WorldWideScience

Sample records for ageing cohort study

  1. What Drives Teacher Engagement: A Study of Different Age Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…

  2. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt;

    2009-01-01

    young men, and 11 older women (assessors); 1826 twins aged >or=70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessors: perceived age of twins from photographs. Twins: physical and cognitive tests and molecular biomarker of ageing (leucocyte telomere length). RESULTS: For all three groups of assessors, perceived age was...

  3. Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mensforth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART, more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years [1]. Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 [2]. Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late [2]. Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350 results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts [2]. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results: Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%. Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10, constitutional symptoms (n=6, diagnosis of another STI (n=4, seroconversion illness (n=2, partner status (n=3. Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions: It is imperative

  4. Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-12-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  5. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  6. Sickle cell disease and age at menarche in Jamaican girls: observations from a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Serjeant, G; A Singhal; Hambleton, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To investigate the distribution of age at menarche in a representative sample of 99 patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, 69 with sickle cell haemoglobin C (SC) disease, and 100 controls with a normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype followed in a cohort study from birth. (2) To explore the determinants of the age at menarche.
METHODS—Children ascertained in a newborn screening programme were followed prospectively from birth to age 18-26.5 years with regular ...

  7. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stiby, Alexander I.; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L.; Macleod, John

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Design Birth cohort study. Setting England. Participants The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. Measurements The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes...

  8. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…

  9. The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS: study protocol and participation in the first decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapp Ulrike

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1 Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2 Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3 Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4 Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5 Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60 years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n = 3,326 (48 % agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1. In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation. In 2009/2010 n = 1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2 and 2009/2010 (wave 3 are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS

  10. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2004-01-01

    A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth...... Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival...... lifestyle during pregnancy. Various approaches to adjustment for potential residual confounding of the relation by maternal age did not affect the relative risk estimates. The paternal age-related risk of late fetal death was higher than the risk of early fetal death and started to increase from the age of...

  11. Birth cohort differences in physical functioning levels among elderly Brazilians: findings from the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging (1997-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, C. M.; M.F. Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cohort differences in physical functioning levels among the older (cohort members born in 1916-1926 and in 1927-1937) participants of the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging. The data came from participants aged 71-81 who took part at baseline in 1997 (n = 491) and in the 11th wave in 2008 (n = 620). The physical functioning variables included the following self-reported measures: activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living and...

  12. Self-Medication Among Adolescents Aged 18 Years: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Camargo, Aline Lins; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Ana M. B. Menezes; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Gonçalves, Helen; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the point prevalence of self-medication among adolescents aged 18 years and to evaluate the type of drugs used (either over-the-counter or prescription drugs) and socioeconomic, health-related, and behavioral correlates of self-medication. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Data were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to adolescents aged 18 years. The outcome variables were point prevalence of...

  13. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brophy, Sinead; Cooksey, Roxanne; Gravenor, Michael B; Mistry, Rupal; Thomas, Non; Lyons, Ronan A; Williams, Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own...

  14. Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76

    OpenAIRE

    Whalley, L.J.; Deary, I J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To test the association between childhood IQ and mortality over the normal human lifespan.Design Longitudinal cohort study.Setting Aberdeen.Subjects All 2792 children in Aberdeen born in 1921 and attending school on 1 June 1932 who sat a mental ability test as part of the Scottish mental survey 1932.Main outcome measure Survival at 1 January 1997.Results 79.9% (2230) of the sample was traced. Childhood mental ability was positively related to survival to age 76 years in women (0.97...

  15. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  16. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: a study to examine influences on cognitive ageing from age 11 to age 70 and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalley Lawrence J

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive ageing is a major burden for society and a major influence in lowering people's independence and quality of life. It is the most feared aspect of ageing. There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive changes. Seeking the determinants of cognitive ageing is a research priority. A limitation of many studies is the lack of a sufficiently long period between cognitive assessments to examine determinants. Here, the aim is to examine influences on cognitive ageing between childhood and old age. Methods/Design The study is designed as a follow-up cohort study. The participants comprise surviving members of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947; N = 70,805 who reside in the Edinburgh area (Lothian of Scotland. The SMS1947 applied a valid test of general intelligence to all children born in 1936 and attending Scottish schools in June 1947. A total of 1091 participants make up the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They undertook: a medical interview and examination; physical fitness testing; extensive cognitive testing (reasoning, memory, speed of information processing, and executive function; personality, quality of life and other psycho-social questionnaires; and a food frequency questionnaire. They have taken the same mental ability test (the Moray House Test No. 12 at age 11 and age 70. They provided blood samples for DNA extraction and testing and other biomarker analyses. Here we describe the background and aims of the study, the recruitment procedures and details of numbers tested, and the details of all examinations. Discussion The principal strength of this cohort is the rarely captured phenotype of lifetime cognitive change. There is additional rich information to examine the determinants of individual differences in this lifetime cognitive change. This protocol report is important in alerting other researchers to the data available in the cohort.

  17. A prospective cohort study of health behavior profiles after age 50 and mortality risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Benjamin A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the mortality risk associated with distinct combinations of multiple risk behaviors in middle-aged and older adults, and assesses whether the mortality risks of certain health behaviors are moderated by the presence of other risk behaviors. Methods Data for this prospective cohort study are from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, a nationwide sample of adults older than 50 years. Baseline data are from respondents (n = 19,662 to the 1998 wave of the HRS. Twelve distinct health behavior profiles were created, based on each respondent’s smoking, physical activity, and alcohol use status in 1998. Mortality risk was estimated through 2008 using Cox regression. Results Smoking was associated with elevated risk for mortality within all behavioral profiles, but risk was greatest when combined with heavy drinking, both for middle-aged (ages 51–65 and older (ages 66+ adults. Profiles that included physical inactivity were also associated with increased mortality risk in both age groups. However, the impact of inactivity was clearly evident only among non-smokers; among smokers, the risk of inactivity was less evident, and seemingly overshadowed by the risk of smoking. Moderate drinking was protective relative to abstinence among non-smokers, and relative to heavy drinking among smokers. Conclusions In both middle-aged and older adults, multiple unhealthy behaviors increase mortality risk. However, the level of risk varies across unique combinations of unhealthy behaviors. These findings highlight the role that lifestyle improvements could play in promoting healthy aging, and provide insight into which behavioral combinations should receive top priority for intervention.

  18. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...

  19. Sex differential in mortality trends of old-aged Danes: A nation wide study of age, period and cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Oksuzyan, Anna; Engberg, Henriette; Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the last half century the mortality rates in Denmark for females above age 80 have declined dramatically whereas the decline for males have been modest, resulting in a change in sex-ratio for centenarians from 2 to 5. Here we investigate whether this mortality pattern is mainly...... explained by period effects, cohort effects or both. This can provide clues for where to search for causes behind the changes in sex differential in mortality seen in many Western countries during the last decades. METHODS: Age-period-cohort study of mortality for all Danish women and men aged 79-98 during...... cohort effects. The observed rates were better described by the age, period and cohort model than by other models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that causes for both the overall increased difference in mortality and the short term fluctuations in mortality rates are primarily to be found in the period...

  20. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.H.

    2011-08-28

    Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.

  1. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population

  2. Early-Onset Thrombocytopenia in Small-For-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlug, R. D.; Smits-Wintjens, V. E. H. J.; Heckman, E. J.; te Pas, A. B.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Lopriore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and is thought to result from a unique pathophysiologic mechanism related to chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Our objective was to estimate the incidence and severity of early-onset thrombocytopenia in SGA neonates, and to identify risk factors for thrombocytopenia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive SGA neonates admitted to our ward and a control group of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates matched for gestational age at birth. Main outcome measures were incidence and severity of thrombocytopenia, hematological and clinical risk factors for thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. A total of 330 SGA and 330 AGA neonates were included, with a mean gestational age at birth of 32.9 ± 4 weeks. Thrombocytopenia (<150x109/L) was found in 53% (176/329) of SGA neonates and 20% (66/330) of AGA neonates (relative risk (RR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1, 3.4]). Severe thrombocytopenia (21-50x109/L) occurred in 25 neonates (8%) in the SGA and 2 neonates (1%) in the AGA group (RR 12.5, 95% CI [3.0, 52.5]). Platelet counts <20x109/L were not recorded. Within the SGA group, lower gestational age at birth (p = <0.01) and erythroblastosis (p<0.01) were independently associated with a decrease in platelet count. Platelet count was positively correlated with birth weight centiles. In conclusion, early-onset thrombocytopenia is present in over 50% of SGA neonates and occurs 2.7 times as often as in AGA neonates. Thrombocytopenia is seldom severe and is independently associated with lower gestational age at birth and erythroblastosis. PMID:27177157

  3. Cohort Profile: The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Spencer; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2016-02-01

    The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging study was established: (i) to assess the added value in using formal network methods and instruments to measure social capital and its relationship to health; (ii) to determine whether older adults are more vulnerable to the effects of network and neighbourhood environments; and (iii) to examine longitudinally the relationship between social capital and health among adults in Montreal, Canada. The MoNNET-HA cohort consists of men and women aged 25 years and older, residing in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (MMA). Participants were recruited using a random stratified cluster sampling design with oversampling of adults older than 65 years. Initial MoNNET-HA study participants (n = 2707) were recruited for telephone interviews in the summer of 2008. Since 2008, participants were interviewed in the autumn of 2010 and the winter of 2013/2014. Data currently fall into five categories: (i) social network and social capital; (ii) psychosocial and psychological; (ii) socio-demographic and socioeconomic; (iv) health behaviours and conditions; and (v) neighbourhood environmental characteristics. Healthcare utilization data will be available for a subsample of participants. Upon funding, future work will measure anthropometric and metabolic health directly. Based on agreements with participants, external researchers should request access to data via collaborations with the study group. PMID:24984955

  4. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  5. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  6. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  7. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  8. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  9. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  10. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    HARDY, R.; Lawlor, D A; Black, S.; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  11. Parental and Grandparental Ages in the Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Golding; Colin Steer; Marcus Pembrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ...

  12. Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Claudia; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800?2200), 28% weekends, 13% night...

  13. Behavioural outcomes at 3 years of age among late preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan (Doran), Jackie; Alderdice, Fiona A.; McGowan, Jennifer E.; Craig, Stanley; Perra, Oliver; Jenkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine the behavioural outcomes at age 3 years of late preterm infants (LPIs) who were admitted to neonatal intensive care (NIC) in comparison with LPIs who were not admitted.Method: This cohort study prospectively recruited 225 children born late preterm (34–36+6 weeks gestation) in 2006 in Northern Ireland, now aged 3 years. Two groups were compared: LPIs who received NIC (study; n=103) and LPIs who did not receive NIC (control; n=122). Parents/guardians completed the Child Beha...

  14. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons Ronan A; Mistry Rupal; Thomas Non; Gravenor Michael B; Cooksey Roxanne; Brophy Sinead; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in ...

  15. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy Ravikiran; Eranki Vivek; Pillai Anand; Hadidi Mahar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B ...

  16. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64, group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age, and group C (patients over the age of 85. Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time.

  17. The Hordaland Womens's Cohort. A longitudinal study on urinary incontinence in middle-aged women

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanlu, David

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent problem among middle-aged women, and many epidemiological studies have investigated this problem. Most of these studies are cross-sectional and only few longitudinal studies have been conducted. Thus, the knowledge about incidence, remission and natural history of UI is scarce. The aim of that present dissertation was to answer major epidemiological questions about incidence, progress and remission of UI in middle-aged women.The Hordalan...

  18. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  19. Cognitive and educational outcomes of being born small-for-gestational-age : A longitudinal study based on Stockholm Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the long-term cognitive effects and educational outcomes of being born small-for-gestational-age (SGA). It also assesses whether the family’s attitude towards education modifies the effect of SGA on cognitive performance. A total of 9598 children born in 1953 and living in the Stockholm metropolitan area in 1963 were included in this study. Data were obtained from the Stockholm Birth Cohort. Multiple ordinary least square regressions analyses suggest that S...

  20. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  1. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between...... boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with...

  2. Ageing and Dementia in a Longitudinal Study of a Cohort with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…

  3. Age Related Macular Degeneration and Total Hip Replacement Due to Osteoarthritis or Fracture: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine W Chong

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49. Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02. The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured

  4. Risk factors for age-related cataract : A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Birgitta Ejdervik

    2008-01-01

    Cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the etiology of cataract is multifactorial. Cataract increases with age and oxidative damage to the lens proteins is suggested to be of importance. The only currently available treatment is surgical extraction of the lens; two thirds of these operations are performed in women. Today in Sweden cataract extraction is the most common operation, with nearly 80,000 operations bei...

  5. Metabolic syndrome, sarcopenia and role of sex and age: cross-sectional analysis of Kashiwa cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9-15.9 but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.

  6. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort – Rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eCaspers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions & language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood & daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla of the brain. The latter includes (i 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fibre tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.

  7. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort-rationale and design of 1000BRAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

  8. Retinal vascular fractal dimension, childhood IQ, and cognitive ability in old age: the Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele M Taylor

    Full Text Available Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability.Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936 had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648. IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g, processing speed, and memory.Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye.The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing.

  9. Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnattingius, Sven; Haglund, Bengt; Kramer, Michael S

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses. Design: Population based cohort study. Subjects: 1 026 249 pregnancies without congenital malformations. Setting: Sweden 1983-92. Main outcome measure: Late fetal death rate. Results: Depending on underlying determinants late fetal death rates were greatly increased in extremely small for gestational age fetuses (range 16 to 45 per 1000) compared with non-small for gestational age fetuses (1.4 to 4.6). In extremely small for gestational age fetuses late fetal death rates were increased from 31 per 1000 in mothers aged less than 35 years to 45 per 1000 in older mothers, and from 22 per 1000 in women <155 cm in height to 33 per 1000 in women ⩾175 cm tall. Late fetal death rates were also higher in extremely small for gestational age fetuses in singleton compared with twin pregnancies and in non-hypertensive pregnancies compared with pregnancies complicated by severe pre-eclampsia or other hypertensive disorders. Slightly higher late fetal death rates were observed in nulliparous compared with parous women and in non-smokers compared with smokers. Conclusions: Although the risk of late fetal death is greatly increased in fetuses that are extremely small for gestational age the risk is strongly modified by underlying determinants—for example, there is a lower risk of late fetal death in a small for gestational age fetus if the mother is of short stature, has a twin pregnancy, or has hypertension. Key messages Small for gestational age fetuses are at increased risk of late fetal death regardless of the underlying determinants The effect of birthweight ratio on risk of late fetal death is modified by underlying determinants, except maternal age Regardless of birthweight ratio the rates of late fetal death are higher among women aged 35 years or older compared with younger women In pregnancies of extremely small for gestational age

  10. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging. PMID:26056335

  11. Lifetime intellectual function and satisfaction with life in old age: longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, Alan J.; Whiteman, Martha C; Pattie, Alison; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    What is successful ageing? Current opinion is that “cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life . . . in old age.” This depends substantially on people’s cognitive ability from early life, and on how much they decline from their cognitive peak in young adulthood. Early cognitive ability also affects physical health and even survival to old age. But surely happiness and satisfaction with life are also key indices of successful ageing. Happiness was described as “the...

  12. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17 % better result in the 6-min walk test, 16 % better arm curl and 20 % better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  13. The relationship of age and place of delivery with postpartum contraception prior to discharge in Mexico: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Walker, Dilys; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the association of age (adolescents vs. older women) and place of delivery with receipt of immediate postpartum contraception in Mexico. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Mexico, nationally representative sample of women 12–39 years old at last delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression to test the association of self-reported receipt of postpartum contraception prior to discharge with age and place of delivery (public, employment based, private, or out of facility). We included individual and household-level confounders and calculated relative and absolute multivariable estimates of association. Results Our analytic sample included 7022 women (population, N = 9,881,470). Twenty percent of the population was 12–19 years old at last birth, 55% aged 20–29 and 25% 30–39 years old. Overall, 43% of women reported no postpartum contraceptive method. Age was not significantly associated with receipt of a method, controlling for covariates. Women delivering in public facilities had lower odds of receipt of a method (Odds Ratio = 0.52; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.40–0.68) compared with employment-based insurance facilities. We estimated 76% (95% CI = 74–78%) of adolescents (12–19 years) who deliver in employment-based insurance facilities leave with a method compared with 59% (95% CI = 56–62%) who deliver in public facilities. Conclusion Both adolescents and women ages 20–39 receive postpartum contraception, but nearly half of all women receive no method. Place of delivery is correlated with receipt of postpartum contraception, with lower rates in the public sector. Lessons learned from Mexico are relevant to other countries seeking to improve adolescent health through reducing unintended pregnancy. Implications Adolescents receive postpartum contraception as often as older women in Mexico, but half of all women receive no method. PMID:26828625

  14. Sources of Stereotypes and Misconceptions of Aging: A Comparative Study of Cohort Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Nancy A.; And Others

    Traditional stereotypes and attitudes about the elderly are of interest to both researchers and health care providers. Misconceptions about the elderly and the sources of these misconceptions were examined in undergraduates (N=150) and in elderly subjects (N=50). Subjects completed the Miller-Dodder revision of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz One…

  15. Musculoskeletal extremity injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: a 2.5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Franz, C; Møller, N C; Froberg, K; Wedderkopp, N

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed musculoskeletal extremity injuries and to estimate the injury incidence rates in relation to different settings, different body regions and injury types. In all, 1259 schoolchildren, aged 6-12, were surveyed weekly during 2.5 years using a new method of automated mobile phone text messaging asking questions on the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. All injuries were clinically diagnosed. Physical activity was measured from text messaging and accelerometers. A total number of 1229 injuries were diagnosed; 180 injuries in the upper extremity and 1049 in the lower extremity, with an overall rate of 1.59 injuries per 1000 physical activity units [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-1.68]. Upper extremities accounted for a rate of 0.23 (95% CI 0.20-0.27) and lower extremities accounted for 1.36 (95% CI 1.27-1.44). This study has added a wide overall perspective to the area concerning incidence and incidence rates of musculoskeletal extremity injuries in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years, including severe and less severe, traumatic, and overuse injuries. The understanding of injury epidemiology in children is fundamental to the acknowledgement and insurance of the appropriate prevention and treatment. PMID:24472003

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Physical Capability in Early Old Age: British Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Andrew J. M.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Kuh, Diana; Brage, S?ren; Cooper, Rachel; NSHD scientific and data collection team

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed cli...

  17. Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy with Child Weight at Birth, Age 12 Months and 5 Years – A Population-Based Electronic Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kelly; Rahman, Mohammed; Atkinson, Mark; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Hill, Rebecca; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brophy, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. Methods A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs). Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offs...

  18. Fetal alcohol exposure and IQ at age 8: evidence from a population-based birth-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Lewis

    Full Text Available Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. Associations between children's cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development.We used a large population based study of women recruited during pregnancy to determine whether genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in this cohort of women and their children were related to the child's cognitive score (measured by the Weschler Intelligence Scale at age 8.We found that four genetic variants in alcohol metabolising genes in 4167 children were strongly related to lower IQ at age 8, as was a risk allele score based on these 4 variants. This effect was only seen amongst the offspring of mothers who were moderate drinkers (1-6 units alcohol per week during pregnancy (per allele effect estimates were -1.80 (95% CI= -2.63 to -0.97 p=0.00002, with no effect among children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy (0.16 (95%CI= -1.05 to 1.36 p=0.80, p-value for interaction  =0.009. A further genetic variant associated with alcohol metabolism in mothers was associated with their child's IQ, but again only among mothers who drank during pregnancy.

  19. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: A 2.5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers. Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.23). The back injury incidence rates were higher for sports when exposure per 1000 physical activity units was taken into consideration and especially children horse-riding had a 40 times higher risk of sustaining a traumatic back injury compared to the risk during non-organized leisure time physical activity. However, the reasonably low injury incidence rates support the recommendations of children continuously being physically active. PMID:26130046

  20. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  1. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED. PMID:27169492

  2. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  3. Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: the rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Steven E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being alone, as measured by less frequent social interactions, has been reported to be associated with a more rapid rate of motor decline in older persons. We tested the hypothesis that feeling alone is associated with the rate of motor decline in community-dwelling older persons. Methods At baseline, loneliness was assessed with a 5-item scale in 985 persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal community-based cohort study. Annual detailed assessment of 9 measures of muscle strength and 9 motor performances were summarized in a composite measure of global motor function. Results Linear mixed-effects models which controlled for age, sex and education, showed that the level of loneliness at baseline was associated with the rate of motor decline (Estimate, -0.016; S.E. 0.006, p = 0.005. For each 1-point higher level of loneliness at baseline, motor decline was 40% more rapid; this effect was similar to the rate of motor decline observed in an average participant 4 years older at baseline. Furthermore, this amount of motor decline per year was associated with about a 50% increased risk of death. When terms for both feeling alone (loneliness and being alone were considered together in a single model, both were relatively independent predictors of motor decline. The association between loneliness and motor decline persisted even after controlling for depressive symptoms, cognition, physical and cognitive activities, chronic conditions, as well as baseline disability or a history of stroke or Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Among community-dwelling older persons, both feeling alone and being alone are associated with more rapid motor decline, underscoring the importance of psychosocial factors and motor decline in old age.

  4. Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Magnus

    Full Text Available The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs by 36 months (n = 47,905 and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26 per standard deviation (SD increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19 per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19 per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.

  5. Medication Underuse in Aging Outpatients with Cardiovascular Disease: Prevalence, Determinants, and Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D Meid

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in older people, and the impact of being exposed or not exposed to preventive cardiovascular medicines is accordingly high. Underutilization of beneficial drugs is common, but prevalence estimates differ across settings, knowledge on predictors is limited, and clinical consequences are rarely investigated.Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study, we assessed the prevalence, determinants, and outcomes of medication underuse based on cardiovascular criteria from Screening Tool To Alert to Right Treatment (START.Medication underuse was present in 69.1% of 1454 included participants (mean age 71.1 ± 6.1 years and was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio: 2.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.63], body mass index (1.03 [1.01-1.07] per kg/m2, and inversely with the number of prescribed drugs (0.84 [0.79-0.88] per drug. Using this information for adjustment in a follow-up evaluation (mean follow-up time 2.24 years on cardiovascular and competing outcomes, we found no association of medication underuse with cardiovascular events (fatal and non-fatal (hazard ratio: 1.00 [0.65-1.56], but observed a significant association of medication underuse with competing deaths from non-cardiovascular causes (2.52 [1.01-6.30].Medication underuse was associated with frailty and adverse non-cardiovascular clinical outcomes. This may suggest that cardiovascular drugs were withheld because of serious co-morbidity or that concurrent illness can preclude benefit from cardiovascular prevention. In the latter case, adapted prescribing criteria should be developed and evaluated in those patients.

  6. Impact of visual acuity on developing literacy at age 4–5 years: a cohort-nested cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Alison; Fairley, Lesley; Chambers, Bette; Wright, John; Sheldon, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4-5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. SETTING: Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Prevalence was determined for 11 186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participat...

  7. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wang; Lu Liu; Yong-Fang Hu; Jia-Hu Hao; Yuan-Hua Chen; Pu-Yu Su; Lin Fu; Zhen Yu; Gui-Bin Zhang; Lei Wang; Fang-Biao Tao; De-Xiang Xu

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite...

  8. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  9. Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children's socio-emotional development at age 5: the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Hersi, Robleh; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Larroque, Béatrice; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Chollet, Aude; Galéra, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is debate as to whether maternal tobacco use in pregnancy is related to offspring behaviour later on. We tested this association examining multiple aspects of children's behaviour at age 5 and accounting for parental smoking outside of pregnancy, as well as child and family characteristics.Methods : Data come from a prospective community based birth cohort study (EDEN; n = 1113 families in France followed since pregnancy in 2003–2005 until the child's 5th birthday). Materna...

  10. Communication Impairments in Early Term and Late Preterm Children: A Prospective Cohort Study following Children to Age 36 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of communication impairments at age 18 and 36 months in children born early term (gestational weeks 37-38) and late preterm (gestational weeks 34-36). STUDY DESIGN A total of 39 423 children and their mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample included 7109 children (18%) born early term and 1673 (4.2%) born late preterm. Information on gestational age and prenatal and postnatal risk factors was obtained from the Medica...

  11. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  12. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland twenty-07 prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Whitley; Deary, Ian J; Der, Geoff; G David Batty; Michaela Benzeval

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age.Methods: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4) test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT).Results: There was no evidence of a parental age association wi...

  13. Age-dependent decline of association between obesity and coronary heart disease: a cohort study in a remote Australian Aboriginal community

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the association between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Aboriginal adults depends on age. Design, setting and participants A cohort study with up to 20 years of follow-up of 849 participants aged 18–76 years in a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory of Australia. Main outcome measures Newly diagnosed CHD cases were identified through hospital records according to ICD codes during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard model wa...

  14. Cancer risk in patients aged 30 years and above with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetic monotherapy: a cohort study using metformin as the comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Kok, Victor C; Chien, Ching-Hsuan; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces incident cancer development. Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of subsequent cancer development in diabetic cohorts receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. We conducted a population-based study in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic monotherapy. Methods We identified a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetics aged ≥30 years receiving hypoglycemic monotherapy (n=7,325) from the 1998–2007 Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset. Patients were grouped according to the antidiabetic therapy they received into metformin (n=2,223), sulfonylurea (n=3,965), glitazone (n=53), meglitinide (n=128), acarbose (n=150), and insulin (n=806) groups. Patients with preexisting cancer were excluded. All patients were followed up until cancer development, dropout, death, or until December 31, 2008. Cox’s model was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking-related comorbidities, alcohol use disorders, morbid obesity, pancreatitis, hypertension, monthly income, and urbanization level. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative cancer incidence. Two-sided P-values 0.25 of metformin when compared to lower dose will contribute to a reduction of 80% risk. PMID:26357479

  15. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, M; Birrell, F.; Francis, R; Rawlings, D; Tuck, S; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumba...

  16. Serum YKL-40 and uterine artery Doppler – a prospective cohort study, with focus on preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Skibsted, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test if serum YKL-40 is increased in women developing preeclampsia or small-for-gestational age fetuses. We also assessed the association between uterine artery pulsatility index, notching and serum YKL-40 levels. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A primary referral unit for......-week fetal growth examinations. Uterine artery Doppler was assessed and outcome was registered from medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preeclampsia, hypertension, small-for-gestational age. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was associated with increasing maternal age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p = 0.......0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase in...

  17. Extending employment beyond the pensionable age: a cohort study of the influence of chronic diseases, health risk factors, and working conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement.A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study.In all, 832 participants (17.8% extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.54 and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35-2.08 and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88-2.84. The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5-23.1 among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4-11.4 among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest.In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status.

  18. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Whitley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. METHODS: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4 test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a parental age association with offspring RT. However, we observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and offspring AH4 score with the lowest scores observed for the youngest and oldest fathers. Adjustment for parental education and socioeconomic status somewhat attenuated this association. Adjustment for number of, particularly older, siblings further reduced the scores of children of younger fathers and appeared to account for the lower offspring scores in the oldest paternal age group. CONCLUSION: We observed a paternal age association with AH4 but not RT, a measure of cognition largely independent of social and educational experiences. Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations. Future studies should include parental intelligence.

  19. Equalisation of socioeconomic differences in injury risks at school age? A study of three age cohorts of Swedish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F

    2003-01-01

    Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the...

  20. Individual and environmental factors underlying life space of older people – study protocol and design of a cohort study on life-space mobility in old age (LISPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantanen Taina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial issue for the sustainability of societies is how to maintain health and functioning in older people. With increasing age, losses in vision, hearing, balance, mobility and cognitive capacity render older people particularly exposed to environmental barriers. A central building block of human functioning is walking. Walking difficulties may start to develop in midlife and become increasingly prevalent with age. Life-space mobility reflects actual mobility performance by taking into account the balance between older adults internal physiologic capacity and the external challenges they encounter in daily life. The aim of the Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE project is to examine how home and neighborhood characteristics influence people’s health, functioning, disability, quality of life and life-space mobility in the context of aging. In addition, examine whether a person’s health and function influence life-space mobility. Design This paper describes the study protocol of the LISPE project, which is a 2-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older people aged 75 to 90 (n = 848. The data consists of a baseline survey including face-to-face interviews, objective observation of the home environment and a physical performance test in the participant’s home. All the baseline participants will be interviewed over the phone one and two years after baseline to collect data on life-space mobility, disability and participation restriction. Additional home interviews and environmental evaluations will be conducted for those who relocate during the study period. Data on mortality and health service use will be collected from national registers. In a substudy on walking activity and life space, 358 participants kept a 7-day diary and, in addition, 176 participants also wore an accelerometer. Discussion Our study, which includes extensive data collection with a large sample, provides a unique opportunity

  1. Within-Cohort Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the level of cognitive functioning can be influenced by characteristics of the environment that change over time. Many developmental researchers have referred to these influences as cohort effects, and have used year of birth as the basis for determining cohort membership. Furthermore, age-related differences in cognitive functioning are sometimes assumed to be primarily attributable to cohort differences, which implies that differences between birth cohorts should ...

  2. Patterns of experienced aging with a Finnish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, R L

    A cohort study of eighty-year old residents in Jyväskylä (pop. 66,000), central Finland, was carried out in 1990 as part of the EVERGREEN-project. A total of 262 persons born in 1910 were interviewed in the cohort study. The survey data produced a fairly accurate picture of the respondents' objective situation. In order to shed further light on how the respondents felt about growing old, tape recorded narrative stories were collected from a subsample of twenty persons (10 women and 10 men). The stories revealed the subjective meanings and evaluations attached by the individuals concerned to their own aging. Being members of the same culture and the same age cohort, they also shared the same way of perceiving themselves and the surrounding world. It became obvious that there existed some kind of boundary conditions for the experience of aging. The model of boundary conditions for the experience of aging was developed on the basis of the narratives. PMID:1305147

  3. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; LIM, JAE-YOUNG; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily...

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Women of Childbearing Age Throughout Fars Province - Iran: A Population-based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabpour, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in women of childbearing age that causes congenital malformation. In the present study we examined 844 serum samples from women of child-bearing age for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against hCMV by Elisa technique. 764 out of 844 (93% of the cases were seropositive for hCMV-IgG and 45 (5.4% cases were seropositive for hCMV-IgM. An increase in the rate of IgG seroprevalance was associated with an increase in age and parity. The IgG seroprevalance rate was inversely proportional to increasing abortions. Intrestingly seasonal variation affected IgG seroprevalance. There was an increasing trend in IgM positivity rate with age in women less than 29 years. hCMV seroprevalence rate was higher in women from rural as compared to those of urban areas. Finally hCMV primary infections occured in 2.4 % of all pregnancis and it is estimated that up to 0.3% of all congenital disorders, through out Fars province, were due to hCMV. We suggest a role of child to mother hCMV transmission and sexual maturity as the most probable epidemiological factors of hCMV seroprevalence among women of child bearing age.

  5. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  6. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  7. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regress...

  8. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  9. Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alison S; Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7-6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1-3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5-5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44-55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47-63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56-4.22±3.09 kg, P<0.001) and leptin (3.88±2.87-2.57±1.94 ng/ml, P=0.017). The pattern of change in height z-score over time was modified by the dose of medication (P for interaction=0.024). We found no medication effect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex). PMID:26544899

  10. Glycemic Control and Mortality in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Dialysis Focusing on the Effects of Age and Dialysis Type: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji In Park

    Full Text Available Active glycemic control has been proven to delay the onset and slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetic patients, but the optimal level is obscure in end-stage renal disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c on mortality of diabetic patients on dialysis, focusing on age and dialysis type.Of 3,302 patients enrolled in the prospective cohort for end-stage renal disease in Korea between August 2008 and October 2013, 1,239 diabetic patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes or having HbA1c≥6.5% at the time of enrollment were analyzed. Age was categorized as <55, 55-64 and ≥65 years old. Age, sex, modified Charlson comorbidity index, hemoglobin, primary renal disease, body mass index, and dialysis duration were adjusted.A total of 873 patients received hemodialysis (HD and 366 underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD. During the mean follow-up of 19.1 months, 141 patients died. Patients with poor glucose control (HbA1c≥8% showed worse survival than patients with HbA1c<8% (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-3.29; P<0.001. Subgroup analysis divided by age revealed that HbA1c≥8% was a predictor of mortality in age <55 (HR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.78-10.41; P = 0.001 and age 55-64 groups (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.56-7.05; P = 0.002, but not in age ≥65 group. Combining dialysis type and age, poor glucose control negatively affected survival only in age < 55 group among HD patients, but it was significant in age < 55 and age 55-64 groups in PD patients. Deaths from infection were more prevalent in the PD group, and poor glucose control tended to correlate with more deaths from infection in PD patients (P = 0.050.In this study, the effect of glycemic control differed according to age and dialysis type in diabetic patients. Thus, the target of glycemic control should be customized; further observational studies may strengthen the clinical relevance.

  11. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birthweight has, in several studies, been associated with mortality in adult age, even after adjustment for available socioeconomic factors. This association has been explained as a biological result of fetal undernutrition (fetal programming), by genetic predisposition, as a result of...... confounding by factors related to social position and lifestyle, or by a combination of these mechanisms. This study examines the relationship between birth dimensions and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in early adulthood, taking parental lifespan and social position at time of birth into account...... length were strongly associated with adult mortality risk, but no relationship between low ponderal index at birth and mortality was found. The relationship between birth size and early adult mortality was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for early-life social position and/or maternal and...

  12. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  13. Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Mark S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollutants is suggested to adversely affect fetal growth, but the evidence remains inconsistent in relation to specific outcomes and exposure windows. Methods Using birth records from the two major maternity hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne in northern England between 1961 and 1992, we constructed a database of all births to mothers resident within the city. Weekly black smoke exposure levels from routine data recorded at 20 air pollution monitoring stations were obtained and individual exposures were estimated via a two-stage modeling strategy, incorporating temporally and spatially varying covariates. Regression analyses, including 88,679 births, assessed potential associations between exposure to black smoke and birth weight, gestational age and birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex. Results Significant associations were seen between black smoke and both standardized and unstandardized birth weight, but not for gestational age when adjusted for potential confounders. Not all associations were linear. For an increase in whole pregnancy black smoke exposure, from the 1st (7.4 μg/m3 to the 25th (17.2 μg/m3, 50th (33.8 μg/m3, 75th (108.3 μg/m3, and 90th (180.8 μg/m3 percentiles, the adjusted estimated decreases in birth weight were 33 g (SE 1.05, 62 g (1.63, 98 g (2.26 and 109 g (2.44 respectively. A significant interaction was observed between socio-economic deprivation and black smoke on both standardized and unstandardized birth weight with increasing effects of black smoke in reducing birth weight seen with increasing socio-economic disadvantage. Conclusions The findings of this study progress the hypothesis that the association between black smoke and birth weight may be mediated through intrauterine growth restriction. The associations between black smoke and birth weight were of the same order of magnitude as those reported for passive smoking. These findings add to the growing

  14. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  15. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian

  16. Short-Term Changes in Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Cindy S T; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S C; Chung, Raymond C K; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y C; Gin, Tony

    2016-04-01

    Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children.This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤-1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤-1.96.Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P definitions and relative risk ratio methodology, we found no anesthesia-related POCD per se in school-age children. PMID:27057869

  17. Validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodskou, Pernille M; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy.......To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy....

  18. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  19. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  20. Cancer risk in patients aged 30 years and above with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetic monotherapy: a cohort study using metformin as the comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ching Chen,1 Victor C Kok,1,2 Ching-Hsuan Chien,1 Jorng-Tzong Horng,1,3 Jeffrey J P Tsai11Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, 3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, TaiwanIntroduction: Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces incident cancer development. Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of subsequent cancer development in diabetic cohorts receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. We conducted a population-based study in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic monotherapy.Methods: We identified a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetics aged ≥30 years receiving hypoglycemic monotherapy (n=7,325 from the 1998–2007 Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset. Patients were grouped according to the antidiabetic therapy they received into metformin (n=2,223, sulfonylurea (n=3,965, glitazone (n=53, meglitinide (n=128, acarbose (n=150, and insulin (n=806 groups. Patients with preexisting cancer were excluded. All patients were followed up until cancer development, dropout, death, or until December 31, 2008. Cox’s model was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking-related comorbidities, alcohol use disorders, morbid obesity, pancreatitis, hypertension, monthly income, and urbanization level. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative cancer incidence. Two-sided P-values <0.05 were required to reject the null hypothesis.Results: The overall median follow-up duration was 2.5 years (interquartile range, 3.6 years. Totally, 367 and 124 cancers developed in the sulfonylurea and metformin groups, respectively, representing an adjusted HR of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.67; P<0.005. No significant differences were observed between other groups. Increased adjusted HRs

  1. Age, sex, and socio-economic status affect the incidence of pediatric spinal cord injury: an eleven-year national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chien Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies focus on pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI and there is little information regarding the cause, anatomic level, and high risk population of SCI in children. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of pediatric SCI. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 8.7 million children aged<18 years in an 11-year period was analyzed for causes, age at injury, anatomic sites, disability, and familial socio-economic factors. Incidence rates and Cox regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 4949 SCI patients were analyzed. The incidence rates of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and other SCI were 4.06, 0.34, 0.75, and 0.85 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The proportional composition of gender, age, and socio-economic status of SCI patients were significantly different than those of non-SCI patients (all p<0.001. Male children were significantly more likely to have SCI than females in both the cervical and the other SCI groups [Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.03 and 1.52; both p<0.001]. Young adults and teenagers were also significantly more likely to have SCI than pre-school age children in the cervical SCI (IRR = 28.55 and 10.50, both p<0.001 and other SCI groups (IRR = 18.8 and 7.47, both p<0.001. Children in families of lower socio-economic status were also significantly more likely to have SCI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric population, the overall SCI incidence rate is 5.99 per 100,000 person-years, with traumatic cervical SCI accounting for the majority. The incidence rate increases abruptly in male teenagers. Gender, age, and socio-economic status are independent risk factors that should be considered.

  2. Are Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Middle-Aged and Older People Normative or Caused by Pathological Conditions? Findings From a Large Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandackova, V. K.; Scholes, S.; Britton, A.; Steptoe, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study to date has investigated longitudinal trajectories of cardiac autonomic modulation changes with aging; therefore, we lack evidence showing whether these changes occur naturally or are secondary to disease or medication use. This study tested whether heart rate variability (HRV) trajectories from middle to older age are largely normative or caused by pathological changes with aging in a large prospective cohort. We further assessed whether HRV changes were modified by soci...

  3. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  4. Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals

  5. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritte, R.; Lukanova, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dossus, L.; Teucher, B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospe

  6. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  7. IQ in childhood and atherosclerosis in middle-age: 40 Year follow-up of the Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Beverly A.; Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Parker, Louise; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a known precursor to coronary heart disease (CHD) and other relevant health outcomes such as stroke and cognitive impairment. In addition, higher childhood intelligence has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease events in later life, although the mechanisms of effect are unclear. We therefore examined the association between childhood intelligence and atherosclerosis using carotid IMT as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. Approach Participants were 412 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort study of all 1142 births in the city of Newcastle in May and June 1947, who took an IQ test and English and arithmetic tests at age 11 years. Study members participated in a medical examination and lifestyle assessment at age 49–51 years during which IMT was measured using ultrasound techniques. Results Individuals with higher childhood IQ score had a lower mean IMT in middle-age. A standard deviation higher score in childhood overall IQ was associated with a 0.053 mm (95% CI −0.102, −0.004) lower IMT in men and a 0.039 mm (95% CI −0.080, −0.002) lower IMT in women. Similar levels of association were found for the English and arithmetic tests. After adjustment for a range of covariates including education, the size of effect was undiminished in men but increased in women. Conclusions In the present study, higher childhood IQ scores were associated with a lower degree of atherosclerosis by middle-age. PMID:24267233

  8. Systematic age-related differences in chronic disease management in a population-based cohort study: a new paradigm of primary care is required.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our interest in chronic conditions is due to the fact that, worldwide, chronic diseases have overtaken infectious diseases as the leading cause of death and disability, so their management represents an important challenge for health systems. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of primary health care services in managing diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF and coronary heart disease (CHD, by age group. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Italy, enrolling 1,948,622 residents ≥ 16 years old. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze compliance to care processes with explanatory variables at both patient and district level, using age group as an independent variable, and adjusting for sex, citizenship, disease duration, and Charlson index on the first level, and for District Health Unit on the second level. RESULTS: The quality of chronic disease management showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age. In particular, our findings indicate lower levels for young adults (16-44 year-olds, adults (45-64, and oldest old (+85 than for patients aged 65-74 in almost all quality indicators of CHD, CHF and diabetes management. Young adults (16-44 y, adults (45-64 y, the very old (75-84 y and the oldest old (+85 y patients with CHD, CHF and diabetes are less likely than 65-74 year-old patients to be monitored and treated using evidence-based therapies, with the exceptions of echocardiographic monitoring for CHF in young adult patients, and renal monitoring for CHF and diabetes in the very old. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that more effort is needed to ensure that primary health care systems are sensitive to chronic conditions in the young and in the very elderly.

  9. Statin utilization according to indication and age: A Danish cohort study on changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Introduced to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), statins are now recommended for a range of other conditions, including asymptomatic individuals without cardiovascular disease or diabetes. The aim was to describe trends in Danish statin utilization according to indication.......82) for all indications and ages. Conclusion: While patent expiry and lower prices most likely boosted the general increase in statin utilization, the gradually altered indication and age pattern seems to be driven by guidelines, influencing both reimbursement rules and general healthcare policies. A...

  10. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  11. Social Networks and Memory over 15 Years of Followup in a Cohort of Older Australians: Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne C. Giles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the relationship between different types of social networks and memory over 15 years of followup in a large cohort of older Australians who were cognitively intact at study baseline. Our specific aims were to investigate whether social networks were associated with memory, determine if different types of social networks had different relationships with memory, and examine if changes in memory over time differed according to types of social networks. We used five waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and followed 706 participants with an average age of 78.6 years (SD 5.7 at baseline. The relationships between five types of social networks and changes in memory were assessed. The results suggested a gradient of effect; participants in the upper tertile of friends or overall social networks had better memory scores than those in the mid tertile, who in turn had better memory scores than participants in the lower tertile. There was evidence of a linear, but not quadratic, effect of time on memory, and an interaction between friends’ social networks and time was apparent. Findings are discussed with respect to mechanisms that might explain the observed relationships between social networks and memory.

  12. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  13. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be pro...

  14. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  15. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  16. Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…

  17. Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder but not panic disorder at age 15 years increase the risk of depression at 18 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, S J; Pearson, R M; Stapinski, L; Bould, H; Christmas, D. M.; Button, K. S.; Skapinakis, P.; Lewis, G; Evans, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesized that GAD but not PD symptoms at the age of 15 years are associated with depression diagnosis at 18 years. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort we examined relationships of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by the Development and Well-Being Assessment) at 15 years with depression at 18 years (by ...

  18. Self-reported medication side effects in an older cohort living independently in the community - the Melbourne Longitudinal Study on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA): cross-sectional analysis of prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Browning Colette; Wang Wei C; Thomson Jennifer A; Kendig Hal L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Medication side effects are an important cause of morbidity, mortality and costs in older people. The aim of our study was to examine prevalence and risk factors for self-reported medication side effects in an older cohort living independently in the community. Methods The Melbourne Longitudinal Study on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA), collected information on those aged 65 years or older living independently in the community and commenced in 1994. Data on medication side effects...

  19. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, Marga B; Alet H Wijga; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at age 12. Methods Height, weight, WC and FVC and FEV1 were measured during a medical examination in 1288 12-year-olds part...

  20. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-06-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into  90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. PMID:26969344

  1. Transition in Primary and Secondary Schooling in Pakistan: Gender and Age Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naushin Mahmood

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses the changing pattern of school attendance through age cohort analysis for both males and females in Pakistan. Based on the 1998 census data on educational attainment, the results indicate a profound rise in school attendance among younger age cohorts contributing to elimination of gender gap in primary-level schooling in urban areas only. The disadvantaged situation of rural females is reflected by a combination of low school entries/attendance to begin with, and high chan...

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate and Risk of Overweight at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Danielsen, Inge; Becher, Georg; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids are persistent compounds used in various industrial -applications. Of these compounds, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is currently detected in humans worldwide. A recent study on low-dose developmental exposure to PFOA in mice reported increased weight and elevated biomarkers of adiposity in postpubertal female offspring.: Objective: We examined whether the findings of increased weight in postpubertal female mice could be replicated in humans. Methods: A prospectiv...

  3. Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand -Te Puāwaitanga o Nga Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu, LiLACS NZ: Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people of advanced age (85 years and older is increasing and health systems may be challenged by increasing health-related needs. Recent overseas evidence suggests relatively high levels of wellbeing in this group, however little is known about people of advanced age, particularly the indigenous Māori, in Aotearoa, New Zealand. This paper outlines the methods of the study Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand. The study aimed to establish predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the relative importance of health, frailty, cultural, social & economic factors to successful ageing for Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. Methods/design A total population cohort study of those of advanced age. Two cohorts of equal size, Māori aged 80–90 and non-Māori aged 85, oversampling to enable sufficient power, were enrolled. A defined geographic region, living in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes District Health Board areas of New Zealand, defined the sampling frame. Rūnanga (Māori tribal organisations and Primary Health Organisations were subcontracted to recruit on behalf of the University. Measures - a comprehensive interview schedule was piloted and administered by a trained interviewer using standardised techniques. Socio-demographic and personal history included tribal affiliation for Māori and participation in cultural practices; physical and psychological health status used standardised validated research tools; health behaviours included smoking, alcohol use and nutrition risk; and environmental data included local amenities, type of housing and neighbourhood. Social network structures and social support exchanges are recorded. Measures of physical function; gait speed, leg strength and balance, were completed. Everyday interests and activities, views on ageing and financial interests complete the interview. A physical assessment by a trained nurse included

  4. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Modeling and Prediction - BAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker J. Schmid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The software package BAMP provides a method of analyzing incidence or mortality data on the Lexis diagram, using a Bayesian version of an age-period-cohort model. A hierarchical model is assumed with a binomial model in the first-stage. As smoothing priors for the age, period and cohort parameters random walks of first and second order, with and without an additional unstructured component are available. Unstructured heterogeneity can also be included in the model. In order to evaluate the model fit, posterior deviance, DIC and predictive deviances are computed. By projecting the random walk prior into the future, future death rates can be predicted.

  5. Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for new onset micro-albuminuria in a middle-aged and elderly population: a prospective cohort study in taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics (β = 0.194, p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27-1.59, p<0.01. A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11-5.93, p<0.01 and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82-2.07, p = 0.15. CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    , Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125

  7. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Design Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). Setting General practices in Thames Valley, UK. Participants 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks’ duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Main outcome measures Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. Results 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Conclusions Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the

  8. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    -interview survey. As part of the national health interview survey programme, three nation-wide surveys were conducted in 1986/1987, 1991 and 1994. The samples in the three cohorts consisted of 23,096 adult Danes ages 16 years and older, and 18,296 (79.2%) were personally interviewed on socio-economic status...... Service Register recorded 980,043 contacts with general practitioners and specialist physicians. For 1943-1996, the Danish cancer Registry contained information about one or more cancer diseases among 1,432 people. A total of 4,334 people in the 1994 cohort were re-interview in 2000. DANCOS allows...... for a wide range of analysis in a historical prospective design of determinants of morbidity and mortality, of health care utilization and of the social effects of ill health. DANCOS also allows studies of methodological issues, including analyzing the characteristics of non-respondents. Udgivelsesdato: 2003...

  9. Contributions of body mass index and exercise habits on inflammatory markers: a cohort study of middle-aged adults living in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Strohacker, Kelley; Wing, Rena R.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Determine whether body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) above, at or below MET minute per week (MMW) levels recommended in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines interact or have additive effects on interleukin (IL)-6, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin6 (IL-6) soluble receptor (IL-6sr), soluble E-selectin and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. Design Archived cohort data (n=1254, age 54.5±11.7 year, BMI 29.8±6.6 kg/m2) from the National Sur...

  10. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  11. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  12. ADAM19 and HTR4 Variants and Pulmonary Function: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Stephanie J.; Gao, Wei; Gharib, Sina A.; Hancock, Dana B.; Wilk, Jemma B.; House, John S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lumley, Thomas; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kovar, Christie L.; Coresh, Josef; Zhou, Yanhua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2014-01-01

    Background The pulmonary function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases and predict cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but the causal variants remain uncertain. We hypothesized that novel or rare variants poorly tagged by GWAS may explain the significant associations between FEV1/FVC and two genes: ADAM19 and HTR4. Methods and Results We sequenced ADAM19 and its promoter region along with the approximately 21 kb portion of HTR4 harboring GWAS SNPs for pulmonary function and analyzed associations with FEV1/FVC among 3,983 participants of European ancestry from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE). Meta-analysis of common variants in each region identified statistically significant associations (316 tests, P < 1.58×10−4) with FEV1/FVC for 14 ADAM19 SNPs and 24 HTR4 SNPs. After conditioning on the sentinel GWAS hit in each gene [ADAM19 rs1422795, minor allele frequency (MAF)=0.33 and HTR4 rs11168048, MAF=0.40] one SNP remained statistically significant (ADAM19 rs13155908, MAF = 0.12, P = 1.56×10−4). Analysis of rare variants (MAF < 1%) using Sequence Kernel Association Test did not identify associations with either region. Conclusions Sequencing identified one common variant associated with FEV1/FVC independently of the sentinel ADAM19 GWAS hit and supports the original HTR4 GWAS findings. Rare variants do not appear to underlie GWAS associations with pulmonary function for common variants in ADAM19 and HTR4. PMID:24951661

  13. Effects of depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease and their interactive associations on mortality in middle-aged adults: the Whitehall II cohort study. : Depression and mortality by CHD status

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Hermann; Shipley, Martin ,; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica; Korkeila, Jyrki; Marmot, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and mortality have been studied separately in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and in populations healthy at study inception. This does not allow comparisons across risk-factor groups based on the cross-classification of depression and CHD status. OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of depressive symptoms and CHD and their interactive associations on mortality in middle-aged adults followed over 5.6years. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective population-based cohort stu...

  14. Age, period, and cohort analysis of regular dental care behavior and edentulism: A marginal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Kwok-Fai; Wong May; Li Kar-Yan; Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To analyze the regular dental care behavior and prevalence of edentulism in adult Danes, reported in sequential cross-sectional oral health surveys by the application of a marginal approach to consider the possible clustering effect of birth cohorts. Methods Data from four sequential cross-sectional surveys of non-institutionalized Danes conducted from 1975-2005 comprising 4330 respondents aged 15+ years in 9 birth cohorts were analyzed. The key study variables were seekin...

  15. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

  16. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  17. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, ...

  18. Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérès Karine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health of the agricultural population has been previously explored, particularly in relation to the farming exposures and among professionally active individuals. However, few studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet, this population faces the long-term effects of occupational exposures and multiple difficulties related to living and aging in rural area (limited access to shops, services, and practitioners. However, these difficulties may be counter-balanced by advantages related to healthier lifestyle, richer social support and better living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers living in rural area through a multidisciplinary approach, with a main focus on dementia. Methods/design The study initially included 1 002 participants, randomly selected from the Farmer Health Insurance rolls. Selection criteria were: being 65 years and older; living in rural area in Gironde (South-Western France; being retired from agriculture after at least 20 years of activity and being affiliated to the Health Insurance under own name. The study started in 2007, with two follow-up visits over 5 years. Baseline visits were conducted at home by a neuropsychologist then by a geriatrician for all cases suspected of dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression (to confirm the diagnosis, and by a nurse for others. A large panel of data were collected through standardised questionnaires: complete neuropsychological assessment, material and social living environment, psychological transition to retirement, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and diet, medications, disability in daily living, sensory impairments and some clinical measures (blood pressure, depression symptomatology, anxiety, visual test, anthropometry…. A blood sampling was performed with biological measurements and constitution of a biological bank, including DNA. Brain MRI

  19. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major ...

  20. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  1. Birth cohort differences in anthropometric measures in the older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008 Diferenças de coorte de nascimento nas medidas antropométricas de idosos mais velhos: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí (1997 e 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dayrell Ferreira Sales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of birth cohort on nutritional status among older elderly (71-81 years old from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging, conducted in Brazil in 1997 and 2008. We compared the two birth cohorts - 1916-1926 (older cohort and 1927-1937 (recent cohort - considering body mass index (BMI = weight/height², waist circumference (WC and prevalence of overweight (BMI ³ 27kg/m². BMI (β = 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15 and prevalence of overweight (PR = 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01; 1.03 were higher in the recent cohort than the earlier cohort, regardless of sex and schooling. No difference was observed in WC. Stratified by sex, similar overall trends were observed for men, and WC was higher in the recent cohort. Among women there was no difference in BMI and overweight, but WC was lower in the recent cohort. The cohort effect was greater among older men and, in the near future, may result in greater prevalence of overweight in this group.Este estudo avaliou o efeito de coorte de nascimento no estado nutricional de idosos de 71 a 81 anos, participantes em 1997 e 2008 da coorte de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram comparados idosos nascidos em 1916-1926 (coorte antiga e em 1927-1937 (coorte recente, quanto ao índice de massa corporal (IMC = peso/altura², circunferência da cintura (CC e proporção de sobrepeso (IMC ³ 27kg/m², utilizando-se modelos de regressão linear e de Poisson. Após ajustamento por sexo e anos de escolaridade, idosos da coorte recente em comparação à coorte antiga apresentaram maior IMC (β = 0,09; IC95%: 0,04; 0,15 e maior proporção de sobrepeso (RP = 1,02; IC95%: 1,01; 1,03, não se observando diferenças na CC. Entre os homens da coorte recente, foram observados aumentos do IMC, do sobrepeso e da CC. Entre as mulheres, constatou-se redução da CC. Os resultados mostram um efeito de coorte na piora das medidas antropométricas entre os homens, mas não entre as mulheres.

  2. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5-69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Parks

    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years.Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0 and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5 due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses.Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.

  3. The Relationship between Health and Community across Aging Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Norstrand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is needed to examine the connection between older adults and their community as they age. This is important as increasing numbers of older adults wish to age in place. Regression models were examined across 3 cohorts testing relationships among social capital indicators (neighborhood trust, neighborhood support, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood participation, and telephone interaction with health outcomes (self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. Results showed that most social capital indicators remained significant for all health outcomes into very old age. Development of tools for individual and community interventions to ensure optimal fit between the aging individual and their environment is discussed, along with recommendations for enhancing social work theory and practice.

  4. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560768

  5. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to...

  6. Occupational Characteristics and Cognitive Aging in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability was...... assessed by 4 cognitive ability tests at ages 60, 70, and 80. RESULTS: Individuals in more intellectually challenging occupations had higher cognitive ability (r = .27-.38, p <.01), whereas those in more physically hazardous occupations performed more poorly (r = -.12 and -.13 at ages 50 and 60, p <.05...... ability, the one in the more intellectually challenging occupation had lower subsequent cognitive ability. The association of physical hazards with lower cognitive ability level did not remain after adjustment for the basic demographics, and none of the occupational characteristics were associated with...

  7. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 1 1/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC...... 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...

  8. An R package for fitting age, period and cohort models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Decarli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R implementation of a GLIM macro which fits age-period-cohort model following Osmond and Gardner. In addition to the estimates of the corresponding model, owing to the programming capability of R as an object oriented language, methods for printing, plotting and summarizing the results are provided. Furthermore, the researcher has fully access to the output of the main function (apc which returns all the models fitted within the function. It is so possible to critically evaluate the goodness of fit of the resulting model.

  9. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  10. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  11. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  12. Parental factors associated with walking to school and participation in organised activities at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with better health. Two sources of activity for children are walking to school and taking part in organised sports and activities. This study uses a large national cohort to examine factors associated with participation in these activities. Methods The Millennium Cohort study contains 5 year follow-up of 17,561 singleton children recruited between 2000-2002 in the UK. All participants were interviewed in their own homes at 9 months, 3 years and 5 years follow-up and all measures were self reports. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used. Results Children are less likely to walk to school as income and parental education increase [Adjusted odds: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6-0.8 for higher income/education compared to low income/no qualifications]. However, if the parent plays with the child in high income families the child is more likely to walk to school [Adjusted odds: 1.67 (95%CI: 1.3-2.1]. Children taking part in organised activities are from higher income, higher education families, with a car, in a "good" area with non-working mothers. However, in low socio-economic families where the parent plays with the child the child is more likely to take part in organised activities [Adjusted odds: 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.7]. Conclusions Income is an important determinant of the type of activity available to children. Families that report good health behaviours (non-smoking, low TV viewing and play with their children show higher levels of physical activity. Thus, parenting practice appears to have a strong impact on their child's physical activity.

  13. Individual and environmental factors underlying life space of older people - study protocol and design of a cohort study on life-space mobility in old age (LISPE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen Taina; Portegijs Erja; Viljanen Anne; Eronen Johanna; Saajanaho Milla; Tsai Li-Tang; Kauppinen Markku; Palonen Eeva-Maija; Sipilä Sarianna; Iwarsson Susanne; Rantakokko Merja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A crucial issue for the sustainability of societies is how to maintain health and functioning in older people. With increasing age, losses in vision, hearing, balance, mobility and cognitive capacity render older people particularly exposed to environmental barriers. A central building block of human functioning is walking. Walking difficulties may start to develop in midlife and become increasingly prevalent with age. Life-space mobility reflects actual mobility performan...

  14. Determinants of depression in chronic stroke : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Kwakkel, Gert; Bruin, Margje; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients. Methods. Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and thr

  15. Pain and pain treatment were associated with traffic accident involvement in a cohort of middle-aged workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarde, E.; CHASTANG, JF; Lafont, S.; COEURET-PELLICER, M; CHIRON, M

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objective: To assess the influence of medical conditions on road traffic accidents among a cohort of middle-aged workers and pensioners. Study Design and Setting: A longitudinal study of 13,548 participants from a cohort study of French workers. Follow-up data covered the 1989-2000 period. Adjusted hazards ratios (HRadj) for serious accidents were computed by Cox's proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates adjusted for age, occupation, annual mileage in 2...

  16. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    L??pez G??mez, Mar??a Andr??e; Duran Jord??, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; S??nchez Niub??, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...

  17. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  18. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing. PMID:24839402

  19. Disentangling the Age, Period, and Cohort Effects using a Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Portrait, France; Alessie, R.J.M.; Deeg, Dorly

    2002-01-01

    Disentangling age, period, and cohort effects in explaining health trends is crucial to assess future prevalences of health disorders. The identification problem -- age, period, and cohort effects are perfectly linearly related -- is tackled by modeling cohort and period effects using lifetime macro-indicators. This approach -- innovative in analyses on health trends -- handles theidentification problem and explains mechanisms underlying cohort and period effects. The modeling approach is com...

  20. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  1. Age as a Determinant for Dissemination of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: An Open Cohort Study of Influenza Outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Olle; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin A.; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Örjan; Valter, Lars; Eriksson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005–2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10–19 (p<0.001) and 20–29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10–19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for

  2. Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Olle; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin A; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar; Ekberg, Joakim; Dahlström, Orjan; Valter, Lars; Eriksson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10-19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data

  3. Self-reported medication side effects in an older cohort living independently in the community - the Melbourne Longitudinal Study on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA: cross-sectional analysis of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning Colette

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication side effects are an important cause of morbidity, mortality and costs in older people. The aim of our study was to examine prevalence and risk factors for self-reported medication side effects in an older cohort living independently in the community. Methods The Melbourne Longitudinal Study on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA, collected information on those aged 65 years or older living independently in the community and commenced in 1994. Data on medication side effects was collected from the baseline cohort (n = 1000 in face-to-face baseline interviews in 1994 and analysed as cross-sectional data. Risk factors examined were: socio-demographics, health status and medical conditions; medication use and health service factors. Analysis included univariate logistic regression to estimate unadjusted risk and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess confounding and estimate adjusted risk. Results Self-reported medication side effects were reported by approximately 6.7% (67/1000 of the entire baseline MELSHA cohort, and by 8.5% (65/761 of those on medication. Identified risk factors were increased education level, co-morbidities and health service factors including recency of visiting the pharmacist, attending younger doctors, and their doctor's awareness of their medications. The greatest increase in risk for medication side effects was associated with liver problems and their doctor's awareness of their medications. Aging and gender were not risk factors. Conclusion Prevalence of self-reported medication side effects was comparable with that reported in adults attending General Practices in a primary care setting in Australia. The prevalence and identified risk factors provide further insight and opportunity to develop strategies to address the problem of medication side effects in older people living independently in the community setting.

  4. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657

  5. Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ≈ 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

  6. Breast density and outcome of mammography screening: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50...

  7. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... were mailed to a stratified random sample from the Norwegian population registry in 1996 and 2001. Complete data sets for both periods were obtained from N = 4590 respondents. Data were analyzed by means of multivariate linear models. Results indicate that overall consumption of fat fish and processed...

  8. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...

  9. Externalizing behavior in early childhood and body mass index from age 2 to 12 years: longitudinal analyses of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.

  10. The Association between Cognitive Ability across the Lifespan and Health Literacy in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Catherine; Johnson, Wendy; Wolf, Michael S.; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and four participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study took a validated IQ-type test at age 11 years and a battery of cognitive tests at age 70 years. Three tests of health literacy were completed at age 72 years; the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults…

  11. DECOMPOSING RED MEAT, POULTRY, AND FISH EXPENDITURES INTO AGE, TIME, AND COHORT EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, James Michael; Blisard, Noel

    2000-01-01

    This paper decomposes red meat, poultry, and fish consumption into cohort, age, and time effects. Younger cohorts spend less in real terms than older cohorts. These findings suggest strong implications for future consumption and nutrient intakes in the U.S.

  12. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self-reported h......INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self...

  13. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  14. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  15. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C Kenny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004-2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years with women aged 20-29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19% were aged 20-29 years, 62,371(27.63% were aged 30-34 years, 33,966(15.05% were aged 35-39 years and 7,066(3.13% were aged ≥40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR = 1.83, [95% CI 1.37-2.43], pre-term (RR = 1.25, [95% CI: 1.14-1.36] and very pre-term birth (RR = 1.29, [95% CI:1.08-1.55], Macrosomia (RR = 1.31, [95% CI: 1.12-1.54], extremely large for gestational age (RR = 1.40, [95% CI: 1.25-1.58] and Caesarean delivery (RR = 1.83, [95% CI: 1.77-1.90]. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

  16. Migraine and Cognitive Decline Among Women: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rist, Pamela Marie; Kang, Jae Hee Hee; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Glymour, Maria Lee; Grodstein, Francine; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of m...

  17. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.C.; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, ...

  18. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a british birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverwood, RJ; Richards, M; Pierce, M; Hardy, R; Sattar, N.; Ferro, C.; Savage, C.; Kuh, D; Nitsch, D.; NSHD scientific and data collection teams

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods: Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction tim...

  19. Age, period and cohort effects on migration of the baby boomers in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Nikola; Bell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The differential migration behaviour of the baby boom generation is commonly explained by reference to cohort size effects. This paper focuses on inter-cohort differences in the intensity and pattern of internal migration in Australia, while paying particular attention to the Australian baby boomer generation as it has moved through the life-course. A series of generalised linear models are fitted to migration transition for age-period-cohort spaces to disentangle the effects of age, period a...

  20. Materialism across the lifespan : An age-period-cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Esther; Pieters, Rik

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the lifespan. Two initial studies revealed that: 1) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age; and 2) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has

  1. Age, period, and cohort analysis of regular dental care behavior and edentulism: A marginal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Kwok-Fai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze the regular dental care behavior and prevalence of edentulism in adult Danes, reported in sequential cross-sectional oral health surveys by the application of a marginal approach to consider the possible clustering effect of birth cohorts. Methods Data from four sequential cross-sectional surveys of non-institutionalized Danes conducted from 1975-2005 comprising 4330 respondents aged 15+ years in 9 birth cohorts were analyzed. The key study variables were seeking dental care on an annual basis (ADC and edentulism. For the analysis of ADC, survey year, age, gender, socio-economic status (SES group, denture-wearing, and school dental care (SDC during childhood were considered. For the analysis of edentulism, only respondents aged 35+ years were included. Survey year, age, gender, SES group, ADC, and SDC during childhood were considered as the independent factors. To take into account the clustering effect of birth cohorts, marginal logistic regressions with an independent correlation structure in generalized estimating equations (GEE were carried out, with PROC GENMOD in SAS software. Results The overall proportion of people seeking ADC increased from 58.8% in 1975 to 86.7% in 2005, while for respondents aged 35 years or older, the overall prevalence of edentulism (35+ years decreased from 36.4% in 1975 to 5.0% in 2005. Females, respondents in the higher SES group, in more recent survey years, with no denture, and receiving SDC in all grades during childhood were associated with higher probability of seeking ADC regularly (P P P Conclusions With the use of GEE, the potential clustering effect of birth cohorts in sequential cross-sectional oral health survey data could be appropriately considered. The success of Danish dental health policy was demonstrated by a continued increase of regular dental visiting habits and tooth retention in adults because school dental care was provided to Danes in their childhood.

  2. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.

  3. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  4. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Cancer Incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...

  5. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Willis F Buck; Gaspar Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty...

  6. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J;

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  7. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7] of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009. After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90] than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76]. Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  8. The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Lee, Won Joon; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Choi, Wungrak; Lee, Jina; Sung, Kiho; Chu, Sang Hui; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik

    2014-01-01

    The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) is a population-based longitudinal study of health determinants among elderly Koreans. The target population of the KSHAP are people aged 60 years or older and their spouses living in a rural community of Korea. A complete enumeration survey was conducted in the first wave of the KSHAP on 94.7% (814 of 860) of the target population between December 2011 and July 2012. The KSHAP-Health Examination (KSHAP-HE) cohort consists of 698 peopl...

  9. Low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births before and after the economic collapse in Iceland: a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Infants born small for gestational age (SGA or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB and low birth weight (LBW. We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1(st 2006 to December 31(st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6(th 2008. RESULTS: Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52], particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]. Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51] particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]. No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6-9 months after the collapse. CONCLUSION: The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation.

  10. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  11. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period-The Da Qing Children Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Chen

    Full Text Available The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance.To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood.424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight. Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001 in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001 in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and triglycerides at 10 years of age.Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin.

  12. Teasing apart the relations between age, birth cohort, and vocational interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E; Hansen, Jo-Ida C

    2014-04-01

    Empirical evidence supports that aging is related to differences in work attitudes and motivation (Inceoglu, Segers, & Bartram, 2012; Kooij, de Lange, Jansen, Kanfer, & Kikkers, 2011; Ng & Feldman, 2008, 2010), but little research has explored the relations between age and vocational interests. Furthermore, recent studies of age and work attitudes suggest that generational experiences (i.e., birth year) may account for age differences in the workplace (Inceoglu et al., 2012; Ng & Feldman, 2008, 2010), which in turn suggests that researchers need to incorporate both age and birth cohort effects in their designs. Thus, this study was designed to explore the relations of age at the time of testing and birth year to vocational interests using a sample of adults (N = 1,792) collected over a period of 3 decades. As expected, age was not a significant predictor of most interests, but birth year also was not found to predict most interests, with the significant prediction of Realistic interests by both age and birth year being the exception. Gender, however, significantly predicted most areas of interests. Neither age nor gender moderated any relationships between birth year and interests. Results suggest that birth year and age were minimally related to interests as all effect sizes were small. Discussion of the results illustrates the need for further research on this issue and also offers considerations for attracting and retaining different generations of workers in light of the findings. PMID:24660690

  13. Risk set sampling in epidemiologic cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Langholz, Bryan; Goldstein, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Recent work has extended the methods for the analysis of nested case-control studies to accomodate a broad variety of risk set sampling designs. These results have implications for the design of sampled epidemiologic cohort studies. We describe a model which is a natural extension of the Cox proportional hazards model and may be used to estimate parameters from sampled risk set data. We illustrate how these techniques may be used to solve three diverse design and analysis problems from epidem...

  14. Bone Mineral Density and Parathyroid Hormone as Independent Risk Factors for Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Brazil. The São Paulo Ageing & Health (SPAH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Diogo S; Machado, Luana G; Lopes, Jaqueline B; Figueiredo, Camille P; Caparbo, Valéria F; Oliveira, Ricardo M; Scazufca, Márcia; McClung, Michael R; Pereira, Rosa Mr

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between osteoporosis and increased mortality risk. However, none of these studies performed a concomitant evaluation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-calcium-vitamin D axis and bone mass to accurately determine the contribution of each of these parameters to survival in older subjects. Thus, we sought to investigate the association between bone parameters and mortality in a longitudinal, prospective, population-based cohort of 839 elderly subjects. Clinical data (including history of fractures and cardiovascular events) were assessed using a specific questionnaire. Laboratory exams, including serum 25OHD and PTH, were also performed. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and hip were evaluated using DXA. All analyses were performed at baseline (2005 to 2007). Mortality was recorded during follow-up. Multivariate Cox proportional regression was used to compute hazard ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Over a mean 4.06 ± 1.07 years, there were 132 (15.7%) deaths. These individuals were compared to 707 subjects who were alive at the end of the coverage period for mortality data collection. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, age (HR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.55; p = 0.001, for each 5-year increase), male gender (HR 1.90; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.79; p = 0.001), recurrent falls (more than two in the previous year; HR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.56; p = 0.026), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.21; p 49 pg/mL) were at a higher risk of cardiovascular death (HR 3.09; 95% CI, 1.36 to 6.99; p = 0.007) compared with the subjects in the lowest quartile (Mineral Research. PMID:26814375

  15. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: results from a population-based, prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    White, Christine M.; St John, Philip D; Cheverie, Madelon R.; Iraniparast, Maryam; Tyas, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging are generally accepted, but the mechanisms are less well understood. Education may influence healthy aging through improved employment opportunities that enhance feelings of personal control and reduce hazardous exposures, or through higher incomes that enable individuals to access better health care or to reside in better neighbourhoods. Income and occupation have not been explored extensively as potential mediators of th...

  16. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  17. Health and function of participants in the Long Life Family Study: A comparison with other cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A;

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar...... data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts. Pulse...

  18. Helicobacter pylori serology in a birth cohort of New Zealanders from age to 26

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Paul Fawcett; Gill O. Barbezat; Richie Poulton; Barry J. Milne; Harry H.X. Xia; Nicholas J. Talley

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 26 in order toinvestigate seroconversion and seroreversion from age 11 to 26 and the association of seropositivity with risk factors for H pylori infection. METHODS: Participants in the DMHDS at age 26 and retrospectively at age 21 were tested for H pylori antibodies using two commercially available ELISA kits. Gender, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking, educational attainment and employment at age 26 were tested for association with H pylori seropositivity.RESULTS: At ages 21 and 26, seroprevalence of H pylori using one or other kit was 4.2% (n = 795) and 6.3% (n = 871) respectively. Seroreversion rate was lower than serocon version rate (0.11% vs0.53% per person-year) in contrast to the period from age 11 to 21 when seroreversion rate exceeded seroconversion rate (0.35% vs 0.11% per person-year). Serology in those tested at ages 11, 21, and 26 remained unchanged in 93.6% of the sample. Seroprevalence at age 26 was lower among those with a secondary school qualification (P = 0.042) but was not associated with gender, SES, smoking or employment status. CONCLUSION: H pylori seroprevalence in a New Zealandbirth cohort remains low between ages 11 and 26. H pylori infection remains stable from childhood to adulthood although seroreversion seems to be more common in the adolescent years than in young adults.

  19. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... atherosclerosis was highly prevalent in this middle-aged cohort, with nearly half of the participants classified as having intermediate or generalized disease. Most participants at high FHS risk had subclinical disease; however, extensive atherosclerosis was also present in a substantial number of low...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...

  20. IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, G David; Schoon, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood.Design Prospective cohort study in which IQ was assessed by tests of mental ability at age 10 years and vegetarianism by self-report at age 30 years.Setting Great Britain.Participants 8170 men and women aged 30 years participating in the 1970 British cohort study, a national birth cohort.Main outcome measures Self-reported vegetarianism and type of diet followed.Results 366 (4.5%) participants said they w...

  1. Smoking status and common carotid artery intima-medial thickness among middle-aged men and women based on ultrasound measurement: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Merz C Noel; Paul-Labrador Maura; Fan Amy Z; Iribarren Carlos; Dwyer James H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established causal factor for atherosclerosis. However, the smoking effect on different echogenic components of carotid arterial wall measured by ultrasound is not well elucidated. Methods Middle-aged men and women who had IMT measurement ≥ 0.7 mm at baseline and follow-up were included (N = 413, age 40–60 years at baseline in 1995). Intima-media thickness of common carotid artery (CCA-IMT) and its components (echogenic and echolucent layers) were m...

  2. Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Colvin, Alicia; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Hess, Rachel; Matthews, Karen A.; Ory, Marcia; Schocken, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQL) during the menopausal transition, controlling for chronological aging, symptoms, and other covariates. Design A prospective, longitudinal study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N=3302) in the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. HRQL was assessed with five subscales from the SF-36 with reduced functioning defined as being in the lowest 25% on a subscale. Covariates included symptoms, medical conditions, sociodemographics variables, physical activity, and psychological factors. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant covariates, the odds of reduced role physical functioning were significantly greater at late perimenopause (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.99) and postmenopause (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.04) compared to premenopause. Menopausal status was unrelated to bodily pain, vitality, role emotional or social functioning. Hormone therapy users were more likely to report reduced functioning. Other variables significantly related to HRQL across all domains included vasomotor symptoms, urine leakage, poor sleep, arthritis, depressed mood, perceived stress, and stressful life events. Conclusions The menopausal transition showed little impact on HRQL when adjusted for symptoms, medical conditions, and stress. PMID:19436224

  3. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. (CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  4. Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders in long-term sick-listing. During 2000-2004, 125 Swedish primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, full-time sick-listed 6 weeks-2 years, were included in a randomized controlled trial to compare a cognitive-behavioural programme with traditional primary care. This prospective cohort study is a re-assessment of the data from the randomized trial with the 2 treatment groups considered as a single cohort. The aim was to investigate which baseline variables predict a stable return-to-work during a 2-year period after baseline: objective variables from function tests, socioeconomic, subjective and/or treatment variables. Stable return-to-work was a return-to-work lasting for at least 1 month from the start of follow-up. Methods Stable return-to-work was the outcome variable, the above-mentioned factors were the predictive variables in multiple-logistic regression models, one per follow-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. The factors from univariate analyzes with a p-value of at most .10 were included. The non-significant variables were excluded stepwise to yield models comprising only significant factors (p Results Three variables qualified, all of them represented in 3 follow-ups: Low total prior sick-listing (including all diagnoses was the strongest predictor in 2 follow-ups, 18 and 24 months, OR 4.8 [1.9-12.3] and 3.8 [1.6-8.7] respectively, High self prediction (the patients' own belief in return-to-work was the strongest at 12 months, OR 5.2 [1.5-17.5] and Young age (max 44 years the second strongest at 18 months, OR 3.5 [1.3-9.1]. Conclusions In primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, the strong predictors of stable return-to-work were 2 socioeconomic variables, Low total prior sick-listing and Young age, and 1 subjective variable, High self-prediction. Objective variables from function tests and treatment variables

  5. Age cohort differences in the developmental milestones of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p gay in such samples. PMID:18826167

  6. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population – a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort ...

  7. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  8. Evolution of age at menarche and at onset of regular cycling in a large cohort of French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early exposure to ovarian hormones is considered to increase breast cancer incidence. The age at which the ovaries become functional is thus important. METHODS: We explored the evolution of age at first menstruation and at onset of regular cycling in 86 031 women participating in the E3N-EPIC cohort study, part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer. RESULTS: We observed an increase in mean age at menarche among women born between 1925 and 1930, followed by a steady...

  9. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI. PMID:26996222

  10. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years with...... association was confined to supplemental folic acid and non-aggressive prostate cancer and may thus be a chance finding. Further studies are warranted to evaluate our findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht....

  11. Seroincidence of HIV-1 infection in african women of reproductive age: a prospective cohort study in Kigali, Rwanda, 1988-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, V.; Van De Perre, P.; Lepage, P; Sab, J.; Nsengumuremyi, F.; Simonon, A; Karita, E; Msellati, Philippe; Salamon, R.; Dabis, F

    1994-01-01

    To estimate the seroincidence of HIV-1 infection among women of reproductive age in Kingali, Rwanda. A total of 216 HIV-seronegative women were enrolled at delivery between November 1988 and June 1989. A blood sample was obtained at delivery to test for HIV antibodies (by enzyme-linked immunoassay and Western blot). Serum was tested every 3 months during follow-up. Incidence density rates of HIV seroconversion were estimated. The follow-up rate after 3 years was 89%, assessed by the maximum p...

  12. 孕产妇年龄对妊娠及分娩结局的影响%Effects of maternal age on pregnancy:a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉; 邹丽颖; 陈奕; 阮炎; 刘亚君; 张为远

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠年龄对妊娠及分娩结局的影响。方法收集北京、上海、江苏、陕西、四川、辽宁及广东等14个省市自治区共39家医院,2011年妊娠满28周至足月住院分娩的孕产妇病历资料,共110450例。以孕产妇年龄5岁间隔分成6组。以25~29岁组为参考组,应用二元Logistic回归分析计算其他年龄组的相对危险度(OR)。结果孕产妇的平均分娩年龄(28±5)岁。35~39岁组及≥40岁组妊娠合并糖尿病(35~39岁组及≥40岁组OR值分别为2.2和3.8)、妊娠合并慢性高血压(OR值4.6和6.5)、妊娠合并子宫肌瘤(OR值4.2和5.8)、妊娠期糖尿病(OR值2.6和3.5)、子痫前期(OR值2.5和3.6)、产后出血(OR值1.5和1.7)、早产(OR值1.8和2.4)、前置胎盘(OR值2.7和4.0)、胎盘早剥(OR值1.4和2.5)、剖宫产分娩(OR值2.1和2.5)、巨大儿(OR值1.2和1.2)、低出生体重儿(OR值1.6和2.3)及围产儿死亡(OR值1.6和3.7)的发生风险均高于参考组。<20岁的低龄组与参考组比较,妊娠合并贫血( OR值1.4)、子痫前期( OR值1.6)、早产(OR值2.1)、低出生体重儿(OR值2.3)及围产儿死亡(OR值3.6)的发生风险增加。结论20~30岁为妊娠及分娩的最适年龄,高龄孕妇及低龄孕妇的母婴风险均增加。%Objective To determine the pregnancy outcomes related with maternal age in China . Methods A total of 110 450 cases were selected and divided into 6 age groups at intervals of 5 years.The clinical data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland China.All deliveries were after 28 weeks of completed gestation in 2011.The unadjusted binary-logistic regression was employed for statistics .Results The mean age of all pregnant women was 28 ±5 at the time of delivery.The advanced age groups (35-39 yr and ≥40 yr) had higher risks than the 25-29 age group for pregestational diabetes [ odds ratio ( OR) , 2

  13. When to start antiretroviral therapy in children aged 2-5 years: a collaborative causal modelling analysis of cohort studies from southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schomaker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation in children 2-5 y of age. We conducted a causal modelling analysis using the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA collaborative dataset to determine the difference in mortality when starting ART in children aged 2-5 y immediately (irrespective of CD4 criteria, as recommended in the World Health Organization (WHO 2013 guidelines, compared to deferring to lower CD4 thresholds, for example, the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm(3 or CD4 percentage (CD4% <25%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: ART-naïve children enrolling in HIV care at IeDEA-SA sites who were between 24 and 59 mo of age at first visit and with ≥1 visit prior to ART initiation and ≥1 follow-up visit were included. We estimated mortality for ART initiation at different CD4 thresholds for up to 3 y using g-computation, adjusting for measured time-dependent confounding of CD4 percent, CD4 count, and weight-for-age z-score. Confidence intervals were constructed using bootstrapping. The median (first; third quartile age at first visit of 2,934 children (51% male included in the analysis was 3.3 y (2.6; 4.1, with a median (first; third quartile CD4 count of 592 cells/mm(3 (356; 895 and median (first; third quartile CD4% of 16% (10%; 23%. The estimated cumulative mortality after 3 y for ART initiation at different CD4 thresholds ranged from 3.4% (95% CI: 2.1-6.5 (no ART to 2.1% (95% CI: 1.3%-3.5% (ART irrespective of CD4 value. Estimated mortality was overall higher when initiating ART at lower CD4 values or not at all. There was no mortality difference between starting ART immediately, irrespective of CD4 value, and ART initiation at the WHO 2010 recommended threshold of CD4 count <750 cells/mm(3 or CD4% <25%, with mortality estimates of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.3%-3.5% and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4%-3.5% after 3 y, respectively. The analysis

  14. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  15. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 11/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L; Jørgensen, T

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....

  16. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Yeonju; Park, Sue K.; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the low mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Korea, the breast cancer mortality rate has increased. The aim of this study was to examine trends in breast cancer mortality from 1983 to 2012 in Korea, assessing the importance of age, period, and birth cohort as risk factors. Materials and Methods Data on the annual number of deaths due to female breast cancer and on female population statistics from 1983 to 2012 were obtained from Statistics Korea. A log-linear Poisson...

  17. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  18. Trends in environmental lead exposure and troubled youth, 1960-1995: an age-period-cohort-characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Patricia L; Land, Kenneth C

    2004-06-01

    Beginning in the mid-1980s and extending into the early 1990s, the United States experienced a wave of increased youth violence and teenage pregnancy. Nevin (2000) proffers a cohort-based explanation that these trends can be attributed to corresponding trends in gasoline lead exposure during the youths' early years. He contends that the increased consumption of adversely impacted their intelligence levels (IQs). This decreased their intellectual ability, resulted in poor decisions made during their teen and young adult years, and in turn, led to disproportionally high level of criminal involvement and unwed pregnancies among this cohort. The present study evaluates Nevin's causal model by testing the connection between trends in lead exposure and youthful problem behavior with age-period-cohort-characteristic (APCC) models. Our research finds no support for this cohort explanation. PMID:15216841

  19. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie; Goodman, Robert; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...

  20. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

  1. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Yi; Jae-Seok Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other ris...

  2. The impact of universal newborn hearing screening on longterm literacy outcomes: A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pimperton, H; Blythe, H.; Kreppner, J.; Mahon, H. M.; Stevenson, J.; Terletski, E.; Worsfold, S.; Yuen, H M; Kennedy, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the benefits of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) seen at age 8 years persist through the second decade. Design: Prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) followed up for 17 years since birth in periods with (or without) UNHS. Setting: Birth cohort of 100 000 in southern England. Participants: 114 teenagers aged 13–19 years, 76 with PCHI and 38 with normal hearing. All had previously ...

  3. HbA(1c) levels in non-diabetic Dutch children aged 8-9 years : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Wijga, A. H.; Smit, H. A.; Scholtens, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G. H.; de Jongste, J. C.; Stolk, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) is considered the best index of glycaemic control in established diabetes. It may also be useful in the diagnosis of diabetes and as a screening tool. Little is known about the distribution of HbA(1c) in healthy children and its predictors. The aim of this study is to

  4. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifes

  5. Utility of clinical parameters to identify HIV infection in infants below ten weeks of age in South Africa: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspan Heather B; Myer Landon; Madhi Shabir A; Violari Avy; Gibb Diana M; Stevens Wendy S; Dobbels Els; Cotton Mark F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background As HIV-infected infants have high mortality, the World Health Organization now recommends initiating antiretroviral therapy as early as possible in the first year of life. However, in many settings, laboratory diagnosis of HIV in infants is not readily available. We aimed to develop a clinical algorithm for HIV presumptive diagnosis in infants < 10 weeks old using screening data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral therapy (CHER) study in South Africa. HIV-infec...

  6. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W.M. Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physica...

  7. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  8. Trends in AIDS Incidence in Individuals Aged 50 Years or Older in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982–2011: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cavalcante Apratto Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three temporal components of AIDS incidence (i.e., age, period and cohort on individuals aged 50 or older living in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Methods: Age-specific incidence rates were calculated from 1982–2011. Negative binomial and Poisson models were used to analyze the risk of AIDS by age, period and cohort. Results: The risk of AIDS in men was 2.45 times higher than in women, regardless of age and period (p-value < 0.001. The incidence of AIDS in individuals older than 69 years was 7-fold lower than in those aged 50–59 years (p-value < 0.001. A decreasing trend in AIDS risk was observed from the youngest cohort (≥1940 to the oldest (1910–1919. From 1982 to 2006, we could detect an increasing trend in AIDS risk in the population aged 50 years or older. A peak in rates was detected in the period from 2002–2006. The incidence rates in 2002–2006 were six times higher than those in 1987–1991 (p-value < 0.001, independent of age and sex (p-value < 0.001. Conclusions: An increase of AIDS risk in older people was detected. This group should not be neglected by public health programs.

  9. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  10. Familial risk of venous thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing a...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....

  11. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  12. Patterns of drug use and abuse among aging adults with and without HIV: A latent class analysis of a US Veteran cohort*

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Traci C.; Kershaw, Trace; Lin, Haiqun; Heimer, Robert; Goulet, Joseph L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Gordon, Adam J.; Maisto, Steve A.; Day, Nancy L.; Bryant, Kendall; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the extent and patterns self-reported drug use among aging adults with and without HIV, assessed differences in patterns by HIV status, and examined pattern correlates. Data derived from 6351 HIV infected and uninfected adults enrolled in an eight-site matched cohort, the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Using clinical variables from electronic medical records and sociodemographics, drug use consequences, and frequency of drug use from baseline surveys, we performe...

  13. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; ,

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the...

  14. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302

  15. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnair...

  16. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  17. Survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85 in men and women belonging to cohorts with marked survival differences to age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkinen, E; Kauppinen, M; Schroll, M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While predictors of survival in older people have been examined in depth in a large number of studies, a literature search revealed no cross-national comparative prospective cohort studies on this issue. This study investigated survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85...... among three local Nordic populations using survival data on national cohorts as background information. METHODS: The data were derived from national registers and from samples of 75-year old living in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The subjects were invited to take part in interviews and examinations...... focusing on different domains of health, functional capacity, and physical and social activities. RESULTS: The proportion of survivors to age 75 was markedly smaller among the Finnish men and women than Danish or Swedish subjects. In the local population no marked differences in survival from age 75 to 85...

  18. Cohort Profile: Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study- A Prospective Long Term Study in Northern Iran ​

    OpenAIRE

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still a...

  19. Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamre, Harald J.; Anja Glockmann; Michael Fischer; Riley, David S.; Erik Baars; Helmut Kiene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated ...

  20. Comanagement of Geriatric Patients With Hip Fractures: A Retrospective, Controlled, Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rocca, Gregory J. Della; Moylan, Kyle C.; Crist, Brett D.; Volgas, David A.; Stannard, James P.; Mehr, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 3-year retrospective, controlled, cohort study is to characterize an interdisciplinary method of managing geriatric patients with hip fracture. All patients aged 65 years or older admitted to a single academic level I trauma center during a 3-year period with an isolated hip fracture were included as participants for this study. Thirty-one geriatric patients with hip fracture were treated with historical methods of care (cohort 1). The comparison group of 115 similar pat...

  1. Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallal, P. C.; Wells, J. C.; Reichert, F. F.; Anselmi, L; Victora, C G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort study. SETTING: Pelotas, southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week). RESULTS: The prevalence...

  2. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  3. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: methodology and principal results

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A Peres; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Ana M. B. Menezes; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, rangin...

  4. Time trends in exposure of cattle to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and cohort effect in France and Italy: value of the classical Age-Period-Cohort approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Age-Period-Cohort (APC analysis is routinely used for time trend analysis of cancer incidence or mortality rates, but in veterinary epidemiology, there are still only a few examples of this application. APC models were recently used to model the French epidemic assuming that the time trend for BSE was mainly due to a cohort effect in relation to the control measures that may have modified the BSE exposure of cohorts over time. We used a categorical APC analysis which did not require any functional form for the effect of the variables, and examined second differences to estimate the variation of the BSE trend. We also reanalysed the French epidemic and performed a simultaneous analysis of Italian data using more appropriate birth cohort categories for comparison. Results We used data from the exhaustive surveillance carried out in France and Italy between 2001 and 2007, and comparatively described the trend of the epidemic in both countries. At the end, the shape and irregularities of the trends were discussed in light of the main control measures adopted to control the disease. In Italy a decrease in the epidemic became apparent from 1996, following the application of rendering standards for the processing of specific risk material (SRM. For the French epidemic, the pattern of second differences in the birth cohorts confirmed the beginning of the decrease from 1995, just after the implementation of the meat and bone meal (MBM ban for all ruminants (1994. Conclusion The APC analysis proved to be highly suitable for the study of the trend in BSE epidemics and was helpful in understanding the effects of management and control of the disease. Additionally, such an approach may help in the implementation of changes in BSE regulations.

  5. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the

  6. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an

  7. Do social inequalities in health widen or converge with age? Longitudinal evidence from three cohorts in the West of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzeval Michaela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing studies are divided as to whether social inequalities in health widen or converge as people age. In part this is due to reliance on cross-sectional data, but also among longitudinal studies to differences in the measurement of both socioeconomic status (SES and health and in the treatment of survival effects. The aim of this paper is to examine social inequalities in health as people age using longitudinal data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study to investigate the effect of selective mortality, the timing of the SES measure and cohort on the inequality patterns. Methods The Twenty-07 Study has followed three cohorts, born around 1932, 1952 and 1972, from 1987/8 to 2007/8; 4,510 respondents were interviewed at baseline and, at the most recent follow-up, 2,604 were interviewed and 674 had died. Hierarchical repeated-measures models were estimated for self-assessed health status, with and without mortality, with baseline or time-varying social class, sex and cohort. Results Social inequalities in health emerge around the age of 30 after which they widen until the early 60s and then begin to narrow, converging around the age of 75. This pattern is a result of those in manual classes reporting poor health at younger ages, with the gap narrowing as the health of those in non-manual classes declines at older ages. However, employing a more proximal measure of SES reduces inequalities in middle age so that convergence of inequalities is not apparent in old age. Including death in the health outcome steepens the health trajectories at older ages, especially for manual classes, eliminating the convergence in health inequalities, suggesting that healthy survival effects are important. Cohort effects do not appear to affect the pattern of inequalities in health as people age in this study. Conclusions There is a general belief that social inequalities in health appear to narrow at older ages; however, taking account of

  8. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score): A Prospective Cohort Study with External Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkel Brabrand; Annmarie Touborg Lassen; Torben Knudsen; Jesper Hallas

    2015-01-01

    Background Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. Methods and Findings This observational prospective cohort study used t...

  9. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...

  10. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  11. Pneumoconiosis increases the risk of congestive heart failure: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27336897

  12. Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM): The Design of a Four-year Longitudinal Cohort Study among 15,118 Persons Aged 45 to 64 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan F.; Geuskens, Goedele A.; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna R M; Joling, Catelijne I.; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in em

  13. Study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM): the design of a four-year longitudinal cohort study among 15,118 persons aged 45 to 64 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Geuskens, G.A.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Jolings, C.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in employme

  14. Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences on the children's depression inventory: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2002-11-01

    A within-scale meta-analysis was performed on 310 samples of children (ages 8-16; N = 61,424) responding to the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Girls' depression scores stayed steady from ages 8 to 11 and then increased between ages 12 and 16. Boys' CDI scores were stable from ages 8 to 16 except for a high CDI score at age 12. Girls' scores were slightly lower than boys' during childhood, but girls scored higher beginning at age 13. There were no socioeconomic status effects and no differences between White and Black samples. However, Hispanic samples scored significantly higher on the CDI. Analyses for birth cohort showed a slight decrease in boys' CDI scores over time and no change for girls. Longitudinal studies demonstrated a marked testing effect. PMID:12428771

  15. Defining sarcopenia: the impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Ling, C. H. Y.; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S E; Cameron, I.D.; Westendorp, R G J; Maier, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree of agreement between seven different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia based on muscle mass and handgrip strength, described in literature. In this cross-sectional study, we included men (n = 325) ...

  16. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and %22lessons learned%22 that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (~40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted %22lessons learned%22 which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues (%22necking%22) for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  17. Familial aggregation of hypospadias: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Myrup, Charlotte;

    2008-01-01

    hypospadias in a cohort of 1,201,790 boys born in 1973-2005. Using binomial log-linear regression, they estimated recurrence risk ratios of hypospadias for male twin pairs and first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of a hypospadias case, which were 50.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.2, 75.5), 11...

  18. Incidence trend of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from 1987 to 2011 in Sihui County, Guangdong Province, South China:an age-period-cohort analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Fang Zhang; Yan-Hua Li; Shang-Hang Xie; Wei Ling; Sui-Hong Chen; Qing Liu; Qi-Hong Huang; Su-Mei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:In the past several decades, declining incidences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been observed in Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Los Angeles, and Singapore. A previous study indicated that the incidence of NPC in Sihui County, South China remained stable until 2002, but whether age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort affect the incidence of NPC remains unknown. Methods:Age-standardized rates (ASRs) of NPC incidence based on the world standard population were examined in both males and females in Sihui County from 1987 to 2011. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to quantify the changes in incidence trends. A Poisson regression age-period-cohort model was used to assess the effects of age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort on the risk of NPC. Results:The ASRs of NPC incidence during the study period were 30.29/100,000 for males and 13.09/100,000 for females. The incidence of NPC remained stable at a non-significant average annual percent change of 0.2%for males and−1.6%for females throughout the entire period. A significantly increased estimated annual percent change of 6.8%(95%confidence interval, 0.1%–14.0%) was observed from 2003 to 2009 for males. The relative risk of NPC increased with advancing age up to 50–59 and decreased at ages>60 years. The period effect curves on NPC were nearly flat for males and females. The birth cohort effect curve for males showed an increase from the 1922 cohort to the 1957 cohort and a decrease thereafter. In females, there was an undulating increase in the relative risk from the 1922 cohort to the 1972 cohort. Conclusions:The incidence trends for NPC remained generally stable in Sihui from 1987 to 2011, with an increase from 2003 to 2009. The relative risks of NPC increased in younger females.

  19. A Study of the Birth Weight–Obesity Relation Using a Longitudinal Cohort and Sibling and Twin Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    The, Natalie S.; Adair, Linda S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994–2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11–21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. ...

  20. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  1. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H;

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into acco...... been exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have...

  2. Uso de medicamentos do nascimento aos dois anos: Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004 Uso de medicamentos desde el nacimiento hasta los dos años: Cohorte de Nacimientos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, 2004 Medicine use from birth to age two years: the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Almeida de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    ógicos. Hubo aumento en la utilización de: medicamentos anti-infecciosos sistémicos, destinados al sistema músculo esquelético, al sistema respiratorio, analgésicos, antiparasitarios, insecticidas y repelentes. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de medicamentos en esta cohorte fue elevada y remite a la necesidad de priorizar el uso racional de medicamentos en los primeros años de vida.OBJECTIVE: To describe medicine use by children at three, 12 and 24 months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Southern Brazil, including: 3,985 children at three months, 3,907 children at 12 months, and 3,868 children at 24 months of age. The outcome investigated was use of medicine in the 15 days preceding the interview. Information on independent variables (medicine used, who indicated it, how it was obtained, periodicity of use, and therapeutic group were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during a home interview with the child's parents. RESULTS: Prevalence of medicine use at three, 12, and 24 months was 65.0% (95% CI: 63.5;66.5, 64.4% (95% CI: 62.9;65.9, and 54.7% (95% CI: 53.1;56.2, respectively. As age increased, there was a reduction in the total number of medicines used and an increase in self-medicine, which reached 34% at 24 months. Furthermore, frequency of sporadic medicine use increased, while that of continuous use decreased. Medicine was purchased mainly using private resources, with roughly 10% of drugs being purchased through the Brazilian National Health Care System. The profile of medicine types used also changed with age. The type of medicine most frequently used were dermatological products (36% at three months; respiratory system drugs (24% at 12 months; and analgesics (26% at 24 months of age. Compared to three months, medicine use at 24 months was characterized by decreased use of digestive tract and metabolism drugs, drugs for the sensory organs, cardiovascular system drugs, and dermatological

  3. Chinese cohort study of chronic kidney disease: design and methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Bixia; Zhang Luxia; Wang Haiyan; Zhao Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences,especially cardiovascular risk and end-stage renal disease.A recent national survey demonstrated that CKD has become a leading health problem in China.There is an urgent need to implement an in-depth investigation of the CKD burden and also to explore underlying mechanisms of CKD progression and it association with adverse consequences.Methods The Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is the first national CKD cohort in China.It will enroll approximately 3 000 pre-dialysis CKD patients aged between 18 and 74 years and follow-up for at least 5 years.Questionnaires,anthropometric measures,laboratory tests,and biomaterials will be collected at baseline and annually.The principal clinical outcomes of the C-STRIDE consist of renal disease events,cardiovascular events,and death.Based on the longitudinal clinical data and biomaterials,the risk factors with CKD progression and other outcomes will be analyzed,and candidate markers and predicted models will be established.Conclusion The C-STRIDE would provide important evidence for underlying mechanisms of CKD progression,valuable information for clinical guidelines,and healthcare policies in China.

  4. Increased Risk of Acute Kidney Injury following Pneumococcal Pneumonia: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pneumococcal disease leads to renal complications ranging from persistent proteinuria to end-stage renal disease. Studies on the association between pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are scant. This study assessed the relationship between PP and risk of AKI. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study examined data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2011. We identified inpatients with newly diagnosed PP according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. In addition, we selected a comparison cohort from inpatient claims without the diagnosis of PP that was randomly frequency-matched with the PP cohort according to age, sex, index year and comorbidities. We analyzed the risks of AKI by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results A total of 10,069 patients with PP and 10,069 controls were enrolled in this study. After adjustments for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with PP had a 1.11-fold risk of developing AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Conclusion This study indicates that AKI risks are higher in patients with PP compared with the comparison cohort. Careful follow-up observation and aggressive treatment are necessary for patients with PP to reduce the risk of AKI. PMID:27362355

  5. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants. PMID:25429727

  6. Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K

    2010-01-01

    Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of ...

  7. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  8. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp

  9. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  10. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  11. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...

  12. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Canada, 1970–1996: time trends and age-period-cohort effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S; Semenciw, R; Ugnat, A-M; Mao, Y.(State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, China)

    2001-01-01

    We examined time trends in thyroid cancer incidence in Canada by age, time period and birth cohort between 1970 and 1996. Age-specific incidence rates by time period and birth cohort were calculated and age-period-cohort modelling used to estimate effects underlying the observed trends. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancer doubled, from 3.3 and 1.1 per 100 000 in 1970–72 to 6.8 and 2.2 per 100 000 in 1994–96, among females and males respectively. Almost all the increase betw...

  13. Contribution du modèle Age-Période-Cohorte à l'étude de l'épizootie d'Encéphalopathie Spongiforme Bovine en France et en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Sala, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Contribution Model Age-Period-Cohort to study the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in France and Europe Contribution du modèle Age-Période-Cohorte à l'étude de l'épizootie d'Encéphalopathie Spongiforme Bovine en France et en Europe

  14. Cognitive and kidney function: results from a British birth cohort reaching retirement age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Silverwood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. METHODS: Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity. RESULTS: Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.

  15. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend;

    1999-01-01

    #ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. #ENTITYST......#ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service...

  16. Does Low Participation in Cohort Studies Induce Bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    confidence intervals gave very similar results and a small simulation study showed that the coverage probabilities were close to the 95% nominal level Conclusion: For the three chosen associations the odds ratios were not biased by non-participation. The results are reassuring for studies based on the Danish...... cohort and similar cohorts of pregnant women. The methodology used to compute confidence intervals for the relative odds ratios performed well in the scenarios considered.......Background: Participation rates in large cohort studies have dropped during the last two decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. Methods: The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from...

  17. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psycho...

  18. Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with

  19. Canadian family physicians' decision to collaborate: age, period and cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sisira; Devlin, Rose Anne; Thind, Amardeep; Chu, Man-Kee

    2012-11-01

    One of the core primary care reform initiatives seen across provinces in Canada is the introduction of inter-professional primary healthcare teams in which family physicians are encouraged to collaborate with other health professionals. Although a higher proportion of physicians are collaborating with various health professionals now compared to the previous decade, a substantial number of physicians still do not work in a collaborative setting. The objective of this paper is to examine the age, period and cohort effects of Canadian family physicians' decisions to collaborate with seven types of health professionals: specialists, nurse practitioners, nurses, dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists. To this end, this paper employs a multivariate probit model consisting of seven equations and a cross-classified fixed-effects strategy to explain the collaborative decisions of family physicians. Utilizing three cross-sectional physician surveys from Canada over the 2001-2007 period, cohorts are defined over five-year intervals according to their year of graduation from medical school. We find that newer cohorts of physicians are more likely to collaborate with dieticians, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists; newer female cohorts are more likely to collaborate with nurses while newer male cohorts are less likely to collaborate with nurses but more likely to collaborate with specialists. Older physicians are more likely to collaborate with specialists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and occupational therapists; the age effect for nurses is U-shaped for male physicians while it is inverse U-shaped for females. Family physicians are collaborating more with all seven health professionals in 2004 and 2007 compared to 2001. Belonging to a group practice has a largely positive influence on collaborations; and being paid by a fee-for-service remuneration scheme exerts a negative influence on collaboration, ceteris

  20. Cohort profile: Lifelines DEEP, a prospective, general population cohort study in the northern Netherlands: study design and baseline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tigchelaar, E.F.; Zhernakova, A; Dekens, J.A.M.; Hermes, G.D.A.; Baranska, A.; Mujagic, Z.; M.A. Swertz; Munoz, A.M.; Deelen, P.; Cenit, M. C.; Franke, L; Scholtens, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Wijmenga, C; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants: This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 part...

  1. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation

  2. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai

  3. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  4. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include

  5. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, Richard G.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder.

  6. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...

  7. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casasnovas José A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain. Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%. Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index. Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7 years, 27.7 (3.6 kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9 cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048, and 40.8 (11.6 years, 24.4 (3.8 kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9 cm, among females (N = 351. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male, the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least

  8. ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice. PMID:19543791

  9. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  10. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241...

  11. The role of BMI across the life course in the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, M.B.; Kuh, D.; HARDY, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Previous research showing an inverse association between age of menarche and adult diabetes relied on recalled age at menarche and did not adjust for BMI across the life course. We investigated the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, and whether childhood, adolescent or adult BMI attenuates this relationship. Methods We used data from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a British birth cohort study of men and women born in 1946, with con...

  12. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  13. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...

  14. Risk of colorectal cancer after initiation of orlistat: matched cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jin-Liern; Christoph R Meier; Sandler, Robert S.; Jick, Susan S; Stürmer, Til

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of colorectal cancer after orlistat initiation in the UK population. Design Retrospective matched cohort study. Setting Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from September 1998 to December 2008. Participants 33 625 adults aged 18 years or over who started treatment with orlistat; each orlistat initiator was matched to up to five non-initiators (n=160 347) on age, sex, body mass index, and calendar time. Main outcome measures Associations between o...

  15. Evidence for cervical cancer mortality with screening program in Taiwan, 1981–2010: age-period-cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Shih-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented. Methods Data from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year. Results The results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010. Conclusions The results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.

  16. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;

    2011-01-01

    Southern Denmark, Copenhagen; Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x. Objective. The...... magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...

  17. Cerebral palsy and placental infection: a case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khong T Yee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cerebral palsy in very preterm infants and clinical, histopathologic and microbiological indicators of chorioamnionitis, including the identification of specific micro-organisms in the placenta, was evaluated in a case-cohort study. Methods Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at five years of age were identified from amongst participants in a long-term follow-up program of preterm infants. The comparison group was a subcohort of infants randomly selected from all infants enrolled in the program. The placentas were examined histopathologically for chorioamnionitis and funisitis, and the chorioamnionic interface was aseptically swabbed and comprehensively cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeast and genital mycoplasmas. Associations between obstetric and demographic variables, indicators of chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy status were examined by univariate analysis. Results Eighty-two infants with cerebral palsy were compared with the subcohort of 207 infants. Threatened preterm labor was nearly twice as common among the cases as in the subcohort (p E. coli was cultured from the placenta in 6/30 (20% of cases as compared with 4/85 (5% of subcohort (p = 0.01. Group B Streptococcus was more frequent among the cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The association between E. coli in the chorioamnion and cerebral palsy in preterm infants identified in this study requires confirmation in larger multicenter studies which include microbiological study of placentas.

  18. Shopper typologies amongst a Generation Y consumer cohort and variations in terms of age in the fashion apparel market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to examine Generation Y consumer shopper typologies. The secondary purpose was to establish the influence of age in the identified shopper typologies.Rational: Marketers have ever been concerned with the behaviour of consumers. Generation Y consumers have emerged as an important marketing segment. Consequently, a need exists to investigate behavioural issues pertaining to this age cohort on a continuous basis.Methodology: A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of 230 Generation Y consumers of fashion apparel. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify shopper typologies. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the influence of age on the identified shopper typologies.Findings: The study identified seven shopper typologies that are applicable to the Generation Y cohort. These are quality conscious, brand conscious, novelty seeking, hedonistic, confused by over-choice, habitual, brand loyal and fashion conscious shopper typologies. The study also revealed that younger consumers were found to be more confused by over-choice than their older counterparts.Value of research: These findings may enable marketers to understand and predict the purchase behaviour of Generation Y consumers, thereby facilitating the development and implementation of more effective marketing strategies.

  19. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiotis, Konstantinos [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Carter, Stephen F. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Farid, Karim [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); APHP, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Savitcheva, Irina [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Collaboration: for the Diagnostic Molecular Imaging (DiMI) network and the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-09-15

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  20. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  1. Activity participation and cognitive aging from age 50 to 80 in the glostrup 1914 cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Mortensen, Erik L; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging.......To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging....

  2. Male infertility after endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (Tep) hernia repair (Main): rationale and design of a prospective observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten Nelleke; van Dalen Thijs; Smakman Niels; Elias Sjoerd G; van de Water Cees; Spermon Roan J; Mulder Laurens; Burgmans Ine P J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To describe the rationale and design of an observational cohort study analyzing the effects of endoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair on male fertility (MAIN study). Methods and design The MAIN study is an observational cohort study designed to assess fertility after endoscopic TEP hernia repair. The setting is a high-volume single center hospital, specialized in TEP hernia repair. Male patients of 18-60 years of age, with primary, reducible, bilateral ingu...

  3. Risk ratio estimation in case-cohort studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    In traditional (cumulative-incidence) case-control studies, the exposure odds ratio can be used as an estimator of the risk ratio only when the disease under study is rare. The case-cohort study is a recently developed useful modification of the case-control study. This design allows direct estimation of the risk ratio from a fixed cohort, but does not require any rare-disease assumption. This article reviews recent developments in risk ratio estimation procedures for the analysis of case-coh...

  4. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  5. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  6. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

  7. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  8. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...

  9. Milk Drinking and Mortality: Findings From the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Findings regarding the association between milk consumption and all-cause mortality reported by studies carried out in Western populations have been inconsistent. However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan. Methods The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. A total of 94 980 Japanese adults aged 40–7...

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  11. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little systematic evidence is available on potential gender differences in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from a real-world cohort. We designed the DEFIB-WOMEN study to examine gender differences on (i) patient reported outcomes (PROs), (ii) procedure- and...... device-related complications, and (iii) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort. METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multi-center, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at...... several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish national registers. The DEFIB-WOMEN cohort is comprised of 1790 (19% women; 343/1790) patients implanted between June 2010 and April 2013...

  12. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2005-01-17

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  13. Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2007-01-01

    We performed a survival analysis to assess the effect of meat consumption and meat type on the risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Between 1995 and 1998 a cohort of 35 372 women was recruited, aged between 35 and 69 years with a wide range of dietary intakes, assessed by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. High consumption of total meat compared with none was associated with premenop...

  14. Risk of developing diabetes is inversely related to lung function: a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Gunnar; Janzon, Lars

    2002-01-01

    AimTo investigate whether reduced lung function is a risk factor for developing diabetes. MethodsNon-diabetic men (n = 382) from the population-based cohort 'Men Born in 1914' were examined with spirometry at age 55 years. The cohort was re-examined at 68 years. Diabetes and fasting plasma glucose at follow-up were studied in relation to vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) at baseline. ResultsFifteen men developed diabetes during the follow-up. The ...

  15. Incidence of asthma and mortality in a cohort of young adults: a 7-year prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Bugianio Massimilian; Cazzoletti Lucia; Locatelli Francesca; Marco Roberto; Carosso Aurelia; Marinoni Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Few longitudinal data exist on the incidence of asthma in young adults and on the overall mortality risk due to asthma. A 7-year follow-up prospective study was performed to assess the incidence of asthma and mortality from all causes in a cohort of young adults. Methods The life status of a cohort of 6031 subjects, aged 20–44 years, who replied to a respiratory screening questionnaire between 1991 and 1992, was ascertained in 1999. A new questionnaire investigating the hi...

  16. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brants, H.A.M.; van Klaveren, J.D.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 ...

  17. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  18. Patterns and effectiveness of bortezomib use according to age in the VESUVE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelaud, Angela; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Fitoussi, Olivier; Facon, Thierry; Jové, Jérémy; Bénichou, Jacques; Robinson, Philip; Marit, Gérald; Rouyer, Magali; Moore, Nicholas; Noize, Pernelle

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutical options for older multiple myeloma patients have been improved with the advent of new drugs, yet there is a lack of observational data for such patients. To address this issue, an age-stratified analysis of the VESUVE cohort of bortezomib users was performed. Among the 779 patients included in the analysis, 358 (46%) were aged ≤ 65 years, 282 (36%) were between 65-75 years and 139 (18%) were more than 75 years old. There were few significant differences in treatment parameters across age groups; notably, older patients received a lower dose of bortezomib and more frequently experienced general or administration site conditions, metabolism or nutrition disorders and cardiac disorders. Overall best response rate and progression-free survival were similar across age groups. Taken together, these results indicate that older patients do benefit from bortezomib and that tailored treatment in real-life clinical practice does not compromise effectiveness. PMID:26397802

  19. Clarifying hierarchical age-period-cohort models: A rejoinder to Bell and Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reither, Eric N; Land, Kenneth C; Jeon, Sun Y; Powers, Daniel A; Masters, Ryan K; Zheng, Hui; Hardy, Melissa A; Keyes, Katherine M; Fu, Qiang; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R; Utz, Rebecca L; Yang, Y Claire

    2015-11-01

    Previously, Reither et al. (2015) demonstrated that hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models perform well when basic assumptions are satisfied. To contest this finding, Bell and Jones (2015) invent a data generating process (DGP) that borrows age, period and cohort effects from different equations in Reither et al. (2015). When HAPC models applied to data simulated from this DGP fail to recover the patterning of APC effects, B&J reiterate their view that these models provide "misleading evidence dressed up as science." Despite such strong words, B&J show no curiosity about their own simulated data--and therefore once again misapply HAPC models to data that violate important assumptions. In this response, we illustrate how a careful analyst could have used simple descriptive plots and model selection statistics to verify that (a) period effects are not present in these data, and (b) age and cohort effects are conflated. By accounting for the characteristics of B&J's artificial data structure, we successfully recover the "true" DGP through an appropriately specified model. We conclude that B&Js main contribution to science is to remind analysts that APC models will fail in the presence of exact algebraic effects (i.e., effects with no random/stochastic components), and when collinear temporal dimensions are included without taking special care in the modeling process. The expanded list of coauthors on this commentary represents an emerging consensus among APC scholars that B&J's essential strategy--testing HAPC models with data simulated from contrived DGPs that violate important assumptions--is not a productive way to advance the discussion about innovative APC methods in epidemiology and the social sciences. PMID:26277370

  20. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim;

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... identified among participants in the Danish cohort study "Diet, Cancer and Health" in which 57,053 50-64 years old persons were included 1993-7. Medical records were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced physician using a detailed standardized form, and information on the diagnostic work-up and presence...

  1. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.

  2. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  3. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  4. Análisis edad-periodo-cohorte de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España Age-period-cohort analysis of traffic accident mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Saiz-Sánchez

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre las medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas y la mortalidad se han construido modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS. Se observaron dos ondas evolutivas en la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico. Respecto a la edad, no podemos hablar de un efecto claro; tampoco se encontró un efecto cohorte ni para varones ni para mujeres. En relación con las medidas de seguridad vial, se discutió la consistencia que guardaban los modelos seleccionados con los resultados gráficos, y se obtuvo que el uso obligatorio del casco y de las luces de cruce en motocicletas se ha asociado significativamente a la reducción de la mortalidad (RR 0.73, pOBJECTIVE. To study the evolution of traffic accidents mortality in Spain and its possible application to an age-period-cohort analysis, as well as the effect of selected road safety measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Road accidents rates of mortality were obtained, and five-year interval age rates for each sex, which allows the study of specific rates of age by birth cohorts. To determine the association between the selected road safety measures and mortality, Poisson regression models were adjusted. RESULTS. Two waves emerge in the evolution of traffic accidents. There was no clear effect with respect to age, nor was there a cohort effect for men or women. As to the road safety measures, we discuss the consistency between the selected models and graphic results. The compulsory use of helmet and of crossing lights is

  5. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...

  6. Comorbid Depression and Heart Failure: A Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautesh Dinesh Jani

    Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.

  7. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  8. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  9. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark; Wu, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, surve...

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football : a prospective three-cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and fr...

  11. The Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on Pediatric Nocturnal Enuresis: a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saeed Ahmadi; Shahriar Amirhassani; Jalal Poorolajal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disorder caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy has been implicated as a cause of primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis in children. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on enuresis in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan City in Western Iran, from April 2010 to December 2011. Ninety-seven children aged 3 to 12 years with adenotonsillar hypertrophy who we...

  12. Nutritional status predicts preterm death in older people : a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva Thors; Saletti, Anja; Bergkvist, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: There is an association between malnutrition and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether this association is independent of confounders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether nutritional status, defined according to the three categories in the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument, is an independent predictor of preterm death in people 65 years and older. Methods: This prospective cohort study included individuals aged >= 65 years who we...

  13. Risk factors for mental disorders in women survivors of human trafficking: a historical cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Melanie; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Prince, Martin; Gorceag, Viorel I; Trigub, Carolina; Oram, Siân

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high levels of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women survivors of human trafficking. No previous research has described risk factors for diagnosed mental disorders in this population. Methods A historical cohort study of women survivors of trafficked women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova and registered for assistance with the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). Women were approached by IOM so...

  14. Quantification of the energy gap in young overweight children. The PIAMA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Brunekreef Bert; de Jongste Johan C; Scholtens Salome; Boer Jolanda MA; van den Berg Saskia W; Smit Henriette A; Wijga Alet H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap) in young overweight children. Methods Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 a...

  15. Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    León-Muñoz, Luz M.; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a valid...

  16. Persistent Poverty and Children's Cognitive Development: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, A.; Popli, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the four sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study of children born at the turn of the 21st century to document the effect that poverty, and in particular persistent poverty, has on their cognitive development in their early years. Using structural equation modelling, we show that children born into poverty have significantly lower test scores at age 3, age 5 and age 7 years, and that continually living in poverty in their early years has a cumulative negative effect on their ...

  17. Time Trends of Italian Former Smokers 1980–2009 and 2010–2030 Projections Using a Bayesian Age Period Cohort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Carreras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe past time trends of the prevalence of former smokers in Italy and to estimate prevalence projections using a Bayesian approach. An age-period-cohort (APC analysis has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of the age, period and birth cohort on the prevalence of former smokers during 1980–2009. A Bayesian APC model with an autoregressive structure for the age, period and cohort parameters has been used to estimate future trends. Results showed that awareness of harm from smoking occurred at younger ages with each advancing cohort, and that women were more likely to attempt to stop smoking during pregnancies and breastfeeding, whereas men attempted to quit only when smoking-related diseases became evident. Projections of future trend recorded a further increase in the number of former smokers in future decades, showing an estimate of the “end of smoking” around years 2060 and 2055 in men and women, respectively. The application of the APC analysis to study the prevalence of former smokers turned out to be a useful method for the evaluation of past smoking trends, reflecting the effects of tobacco control policies on time and generations, and to make projections of future trend.

  18. Long-term cognitive correlates of traumatic brain injury across adulthood and interactions with APOE genotype, sex, and age cohorts.

    OpenAIRE

    Eramudugolla, R.; Bielak, AA; Bunce, D; Easteal, S; Cherbuin, N; Anstey, KJ

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing debate about long-term effects of brain injury. We examined a range of traumatic brain injury (TBI) variables (TBI history, severity, frequency, and age of injury) as predictors of cognitive outcome over 8 years in an adult population, and interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, sex, and age cohorts. Three randomly sampled age cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64 years at baseline; N = 6333) were each evaluated three times over 8 years. TBI variables, based on self-rep...

  19. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work. PMID:27165559

  20. The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Study Design, Methods, Use of Information Technology, and Extension to Other Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Guillermina; Gordon, Aubree; Avilés, William; Ortega, Oscar; Hammond, Samantha N.; Elizondo, Douglas; Nuñez, Andrea; Coloma, Josefina; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2004, the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study was established in Managua, Nicaragua, to study the natural history and transmission of dengue in children. Here, the authors describe the study design, methods, and results from 2004 to 2008. Initially, 3,721 children 2–9 years of age were recruited through door-to-door visits. Each year, new children aged 2 years are enrolled in the study to maintain the age s...

  1. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Its Relationship to Initiation of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis: Longitudinal Cohort Study of Initially Healthy Adolescents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Daniel H.; Markowitz, Kenneth; Furgang, David; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri, Cebile; McKiernan, Marie; Gunsolley, John

    2007-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is frequently associated with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP); however, longitudinal cohort studies relating A. actinomycetemcomitans to initiation of LAP have not been reported. A periodontal assessment was performed on 1,075 primarily African-American and Hispanic schoolchildren, ages 11 to 17 years. Samples were taken from each child for A. actinomycetemcomitans. A cohort of 96 students was established that included a test group of 38 A. actin...

  2. Patients with chronic kidney disease are at an elevated risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Kao-Chi; Chen Yu-Lung; Lai Shih-Wei; Mou Chih-Hsin; Tsai Pang-Yao; Sung Fung-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more prevalent in Taiwan than in most countries. This population-based cohort study evaluated the dementia risk associated with CKD. Methods Using claims data of 1,000,000 insured residents covered in the universal health insurance of Taiwan, we selected 37049 adults with CKD newly diagnosed from 2000–2006 as the CKD cohort. We also randomly selected 74098 persons free from CKD and other kidney diseases, frequency matched with age, sex and t...

  3. Usual blood pressure, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular risk: cohort study of 4.2 million adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emdin, Connor A; Anderson, Simon G.; Callender, Thomas; Conrad, Nathalie; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Mohseni, Hamid; Woodward, Mark; Rahimi, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the subgroup specific associations between usual blood pressure and risk of peripheral arterial disease, and to examine the relation between peripheral arterial disease and a range of other types of vascular disease in a large contemporary cohort. Design Cohort study. Setting Linked electronic health records from 1990 to 2013 in the United Kingdom. Participants 4 222 459 people aged 30-90 years, registered at a primary care practice for at least one year and with a blo...

  4. Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-Reported Age Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Pavalko, Eliza K.; Long, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working…

  5. Perinatal depression in a cohort study on Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi; Mohamad Reza Maracy

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in thei...

  6. Distribution of Central Corneal Thickness and its Association with Ocular Parameters in a Large Central European Cohort: The Gutenberg Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Esther M; Lamparter, Julia; Mirshahi, Alireza; Elflein, Heike; Hoehn, René; Wolfram, Christian; Lorenz, Katrin; Adler, Max; Wild, Philipp S.; Schulz, Andreas; Mathes, Barbara; Blettner, Maria; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Main objective To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT) in a large German cohort and to analyse its relationship with intraocular pressure and further ocular factors. Design Population-based, prospective, cohort study. Methods The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort included 4,698 eligible enrollees of 5,000 subjects (age range 35–74 years) who participated in the survey from 2007 to 2008. All participants underwent an ophthalmological examination including slitlamp bio...

  7. Age of Onset of Schizophrenia: Perspectives From Structural Neuroimaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gogtay, Nitin; Nora S Vyas; Testa, Renee; Wood, Stephen J.; Pantelis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Many of the major neuropsychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, have a typical age of onset in late adolescence. Late adolescence may reflect a critical period in brain development making it particularly vulnerable for the onset of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies that focus on this age range may provide unique insights into the onset and course of psychosis. In this review, we examine the evidence from 2 unique longitudinal cohorts that span the ages from early childhood through ...

  8. Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414

  9. Reproductive Factors and Kidney Cancer Risk in 2 US Cohort Studies, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

  10. Happiness and Depression in Adolescence after Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy: Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Murray, Joseph; László, Mitzi; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecilia F.; Menezes, Carolina Baptista; Fernando C. Barros

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure may have adverse psychological effects on offspring. The objective was to assess the association between parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring happiness at age 18, as well as depression. Methodology Participants were part of a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (5,249 participants). Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale, a Likert-like scale with four questions generating a score from 1 to 7, with ≥ 6 indicating "happ...

  11. Personality Characteristics, Educational Attainment and Wages: An Economic Analysis Using the British Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, P

    2014-01-01

    We look at the influence of personality traits and cognitive ability on both educational attainment and on the wages of individuals in the UK labour market at age 33 using the British Cohort Study. We control for a new cluster of nine personality characteristics, some of which we consider likely to influence labour market outcomes. We find that some personality characteristics have significant influence on the acquisition of educational qualifications, in particular internal and external locu...

  12. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Fetal Growth: A Large Prospective Cohort Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Shan Lu; Qiao-Zhu Chen; Jian-Rong He; Xue-Ling Wei; Jin-Hua Lu; Sheng-Hui Li; Xing-Xuan Wen; Fan-Fan Chan; Nian-Nian Chen; Lan Qiu; Wei-Bi Mai; Rui-Fang Zhang; Cui-Yue Hu; Hui-Min Xia; Xiu Qiu

    2016-01-01

    There was limited evidence revealing the association of Chinese maternal dietary patterns with fetal growth. We aimed to examine the relationship of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy to neonatal birth weight and birth weight for gestational age in a Chinese population. A total of 6954 mother-child pairs were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cluster analysis was used to...

  13. Risk factors for schizophrenia. Follow-up data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko; Mäki, Pirjo; Murray, Graham K; Ridler, Khanum; LAURONEN, ERIKA; Moilanen, Kristiina; Alaräisänen, Antti; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Irene; Ivleva, Elena; TAMMINGA, CAROL; McGrath, John; Koponen, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates single risk factors identified by the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study up to the end of year 2001 or age 34. Impaired performance (e.g., delayed motor or intellectual development) or adverse exposures (e.g., pregnancy and birth complications, central nervous system diseases) are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. However, upper social class girls and clever schoolboys also have an increased risk to develop schizophrenia, contraste...

  14. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). R...

  15. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  16. Functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Dros, J.; Maarsingh, O.R.; Beem, L.; van der Horst, H.E.; Riet, G. ter; Schellevis, F G; van Weert, H.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 6-month functional prognosis of dizziness in older adults in primary care, to identify important predictors of dizziness-related impairment, and to construct a score to assist risk prediction. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Setting: Twenty-four primary care practices in the Netherlands. Participants: Four hundred seventeen older adults (mean age 78.5, range 65–95, 74% female) presenting consecutively to primary care with dizziness. Meas...

  17. Self-rated health and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; Jerden, Lars; Boeing, Heiner; Sluik, Diewertje; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Spijkerman, Annemieke; de Mesquita, Bas Bueno; Dethlefsen, Claus; Nilsson, Peter; Noethlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether low self-rated health (SRH) is associated with increased mortality in individuals with diabetes. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in four centres (Bilthoven, Heidelberg, Potsdam, Umea) in a subcohort nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Participants: 3257 individuals (mean +/- SD age was 55.8 +/- 7.6 years and 42% women) with confirmed diagnosis of di...

  18. Childhood cancer and nuclear power plants in Switzerland: a census-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Hengartner, Heinz; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on childhood cancer and nuclear power plants (NPPs) produced conflicting results. We used a cohort approach to examine whether residence near NPPs was associated with leukaemia or any childhood cancer in Switzerland. METHODS: We computed person-years at risk for children aged 0-15 years born in Switzerland from 1985 to 2009, based on the Swiss censuses 1990 and 2000 and identified cancer cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We geo-coded place...

  19. Isoniazid Toxicity among an Older Veteran Population: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Vinnard; Anand Gopal; LINKIN, Darren R.; Joel Maslow

    2013-01-01

    Background: our objective was to determine the incidence of toxicity among veterans initiating isoniazid therapy for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and determine whether advancing age was a risk factor for toxicity. Methods: we performed a retrospective cohort study among all adults initiating isoniazid treatment for LTBI at a Veterans Medical Center from 1999 to 2005. We collected data on patient demographics, co-morbidities, site of initiation, and treatment outcome. Results: 219 pati...

  20. Behavioural and Psychiatric Symptoms in People with Dementia Admitted to the Acute Hospital: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, E L; White, N.; Leurent, B.; Scott, S; Lord, K; Round, J; Jones, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals. There are concerns about the quality of care they receive. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) seem to be particularly challenging for hospital staff. AIMS To define the prevalence of BPSD and explore their clinical associations. METHOD: Longitudinal cohort study of 230 people with dementia, aged over 70, admitted to hospital for acute medical illness, and assessed for BPSD at admission and every 4...

  1. Personality and Smoking: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 9 Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hakulinen; Mirka Hintsanen; Munafò, Marcus R.; Marianna Virtanen; Mika Kivimäki; David Batty, G.; Markus Jokela

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality and smoking, and test whether sociodemographic factors modify these associations.Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal individual-participant meta-analysis. Setting: Nine cohort studies from Australia, Germany, UK and US. Participants: A total of 79,757 men and women (mean age = 51 years). Measurements: Personality traits of the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousne...

  2. Personality and smoking: Individual-participant meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Munafò, Marcus R.; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between personality and smoking, and test whether sociodemographic factors modify these associations.Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal individual-participant meta-analysis. Setting: Nine cohort studies from Australia, Germany, UK and US. Participants: A total of 79,757 men and women (mean age = 51 years). Measurements: Personality traits of the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousne...

  3. The Importance of Early Conscientiousness for Socio-Economic Outcomes: Evidence from the British Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...

  4. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Ana; Barros Fernando C.; Golding Jean; Victora Cesar G; Matijasevich Alicia; Araujo Cora L; Smith George

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separ...

  5. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gearoid M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Tanner, Rikki M.; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...

  6. Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Nanette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-vitro fertilization (IVF with blastocyst as opposed to cleavage stage embryos has been advocated to improve success rates. Limited information exists on which to predict which patients undergoing blastocyst embryo transfer (BET will achieve pregnancy. This study's objective was to evaluate the predictive value of patient and cycle characteristics for clinical pregnancy following fresh BET. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study from 2003–2007 at an academic assisted reproductive program. 114 women with infertility underwent fresh IVF with embryo transfer. We studied patients undergoing transfer of embryos at the blastocyst stage of development. Our main outcome of interest was clinical pregnancy. Clinical pregnancy and its associations with patient characteristics (age, body mass index, FSH, ethnicity and cycle parameters (thickness of endometrial stripe, number eggs, available cleaving embryos, number blastocysts available, transferred, and cryopreserved, and embryo quality were examined using Student's T test and Mann-Whitney-U tests as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine independent predictors of CP following BET. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were used to determine the optimal thickness of endometrial stripe for predicting clinical pregnancy. Results Patients achieving clinical pregnancy demonstrated a thicker endometrial stripe and were younger preceding embryo transfer. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.641, 95% CI 1.054–6.617, thickness of endometrial stripe, (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.006–1.396 and age (OR 0.879, 95% CI 0.789–0.980 predicted clinical pregnancy. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, endometrial stripe ≥ 9.4 mm demonstrated a sensitivity of 83% for predicting clinical pregnancy following BET. Conclusion In a cohort of patients undergoing fresh BET, thicker endometrial stripe, Caucasian

  7. Cohort Study of Intracameral Moxifloxacin in Postoperative Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Virgilio Galvis; Alejandro Tello; Mary Alejandra Sánchez; Paul Anthony Camacho

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the...

  8. Gender differences in postpartum depression. A longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The course of depression from pregnancy to one year postpartum and their risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. This study has two aims: 1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from third trimester of pregnancy to one year after childbirth and 2) to determine gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carr...

  9. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Kreiner‐Møller, E.; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Stokholm, J.; Pedersen, L.; Bjarnadóttir, E.; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Nilsson, E; Mortensen, L. J.; Olsen, S. F.; Schjørring, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. Objective The aim of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep cl...

  10. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Hlady, W. G.; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposur...

  11. Test–retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents aged 13–14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of food intake is challenging and prone to errors; it is therefore important to consider the reliability and validity of the assessment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reproducibility and validity of a developed food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use among adolescents. Design: In total, 58 students (aged 13–14 from four different schools in the southern part of Norway participated in the reproducibility study of filling out the FFQ 4 weeks apart. In addition, 93 students participated in the relative validity study where the FFQ was compared to 2×24-hour dietary recalls, while 92 students participated in the absolute validity study where the intakes of fatty acids and vitamin D from the FFQ were compared to fatty acids and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in whole blood. Results: The median Spearman correlation coefficient for all nutrients in the test–retest reliability study was 0.57. The median Spearman correlation for all nutrients in the relative validity study was 0.26, while the correlations coefficients were low in the absolute validity study with n-3 fatty acid coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.25, and absent for vitamin D (r=0.000. Conclusion: The test–retest reproducibility was considered good, the relative validity was considered poor to good, and the absolute validity was considered poor. However, the results are comparable to other studies among adolescents.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  13. Protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study: association between neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development at 4–5 year of age: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; De Schepper, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Several European countries, including Belgium, still suffer from mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in whole blood measured at birth has been proposed as an indicator of maternal iodine status during the last trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the offspring. In several studies, elevated TSH levels at birth were associated with suboptimal cognitive and psychomo...

  14. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor M Stukes

    Full Text Available Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OHD and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OHD at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level; and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6 and did not correlate with 25(OHD, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively. Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001. Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OHD concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively. This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OHD values and warrants additional studies for further observation.

  15. Early-Onset Alopecia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fondell, Elinor; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies on early balding (alopecia) revealed single nucleotide polymorphism variants in the region of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) gene TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP/TDP-43). We therefore explored the association of early-onset alopecia and ALS in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a large cohort of 51,529 US men. In 1992, the participants (then aged 46–81 years) were asked to report their hair line pattern at age 45 y...

  16. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.;

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that perinatal exposures, in particular the human microbiome and maternal nutrition during pregnancy, interact with the genetic predisposition to cause an abnormal immune modulation in early life towards a trajectory to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and others. The aim...... of this study is to explore these interactions by conducting a longitudinal study in an unselected cohort of pregnant women and their offspring with emphasis on deep clinical phenotyping, exposure assessment, and biobanking. Exposure assessments focus on the human microbiome. Nutritional intervention...... during pregnancy in randomized controlled trials are included in the study to prevent disease and to be able to establish causal relationships. Pregnant women from eastern Denmark were invited during 2008–2010 to a novel unselected ‘COPSAC2010’ cohort. The women visited the clinic during pregnancy weeks...

  17. Blood pressure and 10-year mortality risk in the Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics...... 75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination...... correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure....

  18. DISTRESS AND PTSD IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: COHORT STUDY CASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed 14 days-6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742-2259), discovered metastases (β=0.304; P=0.001; 95% CI -2621 to 0978) and treatments (β=0.160; P=0.031, 95% CI 0050 to 1.060). Conclusion: The problem of distress in cancer patients is widespread and has a high prevalence of 76% in our environment, while still absent intervention and treatment. PMID:27047260

  19. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  20. Cognitive Function and Health Literacy Decline in a Cohort of Aging English Adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, L. C.; Wardle, J; Wolf, M. S.; von Wagner, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low health literacy is common among aging patients and is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe health literacy decline during aging and to investigate the roles of cognitive function and decline in determining health literacy decline. METHODS Data were from 5,256 non-cognitively impaired adults aged ≥ 52 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Health literacy was assessed using a four-item reading comprehension assessment of a fictitious medici...

  1. Physical activity and risk for breast cancer a prospective cohort study among Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tahereh; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ekbom, Anders; Wedrén, Sara; Terry, Paul; Floderus, Birgitta; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2002-07-01

    The epidemiologic association between physical activity and breast cancer has been corroborated in many studies. Some inconsistencies remain, possibly due to variation in life periods for exposure assessment, confounding and undetected effect modification. In our cohort study, we address some of these questions by taking into account physical activity in different periods of life and by investigating effect modification by birth cohort and body mass index (BMI). Altogether 9,539 same-sex twin women aged 42-70 years who answered a questionnaire about their work and leisure-time physical exercise from ages 25 to 50 during 1967 and 1970 were included in our cohort. During follow-up, 506 breast cancer cases occurred through 1997. We used multivariate Cox models to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We found no associations between physical activity and breast cancer overall. Women born between 1901 and 1917 (aged 51-70 at baseline) who reported regular leisure-time activity had a borderline significant 40% lower risk compared with those who reported no activity (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.0; test for trend, p = 0.07). This association appeared to be confined to women with a low BMI after the age of 50 and to women with a high BMI during the premenopausal period. We found no evidence that work activity reduces risk for breast cancer. The importance of physical activity for breast cancer risk seems to depend on birth cohort. The association may be limited to normal-weight postmenopausal women and overweight premenopausal women. PMID:12115590

  2. Weekly miscarriage rates in a community-based prospective cohort study in rural western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Stephanie; Aol, George; Ouma, Peter; Yan, Nicole; Bigogo, Godfrey; Hamel, Mary J; Burton, Deron C; Oneko, Martina; Breiman, Robert F; Slutsker, Laurence; Feikin, Daniel; Kariuki, Simon; Odhiambo, Frank; Stergachis, Andreas; Laserson, Kayla F; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes is important to monitor the impact of public health interventions. Miscarriage is a challenging end point to ascertain and there is scarce information on its rate in low-income countries. The objective was to estimate the background rate and cumulative probability of miscarriage in rural western Kenya. Design This was a population-based prospective cohort. Participants and setting Women of childbearing age were followed prospectively to identify pregnancies and ascertain their outcomes in Siaya County, western Kenya. The cohort study was carried out in 33 adjacent villages under health and demographic surveillance. Outcome measure Miscarriage. Results Between 2011 and 2013, among 5536 women of childbearing age, 1453 pregnancies were detected and 1134 were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability was 18.9%. The weekly miscarriage rate declined steadily with increasing gestation until approximately 20 weeks. Known risk factors for miscarriage such as maternal age, gravidity, occupation, household wealth and HIV infection were confirmed. Conclusions This is the first report of weekly miscarriage rates in a rural African setting in the context of high HIV and malaria prevalence. Future studies should consider the involvement of community health workers to identify the pregnancy cohort of early gestation for better data on the actual number of pregnancies and the assessment of miscarriage. PMID:27084287

  3. Trends in U.S. Adult Chronic Disease Mortality, 1960–1999: Age, Period, and Cohort Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I examine temporal changes in U.S. adult mortality by chronic disease cause of death and by sex over a 40-year period in the second half of the twentieth century. I apply age-period-cohort (APC) analyses that combine conventional approaches and a new method of model estimation to simultaneously account for age, period, and cohort variations in mortality rates for four leading causes of deaths, including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and breast cancer. The results show tha...

  4. Inference and forecasting in the age-period-cohort model with unknown exposure with an application to mesothelioma mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Miranda, M. D.; Nielsen, B; J.P. Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    It is of considerable interest to forecast future mesothelioma mortality. No measures for exposure are available so it is not straight forward to apply a dose-response model. It is proposed to model the counts of deaths directly using a Poisson regression with an age-period-cohort structure, but without offset. Traditionally the age-period-cohort is viewed to suffer from an identification problem. It is shown how to re-parameterize the model in terms of freely varying parameters, so as to avo...

  5. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Design Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Setting Norwegian resource centre. Participants 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Interventions Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors’ situation and personal needs. Main ou...

  6. Cohort Profile: The Skin Cancer After Organ Transplant Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G.; Daling, Janet R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants...

  7. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  8. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women

    OpenAIRE

    Nouraei Mehdi; Kamangar Farin; Pourshams Akram; Sadatsafavi Mohsen; Bahrami Hossein; Semnani Shahriar; Brennan Paul; Boffetta Paolo; Malekzadeh Reza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the rates in the US. Methods Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998 men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban...

  9. Frailty index of deficit accumulation and falls: data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guowei; Ioannidis, George; Pickard, Laura; Kennedy, Courtney; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Jonathan D. Adachi

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and risk of falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations in women aged 55 years and older. Methods The data were from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton Cohort. In this 3-year longitudinal, observational cohort study, women (N = 3,985) aged ≥55 years were enrolled between May 2008 and March 2009 in Hamilton, Canada. A FI including co-morbidities, activitie...

  10. Human papillomavirus infection and risk factors in a cohort of Tuscan women aged 18-24: results at recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacava Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conclusive evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV infections of the cervix are a necessary cause of cervical cancer. In Italy there are consistent data of HPV prevalence in women aged 25 - 64 years, but there is limited data for younger women. The objective of this on-going 3-year prospective cohort study is to investigate the prevalence, acquisition, clearance and persistence of HPV infections in young Tuscan women and the risk factors correlated with such events. Methods One thousand and sixty-six women aged between 18 and 24 years were enrolled and received an initial HPV test. They were asked to return to the clinic over the study period for further tests every 12 months, if their HPV HR result was negative, or every 6 months, if positive. Additionally, women with an HPV positive result were given a cytological examination and if the cytological diagnosis was ASC-US or more severe, only women with HPV HR, were referred for colposcopy. Results We present here data for the enrolment phase of the study. At baseline, within the study sample, just under 30% of women were infected by HPV and 19.3% of women were infected with oncogenic types. A relationship was highlighted between HPV infection, number of sexual partners (in particularly in the last 3 years and the lifetime number of partner's partners. Condom use showed a slight protective effect in univariate analysis but these data were not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. The association between HPV infection and demographic and behavioural variables were tested by crude odds ratio (OR. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compute the adjusted odds ratios. Conclusions The prevalence of oncogenic HPV types was high in young Tuscan women. The 3-year follow-up of this cohort may provide a better understanding of the processes of acquisition, clearance and persistence of infection and the correlated risk factors.

  11. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce , MB; Silverwood, RJ; Nitsch, D.; Adams, JE; Stephen, AM; Nip, W; Macfarlane, P; Wong, A.; Richards, M.; Hardy, R; Kuh, D.; on behalf of the NSHD Scientific and Data Collection Teams

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, fo...

  12. Associations between severity of obesity in childhood and adolescence, obesity onset and parental BMI: a longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, V; Jacobsson, J A; Fredriksson, R.; Danielsson, P; Sobko, T; Schiöth, H B; Marcus, C

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between severity of obesity at age 7 and age 15, age at onset of obesity, and parental body mass index (BMI) in obese children and adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Obese children (n=231) and their parents (n=462) from the Swedish National Childhood Obesity Centre. Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were applied with severity of obesity (BMI standard deviation score (BMI SDS)) and onset of obesity as dependent variables. Th...

  13. Influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment efficacy and safety, and long-term outcome of pre-excitation syndromes: a retrospective cohort study of 961 patients included over a 25-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Olivier, Arnaud; Sellal, Jean-Marc; Manenti, Vladimir; Brembilla, Alice; Villemin, Thibaut; Admant, Philippe; Beurrier, Daniel; Bozec, Erwan; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There are very little data on pre-excitation syndrome (PS) in the elderly. We investigated the influence of advancing age on clinical presentation, treatment and long-term outcome of PS. Setting Single-centre retrospective study of patient files. Participants In all, 961 patients (72 patients ≥60 years (mean 68.5±6), 889 patients <60 years (mean 30.5±14)) referred for overt pre-excitation and indication for electrophysiological study (EPS) were followed for 5.3±5 years. Usual care included 24 h Holter monitoring, echocardiography and EPS. Patients underwent accessory pathway (AP) ablation if necessary. Primary and secondary outcome measures Occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) or procedure-induced adverse event. Results Electrophysiological data and recourse to AP ablation (43% vs 48.5%, p=0.375) did not significantly differ between the groups. Older patients more often had symptomatic forms (81% vs 63%, p=0.003), history of spontaneous AF (8% vs 3%, p=0.01) or adverse presentation (poorly tolerated arrhythmias: 18% vs 7%, p=0.0009). In multivariable analysis, patients ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of history of AF (OR=4.2, 2.1 to 8.3, p=0.001) and poorly tolerated arrhythmias (OR=3.8, 1.8 to 8.1, p=0.001). Age ≥60 years was associated with an increased major AP ablation complication risk (10% vs 1.9%, p=0.006). During follow-up, occurrence of AF (13.9% vs 3.6%, p<0.001) and incidence of poorly tolerated tachycardia (4.2% vs 0.6%, p=0.001) were more frequent in patients ≥60 years, although frequency of ablation failure or recurrence was similar (20% vs 15.5%, p=0.52). In multivariable analysis, patients ≥60 years had a significantly higher risk of AF (OR=2.9, 1.2 to 6.8, p≤0.01). Conclusions In this retrospective monocentre study, patients ≥60 years referred for PS work up appeared at higher risk of AF and adverse presentation, both prior and after the work up. These results suggest that, in elderly

  14. How weight change is modelled in population studies can affect research findings: empirical results from a large-scale cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Paige, E.; Korda, R J; Banks, E.; Rodgers, B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how results of the association between education and weight change vary when weight change is defined and modelled in different ways. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants 60 404 men and women participating in the Social, Environmental and Economic Factors (SEEF) subcomponent of the 45 and Up Study—a population-based cohort study of people aged 45 years or older, residing in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures The main exposure was self-reported edu...

  15. Risk of skin cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults

  16. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of head-neck and thyroid cancers : results from the netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical

  17. The impact of universal newborn hearing screening on long-term literacy outcomes: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Colin R.; Pimperton, Hannah; Blythe, Hazel I.; Kreppner, Jana; Mahon, Merle; Peacock, Janet L; Stevenson, Jim; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the benefits of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) seen at age 8 years persist through the second decade. Design Prospective cohort study of a population sample of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) followed up for 17 years since birth in periods with (or without) UNHS. Setting Birth cohort of 100 000 in southern England. Participants 114 teenagers aged 13–19 years, 76 with PCHI and 38 with normal hearing. All had previously thei...

  18. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkun Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  19. Association between Sjogren's syndrome and respiratory failure: put airway, interstitia, and vessels close together: a national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jun Yeh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few studies have evaluated the association between Sjogren's syndrome (SS and respiratory failure (RF. Thus, we conducted a retrospective national cohort study to investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome (SS increases the risk of respiratory failure (RF. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 4954 newly diagnosed patients with SS but without a previous diagnosis of RF, and 19816 patients as the comparison cohort from the catastrophic illnesses registry, obtained from the 2000-2005 period. All of the study participants were followed from the index date to December 31, 2011. We analyzed the association between the risk of RF and SS by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of RF showed a 3.21-fold increase in the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort. The adjusted HR of RF was 3.04 for the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort, after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. The HRs of RF for patients with primary SS and secondary SS compared with the comparison cohort were 2.99 and 3.93, respectively (P for trend <.001. The HRs of RF increased as the severity of SS increased, from 2.34 for those with no inpatient care experience to 5.15 for those with inpatient care experience (P for trend <.001. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that clinical physicians should not only consider secondary SS but also primary SS as a critical factor that increases the risk of RF.

  20. Maternal glycated haemoglobin, pre-gestational weight, pregnancy weight gain and risk of large-for-gestational-age babies: a Danish cohort study of 209 singleton Type 1 diabetic pregnacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.L.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, M.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... habits. Methods We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County, Denmark from 1985 to 2003. Data on HbA1c values from the 20th gestational week to term were collected from medical records and the babies were classified as large, normal or small for gestational age. The association...

  1. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  2. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  3. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine Huini Lim; Jia Ying Toh; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ai-Ru Chia; Wee Meng Han; Seang Mei Saw; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Yap-Seng Chong; Fabian Yap; Yung Seng Lee; Kramer, Michael S.; Mary Foong-Fong Chong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using mult...

  4. Deprivation, timing of preschool infections and H. pylori seropositivity at age 49-51 years: the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mark S Pearce; Campbell, David I.; Mann, Kay D.; Parker, Louise; Thomas, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired in early childhood and persists for life (or until eradication treatment is taken). Seropositivity of H. pylori at age 49-51 years was assessed in relation to socio-economic deprivation in early life and the timing of other childhood infections common at that time. Methods Prospectively collected socio-economic and morbidity data from the Newcastle Thousand Families study, a birth cohort established in 1947. H. pylori IgG seropositivity was...

  5. The Impact of Surgery on the Developmental Status of Late Preterm Infants – A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Despite increasing evidence in the literature regarding the impact of late prematurity on subsequent developmental impairment, the developmental outcome of late preterm infants who undergo major surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the developmental outcome for a cohort of late preterm surgical population.Methods: Late preterm infants with a gestational age from 34-36 weeks inclusive who were enrolled in the state-wide prospective Development After Infant Surgery (DAISy study and who had undergone non-cardiac major surgery within the first ninety days of life were eligible for inclusion. Infants were assessed at one and three years of ages.Results: Forty-six infants were enrolled in the study, of which 38 infants had a complete developmental assessment at one year of age. Of these infants, late preterm infants scored significantly lower than the standardized norms of the assessment on the expressive language and gross motor subscales. At three years of age 26 infants were reassessed: late preterm infants who underwent major surgery only scored significantly lower than the standardized norms on the cognitive subscale (p<0.001.Conclusions: These data provide the evidence that late preterm infants who undergo major non-cardiac surgery are at risk of developmental impairment and consideration should be given to enrolling this cohort in multi-disciplinary developmental follow-up clinics.

  6. Cohort childbearing age patterns in low-fertility countries in the late 20th century: Is the postponement of births an inherent element?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Frejka; Gérad Calot

    2001-01-01

    Major changes in the age patterns of fertility were characteristic of fertility trends following the Second World War. The paper provides an overview and analysis of changes in age patterns of cohort childbearing in low-fertility countries during the second half of the 20 th century. In Western countries cohorts born around 1940 had earlier childbearing than those of 1930. Early childbearing persisted among cohorts born during the 1940s, although generally at a lower level. Major shifts occur...

  7. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  8. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  9. Self-reported oral health and associated factors in the North Finland 1966 birth cohort at the age of 31

    OpenAIRE

    Lintula, Terho; Laitala, Ville; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2014-01-01

    Background The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (NFBC 1966) is an epidemiological study where the participants have been controlled since pregnancy both in field tests and using questionnaires. This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of self-reported oral symptoms (dental caries and bleeding of gums) with sociodemographic and health behavior factors among the subjects. Methods Of the 11,541 original members of the cohort, 8,690 (75%) responded to the questionnaire on ...

  10. Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Max; Rysinska, Agata; Garland, Anne; Rolfson, Ola; Aspberg, Sara; Eisler, Thomas; Garellick, Göran; Stark, André; Hailer, Nils P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-02-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery.A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n = 270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21).The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events.During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11).Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls. PMID:26871792

  11. Peer victimisation during adolescence and its impact on depression in early adulthood: prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bowes, Lucy; Joinson, Carol J; Wolke, Dieter; Lewis, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the strength of the association between victimisation by peers at age 13 years and depression at 18 years.Design Longitudinal observational study.Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community based birth cohort.Participants 6719 participants who reported on peer victimisation at age 13 years.Main outcome measures Depression defined according to international classification of diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) criteria, assessed using the clini...

  12. Clinically Diagnosed Insomnia and Risk of All-Cause and Diagnosis-Specific Disability Pension: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Jansson; Kristina Alexanderson; Göran Kecklund; Torbjörn Åkerstedt

    2013-01-01

    Background. Insomnia and disability pension are major health problems, but few population-based studies have examined the association between insomnia and risk of disability pension. Methods. We conducted a prospective nationwide cohort study based on Swedish population-based registers including all 5,028,922 individuals living in Sweden on December 31, 2004/2005, aged 17–64 years, and not on disability or old age pension. Those having at least one admission/specialist visit with a diagnosis ...

  13. Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk of Mortality and Frailty in Older Women: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, George C.; Kao, Wen Hong L.; Murakami, Peter; Xue, Qian-Li; Chiou, Roger B.; Detrick, Barbara; McDyer, John F.; Richard D Semba; Casolaro, Vincenzo; Walston, Jeremy D.; Fried, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a prevalent pathogen, causes severe disease in immunocompromised humans. However, present understanding is limited regarding the long-term clinical effect of persistent CMV infection in immunocompetent adults. The authors conducted a prospective observational cohort study (1992–2002) of 635 community-dwelling women in Baltimore, Maryland, aged 70–79 years in the Women's Health and Aging Studies to examine the effect of CMV infection on the risk of frailty, a common geri...

  14. Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petry Andrea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. Methods This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving a vaccinated and an unvaccinated cohort, with matching of the two in terms of sex, age and residence. Average follow-up was 3.17 person-years. The outcome measure was infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, defined by testing positive on serologic markers HBsAg or anti-HBC. All blood donors were from the blood bank in Joaçaba, federal state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results The cohorts did not differ significantly regarding sex, age and marital status but the vaccinated cohort had higher mean number of blood donations and higher proportion of those residing in the county capital Joaçaba. Hepatitis B incidences per 1000 person-years were zero among vaccinated and 2,33 among non-vaccinated, resulting in 100% vaccine effectiveness with 95% confidence interval from 30,1% to 100%. The number of vaccinated persons necessary to avoid one HBV infection in blood donors was estimated at 429 with 95% confidence interval from 217 to 21422. Conclusion The results showed very high effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-HBV vaccines in blood donors. Its considerable variation in this study is likely due to the limited follow-up and the influence of confounding factors normally balanced out in efficacy clinical trials.

  15. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: methodology and principal results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Marco A.; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1) for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5) for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8) for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p < 0.01). The number of individuals with severe malocclusions at 12 years was proportional to the number of malocclusions at six years. Oral health problems in early adolescence were more prevalent in individuals with dental problems at six years of age. PMID:20963297

  16. The use of bone age for bone mineral density interpretation in a cohort of pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)

  17. Residents' awareness and attitudes about an ongoing community-based genome cohort study in Nagahama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    This study's objective was to examine residents' attitudes toward and factors associated with an ongoing, real genome cohort study based on a community in Japan. After the genome cohort study's launch in 2007, in November and December 2009, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30-74 years, living in Nagahama, Japan. Responses were received from 1363 people (response rate = 54.5%), of whom 187 respondents had already participated in the study. Although the local government and researchers disseminated information through leaflets and citizen-information papers to every household, sent notices by personalized letter, and held symposia and other meetings, 65.7% of males and 47.2% of females first became aware of the study when they received our questionnaire. Among all respondents, 81.2% of those who knew that the genome cohort study had begun and 68.6% of those who did not know had a positive attitude toward the study. Their attitudes were significantly associated with high health consciousness and the desire for an extensive health check-up. Although for males there were no particular negative aspects of the genome study, for females, positive aspects were associated with participating in community activities and desiring an extensive health check-up. Although promoting a community-based genome cohort study requires huge effort, it is essential to popularize it. Actions are vital both for monitoring public awareness and attitudes at a community level and for keeping communication channels open. PMID:25767212

  18. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;

    2009-01-01

    antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self-reports of...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of...... antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  19. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.;

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...

  20. Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hung, Yuan; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause several life-threatening complications, particularly in cardiovascular and neurological systems. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and CO poisoning. We constructed a population-based retrospective cohort study to clarify the risks between PAD and CO poisoning. This population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified patients with CO poisoning and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis of CO poisoning at a ratio of 1 patient to 4 control patients. We analyzed the risks for patients with CO poisoning and PAD by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 9046 patients with CO poisoning and 36,183 controls were included. The overall risks for developing PAD were 1.85-fold in the patients with CO poisoning compared with the comparison cohort after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed a higher risk for PAD development among patients with CO poisoning. PMID:26448007

  1. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Gillman, Matthew W.;

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. Design Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. Subjects 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973...

  2. Social Class and Participation in Further Education: Evidence from the Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the class distribution of young people, aged 16-17 years, in colleges of further education (FE) using data from the Youth Cohort Study. It finds that, contrary to popular perceptions of FE colleges as being for "other people's children", middle-class students as well as working-class students are well represented. However, this…

  3. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age. PMID:26271791

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logi...

  5. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat and...

  6. Nested Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  7. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  8. Coffee Consumption and Incidence of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tsuyako; Hara, Motohiko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association between coffee consumption and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided inconsistent results. We examine the risk of SAH from coffee consumption in a Japanese population. Methods Our analyses were based on the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study, a large-scale population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 9941 participants (3868 men and 6073 women; mean age 55 years) with no history of cardiovascular disease or carcinoma were examined. Participants were asked to choose one of five options to indicate their daily coffee consumption: none, less than 1 cup a day, 1–2 cups a day, 3–4 cups a day, or 5 or more cups a day. The incidence of SAH was assessed independently by a diagnostic committee. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjustment for age and sex (HR1) and for additional potential confounders (HR2). Results During 10.7 years of follow-up, SAH occurred in 47 participants. When compared with the participants who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee a day, the HR of SAH was significantly higher in the group who consumed 5 or more cups a day in both models (HR1 4.49; 95% CI, 1.44–14.00; HR2 3.79; 95% CI, 1.19–12.05). Conclusions The present community-based cohort study showed that heavy coffee consumption was associated with an increased incidence of SAH after adjusting for age, sex, and multiple potential cardiovascular confounders. PMID:26460383

  9. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica Giovanna; Barros Aluisio J D; Madruga Samanta; Matijasevich Alicia; Santos Iná S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were i...

  10. Relative longevity among retired military personnel:an historical-cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Hartal; Yitshak Kreiss; Nirit Yavnai

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occupation is a significant factor in life, health and well-being. Long-term military service is a unique career path that may influence life expectancy, even after excluding obvious risks such as battlefield mortality. However, it remains unclear what the effects of a military career are on the life trajectory of personnel who retire from service. We aimed to compare life expectancy among retired military personnel (RMP) to their sex- and birth cohort-specific reference populations. Methods:For this historical-cohort study we collected data on sex, year of birth, year of death, time in service, and rank at end of service for 4,862 Israeli RMPs. Data on reference populations were provided by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, by birth decade from 1900 to 1989. We calculated the difference between each individual RMP's age at death and the "expected" age at death, based on sex- and birth cohort-specific means in the reference populations. Results:Overall, 67.9% of RMPs lived longer than average relative to their sex specific birth cohort. This difference in life expectancy was more pronounced among women than among men. There was a significant trend of increasing difference between RMP males and reference males over time (P Conclusions:The mechanism of the protective effect of military service on life expectancy remains unknown, but our findings indicate that it affects men and women differently, with women being more likely to benefit from the protective effect of military service. The healthy worker effect is known to vary from one occupation to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the magnitude of the healthy worker effect among career military servicemen and women.

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL1B and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Danish Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    syndrome (ACS) have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this study were to examine the associations between individual SNPs in and SNP haplotypes of the promoter region of IL1B and incident ACS in a prospective study. Furthermore, we wanted to explore potential interactions with other risk...... and 234 women). All cases were validated by review of medical records, and information on covariates was collected by study technicians. The study was conducted according to a case-cohort study design including ACS cases and a sex-stratified sub cohort of 1663 participants drawn randomly from the entire...... cohort. Weighted Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis were used in the statistical analyses. Individual IL1B SNPs, SNP haplotypes, or haplotype combinations were not significantly associated with incident ACS, and, likewise, we found no evidence of interaction on an additive scale between...

  12. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Arun; Hegmann Kurt T; Wertsch Jacqueline J; Kapellusch Jay; Thiese Matthew S; Bloswick Donald; Merryweather Andrew; Sesek Richard; Deckow-Schaefer Gwen; Foster James; Wood Eric; Kendall Richard; Sheng Xiaoming; Holubkov Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for ...

  13. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. PMID:11562159

  14. Low health literacy predicts decline in physical function among older adults: findings from the LitCog cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Samuel G.; O'Conor, Rachel; Curtis, Laura M.; Waite, Katie; Deary, Ian J; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Wolf, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited health literacy is associated with worse physical function in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to determine if health literacy is a risk factor for decline in physical function among older adults.METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of 529 community-dwelling American adults aged 55-74 years were recruited from an academic general internal medicine clinic and federally qualified health centres in 2008-2011. Health literacy (Newest Vital Sign), age, gender, race, education, chron...

  15. Oral health studies in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort: methodology and principal results at 15 and 24 years of age Estudo longitudinal de saúde bucal na coorte de nascidos vivos em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1982: aspectos metodológicos e resultados principais aos 15 e 24 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the methodology and results of oral health studies nested in a birth cohort in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. For the oral health studies a sub-sample (n = 900 was selected from the cohort and dental examinations and interviews were performed at ages 15 (n = 888 and 24 years (n = 720; 81.1%. Data collection included dental outcomes, dental care, oral health behaviors, and use of dental services. Mean DMF-T varied from 5.1 (SD = 3.8 to 5.6 (SD = 4.1 in the study period. The proportion of individuals with at least one filled tooth increased from 51.9% to more than 70%. Individuals who had always been poor used dental services less and had fewer healthy teeth on average than those who had never been poor. Individuals with decreasing or increasing family income trajectories showed intermediate values. An increase was seen in the number of healthy teeth from age 15 to 24 only among those who had never been poor. A history of at least one experience with poverty had a negative impact on oral health in adulthood.Descreveu-se a metodologia e os resultados dos estudos de saúde bucal em uma coorte de nascimentos. Em 1997, uma amostra da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, (n = 900 foi sorteada para o estudo de saúde bucal (15 anos e os mesmos indivíduos foram novamente investigados aos 24 anos. Agravos bucais, cuidados com a saúde bucal e uso de serviços odontológicos foram avaliados. Participaram do estudo 888 adolescentes aos 15 anos e 720 (81,1% aos 24. O índice CPO-D médio variou de 5,1 (DP = 3,8 a 5,6 (DP = 4,1 no período. Ter pelo menos um dente restaurado passou de 51,9% aos 15 anos para mais de 70% aos 24. A proporção do uso de serviços e a média de dentes saudáveis foram menores dentre os sempre pobres quando comparados àqueles nunca pobres. Indivíduos com trajetórias econômicas descendente ou ascendente tiveram valores intermediários. Aumento de dentes saudáveis dos 15

  16. Dietary flavonol intake is associated with age of puberty in a longitudinal cohort of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Gardiner, Eliza W.; Galvez, Maida P.; Kushi, Larry H.; Windham, Gayle C.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M; Rybak, Michael; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Mary S Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Lignans and flavonols are dietary phytoestrogens found at high concentrations in the Western Diet. They have potential to influence the timing of puberty. We hypothesized that greater consumption of these two phytoestrogens would be related to later age at pubertal onset among girls. Pubertal assessment and 24-hour diet recall data were available for 1178 girls, ages 6-8 yr (mean 7.3 yr) in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project Puberty Study. Lignan and flavonol intakes were main...

  17. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  18. All-Star or Benchwarmer? Relative Age, Cohort Size and Career Success in the NHL

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Gomez, Rafael; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance outcomes of National Hockey League (NHL) players over 18 seasons (1990-1991 to 2007-2008) as a function of the demographic conditions into which they were born. We have three main findings. First, larger birth cohorts substantially affect careers. A player born into a large birth cohort can expect an earnings loss of roughly 18 percent over the course of an average career as compared to a small birth cohort counterpart. The loss in earnings is driven chiefly by supp...

  19. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  20. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  1. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  2. HIV burden in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort study 2007–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongwei Jia; Xiaojie Huang; Hao Wu; Tong Zhang; Ning Li; Peipei Ding; Yixuan Sun; Zhiying Liu; Feili Wei; Hongwei Zhang; Yanmei Jiao; Yunxia Ji; Yonghong Zhang; Caiping Guo; Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-negative MSM aged 18 years or older between 2007 and 2012 in Beijing, China to measure the rates of incident HIV and identify risk factors for infection. Among 5,800 participants evaluated at enrollment, we identified 486 prevalent cases of HIV (8.4%). Among the 3,625 enrollees who were HIV-negative at enrollment and completed at least one follow-up interview, we identified 440 incident cases of HIV in the follow up period: this constituted an...

  3. Metabolic syndrome in a cohort of affectively ill patients, a naturalistic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Madsen, Maiken; Breum, Leif;

    2012-01-01

    at a Mood Disorder Clinic. Methods: Patients were evaluated for the presence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) according to modified NCEP ATP III criteria. Results: Of the 143 patients eligible for participation, 100 patients participated in the study (32% male, mean age 43.6 ± 14.2); the prevalence of MeS was 26......Background: Patients with affective disorder have higher mortality not only because of their affective illness but also because of a higher risk of death from physical illness especially cardiovascular diseases. Aim: To investigate the prevalence in a naturalistic cohort of patient treated...

  4. Fever in pregnancy and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Vastrup, Pernille; Wohlfart, Jan;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia acts as a teratogen in some animals where it can induce resorption of the fetus and fetal death. Fever during pregnancy, especially in the period of embryogenesis, is also suspected as being a risk factor for fetal death in human beings. We did a large cohort study in...... measured body temperature, duration of incident, and gestational age were recorded. Outcomes of pregnancies were identified through linkage with the Civil Registration System and the National Discharge Registry. Cox's regression with time-dependent variables was used to estimate the relative risk of fetal...

  5. Air Pollution and Newly Diagnostic Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance w...

  6. Psoriasis carries an increased risk of venous thromboembolism: a danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Skov, Lone; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Peter Riis; Jørgensen, Casper Haslund

    2011-01-01

    . The present study investigated the potential association between psoriasis and VTE. Methods and Findings Information from nationwide prospectively recorded registers of hospitalization, drug dispensing from pharmacies, socio-economic data, and causes of death was linked on an individual level. In an...... unselected nationwide cohort, we used multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, concomitant medication, socio-economic data, and calendar year, to assess the risk of VTE associated with psoriasis. A total of 35,138 patients with mild and 3,526 patients with severe...

  7. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 particip...

  8. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20-2.54), and those aged <= 49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38-4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96-3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  9. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  10. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders - a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiologic studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea and celiac...... disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobactor pylori (HP) infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49,475 patients with rosacea, and 4,312,213 general...... population controls were identified using nationwide administrative registers. We established the prevalence of the aforementioned disorders, and used Cox regression to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) of the risk of new-onset CeD, CD, UC, HP infection, SIBO, and IBS, respectively, in patients with rosacea...

  11. Spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities: a cohort study in hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergev, Gyurgyinka; Máté, Adrienn; Zimmermann, Alíz; Rárosi, Ferenc; Sztriha, László

    2015-03-01

    The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities was studied in a cohort of patients in Hungary. A search for etiologies and assessment of the degree of intellectual disability were carried out. The study included 241 (131 boys) patients. Disability occurred without any prenatal, perinatal, and/or neonatal adverse events in 167 patients. They were classified into the following subgroups: genetic syndromes with recognized etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability in association with dysmorphic features but unknown etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability without dysmorphic features and recognized etiology, brain malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, leukoencephalopathies, epileptic syndromes, developmental language impairment, and neuromuscular disorders. Adverse events occurred in 74 children classified into subgroups such as cerebral palsy after delivery preterm or at term, and disabilities without cerebral palsy. The etiology was identified in 66.4%, and genetic diagnosis was found in 19.5%. Classification of neurodevelopmental disorders contribute to etiological diagnosis, proper rehabilitation, and genetic counseling. PMID:24868008

  12. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  13. Reproducibility in echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in a population based study (the STANISLAS Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Frikha

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence regarding intra-observer and inter-observer variations in echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function. This study aimed to assess this reproducibly within a population-based cohort study.Sixty subjects in sinus rhythm were randomly selected among 4th visit participants of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine region, France. This 4th examination systematically included M-mode, 2-dimensional, DTI and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiograms. Reproducibility of variables was studied by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Bland Altman plots.Our population was on average middle-aged (50 ± 14 y, overweight (BMI = 26 ± 6 kg/m2 and non-smoking (87% with a quarter of the participants having self-declared hypertension or treated with anti-hypertensive medication(s. Intra-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which was 0.89 (0.81-0.93. The mean relative intra-observer differences were small and limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow for all considered parameters ( 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for LVEF (ICC = 0.87 and both mitral and pulmonary A wave duration (0.83 and 0.73 respectively. The mean relative inter-observer differences were <5% for all parameters except for pulmonary A wave duration (mean difference = 6.5%. Limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow (<15%, except for mitral A wave duration and velocity (both <20% as well as left ventricular mass and pulmonary A wave duration (both <30%. Intra-observer agreements with regard to the presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction were excellent (Kappa = 0.93 (0.83-1.00 and 0.88 (0.75-0.99, respectively.In this validation study within the STANISLAS cohort, diastolic function echocardiographic parameters were found to be highly reproducible. Diastolic dysfunction consequently appears as a highly effective clinical and research tool.

  14. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Hao, Tao; Willett, Walter C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hu, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Subjects Prospective cohort studies of 50 013 women aged 40-64 in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52 987 women aged 27-44 in the NHS II (1991-2007), and 21 988 men aged 40-64 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. Measures We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval with chang...

  15. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, An; Malik, Vasanti S; Hao, Tao; Willett, Walter C.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hu, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Subjects Prospective cohort studies of 50 013 women aged 40-64 in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52 987 women aged 27-44 in the NHS II (1991-2007), and 21 988 men aged 40-64 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. Measures We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval with change...

  16. Social inequalities in wheezing in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Smyth, Rosalind; Law, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Wheezing in childhood is socially patterned, but it is unclear what factors explain the social differences.Regression analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, based on 11 141 singleton children who participated at ages 9 months and 3, 5 and 7 years. Relative risk ratios (RRR) for early and persistent/relapsing wheeze were estimated using multinomial regression, according to measures of socioeconomic circumstances. Maternal, antenatal and early-life characteristics were assessed as potential mediators.Children of mothers with no educational qualifications were more likely to have both wheeze types, compared to children of mothers with degree-level qualifications (RRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86 for early wheeze; 1.32 95% CI 1.04-1.67 for persistent/relapsing wheeze). Controlling for maternal age, smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the elevated risk of wheezing. Male sex, maternal age, body mass index, atopy, smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to other children and furry pets were independently associated with wheezing, but the pattern of association varied between wheezing types.In this representative UK cohort, adjustment for maternal smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the socioeconomic inequalities in common wheezing phenotypes. Policies to reduce the social gradient in these risk factors may reduce inequalities in wheezing and asthma. PMID:26677938

  17. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  18. Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Ch...

  20. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy.......OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  1. Databases and statistical methods of cohort studies (1979-1995) in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are epidemiological databases of some 40 MB available to risk analysis, mainly including databases of cohort follow-up and deaths of 12000 subject for the periods 1979-1986 and 1987-1995, and dosimetric database for 6783 households in 526 hamlets. Because of no strict projection relationship between database of the two periods of 1979-1986 and 1987-1995, the authors developed methods to combine the data of the two periods into one for risk analysis. The first one is to set up a theoretical cohort of 1979-1995 based on record linkage between the two periods. The other method is simply to sum up stratified person-year tables of different periods. It is suggested through extensive analysis of dosimetric data that indoor exposures should be divided further into two parts (exposure received on bed and those received during other indoor activities), outdoor exposure is homogeneous within a hamlet, and occupancy factors are sex-and-age-dependent. Cumulative dose estimates based upon hamlet-specific average of dose rates in bedroom, living room, and outdoor and sex-age-specific occupancy factors are derived for each cohort member. Person-years and number of deaths are tabulated with stratification by sex, attained age, calendar years, and dose. Cancer risks are analyzed for the period of 1979-1990. Conclusion: The epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas of Yangjiang, have been greatly improved by extensively using database management system and advanced statistical analysis with more attention paid to standardization and systematization of survey data management

  2. Treatment outcome of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Finland: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liippo Kari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the treatments given, the outcome and the patient- and treatment-system dependent factors affecting treatment outcome in a national two-year cohort of culture-verified extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Finland. Methods Medical records of all cases in 1995 - 1996 were abstracted to assess treatment and outcome, using the European recommendations for outcome monitoring. For risk factor analysis, outcome was divided into three groups: favourable, death and other unfavourable. Predictors of unfavourable outcome were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results In the study cohort of 276 cases, 116 (42.0% were men and 160 (58.0% women. The mean age was 65.7 years. A favourable outcome was achieved in 157/276 (56.9% cases, consisting of those cured (8.0% and treatment completed (48.9%. Death was the outcome in 17.4% (48/276 cases, including cases not treated. Other unfavourable outcomes took place in 45 (16.3% cases. Significant independent risk factors for death in multinomial logistic regression model were male sex, high age, immunosuppression, any other than a pulmonary specialty being responsible at the end of the treatment and other than standard combination of treatment. For other unfavourable treatment outcomes, significant risk factor was treatment with INH + RIF + EMB/SM. Deep site of TB was inversely associated with the risk of other unfavourable outcome. Conclusions The proportion of favourable outcome was far below the goal set by the WHO. Age and comorbidities, playing an important role in treatment success, are not available in routine outcome data. Therefore, comparisons between countries should be made in cohort analyses incorporating data on comorbidities.

  3. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. DESIGN: Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. SETTINGS: General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. MEASURES: Lifestyle factors and potential confound...

  4. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-06-01

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort. PMID:24661608

  5. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  6. The Impact of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Later Violence and Psychological Distress: A Study of Resilience among a Scottish Youth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVie, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort study was to describe ACL injury characteristics in teams from the Swedish men's and women's first leagues and from several European men's professional first leagues. Over a varying number of seasons from 2001 to 2009, 57 clubs (2,329 players) were followed prospectively and during this period 78 ACL injuries occurred (five partial). Mean age at ACL injury was lower in women compared to men (20.6 ± 2.2 vs. 25.2 ± 4.5 years, P = 0.0002). Using a Cox regression, the female-to-male hazard ratio (HR) was 2.6 (95% CI 1.4-4.6) in all three cohorts studied and 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3) in the Swedish cohorts; adjusted for age, the HR was reduced to 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.2) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.2), respectively. Match play was associated with a higher ACL injury risk with a match-to-training ratio of 20.8 (95% CI 12.4-34.8) and 45 ACL injuries (58%) occurred due to non-contact mechanisms. Hamstrings grafts were used more often in Sweden than in Europe (67 vs. 34%, P = 0.028), and there were no differences in time to return to play after ACL reconstruction between the cohorts or different grafts. In conclusion, this study showed that the ACL injury incidence in female elite footballers was more than doubled compared to their male counterparts, but also that they were significantly younger at ACL injury than males. These findings suggest that future preventive research primarily should address the young female football player. PMID:20532869

  8. Cancer and the risk for taking early retirement pension: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for taking early retirement pension (ERP) in cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide and population based cohort study including 44,905 persons aged 30-60 years diagnosed with selected...... that cancer patients has an excess risk of ERP compared to cancer-free controls (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.55-1.65 and RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.46-1.65 for women and men, respectively). The observed risk factors for taking ERP were late age, dissimilated disease, manual job, sickness leave the year before taking ERP...... and the risk remained increased with up to 8 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly increased risk for taking early retirement up to 8 years after the cancer diagnosis and that the magnitude of the risk was dependent of cancer sites....

  9. Academic Performance in Adolescence after Inguinal Hernia Repair in Infancy: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G; Pedersen, Jacob K; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Although animal studies have indicated that general anesthetics may result in widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment in the developing brain, results from human studies are scarce. We investigated the association between exposure to surgery and anesthesia...... for inguinal hernia repair in infancy and subsequent academic performance. METHODS:: Using Danish birth cohorts from 1986-1990, we compared the academic performance of all children who had undergone inguinal hernia repair in infancy to a randomly selected, age-matched 5% population sample. Primary...... analysis compared average test scores at ninth grade adjusting for sex, birth weight, and paternal and maternal age and education. Secondary analysis compared the proportions of children not attaining test scores between the two groups. RESULTS:: From 1986-1990 in Denmark, 2,689 children underwent inguinal...

  10. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking ...

  11. Sarcopenia, but not sarcopenic obesity, predicts mortality for older old men: A 3-year prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Kuo Liu, MD; Liang-Yu Chen, MD; Kuo-Ping Yeh, MD; Ming-Hsien Lin, MD; An-Chun Hwang, MD; Li-Ning Peng, MD; Liang-Kung Chen, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prognostic significance of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) among older people remains controversial. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality risk of sarcopenia and SO among men aged 75 years and older in Taiwan. Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited all residents of the Banciao Veterans Home, a veterans retirement community in Taipei City in northern Taiwan. For all study participants, the demographic profile, comorbid medical conditions, ...

  12. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Kenneth M. Langa; Phillips, John WR; David R Weir

    2014-01-01

    The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition...

  13. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elas...

  14. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Swedish Sami – a controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...

  15. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ridvan; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Merletti, Franco; Pizzi, Costanza; Pivetta, Emanuele; Rusconi, Franca; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New...

  16. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children’s health: cohort profile—updated 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kishi, Reiko; KOBAYASHI, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-01-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infe...

  17. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  18. Does pregnancy change the disease course? A study in a European cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, L; Vind, Ida; Politi, P; Wolters, F; Vermeire, S; Tsianos, E; Freitas, J; Mouzas, I; Ruiz Ochoa, V; O'Morain, C; Odes, S; Binder, V; Moum, B; Stockbrugger, R; Langholz, E; Munkholm, P; European Collaborative study group on Inflammatory Bowel disease, NN

    2006-01-01

    %, p = 0.005), whereas elective abortion was not significantly different. 48.6% of the patients took medication at the time of conception and 46.9% during pregnancy. The use of cesarean section increased after IBD diagnosis (8.1% vs 28.7% of pregnancies). CD patients pregnant during the disease course......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects patients in their fertile age. The aim of this study was to describe pregnancy outcome in a European cohort of IBD patients. As data are limited regarding the effect of pregnancy on disease course, our second objective was to...... investigate whether pregnancy influences disease course and phenotype in IBD patients. METHODS: In a European cohort of IBD patients, a 10-yr follow-up was performed by scrutinizing patient files and approaching the patients with a questionnaire. The cohort comprised 1,125 patients, of whom 543 were women...

  19. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. Symptomatic parent and nurse swab pairs will be compared for microbe isolation. PMID:27580839

  20. Recall Bias in Childhood Atopic Diseases Among Adults in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in childhood and an important risk factor for the later development of other atopic diseases. Many publications on childhood AD use questionnaires based on information obtained in adulthood, which introduce the possibility of recall bias. In a prospective...... cohort study, recall bias was evaluated in 1,501 unselected schoolchildren (mean age 14 years) evaluated for the first time in 1995 with a standardized questionnaire combined with a clinical examination and repeated in 2010. The lifetime prevalence of AD was 34.1% including data obtained both during...... school age and 15 years later, compared with 23.6% including data only from adulthood. The most important factors for remembering having had AD in childhood were: (i) long duration of dermatitis in childhood; (ii) adult hand eczema; and (iii) concomitant atopic disease. Recall bias for childhood AD...

  1. Aging with HIV: an overview of an urban cohort in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil across decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Silva Torres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy during the 1990s was crucial to the decline in the rates of morbidity and death related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection into a chronic condition. Consequently, the HIV/AIDS population is becoming older. The aim of this study was to describe the immunological, clinical and comorbidity profile of an urban cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS followed up at Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrospective data from 2307 patients during January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2008 were collected. For continuous variables, Cuzick's non-parametric test was used. For categorical variables, the Cochran-Armitage non-parametric test for tendency was used. For all tests, the threshold for statistical significance was set at 5%. In 2008, 1023 (44.3%, 823 (35.7%, 352 (15.3% and 109 (4.7% were aged 18-39, 40-49, 50-59 and >60 years-old, respectively. Older and elderly patients (>40 years were more likely to have viral suppression than younger patients (18-39 years (p 0.001. No significant difference in the latest CD4+ T lymphocyte count in the different age strata was observed, although elderly patients (> 50 years had lower CD4+ T lymphocyte nadir (p 0.02. The number of comorbidities increased with age and the same pattern was observed for the majority of the comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction, HCV, renal dysfunction and also for non-AIDSrelated cancers (p 0.001. With the survival increase associated to successful antiretroviral therapy and with the increasing new infections among elderly group, the burden associated to the diagnosis and treatment of the non-AIDS related HIV comorbidities will grow. Longitudinal studies on the impact of aging on the HIV/AIDS population are still necessary

  2. Dietary Antioxidants and Melanoma: Evidence from Cohort and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450

  3. STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

  4. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post

  5. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalen...

  6. Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adult Patients with Asthma: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chun Shen

    Full Text Available There are several publications reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was associated with asthma. However, large-scaled, population-based cohort study has been limited. We aimed to examine the risk of OSA among adult patients with asthma in an Asian population.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI of Taiwan. The asthma cohort included 38,840 newly diagnosed patients between 2000 and 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. Each patient was randomly matched with four people without asthma according to gender, age, and the index year as the comparison cohort. The occurrence of OSA was followed up until the end of 2011. The risk of OSA was estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities.The overall incidence of OSA was 2.51-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (12.1 versus 4.84 per 1000 person-years. Compared to non-asthma subjects, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of OSA increased to 1.78 for asthma patients with one or less annual emergency room (ER visit, and 23.8 for those who visited ER more than once per year. In addition, aHR in patients with inhaled steroid treatment compared to those without steroid treatment was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.01-1.76.Patients with asthma have a significantly higher risk of developing OSA than the general population. The results suggest that the risk of OSA is proportional to asthma control and patients with inhaled steroid treatment have a higher risk for OSA than those without steroid treatment.

  7. Clinical and Immunological Markers of Dengue Progression in a Study Cohort from a Hyperendemic Area in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anusyah Rathakrishnan; Benjamin Klekamp; Seok Mui Wang; Thamil Vaani Komarasamy; Santha Kumari Natkunam; Jameela Sathar; Azliyati Azizan; Aurora Sanchez-Anguiano; Rishya Manikam; Shamala Devi Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background With its elusive pathogenesis, dengue imposes serious healthcare, economic and social burden on endemic countries. This study describes the clinical and immunological parameters of a dengue cohort in a Malaysian city, the first according to the WHO 2009 dengue classification. Methodology and Findings This longitudinal descriptive study was conducted in two Malaysian hospitals where patients aged 14 and above with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue were recruited with informed c...

  8. Gallbladder disease and use of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bette; Beral, Valerie; Balkwill, Angela; Green, Jane; Sweetland, Siân; Reeves, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether transdermal compared with oral use of hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of gallbladder disease in postmenopausal women. Design Prospective cohort study (Million Women Study). Setting Women registered with the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Scotland. Participants 1 001 391 postmenopausal women (mean age 56) recruited between 1996 and 2001 from NHS breast screening centres and followed by record linkage to routinely collected NHS hospital ...

  9. Use of Framingham risk score and new biomarkers to predict cardiovascular mortality in older people: population based observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruijter, Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Assendelft, Willem J J; Wendy P J den Elzen; Anton J M de Craen; le Cessie, Saskia; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the performance of classic risk factors, and of some new biomarkers, in predicting cardiovascular mortality in very old people from the general population with no history of cardiovascular disease. Design The Leiden 85-plus Study (1997-2004) is an observational prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. Setting General population of the city of Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants Population based sample of participants aged 85 years (215 women and 87 men) ...

  10. The association between physical activity and healthcare costs in children – results from the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Idler, Nadja; Teuner, Christina M; Hunger, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Ortlieb, Sandra; Schulz, Holger; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lehmann, Irina; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schaaf, Beate; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity in children is an important risk factor for the development of various morbidities and mortality in adulthood, physical activity already has preventive effects during childhood. The objective of this study is to estimate the association between physical activity, healthcare utilization and costs in children. Methods Cross-sectional data of 3356 children aged 9 to 12 years were taken from the 10-year follow-up of the birth cohort studies GINIplus and LISAplus, in...

  11. Predictors and Health Consequences of Screen-Time Change During Adolescence—1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Leandro Martin Totaro GARCIA; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate screen-time change from early to mid adolescence, its predictors, and its influence on body fat, blood pressure, and leisure-time physical activity. Methods We used data from a longitudinal prospective study, conducted among participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. At baseline, adolescents were, on average, 11 years old. They were later visited at age 15 years. Screen time was self-reported, accounting for the time spent watching television, playing...

  12. Sarcopenic Obesity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Older Men

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.; Morris, R W; Lennon, L T; Papacosta, O; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in older men. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting British Regional Heart Study. Participants Men aged 60-79 years (n = 4,252). Measurements Baseline waist circumference (WC) and midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) measurements were used to classify participants into four groups: sarcopenic, obese, sarcopenic obese, or optimal WC and MAMC. ...

  13. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study with Individual Exposure Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, Michael; Shankardass, Ketan; Berhane, Kiros; Gauderman, W James; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Edward; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Molitor, Jassy N.; Molitor, John T.; Thomas, Duncan C; Peters, John; McCONNELL, ROB

    2008-01-01

    Background The question of whether air pollution contributes to asthma onset remains unresolved. Objectives In this study, we assessed the association between asthma onset in children and traffic-related air pollution. Methods We selected a sample of 217 children from participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study, a prospective cohort designed to investigate associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children 10–18 years of age. Individual covariates and ne...

  14. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NO(x and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. RESULTS: We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (L(den was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.22 and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02-1.23 preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  16. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 ...

  17. Social Conditions for People With Down Syndrome: A Register-Based Cohort Study in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hasle, Henrik; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Today, most persons with Down syndrome (DS) survive into middle age, but information on their social conditions as adults is limited. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from national registers in Denmark. We identified a national cohort of 1,998 persons with DS who were born between 1968 and 2007 (1,852 with standard trisomy 21, 80 with Robertsonian translocations and 66 with mosaicism) using the Danish Cytogenetic Register. We followed this cohort from 1980 to 2007. Information on so...

  18. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  19. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; Pburnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  20. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin...... Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...