers chapters from various areas of Computational Vision such as Image and Video Coding and Analysis, Image Watermarking, Noise Reduction and Cancellation, Block Matching and Motion Estimation, Tracking of Deformable Object using Steerable Pyramid Wavelet Transformation, Medical Image Fusion, CT and MRI Image Fusion based on Stationary Wavelet Transform. The book also covers articles from applicati...

  15. Information Fusion Methods in Computer Pan-vision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aiming at concrete tasks of information fusion in computer pan-vision (CPV) system, information fusion methods are studied thoroughly. Some research progresses are presented. Recognizing of vision testing object is realized by fusing vision information and non-vision auxiliary information, which contain recognition of material defects, intelligent robot's autonomous recognition for parts and computer to defect image understanding and recognition automatically.

  16. Machine Vision Giving Eyes to Robots. Resources in Technology. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1990


    This module introduces machine vision, which can be used for inspection, robot guidance and part sorting. The future for machine vision will include new technology and will bring vision systems closer to the ultimate vision processor, the human eye. Includes a student quiz, outcomes, and activities. (JOW)

  17. Vision 2030. A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    On September 27, 2000, the concrete industry's Strategic Development Council hosted a Concrete Vision Workshop in Chicago, Illinois. Meeting participants included over 50 concrete, cement, and other allied industry chief executive officers, presidents, vice-presidents, laboratory and industry research managers, and government representatives. Participants discussed the state of the concrete industry 30 years ago, the state of the current industry, and their vision for the United States concrete industry in 2030. Moreover, they identified specific goals to achieve the industry's Vision 2030. This document, Vision 2030, is the product of that workshop and the comments received after a broad industry review.

  18. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob


    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....



    Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean)


    These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the ...

  20. Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision



    A basic problem when deriving information from measured data, such as images, originates from the fact that objects in the world, and hence image structures, exist as meaningful entities only over certain ranges of scale. "Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision" describes a formal theory for representing the notion of scale in image data, and shows how this theory applies to essential problems in computer vision such as computation of image features and cues to surface shape. The subjects rang...

  1. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David


    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  2. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he


    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  3. Research of Vision Detection System on PCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Songlin; ZHOU Zude; HU Wenjuan


    Machine vision is applied in defect detection system on PCB. The whole system structure and the principle of vision detection are introduced, while the detection method including image processing, detection and recognition algorithms are detailed. The simulation results demonstrate that through this method, four types of defects including short circuit, open circuit, protuberance and concavity on PCB circuit can be effectively inspected, located and recognized.

  4. Human Vision Pathology Diagnostics by Photogrammetrics Means (United States)

    Murynin, A.; Knyaz, V.; Mateev, I.


    One of the reasons of such vision pathology as human stereoscopic vision capability dysfunction is an asymmetry of a human face. As a rule, such dysfunctions occur as early as in the babyhood, when diagnostic methods applied for adults are ineffective. Early diagnostics and prophylaxis could help in treatment of such pathology and face 3D modeling is one of the promising ways to solve this problem.

  5. Color Vision Defects in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Shrestha


    Full Text Available Introduction: Color Vision defect can be observed in various diseases of optic nerve and retina and also a significant number of people suffer from the inherited condition of red and green color defect. Methods: A cross-sectional descritptive study was designed with purposive sampling of students from various schools of Kathmandu Valley. All children were subjected to color vision evaluation using Ishihara Isochromatic color plates along with other examination to rule out any other causes of color deficiency. Results: A total of 2001 students were examined, 1050 male students and 951 females with mean age of 10.35 (±2.75 and 10.54 (±2.72 respectively. Among the total students examined, 2.1% had some form of color vision defects. Of the male population , 3.9% had color vision defects while none of the female was found with the deficiency. Conclusions: The prelevance of color vision defect in Nepal is significant and comparable with the prelevance quoted in the studies from different countries. Keywords:color vision; congenital red green color effect; Nepal; prevalence.

  6. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank


    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  7. The Effect of an On-Site Vision Examination on Adherence to Vision Screening Recommendations (United States)

    Chu, Raymond; Huang, Kristine; Barnhardt, Carmen; Chen, Angela


    Vision screenings are intended to efficiently identify students with possible visual impairment and initiate a referral for diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, at-risk students do not access the recommended care or experience delays in receiving care. The purpose of this article is to report the effect on adherence to vision screening…

  8. Passive Night Vision Sensor Comparison for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Stereo Vision Navigation (United States)

    Owens, Ken; Matthies, Larry


    One goal of the "Demo III" unmanned ground vehicle program is to enable autonomous nighttime navigation at speeds of up to 10 m.p.h. To perform obstacle detection at night with stereo vision will require night vision cameras that produce adequate image quality for the driving speeds, vehicle dynamics, obstacle sizes, and scene conditions that will be encountered. This paper analyzes the suitability of four classes of night vision cameras (3-5 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer cooled FLIR, 8-12 micrometer uncooled FLIR, and image intensifiers) for night stereo vision, using criteria based on stereo matching quality, image signal to noise ratio, motion blur and synchronization capability. We find that only cooled FLIRs will enable stereo vision performance that meets the goals of the Demo III program for nighttime autonomous mobility.

  9. Low vision goggles: optical design studies (United States)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi


    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  10. [Current views on vision of mammals]. (United States)

    Khokhlova, T V


    In the review, research data are presented on mammals' vision including visual pigments, color and contrast vision, and visual behaviour in different species. It is shown that in course of evolution mammals were gradually losing the elements of daylight cone vision system that are typical of other vertebrates. In monotremes, visual pigments SWS2 (cone blue-sensitive 2) and MWS/LWS (green/red-sensitive) are still present, as well as rod RH1. Theria, except some primates, also have two cone visual pigments: SWS1 (ultraviolet/violet or blue-sensitive 1) and MWS/LWS along with rod RH1. Humans and some other higher primates evolved the new visual pigment, MWS, and acquired trichromatic vision. Marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) and some species of other orders have lost also the visual pigment SWS1, probably due to specificity of processing the information received by these cones. Current view on mammals' vision with two cone pigments and rods is presented. Data on maximum spectral sensitivity of visual pigments in different species and orders are given along with data on spatial contrast sensation. High visual acuity has been acquired by ungulates, artiodactyls, and primates, while the highest one--by humans with their specialized fovea.

  11. Correction for near vision in pseudophakic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana


    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to show the mean values of correction for near vision and to discuss the presbyopic correction in pseudophakic patients. Setting was the Eye department where authors work. Inclusion criteria for 55 patients were native or corrected distant vision of 0.8-1.0 on Snellen's chart; 0,6 on Jagger's chart for near vision; round pupil and good position of the implant. Biometry of the anterior chamber depth with Alcon biophysics during distant and near vision was performed in our study. „Hi square" test was carried out and it was concluded that patients younger than 59 years (41 eyes had median correction of +2.0 dsph, while patients older than 60 years (36 eyes had correction of+3.0 dsph, but it was not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference of the correction between pseudophakic (41 and phakic (19 eyes in patients younger than 59 years. The anterior movement of the IOL was 0.18 mm in the younger group and 0.15 mm in the older group. With good IOL movement and new materials which could have changeable refractive power, the problem of pseudophakic correction for near vision might be solved.

  12. Insect photoreceptor adaptations to night vision. (United States)

    Honkanen, Anna; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Salmela, Iikka; Heimonen, Kyösti; Weckström, Matti


    Night vision is ultimately about extracting information from a noisy visual input. Several species of nocturnal insects exhibit complex visually guided behaviour in conditions where most animals are practically blind. The compound eyes of nocturnal insects produce strong responses to single photons and process them into meaningful neural signals, which are amplified by specialized neuroanatomical structures. While a lot is known about the light responses and the anatomical structures that promote pooling of responses to increase sensitivity, there is still a dearth of knowledge on the physiology of night vision. Retinal photoreceptors form the first bottleneck for the transfer of visual information. In this review, we cover the basics of what is known about physiological adaptations of insect photoreceptors for low-light vision. We will also discuss major enigmas of some of the functional properties of nocturnal photoreceptors, and describe recent advances in methodologies that may help to solve them and broaden the field of insect vision research to new model animals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela - Olimpia Lobonea (Oltean


    Full Text Available These people were called in the past chiefs, rulers. Now they are known as leaders. After management by objectives, strategic planning, project organization, this concept appears as a tool called "fourth generation". It is called VISION. Leadership and vision exist in the actual sense, which has become modern a few decades ago, managing to gather during this time a variety of scientific instruments. The connection between these two domains creates a certain type of leader, the visionary leader. The hypothesis from which we start is that all active leaders have a vision of what needs to be accomplished, and the inability to predict something that could be provided involves loss the capacity of the leader. Without vision, the energy reaches the lowest quotas, production decreases, terms limits are exceeded and human resources begin to dissipate.. The conclusion is that visionary leaders are endowed with multiple attributes (multiple intelligence, even if sometimes the role of intuition and unconscious in building vision at the expense of reason that is based on experience and facts is exaggerated.

  14. School Based Vision Centers: striving to optimize learning. (United States)

    Lyons, Stacy Ayn; Johnson, Catherine; Majzoub, Katherine


    The successful delivery of comprehensive pediatric vision care after vision screening referral is a longstanding challenge that has significant implications for child wellness. In response to the many known obstacles that prevent the diagnosis and treatment of vision conditions, School-Based Vision Centers have been established in Framingham, MA and Boston, MA to provide easy access to comprehensive vision care following a failed vision screening. These on-site Vision Centers were developed to improve access to comprehensive vision care and treatment thereby correcting vision conditions that can adversely affect student academic achievement, athletic performance, and self-esteem. This paper highlights the collaboration between two public schools in Massachusetts and The New England Eye Institute and describes a multidisciplinary approach to comprehensive care delivery to high-risk pediatric populations in school-based settings. The ultimate goal of this model is to minimize visual barriers that may impede learning in order to maximize academic success and wellness.

  15. A compact PE memory for vision chips (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang


    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  16. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire


    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  17. Embodied Vision in Against the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdel Raouf Fahim


    Full Text Available In this article, I argue that vision in Against the Day is an embodied experience. Drawing upon the work of Merleau-Ponty and Vivian Sobckack, I present a reading of perception in the novel as one that involves a corporeal viewing eye. While critics have focused on the disembodied element of vision in the novel, I suggest that Pynchon grounds all seemingly disembodied encounters, including the scene with the Merle Rideout’s ‘Angels of Death’ and the doubling and bilocation of characters, in the very material, organic body. By doing so, Pynchon eliminates the conventional subject-object divide and gives vision a tactile dimension that reflects phenomenological perspectives on the intrinsic relationship between the eye and the world it perceives.

  18. Coevolution of active vision and feature selection. (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Kato, Toshifumi; Marocco, Davide; Sauser, Eric


    We show that complex visual tasks, such as position- and size-invariant shape recognition and navigation in the environment, can be tackled with simple architectures generated by a coevolutionary process of active vision and feature selection. Behavioral machines equipped with primitive vision systems and direct pathways between visual and motor neurons are evolved while they freely interact with their environments. We describe the application of this methodology in three sets of experiments, namely, shape discrimination, car driving, and robot navigation. We show that these systems develop sensitivity to a number of oriented, retinotopic, visual-feature-oriented edges, corners, height, and a behavioral repertoire to locate, bring, and keep these features in sensitive regions of the vision system, resembling strategies observed in simple insects.

  19. Near real-time stereo vision system (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)


    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  20. Bilateral vision loss associated with radiofrequency exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu D


    Full Text Available Dianna Liu, Franz Marie Cruz, Prem S SubramanianWilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USAAbstract: A 57-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with painless binocular vision loss 1 week after direct application of radiofrequency energy to her orbits. She had no light perception bilaterally. Pupils were dilated and not reactive to light. Fundoscopic exam initially showed optic disc swelling in the right eye and a normal-appearing disc in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed gadolinium enhancement of both intraorbital optic nerves. She underwent a course of high-dose steroid treatment without recovery of vision. Optic discs were pale 11 weeks after injury. With exclusion of other possible causes, this represents a unique case of irreversible binocular optic nerve damage and blindness secondary to radiofrequency exposure.Keywords: optic neuropathy, blindness, radiofrequency, vision loss

  1. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile


    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  2. Spectral Test Instrument for Color Vision Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balázs Vince Nagy; Gy(o)rgy (A)brahám


    Common displays such as CRT or LCD screens have limited capabilities in displaying most color spectra correctly. The main disadvantage of these devices is that they work with three primaries and the colors displayed are the mixture of these three colours. Consequently these devices can be confusing in testing human color identification, because the spectral distribution of the colors displayed is the combined spectrum of the three primaries. We have developed a new instrument for spectrally correct color vision measurement. This instrument uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) and is capable of producing all spectra of perceivable colors, thus with appropriate test methods this instrument can be a reliable and useful tool in testing human color vision and in verifying color vision correction.

  3. Artificial Vision, New Visual Modalities and Neuroadaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Or


    Full Text Available To study the descriptions from which artificial vision derives, to explore the new visual modalities resulting from eye surgeries and diseases, and to gain awareness of the use of machine vision systems for both enhancement of visual perception and better understanding of neuroadaptation. Science could not define until today what vision is. However, some optical-based systems and definitions have been established considering some factors for the formation of seeing. The best known system includes Gabor filter and Gabor patch which work on edge perception, describing the visual perception in the best known way. These systems are used today in industry and technology of machines, robots and computers to provide their "seeing". These definitions are used beyond the machinery in humans for neuroadaptation in new visual modalities after some eye surgeries or to improve the quality of some already known visual modalities. Beside this, “the blindsight” -which was not known to exist until 35 years ago - can be stimulated with visual exercises. Gabor system is a description of visual perception definable in machine vision as well as in human visual perception. This system is used today in robotic vision. There are new visual modalities which arise after some eye surgeries or with the use of some visual optical devices. Also, blindsight is a different visual modality starting to be defined even though the exact etiology is not known. In all the new visual modalities, new vision stimulating therapies using the Gabor systems can be applied. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 61-5

  4. Computational and cognitive neuroscience of vision

    CERN Document Server


    Despite a plethora of scientific literature devoted to vision research and the trend toward integrative research, the borders between disciplines remain a practical difficulty. To address this problem, this book provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of vision from various perspectives, ranging from neuroscience to cognition, and from computational principles to engineering developments. It is written by leading international researchers in the field, with an emphasis on linking multiple disciplines and the impact such synergy can lead to in terms of both scientific breakthroughs and technology innovations. It is aimed at active researchers and interested scientists and engineers in related fields.

  5. Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Henrik I


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate

  6. VISION 2020 at the district level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Qureshi


    Full Text Available Background to VISION 2020 at the district level There is an African saying. The question is: “How do you eat an elephant?”. The answer is: “One mouthful at a time, slowly, with a lot of help from your friends”. There is much that we can learn from this wisdom and apply to VISION 2020. The question is: “How do you overcome the seemingly insurmountable problem of global blindness?” The answer is: “Piece by piece, in digestible portions, step by step, and working together as a team”.

  7. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles (United States)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.


    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  8. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System (United States)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.


    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  9. Vision models for 3D surfaces (United States)

    Mitra, Sunanda


    Different approaches to computational stereo to represent human stereo vision have been developed over the past two decades. The Marr-Poggio theory of human stereo vision is probably the most widely accepted model of the human stereo vision. However, recently developed motion stereo models which use a sequence of images taken by either a moving camera or a moving object provide an alternative method of achieving multi-resolution matching without the use of Laplacian of Gaussian operators. While using image sequences, the baseline between two camera positions for a image pair is changed for the subsequent image pair so as to achieve different resolution for each image pair. Having different baselines also avoids the inherent occlusion problem in stereo vision models. The advantage of using multi-resolution images acquired by camera positioned at different baselines over those acquired by LOG operators is that one does not have to encounter spurious edges often created by zero-crossings in the LOG operated images. Therefore in designing a computer vision system, a motion stereo model is more appropriate than a stereo vision model. However, in some applications where only a stereo pair of images are available, recovery of 3D surfaces of natural scenes are possible in a computationally efficient manner by using cepstrum matching and regularization techniques. Section 2 of this paper describes a motion stereo model using multi-scale cepstrum matching for the detection of disparity between image pairs in a sequence of images and subsequent recovery of 3D surfaces from depth-map obtained by a non convergent triangulation technique. Section 3 presents a 3D surface recovery technique from a stereo pair using cepstrum matching for disparity detection and cubic B-splines for surface smoothing. Section 4 contains the results of 3D surface recovery using both of the techniques mentioned above. Section 5 discusses the merit of 2D cepstrum matching and cubic B

  10. [Binocular vision after treatment of retinal detachment]. (United States)

    Maksymowicz, Małgorzata; Raczyńska, Krystyna; Maksymowicz, Jarosław


    The study covered 79 patients after treatment of retinal detachment. Double vision, strabismus and disturbances of eyeballs motility were found. Up to 12 months after intervention, the deterioration of binocular vision was observed in 48.28 to 89.66% of patients, depending on the method used. The majority of disturbances were observed during the first 3 months with tendency to gradual subsidence during consecutive 9 months. A patient, after treatment of retinal detachment, can be qualified to return to work where stereopsis is needed under condition that ophthalmologic examination is done every three months during the first year after operation and than once a year.

  11. Poverty and Proximate Barriers to Learning: Vision Deficiencies, Vision Correction and Educational Outcomes in Rural Northwest China. (United States)

    Hannum, Emily; Zhang, Yuping


    Uncorrected vision may present a significant barrier to educational mobility in poor communities in low and middle income countries. Focusing on the case of rural Northwest China, we analyze the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (2,000 children; 100 rural villages) and the Gansu Vision Intervention Project (a randomized trial; 19,185 students, 165 schools, two counties). Four main findings emerge: significant unmet need for vision correction; socioeconomic gradients in vision correction; somewhat greater vulnerability to vision problems among higher socioeconomic status and more academically engaged children; and significant favorable effects of vision correction on math and literacy performance and class failure.

  12. 75 FR 60862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ...-0174] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 18 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the...

  13. 78 FR 47818 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... FR 3316). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine M. Papp, Chief, Medical Programs Division, (202... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable...

  14. Color vision: mice see hue too. (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R


    A transgenic mouse has been generated with three cone types, instead of the normal murine two. Remarkably, some of these mice use the extra cone to make trichromatic color discriminations similar to those that are the basis of human color vision.

  15. Cool Wool Iaunched at Premiere Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Visitors to Premiere Vision were greeted by the inspired The Woolmark Company image, rapidly becoming iconic, of a welcoming flock of stylish Merino sheep in sunglasses. It raised many a smile and set the scene for a feel- good exhibition, putting Cool Wool firmly at the doorway to the new summer season 2013.

  16. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  17. A (Super) Heroic Vision of Leader Self (United States)

    Linn, Genie Bingham


    This study leads the reader on a learning journey with the heroic metaphors derived from heroic myths of today's pop culture to the views shared by aspiring administrators. Viewing the students' leadership vision of self as hero provided insight to guiding students in their personal leadership journey. By naming and describing self as hero, future…

  18. Leadership and Futuring: Making Visions Happen (United States)

    Hoyle, John R.


    Well-educated, charismatic leaders who can improve systems to enrich the lives of others are needed today more than ever. In this updated edition, John Hoyle identifies vision, motivation, flexibility, and openness to invention and opportunity as key characteristics of effective leaders, and challenges school administrators to think outside the…

  19. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  20. Visions of Reconstruction: Layers of Moving Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalman, Floris Jan Willem


    abstractAfter WWII, films accompanied the reconstruction of Europe’s destroyed cities. Many contained historical footage. How was this material used, to articulate visions of reconstruction, what happened to the material later on, and how do the films relate to municipal film archives? This question

  1. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision. (United States)

    Adair, Robert K


    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  2. SOFIA Program Status and Science Vision (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly


    I will present an overview of the SOFIA program, its science vision and upcoming plans for the observatory. The talk will feature several scientific highlights since full operations, along with summaries of planned science observations for this coming year, platform enhancements and new instrumentation.

  3. Esther Dyson's Vision of the Future. (United States)

    Runyan, Andy


    Discusses a vision of the future based on Esther Dyson's views of the proliferation of the Internet. Topics include the Internet as a communication medium; electronic commerce; the role of education, including the role of teachers; intellectual property rights; and friction freedom in a new digital economy relating to pricing. (LRW)

  4. Building Artificial Vision Systems with Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCun, Yann [New York University


    Three questions pose the next challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI), robotics, and neuroscience. How do we learn perception (e.g. vision)? How do we learn representations of the perceptual world? How do we learn visual categories from just a few examples?

  5. Given time: biology, nature and photographic vision. (United States)

    Garlick, Steve


    The invention of photography in the early 19th century changed the way that we see the world, and has played an important role in the development of western science. Notably, photographic vision is implicated in the definition of a new temporal relation to the natural world at the same time as modern biological science emerges as a disciplinary formation. It is this coincidence in birth that is central to this study. I suggest that by examining the relationship of early photography to nature, we can gain some insight into the technological and epistemological underpinnings of biological vision. To this end, this article is primarily concerned with the role of photographic technology in the genealogy of biological vision. I argue that photography has always been ambiguously located between art and science, between nature and culture, and between life and death. Hence, while it may be a technological expression of the scientific desire to know and to control nature, photographic vision has continually disrupted and frustrated the ambitions of biological technoscience. The technovision of early biological science illustrates that the elusive temporality of nature has always been central to the production of knowledge of life.

  6. 2020 Vision Project Summary: FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W. Gordon; K.P. Scott


    During the 1998-99 school year, students from participating schools completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on U.S. national security. This report summarizes the student's views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's four years.

  7. Image Control In Automatic Welding Vision System (United States)

    Richardson, Richard W.


    Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).

  8. Participation of the elderly after vision loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, M.A.; van der Mei, S.F.; Melis-Dankers, B.J.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Groothoff, J.W.; Suurmeijer, T.P.


    Purpose. To assess the degree of participation of the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with population-based reference data. Method. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired elderly persons (>= 55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation centre.

  9. Make the Most of Your Vision (United States)

    AMD Macular Degeneration Partnership + Font Size – Home About AMD Dry AMD Wet AMD Experience AMD Living with AMD Take Charge Improve Daily Life For Family & Caregivers Low Vision Rehabilitation Resources Clinical Trials Newsletter Warm Line Amsler Grid Research Dry AMD Wet AMD Other AMD Research News ...

  10. Medical informatics and telemedicine: A vision (United States)

    Clemmer, Terry P.


    The goal of medical informatics is to improve care. This requires the commitment and harmonious collaboration between the computer scientists and clinicians and an integrated database. The vision described is how medical information systems are going to impact the way medical care is delivered in the future.

  11. Participation of the elderly after vision loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, M.A.; Mei, van der S.F.; Melis-Dankers, B.J.M.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Groothoff, J.W.; Suurmeijer, T.P.B.M.


    Purpose. To assess the degree of participation of the visually impaired elderly and to make a comparison with population-based reference data. Method. This cross-sectional study included visually impaired elderly persons (≥55 years; n=173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation centre. Bas

  12. Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study (United States)

    Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.


    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision…

  13. Is there a common factor for vision? (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Clarke, Aaron; Mohr, Christine; Herzog, Michael H


    In cognition, common factors play a crucial role. For example, different types of intelligence are highly correlated, pointing to a common factor, which is often called g. One might expect that a similar common factor would also exist for vision. Surprisingly, no one in the field has addressed this issue. Here, we provide the first evidence that there is no common factor for vision. We tested 40 healthy students’ performance in six basic visual paradigms: visual acuity, vernier discrimination,two visual backward masking paradigms, Gabor detection, and bisection discrimination. One might expect that performance levels on these tasks would be highly correlated because some individuals generally have better vision than others due to superior optics,better retinal or cortical processing, or enriched visual experience. However, only four out of 15 correlations were significant, two of which were nontrivial. These results cannot be explained by high intraobserver variability or ceiling effects because test–retest reliability was high and the variance in our student population is commensurate with that from other studies with well sighted populations. Using a variety of tests (e.g., principal components analysis, Bayes theorem, test–retest reliability), we show the robustness of our null results. We suggest that neuroplasticity operates during everyday experience to generate marked individual differences. Our results apply only to the normally sighted population (i.e., restricted range sampling). For the entire population, including those with degenerate vision, we expect different results.

  14. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David


    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  15. Delusion and bi-ocular vision. (United States)

    De Masi, Franco


    The delusional experience is the result of a grave disjunction in the psyche whose outcome is not readily predictable. Examination of the specific mode of disjunction may help us understand the nature and radical character of delusion. I will present the therapy of a psychotic patient who after many years of analysis and progresses in his life continues to show delusional episodes although limited and contained. In his case, the two visions, one delusional and the other real, remain distinct and differentiated from each other because they both possess the same perceptual character, that of reality. He has a bi-ocular vision of reality and not a binocular one because his vision lacks integration, as would necessarily be the case if the two visions could be compared with each other. The principle of non-contradiction ceases to apply in delusion. A corollary of the failure of the principle of non-contradiction is that, if a statement and its negation are both true, then any statement is true. Logicians call this consequence the principle of explosion. For this reason, the distinction between truth, reality, improbability, probability, possibility and impossibility is lost in the delusional system, thus triggering an omnipotent, explosive mechanism with a potentially infinite progression. The paper presents some thoughts for a possible analytic transformation of the delusional experience.

  16. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds. (United States)

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders


    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  17. Theories and Algorithms of Computational Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Songde; Tan Tieniu; Hu Zhanyi; Jiang Tianzi; Lu Hanqing


    @@ Inspired by the recent progresses in the related fields such as cognitive psychology, neural physiology and neural anatomy, the project aims to put forward new computational theories and algorithms which could overcome the main shortcomings in the Marr's computational theory, a dominant paradigm for the last 20 years in computer vision field.

  18. Clearing Up Blurry Vision: Causes of Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carrie Lock; 秦艳艳


    @@ Next time you can't make out a distant highway sign, blame your parents.Scientists in the United Kingdom have found that myopia, or nearsightedness, is predominantly hereditary②, and they' re beginning to unravel③ the genetic④mechanism that causes the vision problem.

  19. What is stereoscopic vision good for? (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.


    Stereo vision is a resource-intensive process. Nevertheless, it has evolved in many animals including mammals, birds, amphibians and insects. It must therefore convey significant fitness benefits. It is often assumed that the main benefit is improved accuracy of depth judgments, but camouflage breaking may be as important, particularly in predatory animals. In humans, for the last 150 years, stereo vision has been turned to a new use: helping us reproduce visual reality for artistic purposes. By recreating the different views of a scene seen by the two eyes, stereo achieves unprecedented levels of realism. However, it also has some unexpected effects on viewer experience. The disruption of established mechanisms for interpreting pictures may be one reason why some viewers find stereoscopic content disturbing. Stereo vision also has uses in ophthalmology. Clinical stereoacuity tests are used in the management of conditions such as strabismus and amblyopia as well as vision screening. Stereoacuity can reveal the effectiveness of therapy and even predict long-term outcomes post surgery. Yet current clinical stereo tests fall far short of the accuracy and precision achievable in the lab. At Newcastle University, we are exploiting the recent availability of autostereo 3D tablet computers to design a clinical stereotest app in the form of a game suitable for young children. Our goal is to enable quick, accurate and precise stereoacuity measures which will enable clinicians to obtain better outcomes for children with visual disorders.

  20. An Ethics of Vision for Journalism. (United States)

    Birkhead, Douglas


    Argues that morality is a form of reality construction requiring a socially negotiated sensibility. Notes that this view is harmonious with the essential interpretive task of journalism. Stresses the importance of moral imagination as an aspect of moral reasoning, and claims that ethical action depends on an ethics of vision, a "seeing" before…

  1. Vision Based Geo Navigation Information Retreival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan


    Full Text Available In order to derive the three-dimensional camera position from the monocular camera vision, a geo-reference database is needed. Floor plan is a ubiquitous geo-reference database that every building refers to it during construction and facility maintenance. Comparing with other popular geo-reference database such as geo-tagged photos, the generation, update and maintenance of floor plan database does not require costly and time consuming survey tasks. In vision based methods, the camera needs special attention. In contrast to other sensors, vision sensors typically yield vast information that needs complex strategies to permit use in real-time and on computationally con-strained platforms. This research work show that map-based visual odometer strategy derived from a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion framework is particularly suitable for locally stable, pose controlled flight. Issues concerning drifts and robustness are analyzed and discussed with respect to the original framework. Additionally, various usage of localization algorithm in view of vision has been proposed here. Though, a noteworthy downside with vision-based algorithms is the absence of robustness. The greater parts of the methodologies are delicate to scene varieties (like season or environment changes because of the way that they utilize the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD. To stop that, we utilize the Mutual Information which is exceptionally vigorous toward global and local scene varieties. On the other hand, dense methodologies are frequently identified with drift drawbacks. Here, attempt to take care of this issue by utilizing geo-referenced pictures. The algorithm of localization has been executed and experimental results are available. Vision sensors possess the potential to extract information about the surrounding environment and determine the locations of features or points of interest. Having mapped out landmarks in an unknown environment, subsequent observations

  2. A Design Methodology For Industrial Vision Systems (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Waltz, F. M.; Snyder, M. A.


    The cost of design, rather than that of target system hardware, represents the principal factor inhibiting the adoption of machine vision systems by manufacturing industry. To reduce design costs to a minimum, a number of software and hardware aids have been developed or are currently being built by the authors. These design aids are as follows: a. An expert system for giving advice about which image acquisition techniques (i.e. lighting/viewing techniques) might be appropriate in a given situation. b. A program to assist in the selection and setup of camera lenses. c. A rich repertoire of image processing procedures, integrated with the Al language Prolog. This combination (called ProVision) provides a facility for experimenting with intelligent image processing techniques and is intended to allow rapid prototyping of algorithms and/or heuristics. d. Fast image processing hardware, capable of implementing commands in the ProVision language. The speed of operation of this equipment is sufficiently high for it to be used, without modification, in many industrial applications. Where this is not possible, even higher execution speed may be achieved by adding extra modules to the processing hardware. In this way, it is possible to trade speed against the cost of the target system hardware. New and faster implementations of a given algorithm/heuristic can usually be achieved with the expenditure of only a small effort. Throughout this article, the emphasis is on designing an industrial vision system in a smooth and effortless manner. In order to illustrate our main thesis that the design of industrial vision systems can be made very much easier through the use of suitable utilities, the article concludes with a discussion of a case study: the dissection of tiny plants using a visually controlled robot.

  3. 3D computer vision using Point Grey Research stereo vision cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don Murray; Vlad Tucakov; WEI Xiong


    This paper provides an introduction to stereo vision systems designed by point grey research and describes the possible application of these types of systems. The paper presents an overview of stereo vision techniques and outlines the critical aspects of putting together a system that can perform in the real world. It also provides an overview of how the cameras can be used to facilitate stereo research.

  4. Resource Letter CCV-1: Color and Color Vision. (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H., Ed.; Pease, Paul L.


    Listed are selected resource materials on color vision and the measurement and specification of the stimulus for vision, photometry, and colorimetry. The author's purpose is to equip teachers and students with an understanding of normal and abnormal color vision. References are categorized relative to content level. (Author/DS)

  5. 21 CFR 886.1170 - Color vision tester. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision tester. 886.1170 Section 886.1170...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1170 Color vision tester. (a) Identification. A color vision tester is a device that consists of various colored materials, such as colored...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  7. Charting the Verbiage of Institutional Vision: Implications for Academic Advising (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Dalessandro, Amy; Janstova, Patricie; Snyder-Suhy, Sharon; Pettey, Gary


    Whether and to what extent a college or university vision is embraced, transformed into action, and dispersed to the campus community by academic advisors is largely dependent on the rhetoric of the vision statement. Through a content analysis of a nation-wide sample of vision and mission statements from NACADA-membership institutions, we isolated…

  8. 78 FR 24798 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... examination in 2012, his ophthalmologist noted, ``Mr. Kimble has poor vision in the left eye caused by a... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision... exemption from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations. They are unable...

  9. Research into the Architecture of CAD Based Robot Vision Systems (United States)


    Vision 󈨚 and "Automatic Generation of Recognition Features for Com- puter Vision," Mudge, Turney and Volz, published in Robotica (1987). All of the...Occluded Parts," (T.N. Mudge, J.L. Turney, and R.A. Volz), Robotica , vol. 5, 1987, pp. 117-127. 5. "Vision Algorithms for Hypercube Machines," (T.N. Mudge

  10. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  11. 76 FR 8809 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ...-2008-0231; FMCSA-2008-0340; FMCSA-2008-0266] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  12. 77 FR 545 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ...; FMCSA-2007-0017] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier.... SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal... from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety. The Agency...

  13. Family Functioning and Low Vision: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.


    This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…

  14. 75 FR 1453 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ...-2007-27897; FMCSA- 2007-28695; FMCSA-2007-29019] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision.... SUMMARY: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in... exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety....

  15. 75 FR 22179 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY...: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the... individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety. The Agency...

  16. Vision Effects: A Critical Gap in Educational Leadership Research (United States)

    Kantabutra, Sooksan


    Purpose: Although leaders are widely believed to employ visions, little is known about what constitutes an "effective" vision, particularly in the higher education sector. This paper seeks to proposes a research model for examining relationships between vision components and performance of higher education institutions, as measured by financial…

  17. 75 FR 39618 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ...-24015; FMCSA-2007-0071; FMCSA-2008-0021] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY...: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the... individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety. The Agency...

  18. 75 FR 38603 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ...; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 21 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will...

  19. 75 FR 22178 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY...: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision requirement in the... individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not compromise safety. The Agency...

  20. 75 FR 27620 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ... Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA previously announced its decision to renew the exemptions from the vision... to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the exemptions granted will not...

  1. 75 FR 19676 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision (United States)


    ... of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... the exemptions from the vision requirement in the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations for 15 individuals. FMCSA has statutory authority to exempt individuals from the vision requirement if the...

  2. Vision, Leadership, and Change: The Case of Ramah Summer Camps (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph


    In his retrospective essay, Seymour Fox (1997) identified "vision" as the essential element that shaped the Ramah camp system. I will take a critical look at Fox's main claims: (1) A particular model of vision was essential to the development of Camp Ramah; and (2) That model of vision should guide contemporary Jewish educators in creating Jewish…

  3. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5540 - Low-vision magnifier. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision magnifier. 886.5540 Section 886.5540...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5540 Low-vision magnifier. (a) Identification. A low-vision magnifier is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  5. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be...

  6. 75 FR 10993 - Save Your Vision Week, 2010 (United States)


    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-5292 Filed 3-9-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8483 of March 5, 2010 Save Your Vision Week, 2010 By the President of the... are affected by low vision or blindness. Maintaining good vision requires early diagnosis and...

  7. Tagore's Vision of International Education: Relevance and Implications for Today (United States)

    Samuel, Francis A.


    In this information age, the world is fast becoming a global village. In this context, it is relevant to look at the educational vision of Rabindranath Tagore. He tried to realize his educational vision in his schools and Visva-Bharati University where the world makes its home in a single nest. Tagore's vision of international education can help…

  8. 21 CFR 886.1160 - Color vision plate illuminator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Color vision plate illuminator. 886.1160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1160 Color vision plate illuminator. (a) Identification. A color vision plate illuminator is an AC-powered device that is a lamp...

  9. Research on robot navigation vision sensor based on grating projection stereo vision (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Luo, Yinsheng; Lin, Yuchi; Zhu, Lei


    A novel visual navigation method based on grating projection stereo vision for mobile robot in dark environment is proposed. This method is combining with grating projection profilometry of plane structured light and stereo vision technology. It can be employed to realize obstacle detection, SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and vision odometry for mobile robot navigation in dark environment without the image match in stereo vision technology and without phase unwrapping in the grating projection profilometry. First, we research the new vision sensor theoretical, and build geometric and mathematical model of the grating projection stereo vision system. Second, the computational method of 3D coordinates of space obstacle in the robot's visual field is studied, and then the obstacles in the field is located accurately. The result of simulation experiment and analysis shows that this research is useful to break the current autonomous navigation problem of mobile robot in dark environment, and to provide the theoretical basis and exploration direction for further study on navigation of space exploring robot in the dark and without GPS environment.

  10. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.


    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  11. Neural Networks for Computer Vision: A Framework for Specifications of a General Purpose Vision System (United States)

    Skrzypek, Josef; Mesrobian, Edmond; Gungner, David J.


    The development of autonomous land vehicles (ALV) capable of operating in an unconstrained environment has proven to be a formidable research effort. The unpredictability of events in such an environment calls for the design of a robust perceptual system, an impossible task requiring the programming of a system bases on the expectation of future, unconstrained events. Hence, the need for a "general purpose" machine vision system that is capable of perceiving and understanding images in an unconstrained environment in real-time. The research undertaken at the UCLA Machine Perception Laboratory addresses this need by focusing on two specific issues: 1) the long term goals for machine vision research as a joint effort between the neurosciences and computer science; and 2) a framework for evaluating progress in machine vision. In the past, vision research has been carried out independently within different fields including neurosciences, psychology, computer science, and electrical engineering. Our interdisciplinary approach to vision research is based on the rigorous combination of computational neuroscience, as derived from neurophysiology and neuropsychology, with computer science and electrical engineering. The primary motivation behind our approach is that the human visual system is the only existing example of a "general purpose" vision system and using a neurally based computing substrate, it can complete all necessary visual tasks in real-time.

  12. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision (United States)

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing


    Background Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). Objectives To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ( and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Data collection and analysis Two

  13. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems (United States)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  14. The secret world of shrimps: polarisation vision at its best

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinlogel, Sonja


    Animal vision spans a great range of complexity, with systems evolving to detect variations in optical intensity, distribution, colour, and polarisation. Polarisation vision systems studied to date detect one to four channels of linear polarisation, combining them in opponent pairs to provide intensity-independent operation. Circular polarisation vision has never been seen, and is widely believed to play no part in animal vision. Polarisation is fully measured via Stokes' parameters--obtained by combined linear and circular polarisation measurements. Optimal polarisation vision is the ability to see Stokes' parameters: here we show that the crustacean \\emph{Gonodactylus smithii} measures the exact components required. This vision provides optimal contrast-enhancement, and precise determination of polarisation with no confusion-states or neutral-points--significant advantages. We emphasise that linear and circular polarisation vision are not different modalities--both are necessary for optimal polarisation vis...

  15. Understanding vision in wholly empirical terms. (United States)

    Purves, Dale; Wojtach, William T; Lotto, R Beau


    This article considers visual perception, the nature of the information on which perceptions seem to be based, and the implications of a wholly empirical concept of perception and sensory processing for vision science. Evidence from studies of lightness, brightness, color, form, and motion all indicate that, because the visual system cannot access the physical world by means of retinal light patterns as such, what we see cannot and does not represent the actual properties of objects or images. The phenomenology of visual perceptions can be explained, however, in terms of empirical associations that link images whose meanings are inherently undetermined to their behavioral significance. Vision in these terms requires fundamentally different concepts of what we see, why, and how the visual system operates.

  16. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Byrd


    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  17. Rethinking Robot Vision - Combining Shape and Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Schlemmer


    Full Text Available Equipping autonomous robots with vision sensors provides a multitude of advantages by simultaneously bringing up difficulties with regard to different illumination conditions. Furthermore, especially with service robots, the objects to be handled must somehow be learned for a later manipulation. In this paper we summarise work on combining two different vision sensors, namely a laser range scanner and a monocular colour camera, for shape-capturing, detecting and tracking of objects in cluttered scenes without the need of intermediate user interaction. The use of different sensor types provides the advantage of separating the shape and the appearance of the object and therefore overcome the problem with changing illumination conditions. We describe the framework and its components of visual shape-capturing, fast 3D object detection and robust tracking as well as examples that show the feasibility of this approach.

  18. Outdoor Lighting: Physics, Vision and Perception

    CERN Document Server

    Schreuder, Duco


    This book covers theoretical aspects that are at the basis of lighting installations. It focuses on insight, backgrounds and coherence. There are many fundamental aspects that are essential for understanding why different ways to install and use lighting give different results. A purely pragmatic approach to solving practical lighting problems will lead to pitfalls. But as this book shows, on the basis of fundamental considerations on optics, light sources and vision, causes and effects that tend to be overlooked by lighting engineers and designers can be identified. The selection of subjects in this book is based on more than 50 years of experience in studying the fundamental and practical applications of lighting and vision. The author has given classes on these topics, in master courses at post-graduate and post-doctoral levels. Audience: graduate students, researchers, designers, engineers and consultants engaged in lighting, public lighting, lighting equipment and installations.

  19. Statistical assessment of night vision goggle noise (United States)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.


    New advancements in charged-coupled device (CCD) technology allow for further investigation into the spatial nature of night vision goggle (NVG) noise distributions. This is significant because it is common practice in new NVG technology to combine image intensifiers with CCDs for night vision imaging. In this study, images of NVG noise are recorded by a CCD camera while varying input radiance and using multiple goggle types. Noise distributions characterized using histograms of these images are analyzed and fitted with curves. Using the changes in the distribution and relating distribution changes (coefficient changes) to input radiance and goggle performance provides a very accurate noise characterization. This study finds that a Weibull distribution seems more appropriate than a Poisson distribution, producing higher correlation coefficient fits. In addition, the paper suggests possible ways the noise models developed here can impact advancements in NVG image enhancement using this new technology.

  20. Low vision rehabilitation services: the Saskatchewan experience. (United States)

    Gilmour, George R


    From a suitcase carrying various magnifiers in 1955, the Saskatchewan Low Vision Clinic has enlarged -- and the affiliated Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) has slimmed down through provincial amalgamation and budgetary cutbacks. Now, aids range from magnifiers to closed-circuit televisions, new technologies can be obtained on loan from the CNIB, and some financial assistance is available. Because Saskatchewan is still comparatively rural, with 60% of the population distributed throughout the province outside the two major urban areas, access to low vision services can be a problem. Increasing use of specialized counsellors, however, is helping deal with specific needs, and we hope to add psychologists, occupational therapists, and social workers as money is available.

  1. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (United States)

    Antisdel, Jastin


    A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud's Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  2. 2020 Vision Project Summary, FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Munoz; J. C. Clausen; K. P. Scott; K. W. Gordon


    The 2020 Vision project began in 1996 with two participating teachers and four classes. It has since grown to comprise more than a dozen participating teachers and hundreds of students across the country. Much of this growth took place in FY98, thanks to the accomplishment of several major goals: implementation of a mentor program, enhanced teacher training, a mid-year conference for students, recruitment of distant schools, and the development of an interactive Web site. The first part of this report describes these accomplishments, as well as future directions for 2020 Vision. The second part summarized the scenarios students wrote during the 1997-98 school year. it identifies recurrent themes in the students' scenarios and compares/contrasts them with scenarios written in the first two years of the project.

  3. Bioinspired minimal machine multiaperture apposition vision system. (United States)

    Davis, John D; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael


    Traditional machine vision systems have an inherent data bottleneck that arises because data collected in parallel must be serialized for transfer from the sensor to the processor. Furthermore, much of this data is not useful for information extraction. This project takes inspiration from the visual system of the house fly, Musca domestica, to reduce this bottleneck by employing early (up front) analog preprocessing to limit the data transfer. This is a first step toward an all analog, parallel vision system. While the current implementation has serial stages, nothing would prevent it from being fully parallel. A one-dimensional photo sensor array with analog pre-processing is used as the sole sensory input to a mobile robot. The robot's task is to chase a target car while avoiding obstacles in a constrained environment. Key advantages of this approach include passivity and the potential for very high effective "frame rates."

  4. AI And Early Vision - Part II (United States)

    Julesz, Bela


    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  5. Home 2040 - A Vision for Vartiosaari


    Rinne, Niina


    The purpose of this thesis project is to design vision of a new sustainable residential area in Vartiosaari based on future megatrends and their effects on housing development. Vartiosaari is a 82-hectare island in eastern Helsinki. It is located in the midst of developed areas south of Tammisalo and between Laajasalo and Vuosaari. Vartiosaari lies on a 7-kilometre radius from the Helsinki city centre. The latest urban plan draft, made by the Helsinki City Planning department, permits con...

  6. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision. (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M


    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  7. Report on Computer Programs for Robotic Vision (United States)

    Cunningham, R. T.; Kan, E. P.


    Collection of programs supports robotic research. Report describes computer-vision software library NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Programs evolved during past 10 years of research into robotics. Collection includes low- and high-level image-processing software proved in applications ranging from factory automation to spacecraft tracking and grappling. Programs fall into several overlapping categories. Image utilities category are low-level routines that provide computer access to image data and some simple graphical capabilities for displaying results of image processing.

  8. Design Through Analysis (DTA) roadmap vision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacker, Teddy Dean; Adams, Charles R.; Hoffman, Edward L.; White, David Roger; Sjaardema, Gregory D.


    The Design through Analysis Realization Team (DART) will provide analysts with a complete toolset that reduces the time to create, generate, analyze, and manage the data generated in a computational analysis. The toolset will be both easy to learn and easy to use. The DART Roadmap Vision provides for progressive improvements that will reduce the Design through Analysis (DTA) cycle time by 90-percent over a three-year period while improving both the quality and accountability of the analyses.

  9. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision



    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is meas...



    O. Sergiyenko


    The new model of the scanning vision system for vehicles is offered. The questions of creation, functioning and interaction of the system units and elements are considered. The mathematical apparatus for processing digital information inside the system and for determining distances and an-gle standard in the offered system is worked out. Expected accuracy, functioning speed, range of ac-tion, energy consumption when using the system are determined. The possible areas of the developed automa...

  11. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  12. Vision based behaviors for a legged robot


    Ruiz, Juan V.; Montero, Pablo; Martín Rico, Francisco; Matellán Olivera, Vicente


    This article describes two vision-based behaviors designed for an autonomous legged robot. These behaviors have been designed in a modular way in order to be able to integrate them in an architecture named DSH (Dynamic Schema Hierarchies), which is also briefly described. These behaviors have been tested in office indoor environments and experiments carried out are also described in this paper. The platform used in these experiments carried out are also described in theis paper. The platform ...

  13. Vision Trainer Teaches Focusing Techniques at Home (United States)


    Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects

  14. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays (United States)


    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  15. Schopenhauer on vision and the colors. (United States)

    Crone, R A


    Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) published his book, On Vision and the Colors in 1816. He started from Aristotle's linear color system and Goethe's three pairs of contrast colors. His work preceded Hering's theory of opponent colors but his path to insight was blocked by his anti-Newtonianism and his neo-Hellenistic attitude toward science. Because of his theory of the subjectivity of colors he was a forerunner of the psycho-physiological variant of neo-Kantianism.

  16. Monocular Vision: Occupational Limitations and Current Standards (United States)


    Kumagai, J. K., Williams, S., and Kline, D. (2005), Vision standards for aircrew: Visual acuity for pilots, (DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2005-142), Greenley ...Canadian Forces aircrew, (DRDC-TORONTO-CR-2006-255), Greenley and Associate Inc., Ottawa. Lövsund, P., Hedin, A., and Törnros, J. (1991), Effects...Williams, S., Casson, E., Brooks, J., Greenley , M., and Nadeau, J. (2003), Visual acuity standard for divers, Greenley & Associates Incorporated

  17. Zoom Vision System For Robotic Welding (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Hudyma, Russell M.


    Rugged zoom lens subsystem proposed for use in along-the-torch vision system of robotic welder. Enables system to adapt, via simple mechanical adjustments, to gas cups of different lengths, electrodes of different protrusions, and/or different distances between end of electrode and workpiece. Unnecessary to change optical components to accommodate changes in geometry. Easy to calibrate with respect to object in view. Provides variable focus and variable magnification.

  18. Prototype Optical Correlator For Robotic Vision System (United States)

    Scholl, Marija S.


    Known and unknown images fed in electronically at high speed. Optical correlator and associated electronic circuitry developed for vision system of robotic vehicle. System recognizes features of landscape by optical correlation between input image of scene viewed by video camera on robot and stored reference image. Optical configuration is Vander Lugt correlator, in which Fourier transform of scene formed in coherent light and spatially modulated by hologram of reference image to obtain correlation.

  19. Outdoor autonomous navigation using monocular vision


    Royer, Eric; Bom, Jonathan; Dhome, Michel; Thuilot, Benoît; Lhuillier, Maxime; Marmoiton, Francois


    International audience; In this paper, a complete system for outdoor robot navigation is presented. It uses only monocular vision. The robot is first guided on a path by a human. During this learning step, the robot records a video sequence. From this sequence, a three dimensional map of the trajectory and the environment is built. When this map has been computed, the robot is able to follow the same trajectory by itself. Experimental results carried out with an urban electric vehicle are sho...

  20. Stereoscopic Vision System For Robotic Vehicle (United States)

    Matthies, Larry H.; Anderson, Charles H.


    Distances estimated from images by cross-correlation. Two-camera stereoscopic vision system with onboard processing of image data developed for use in guiding robotic vehicle semiautonomously. Combination of semiautonomous guidance and teleoperation useful in remote and/or hazardous operations, including clean-up of toxic wastes, exploration of dangerous terrain on Earth and other planets, and delivery of materials in factories where unexpected hazards or obstacles can arise.

  1. Color and polarization vision in foraging Papilio. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro


    This paper gives an overview of behavioral studies on the color and polarization vision of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We focus on indoor experiments on foraging individuals. Butterflies trained to visit a disk of certain color correctly select that color among various other colors and/or shades of gray. Correct selection persists under colored illumination, but is systematically shifted by background colors, indicating color constancy and simultaneous color contrast. While their eyes contain six classes of spectral receptors, their wavelength discrimination performance indicates that their color vision is tetrachromatic. P. xuthus innately prefers brighter targets, but can be trained to select dimmer ones under certain conditions. Butterflies trained to a dark red stimulus select an orange disk presented on a bright gray background over one on dark gray. The former probably appears darker to them, indicating brightness contrast. P. xuthus has a strong innate preference for vertically polarized light, but the selection of polarized light changes depending on the intensity of simultaneously presented unpolarized light. Discrimination of polarization also depends on background intensity. Similarities between brightness and polarization vision suggest that P. xuthus perceive polarization angle as brightness, such that vertical polarization appears brighter than horizontal polarization.

  2. Wavelet applied to computer vision in astrophysics (United States)

    Bijaoui, Albert; Slezak, Eric; Traina, Myriam


    Multiscale analyses can be provided by application wavelet transforms. For image processing purposes, we applied algorithms which imply a quasi isotropic vision. For a uniform noisy image, a wavelet coefficient W has a probability density function (PDF) p(W) which depends on the noise statistic. The PDF was determined for many statistical noises: Gauss, Poission, Rayleigh, exponential. For CCD observations, the Anscombe transform was generalized to a mixed Gasus+Poisson noise. From the discrete wavelet transform a set of significant wavelet coefficients (SSWC)is obtained. Many applications have been derived like denoising and deconvolution. Our main application is the decomposition of the image into objects, i.e the vision. At each scale an image labelling is performed in the SSWC. An interscale graph linking the fields of significant pixels is then obtained. The objects are identified using this graph. The wavelet coefficients of the tree related to a given object allow one to reconstruct its image by a classical inverse method. This vision model has been applied to astronomical images, improving the analysis of complex structures.

  3. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng


    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  4. Beam damage detection using computer vision technology (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Xu, Xiangjun; Wang, Jialai; Li, Gong


    In this paper, a new approach for efficient damage detection in engineering structures is introduced. The key concept is to use the mature computer vision technology to capture the static deformation profile of a structure, and then employ profile analysis methods to detect the locations of the damages. By combining with wireless communication techniques, the proposed approach can provide an effective and economical solution for remote monitoring of structure health. Moreover, a preliminary experiment is conducted to verify the proposed concept. A commercial computer vision camera is used to capture the static deformation profiles of cracked cantilever beams under loading. The profiles are then processed to reveal the existence and location of the irregularities on the deformation profiles by applying fractal dimension, wavelet transform and roughness methods, respectively. The proposed concept is validated on both one-crack and two-crack cantilever beam-type specimens. It is also shown that all three methods can produce satisfactory results based on the profiles provided by the vision camera. In addition, the profile quality is the determining factor for the noise level in resultant detection signal.

  5. Computer vision cracks the leaf code. (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Zhang, Shengping; Chikkerur, Sharat; Little, Stefan A; Wing, Scott L; Serre, Thomas


    Understanding the extremely variable, complex shape and venation characters of angiosperm leaves is one of the most challenging problems in botany. Machine learning offers opportunities to analyze large numbers of specimens, to discover novel leaf features of angiosperm clades that may have phylogenetic significance, and to use those characters to classify unknowns. Previous computer vision approaches have primarily focused on leaf identification at the species level. It remains an open question whether learning and classification are possible among major evolutionary groups such as families and orders, which usually contain hundreds to thousands of species each and exhibit many times the foliar variation of individual species. Here, we tested whether a computer vision algorithm could use a database of 7,597 leaf images from 2,001 genera to learn features of botanical families and orders, then classify novel images. The images are of cleared leaves, specimens that are chemically bleached, then stained to reveal venation. Machine learning was used to learn a codebook of visual elements representing leaf shape and venation patterns. The resulting automated system learned to classify images into families and orders with a success rate many times greater than chance. Of direct botanical interest, the responses of diagnostic features can be visualized on leaf images as heat maps, which are likely to prompt recognition and evolutionary interpretation of a wealth of novel morphological characters. With assistance from computer vision, leaves are poised to make numerous new contributions to systematic and paleobotanical studies.

  6. Optical correlator techniques applied to robotic vision (United States)

    Hine, Butler P., III; Reid, Max B.; Downie, John D.


    Vision processing is one of the most computationally intensive tasks required of an autonomous robot. The data flow from a single typical imaging sensor is roughly 60 Mbits/sec, which can easily overload current on-board processors. Optical correlator-based processing can be used to perform many of the functions required of a general robotic vision system, such as object recognition, tracking, and orientation determination, and can perform these functions fast enough to keep pace with the incoming sensor data. We describe a hybrid digital electronic/analog optical robotic vision processing system developed at Ames Research Center to test concepts and algorithms for autonomous construction, inspection, and maintenance of space-based habitats. We discuss the system architecture design and implementation, its performance characteristics, and our future plans. In particular, we compare the performance of the system to a more conventional all digital electronic system developed concurrently. The hybrid system consistently outperforms the digital electronic one in both speed and robustness.

  7. Potato operation: computer vision for agricultural robotics (United States)

    Pun, Thierry; Lefebvre, Marc; Gil, Sylvia; Brunet, Denis; Dessimoz, Jean-Daniel; Guegerli, Paul


    Each year at harvest time millions of seed potatoes are checked for the presence of viruses by means of an Elisa test. The Potato Operation aims at automatizing the potato manipulation and pulp sampling procedure, starting from bunches of harvested potatoes and ending with the deposit of potato pulp into Elisa containers. Automatizing these manipulations addresses several issues, linking robotic and computer vision. The paper reports on the current status of this project. It first summarizes the robotic aspects, which consist of locating a potato in a bunch, grasping it, positioning it into the camera field of view, pumping the pulp sample and depositing it into a container. The computer vision aspects are then detailed. They concern locating particular potatoes in a bunch and finding the position of the best germ where the drill has to sample the pulp. The emphasis is put on the germ location problem. A general overview of the approach is given, which combines the processing of both frontal and silhouette views of the potato, together with movements of the robot arm (active vision). Frontal and silhouette analysis algorithms are then presented. Results are shown that confirm the feasibility of the approach.

  8. Progress in building a cognitive vision system (United States)

    Benjamin, D. Paul; Lyons, Damian; Yue, Hong


    We are building a cognitive vision system for mobile robots that works in a manner similar to the human vision system, using saccadic, vergence and pursuit movements to extract information from visual input. At each fixation, the system builds a 3D model of a small region, combining information about distance, shape, texture and motion to create a local dynamic spatial model. These local 3D models are composed to create an overall 3D model of the robot and its environment. This approach turns the computer vision problem into a search problem whose goal is the acquisition of sufficient spatial understanding for the robot to succeed at its tasks. The research hypothesis of this work is that the movements of the robot's cameras are only those that are necessary to build a sufficiently accurate world model for the robot's current goals. For example, if the goal is to navigate through a room, the model needs to contain any obstacles that would be encountered, giving their approximate positions and sizes. Other information does not need to be rendered into the virtual world, so this approach trades model accuracy for speed.

  9. Mouse Model Resources for Vision Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyeon Won


    Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.

  10. When vision influences the invisible distractor: tactile response compatibility effects require vision. (United States)

    Wesslein, Ann-Katrin; Spence, Charles; Frings, Christian


    Research on the nature of crossmodal interactions between vision and touch has shown that even task-irrelevant visual information can support the processing of tactile targets. In the present study, we implemented a tactile variant of the Eriksen flanker task to investigate the influences of vision on the processing of tactile distractors. In particular, we analyzed whether the size of the flanker effect at the level of perceptual congruency and at the level of response compatibility would differ as a function of the availability of vision (Experiments 1 and 2). Tactile distractors were processed up to the level of response selection only if visual information was provided (i.e., no flanker effects were observed at the level of response compatibility for blindfolded participants). In Experiment 3, we manipulated whether the part of the body receiving the tactile target or distractor was visible, while the other body part was occluded from view. Flanker effects at the level of response compatibility were observed in both conditions, meaning that vision of either the body part receiving the tactile target or the body part receiving the tactile distractor was sufficient to further the processing of tactile distractors from the level of perceptual congruency to the level of response selection. Taken together, these results suggest that vision modulates tactile distractor processing because it results in the processing of tactile distractors up to the level of response selection.

  11. Gait disorder rehabilitation using vision and non-vision based sensors: a systematic review. (United States)

    Ali, Asraf; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Badlishah; Ahamed, Nizam; Islam, Anamul


    Even though the amount of rehabilitation guidelines has never been greater, uncertainty continues to arise regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of the rehabilitation of gait disorders. This question has been hindered by the lack of information on accurate measurements of gait disorders. Thus, this article reviews the rehabilitation systems for gait disorder using vision and non-vision sensor technologies, as well as the combination of these. All papers published in the English language between 1990 and June, 2012 that had the phrases "gait disorder", "rehabilitation", "vision sensor", or "non vision sensor" in the title, abstract, or keywords were identified from the SpringerLink, ELSEVIER, PubMed, and IEEE databases. Some synonyms of these phrases and the logical words "and", "or", and "not" were also used in the article searching procedure. Out of the 91 published articles found, this review identified 84 articles that described the rehabilitation of gait disorders using different types of sensor technologies. This literature set presented strong evidence for the development of rehabilitation systems using a markerless vision-based sensor technology. We therefore believe that the information contained in this review paper will assist the progress of the development of rehabilitation systems for human gait disorders.

  12. Binocular Vision Problems in Refractive Surgery Patients: Vision Therapy Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Day, OD


    Full Text Available Background: Some post-LASIK patients complain of blurry distance vision months after refractive surgery, despite good corneal healing and negligible refractive error. We postulated that perceiving blur in the absence of refractive error or significant monocular aberrations might result from poor binocular control. Binocular vision testing in a series of such patients revealed convergence problems in 83% of cases. Case Reports: We report on 8 patients (average age 37.4 yrs who completed up to 40 sessions of vision therapy (VT, either completely via computer or in a combination of computer orthoptics and office vision therapy. Seven patients had received LASIK; one had PRK. Optometric measurements and symptoms were recorded before and after VT treatment, starting at least 3 months after refractive surgery. Near point of convergence improved in 7 cases following VT, and convergence break and/or recovery improved in 6 cases. Six cases reported symptom reduction, and pre-presbyopic cases tended to improve accommodative facility. The number of binocular functions showing improvement per case correlated with the number of VT sessions completed. Convergence changes were statistically significant when pre-/post-VT data were compared for these cases as a group. Conclusion: Patients complaining of distance blur following refractive surgery may have undiagnosed binocular vision problems. VT incorporating an internet orthoptics component improved convergence ability in the cases reported here, and most patients reported symptomatic relief.

  13. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management. (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon


    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  14. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsun Kim


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  15. From Vision to Actuality: Translating the Organizing Vision of Mobile Technology in Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    Empirical evidence from a case study of the diffusion and adoption of mobile technology in a highly structured home care setting in Denmark shows how an organizational field vision of an efficient mobile technology was created and became transformed through diverse translation mechanisms...... the organizing vision for mobile technology in practice. Our findings show that an integration of the translation perspective not only furthers our understanding of the malleability of the organizing vision but also shows how actions at multiple levels interact to enable technology adoption and eventually...... institutionalization. Our study contributes to the increasing research on diffusion and adoption of mobile technologies within healthcare by challenging dominant single level analysis and factor-orientated approaches....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul


    Full Text Available Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects. Method: Total number of thirty subjects participated in the study. The duration of study was four weeks with five sittings in a week and with duration of sixty minutes in each training session. Data was collected using Berg balance scale and the get up and go test, statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and paired T-test. Result: The mean value of timed get up and go test in group A was 16.93 with a standard deviation of ±3.86. The t-value of the study was 2.63 with P-value of 0.007.The study found significant difference in effect as the calculated P < 0.05. The results showed that the conventional therapy along with masked vision could bring about significant changes in balance, mobility and function of patients suffering from balance impairment among post stroke. The data analysis found the significant difference between the visions deprived balance training to that of free vision balance training. Conclusion: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on balance and get up and go test. Balance performance and movement was found better in subjects with deprived vision than those with free vision.

  17. Keratoprotection treatment after excimerlaser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Korotkikh


    Full Text Available Observational study of patients after excimerlaser vision correction by LASEK method.Purpose: to estimate efficacy HILOZAR-COMOD® solution in patients after excimerlaser vision correction.Patients and methods: We examined 80 eyes (40 patients after excimer laser correction by LASIK method. All patients were divided in 2 groups. The patients from the first group were treated with by standard drug’s scheme, included deprotein izing the dialysate from the blood of healthy dairy calves (Solkoseryl® eye gel. HILOZAR-COMOD ® was prescribed as cornea protector in the 2 group of patients.Results: In the first group complete cornea epitalization by biomicroscopy in 70 % eyes after 48 hours of excimerlaser vision correction was found. Minimal unepitalization areas were diagnosed in 30 % (12 eyes. In the second group complete cornea epitalization was found in 82,5 % eyes (33 eyes in the same term after excimerlaser correction. Cornea epitelium defects in optical area were diagnosed in the17,5 % eyes. The difference between number of patients with cornea epitelium defects first and second groups was 12,5 %. 97,5 % patients (39 eyes of second group (HILOZAR-COMOD ® had complete cornea epitelization after 72 hours of excimer laser correction. In the same term unepitelization areas were found in 3 eyes (7,5 % in patients of first group. It was to 5 % more than in the first group, where dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid was used (complete cornea epitalization in first group was found in 37 eyes.Conclusions: The combined medicine included dexpantenol and hyaluronic acid decreases intensity of the dry eye symptoms, stimulate quick and full cornea healing and decrease the risk of postoperative complications risk.

  18. Early Cognitive Vision as a Frontend for Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre;

    We discuss the need of an elaborated in-between stage bridging early vision and cognitive vision which we call `Early Cognitive Vision' (ECV). This stage provides semantically rich, disambiguated and largely task independent scene representations which can be used in many contexts. In addition......, the ECV stage is important for generalization processes across objects and actions.We exemplify this at a concrete realisation of an ECV system that has already been used in variety of application domains....

  19. Vision for Autonomous Vehicles and Probes (Dagstuhl Seminar 15461)


    Bruhn, André; Imiya, Atsushi; Leonardis, Ales; Pajdla, Tomas


    The vision-based autonomous driving and navigation of vehicles has a long history. In 2013, Daimler succeeded autonomous driving on a public drive way. Today, the Curiosity mars rover is sending video views from Mars to Earth. Computer vision plays a key role in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) as well as in exploratory and service robotics. Continuing topics of interest in computer vision are scene and environmental understanding using single- and multiple-camera systems, which are ...

  20. 3D Vision in a Virtual Reality Robotics Environment


    Schütz, Christian L.; Natonek, Emerico; Baur, Charles; Hügli, Heinz


    Virtual reality robotics (VRR) needs sensing feedback from the real environment. To show how advanced 3D vision provides new perspectives to fulfill these needs, this paper presents an architecture and system that integrates hybrid 3D vision and VRR and reports about experiments and results. The first section discusses the advantages of virtual reality in robotics, the potential of a 3D vision system in VRR and the contribution of a knowledge database, robust control and the combination of in...

  1. Algorithms for image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J R


    A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh

  2. Mathematical optimization in computer graphics and vision

    CERN Document Server

    Velho, Luiz; Gomes, Jonas; de Figueiredo, Luiz


    Mathematical optimization is used in nearly all computer graphics applications, from computer vision to animation. This book teaches readers the core set of techniques that every computer graphics professional should understand in order to envision and expand the boundaries of what is possible in their work. Study of this authoritative reference will help readers develop a very powerful tool- the ability to create and decipher mathematical models that can better realize solutions to even the toughest problems confronting computer graphics community today.*Distills down a vast a

  3. Free software for vision stimulation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Batista Martins


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop free software (SAEVI to improve the vision stimulation services. METHODS: The software of visual stimulation service (SAEVI was developed in microsoft Acess®, version 2003. Results: This database management system allows an efficient patients control and specific patient's appointments, such as: ophthalmological diagnostic and year of the appointment, and also other options, providing reports of each item. CONCLUSION: Professionals who work with visual stimulation or in related areas may be benefited from using the software to organize their work routines.

  4. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark


    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  5. Molecular Convergence of Infrared Vision in Snakes (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; DeNardo, Dale F.


    It has been discovered that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) proteins of Boidae (boas), Pythonidae (pythons), and Crotalinae (pit vipers) are used to detect infrared radiation, but the molecular mechanism for detecting the infrared radiation is unknown. Here, relating the amino acid substitutions in their TRPA1 proteins and the functional differentiations, we propose that three parallel amino acid changes (L330M, Q391H, and S434T) are responsible for the development of infrared vision in the three groups of snakes. Protein modeling shows that the three amino acid changes alter the structures of the central region of their ankyrin repeats. PMID:20937734

  6. JPL Robotics Laboratory computer vision software library (United States)

    Cunningham, R.


    The past ten years of research on computer vision have matured into a powerful real time system comprised of standardized commercial hardware, computers, and pipeline processing laboratory prototypes, supported by anextensive set of image processing algorithms. The software system was constructed to be transportable via the choice of a popular high level language (PASCAL) and a widely used computer (VAX-11/750), it comprises a whole realm of low level and high level processing software that has proven to be versatile for applications ranging from factory automation to space satellite tracking and grappling.

  7. The Contrast Sensitivity Function in Low Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The contrast sensitivity of 51 low vision patients (95 eyes) showed a substantial decrease in all spatial frequencies. The peak contrast sensitivity was shifted to 1 C/D from the normal 3-4 C/D. The high-frequency cut off is correlated to the visual acuity positively. Of the 33 patients, the preferred eye was the eye with better peak sensitivity in 28 patients (84%), while the preferred eye was the eye with better visual acuity in 22 patients (66%). It seems that the peak sensitivity is more important t...


    Martin, L C


    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described.

  9. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision. (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao


    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed.

  10. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Liu


    Full Text Available A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed.

  11. Omnidirectional Active Vision for Evolutionary Car Driving



    We describe a set of simulations to evolve omnidirectional active vision, an artificial retina scanning over images taken via an omnidirectional camera, being applied to a car driving task. While the retina can immediately access features in any direction, it is asked to select behaviorally-relevant features so as to drive the car on the road. Neural controllers which direct both the retinal movement and the system behavior, i.e., the speed and the steering angle of the car, are tested in thr...

  12. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  13. Computer vision for microscopy diagnosis of malaria. (United States)

    Tek, F Boray; Dempster, Andrew G; Kale, Izzet


    This paper reviews computer vision and image analysis studies aiming at automated diagnosis or screening of malaria infection in microscope images of thin blood film smears. Existing works interpret the diagnosis problem differently or propose partial solutions to the problem. A critique of these works is furnished. In addition, a general pattern recognition framework to perform diagnosis, which includes image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, and pattern classification components, is described. The open problems are addressed and a perspective of the future work for realization of automated microscopy diagnosis of malaria is provided.

  14. Ultraviolet-Blocking Lenses Protect, Enhance Vision (United States)


    To combat the harmful properties of light in space, as well as that of artificial radiation produced during laser and welding work, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists developed a lens capable of absorbing, filtering, and scattering the dangerous light while not obstructing vision. SunTiger Inc. now Eagle Eyes Optics, of Calabasas, California was formed to market a full line of sunglasses based on the JPL discovery that promised 100-percent elimination of harmful wavelengths and enhanced visual clarity. The technology was recently inducted into the Space Technology Hall of Fame.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sergiyenko


    Full Text Available The new model of the scanning vision system for vehicles is offered. The questions of creation, functioning and interaction of the system units and elements are considered. The mathematical apparatus for processing digital information inside the system and for determining distances and an-gle standard in the offered system is worked out. Expected accuracy, functioning speed, range of ac-tion, energy consumption when using the system are determined. The possible areas of the developed automatic navigation system use are offered.

  16. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  17. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias


    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...... stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high...

  18. Fresh market carrot inspection by machine vision (United States)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Searcy, Stephen W.


    A machine vision system was developed to inspect fresh market carrots. It was designed to grade carrots with an axial and transverse resolution of 0. 5mmper pixel. Hardware consisted of camera digital signal processing (DSP) imaging board host computer and illumination components. Feature extraction methods detect the major defects. A Bayes classification technique was used to construct the decision function which classify carrots as acceptable or cull. The system was able to image and classify in approximately 2. 5carrots/second. 1.

  19. Single Camera Calibration in 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius SULIMAN


    Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.

  20. Design Considerations For Night Vision Goggles (United States)

    Glasheen, W. M.; Reiss, R. S.


    Baird Corporation of Bedford, Massachusetts, has designed and developed two similar night vision goggles. These goggles are binocular viewing to the wearer's eyes, but use a single objective lens and a single image intensifier tube. Binocular viewing is achieved by dividing a single image and sharing it between the'viewer's eyes. The goggles are self-sufficient, independent instruments which can be simply and easily interfaced with a face mask that the viewer wears. This paper covers the main design considerations that are associated with achieving the goals of these goggle configurations and their performance. Baird's first goggle design is designated the GP/NVG; the second is designated the AN/PVS-7. The GP/NVG night vision goggle is a high-performance, single intensifier tube, passive night vision device that provides the user with a 40-degree field of view at unity magnification. The fixed aperture, f/1.0 objective lens collects the available light and images it on the fiber optic faceplate of the second generation image intensifier tube. The image intensifier tube converts the real image at the fiber optic faceplate into electrons across the image, amplifies them, and then reconverts the electrons into a real, visible image at the fiber optic output of the tube. This image is then collimated to appear as if it is coming from infinity, split in two, and reimaged by the relay lenses. The eyelenses provide a magnified image to the user. The user can adjust each eyelens to clearly view the output faceplate of the image intensifier tube. This adjustment is made only once for each user. The objective focus can be manually set for distances from 25 centimeters to infinity. The general configuration of this night vision goggle is similar to that of a pair of single objective binocular field glasses. It is extremely lightweight (with most of the main construction molded from plastic) and compact for easy handling. All adjustments and on/off switching have been "human

  1. Visions of Reconstruction: Layers of Moving Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Jan Willem Paalman


    Full Text Available After WWII, films accompanied the reconstruction of Europe’s destroyed cities. Many contained historical footage. How was this material used, to articulate visions of reconstruction, what happened to the material later on, and how do the films relate to municipal film archives? This question is approached in terms of collective cognitive functions, applied to a media archaeological case study of Rotterdam. In focus are two audiovisual landmarks, from 1950 and 1966, and their historical footage, all with different temporal horizons. This study attempts to position the city film archive in media history.

  2. Operational Based Vision Assessment Research: Depth Perception (United States)


    based vision assessment research: depth perception. J Aust Soc Aerospace Med. 2014;9:33-41 FLM0023 ASAM Journal 2014 PR.indd 33 15/12/2014 11:49 am...stereopsis group was not specified; however, based on USAF waiver policy, these subjects demonstrated monofixation SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY FLM0023 ASAM ...personnel. Class II includes Naval Flight FLM0023 ASAM Journal 2014 PR.indd 35 15/12/2014 11:49 am 36 | J Aust Soc Aerospace Med 2014;9 (November

  3. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo


    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  4. Active vision in satellite scene analysis (United States)

    Naillon, Martine


    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  5. Flexible electrode array for artifical vision (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie


    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  6. Schlieren sequence analysis using computer vision (United States)

    Smith, Nathanial Timothy

    Computer vision-based methods are proposed for extraction and measurement of flow structures of interest in schlieren video. As schlieren data has increased with faster frame rates, we are faced with thousands of images to analyze. This presents an opportunity to study global flow structures over time that may not be evident from surface measurements. A degree of automation is desirable to extract flow structures and features to give information on their behavior through the sequence. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the analysis of large schlieren data is recast as a computer vision problem. The double-cone schlieren sequence is used as a testbed for the methodology; it is unique in that it contains 5,000 images, complex phenomena, and is feature rich. Oblique structures such as shock waves and shear layers are common in schlieren images. A vision-based methodology is used to provide an estimate of oblique structure angles through the unsteady sequence. The methodology has been applied to a complex flowfield with multiple shocks. A converged detection success rate between 94% and 97% for these structures is obtained. The modified curvature scale space is used to define features at salient points on shock contours. A challenge in developing methods for feature extraction in schlieren images is the reconciliation of existing techniques with features of interest to an aerodynamicist. Domain-specific knowledge of physics must therefore be incorporated into the definition and detection phases. Known location and physically possible structure representations form a knowledge base that provides a unique feature definition and extraction. Model tip location and the motion of a shock intersection across several thousand frames are identified, localized, and tracked. Images are parsed into physically meaningful labels using segmentation. Using this representation, it is shown that in the double-cone flowfield, the dominant unsteady motion is associated with large scale

  7. Belogradchik Visions: A Poetry [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Borisov


    Full Text Available Recently Veselin Borisov, a professor of social medicine in the Medical University in Sofia, who is born in the village of Skomlya, near Belogradchik, has written a new and still unpublished book: “The chef d’oevure of God: Belogradchik visions.” An excerpt from the poetry section of the book is presented. All of the rhymes chosen are inspired from the poet’s memory from his schooling in Belogradchik and for his work as a physician in the Belogradchik hospital.

  8. Adaptive optics applications in vision science (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.


    Adaptive optics can be used to correct the aberrations in the human eye caused by imperfections in the cornea and the lens and thereby, improve image quality both looking into and out of the eye. Under the auspices of the NSF Center for Adaptive Optics and the DOE Biomedical Engineering Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has joined together with leading vision science researchers around the country to develop and test new ophthalmic imaging systems using novel wavefront corrector technologies. Results of preliminary comparative evaluations of these technologies in initial system tests show promise for future clinical utility.

  9. Adaptive LIDAR Vision System for Advanced Robotics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced robotic systems demand an enhanced vision system and image processing algorithms to reduce the percentage of manual operation required. Unstructured...

  10. Acute Reversal of Vision Metamorphopsia: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim


    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia (RVM is a rare, paroxysmal, sudden and transient vertical inversion of vision, also known as floor-on-the-ceiling phenomenon. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but it may due to transient impairment of vestibular projections to the parietal lobes. Case description: Here we present a case of a 60 year-old man with a right paramedian pontine stroke developed episodes of upside-down reversal of vision during transition from awake to sleep time (hypnagogic acute reversal of vision metamorphopsia that subsided after treatment with gabapentin.

  11. Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Aydin Kurna


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25. Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group and 30 healthy patients (control group were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision P 0.4 in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4 in the worse eye had lower general health scores P<0.05. Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life.

  12. A practical introduction to computer vision with OpenCV

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson-Howe, Kenneth


    Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2).  This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV

  13. Development of a vision integration framework for laparoscopic surgical robot. (United States)

    Shin, Jung W; Park, Jun W; Lee, Chul H; Hong, Soyoung; Jo, Yungho; Choi, Jaesoon


    In order to realize intelligent laparoscopic surgical robot, a vision integrated system constitutes one of the fundamental components. The authors have constructed a vision framework in the current version of NCC (National Cancer Center) laparoscopic surgical robot controlled on a real-time OS (RTLinux-Pro, FSMLabs Inc., U.S.A.). Adding vision framework, we have been applying and testing image processing algorithms- edge detection of object for positioning surgical tool, Watersheds for recognizing object. This paper documents the implementation of the framework and preliminary results of the image segmentation using Watersheds algorithm. Finally the real-time processing capability of our vision system is discussed.

  14. Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus (United States)

    Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris


    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P  0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455

  15. Hybrid Collaborative Stereo Vision System for Mobile Robots Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Roberti


    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a hybrid collaborative stereo vision system (3D-distributed visual sensing using different kinds of vision cameras for the autonomous navigation of a wheeled robot team. It is proposed a triangulation-based method for the 3D-posture computation of an unknown object by considering the collaborative hybrid stereo vision system, and this way to steer the robot team to a desired position relative to such object while maintaining a desired robot formation. Experimental results with real mobile robots are included to validate the proposed vision system.

  16. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Ganesh


    Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  17. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes. (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech


    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.

  18. The analysis of influencing factors associated with night vision disturbances after implantable contact lens implantation%可植入接触镜植入术后夜视力障碍的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 王翠青; 郭丽; 李俊逸; 闫春慧


    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of night vision disturbances after implantable contact lens implantation.Methods Fifty eyes of 25 patients who underwent implantable contact lens implantation in both eyes were retrospectively reviewed.The incidence and severity of night vision disturbances were evaluated using questionnaires 6 months after surgery.Univariate sample and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to detect influencing factors associated with postoperative night vision disturbances.Potential influencing factors included in the analysis were keratometric value,anterior chamber depth,postoperative residual refractive error,higher-order aberrations,preoperative and postoperative mesopic pupil size,the difference between preoperative and postoperative mesopic pupil size,the difference between mesopic pupil size and implantable contact lens optic zone diameter,corneal transverse diameter,sulcus-to-sulcus diameter,and postoperative implantable contact lens vaulting.The power,size,optic zone diameter,and toridity of the implantable contact lens were also included as variables.Results The incidence of night vision disturbances was 34.00% for halos and 26.00% for glare.Halos were found to be significantly related to:(1)The difference between mesopic pupil size and implantable contact lens optic zone diameter (P =0.013);(2) The corneal transverse diameter (P =0.028);(3) The implantable contact lens optic zone diameter (P =0.030).For glare,toricity of the implantable contact lens was revealed as a significant influencing factor (P =0.047).Conclusion Conclusions Possible influencing factors for night vision disturbances include implantable contact lens optic zone diameter,the difference between mesopic pupil size and implantable contact lens optic zone diameter,and the corneal transverse diameter which can cause halos,and the toricity of the implantable contact lens which can cause glare.%目的 分析有晶状体眼可植入接触镜(ICL

  19. Promoting Healthy Vision in Students: Progress and Challenges in Policy, Programs, and Research (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Charles E.


    Background: An estimated 1 in 5 American children has a vision problem. Children living in poor urban environments have twice the normal rate of vision problems. Uncorrected vision problems can worsen over time and result in permanent vision loss. Early detection and treatment of vision problems is therefore essential in optimizing children's…

  20. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision. (United States)

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne


    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  1. Shared vision promotes family firm performance. (United States)

    Neff, John E


    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  2. Role of proprioception and vision in handwriting. (United States)

    Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Kristeva, Rumyana


    The objective of this study is to better understand the role of proprioception in handwriting and test earlier conclusions stating that the automated shaping of letters was not impaired by the removal of visual control in deafferentation. To this aim we compared the performance of the deafferented patient GL, who suffers from a complete loss of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation, with that of eight healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The word "Parallele", written within a short sentence with and without visual control, was quantified using a digital writing tablet. Three of the 13 analyzed parameters were strikingly different in patient GL compared to healthy subjects, both with and without vision: increase of number of pen touches, increase in number of inversions in velocity, and decrease of mean stroke frequency. The changes in these three parameters indicate a strong impairment in automated behaviour in the absence of proprioception and touch. This impairment is also supported by the significantly longer movement duration, which is also significantly increased by the removal of visual control. The present study provides for the first time a quantification of handwriting in a completely deafferented patient and reveals the central role of proprioception for the storage, updating, and maintenance of skilled motor programs. The fact that the deficits are already present with visual feedback suggests that the role of vision in handwriting is only secondary.

  3. Shared Vision promotes family firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Neff


    Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  4. Local spatial frequency analysis for computer vision (United States)

    Krumm, John; Shafer, Steven A.


    A sense of vision is a prerequisite for a robot to function in an unstructured environment. However, real-world scenes contain many interacting phenomena that lead to complex images which are difficult to interpret automatically. Typical computer vision research proceeds by analyzing various effects in isolation (e.g., shading, texture, stereo, defocus), usually on images devoid of realistic complicating factors. This leads to specialized algorithms which fail on real-world images. Part of this failure is due to the dichotomy of useful representations for these phenomena. Some effects are best described in the spatial domain, while others are more naturally expressed in frequency. In order to resolve this dichotomy, we present the combined space/frequency representation which, for each point in an image, shows the spatial frequencies at that point. Within this common representation, we develop a set of simple, natural theories describing phenomena such as texture, shape, aliasing and lens parameters. We show these theories lead to algorithms for shape from texture and for dealiasing image data. The space/frequency representation should be a key aid in untangling the complex interaction of phenomena in images, allowing automatic understanding of real-world scenes.

  5. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy (United States)


    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  6. [Studies of vision by Leonardo da Vinci]. (United States)

    Berggren, L


    Leonardo was an advocate of the intromission theory of vision. Light rays from the object to the eye caused visual perceptions which were transported to the brain ventricles via a hollow optic nerve. Leonardo introduced wax injections to explore the ventricular system. Perceptions were assumed to go to the "senso comune" in the middle (3rd) ventricle, also the seat of the soul. The processing station "imprensiva" in the anterior lateral horns together with memory "memoria" in th posterior (4th) ventricle integrated the visual perceptions to visual experience. - Leonardo's sketches with circular lenses in the center of the eye reveal that his dependence on medieval optics prevailed over anatomical observations. Drawings of the anatomy of the sectioned eye are missing although Leonardo had invented a new embedding technique. In order to dissect the eye without spilling its contents, the eye was first boiled in egg white and then cut. The procedure was now repeated and showed that the ovoid lens after boiling had become spherical. - Leonardo described that light rays were refracted and reflected in the eye but his imperfect anatomy prevented a development of physiological optics. He was, however, the first to compare the eye with a pin-hole camera (camera obscura). Leonardo's drawings of the inverted pictures on the back wall of a camera obscura inspired to its use as an instrument for artistic practice. The camera obscura was for centuries a model for explaining human vision.

  7. Panoramic night vision goggle flight test results (United States)

    Franck, Douglas L.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Craig, Jeffrey L.


    The Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (PNVG) has begun operational test and evaluation with its 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical field of view (FOV) on different aircraft and at different locations. Two configurations of the PNVG are being evaluated. The first configuration design (PNVG I) is very low in profile and fits underneath a visor. PNVG I can be retained by the pilot during ejection. This configuration is interchangeable with a day helmet mounted tracker and display through a standard universal connector. The second configuration (PNVG II) resembles the currently fielded 40-degree circular FOV Aviator Night Vision Imaging Systems (ANVIS) and is designed for non-ejection seat aircraft and ground applications. Pilots completed subjective questionnaires after each flight to compare the capability of the 100-degree horizontal by 40-degree vertical PNVG to the 40-degree circular ANVIS across different operational tasks. This paper discusses current findings and pilot feedback from the flight trials objectives of the next phase of the PNVG program are also discussed.

  8. New night vision goggle gain definition (United States)

    Podobedov, Vyacheslav B.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Larason, Thomas C.


    A new definition is proposed for the calibration of Night Vision Goggle (NVG) gains. This definition is based on the measurement of radiometric input and output quantities of the NVG. While the old definition used the "equivalent fL" which is a non SI traceable luminance unit, the new definition utilizes the radiance quantities that are traceable to the SI units through NIST standards. The new NVG gain matches the previous one as a result of the application of a correction coefficient originating from the conversion of the radiance to luminance units. The new definition was tested at the NIST Night Vision Calibration Facility and the measurement results were compared to the data obtained with a Hoffman Test Set Model ANV-126. Comparing the radiometric quantities of the Hoffman Test Set and those measured by the NIST transfer standard radiometer, indicates that the observed differences up to 15% were due to the calibration and experimental errors of the ANV-126 Test Set. In view of different spectral characteristics of luminophores that can be utilized in the NVG design, the simulation of the NVG output for gain measurement was performed. The NVG output was simulated with a sphere-based source using different LEDs and the measured gain was compared to that obtained with the ANV-126 internal luminance meter. The NVG gain uncertainty analysis was performed for the Type A, B, and C goggles.

  9. Machine vision and mechatronics in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brett, Peter


    The contributions for this book have been gathered over several years from conferences held in the series of Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice, the latest of which was held in Ankara, Turkey. The essential aspect is that they concern practical applications rather than the derivation of mere theory, though simulations and visualization are important components. The topics range from mining, with its heavy engineering, to the delicate machining of holes in the human skull or robots for surgery on human flesh. Mobile robots continue to be a hot topic, both from the need for navigation and for the task of stabilization of unmanned aerial vehicles. The swinging of a spray rig is damped, while machine vision is used for the control of heating in an asphalt-laying machine.  Manipulators are featured, both for general tasks and in the form of grasping fingers. A robot arm is proposed for adding to the mobility scooter of the elderly. Can EEG signals be a means to control a robot? Can face recognition be ac...

  10. Antioxidants and vision health: facts and fiction. (United States)

    Grover, Ashok K; Samson, Sue E


    A number of nutritional supplements containing antioxidants are advertised for better vision health. Do they benefit the average consumer? The literature was examined for the effectiveness of antioxidants for human eye health, and for the intricacies in collection of such evidence. The following diseases were considered: cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, eye infections, and uveitis. The literature indicates that antioxidant supplements plus lutein have a reasonable probability of retarding AMD. For glaucoma, such supplements were ineffectual in some studies but useful in others. In some studies, antioxidant rich fruits and vegetables were also useful for protection against glaucoma. For diabetic retinopathy, antioxidant supplements may have a small benefit, if any, but only as an adjunct to glycemic control. In very high-risk premature retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa, antioxidant supplements may be beneficial but those with excess Vitamin E should be avoided. For cataract, there is no evidence for an advantage of such nutritional supplements. However, lubricant drops containing N-acetylcarnosine may be helpful in initial stages of the disease. For eye infections and other causes of uveitis, antioxidants have not been found useful. We recommend that a diet high in antioxidant rich foods should be developed as a habit from an early age. However, when initial signs of vision health deterioration are observed, the appropriate nutritional supplement products may be recommended but only to augment the primary medical treatments.

  11. Machine Vision Implementation in Rapid PCB Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafat Surya Murijanto


    Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality. 

  12. Encouragement for Faculty to Implement "Vision and Change" (United States)

    Harvey, Caylyn; Eshleman, Kristen; Koo, Kyosung; Smith, Kevin G.; Paradise, Christopher J.; Campbell, A. Malcolm


    The seminal report "Vision and Change" outlined improvements necessary for undergraduate biology courses to accomplish widely recognized learning objectives. Over the past 8 years, we have developed a two-semester introductory biology course that incorporates the core concepts and competencies recommended in "Vision and…

  13. Research the mobile phone operation interfaces for vision-impairment. (United States)

    Yao, Yen-Ting; Leung, Cherng-Yee


    Due to the vision-impaired users commonly having difficulty with mobile-phone function operations and adaption any manufacturer's user interface design, the goals for this research are established for evaluating how to improve for them the function operation convenience and user interfaces of either mobile phones or electronic appliances in the market currently. After applying collecting back 30 effective questionnaires from 30 vision-impairment, the comments have been concluded from this research include: (1) All mobile phone manufactures commonly ignorant of the vision-impairment difficulty with operating mobile phone user interfaces; (2) The vision-impairment preferential with audio alert signals; (3) The vision-impairment incapable of mobile-phone procurement independently unless with assistance from others; (4) Preferential with adding touch-usage interface design by the vision-impairment; in contrast with the least requirement for such functions as braille, enlarging keystroke size and diversifying-function control panel. With exploring the vision-impairment's necessary improvements and obstacles for mobile phone interface operation, this research is established with goals for offering reference possibly applied in electronic appliance design and . Hopefully, the analysis results of this research could be used as data references for designing electronic and high-tech products and promoting more usage convenience for those vision-impaired.

  14. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section 886.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  15. 75 FR 65057 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    .... Dattler Mr. Dattler, 55, has had complete loss of vision in his right eye since childhood due trauma. The.... Branham Mr. Branham, 42, has had loss of vision in his right eye since childhood. The best corrected... Brown Ms. Brown, 47, has had amblyopia in her left eye since childhood. The best corrected visual...

  16. A Tale of Two Visions: Hegemonic Whiteness and Bilingual Education (United States)

    Flores, Nelson


    In this article, I examine two visions of bilingual education that emerged during the Civil Rights Movement: race radicalism and liberal multiculturalism. I argue that although proponents of both visions believed that bilingual education was necessary for empowering language-minoritized populations, race radicalism conceptualized this empowerment…

  17. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R;


    At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...

  18. Efficacy of Low Vision Services for Visually Impaired Children. (United States)

    Hofstetter, H. W.


    Low vision children (ages 4-19, n=137) were screened, and 77 percent were advised to have comprehensive clinical evaluations or ophthalmology services. The visual capability of the referred children was determined, low vision aids were prescribed for 56 children, and the degree of successful utilization of aids was evaluated. (JDD)

  19. Vision-based control of the Manus using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefhebber, F.; Sijs, J.


    The rehabilitation robot Manus is an assistive device for severely motor handicapped users. The executing of all day living tasks with the Manus, can be very complex and a vision-based controller can simplify this. The lack of existing vision-based controlled systems, is the poor reliability of the

  20. Object recognition with stereo vision and geometric hashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck, van Harry; Heijden, van der Ferdinand


    In this paper we demonstrate a method to recognize 3D objects and to estimate their pose. For that purpose we use a combination of stereo vision and geometric hashing. Stereo vision is used to generate a large number of 3D low level features, of which many are spurious because at that stage of the p