Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt;
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... was significantly associated with survival, even after adjustment for chronological age, sex, and rearing environment. Perceived age was still significantly associated with survival after further adjustment for physical and cognitive functioning. The likelihood that the older looking twin of the pair died first...... age, controlled for chronological age and sex, also correlated significantly with physical and cognitive functioning as well as with leucocyte telomere length. CONCLUSION: Perceived age-which is widely used by clinicians as a general indication of a patient's health-is a robust biomarker of ageing...
Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco
Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…
Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans
The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).
XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST
This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas
Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith
Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record
Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan
Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the temporal patterns in disease occurrence is valuable for formulating effective disease preventive programs. Cohort studies present a unique opportunity to explore complex interactions associated with emergence of seasonal patterns of infectious diseases. METHODS: We used data from 452 children participating in a birth cohort study to assess the seasonal patterns of rotavirus diarrhea by creating a weekly time series of rotavirus incidence and fitting a Poisson harmonic regression with biannual peaks. Age and cohort effects were adjusted for by including the weekly counts of number of children in the study and the median age of cohort in a given week. Weekly average temperature, humidity and an interaction term to reflect the joint effect of temperature and humidity were included to consider the effects of meteorological variables. RESULTS: In the overall rotavirus time series, two significant peaks within a single year were observed--one in winter and the other in summer. The effect of age was found to be the most significant contributor for rotavirus incidence, showing a strong negative association. Seasonality remained a significant factor, even after adjusting for meteorological parameters, and the age and cohort effects. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology for assessing seasonality in cohort studies is not yet developed. This is the first attempt to explore seasonal patterns in a cohort study with a dynamic denominator and rapidly changing immune response on individual and group levels, and provides a highly promising approach for a better understanding of the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases, tracking emergence of pathogenic strains and evaluating the efficacy of intervention programs.
Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T
This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.
Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner
Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort…
Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette
The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.
Whalley Lawrence J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive ageing is a major burden for society and a major influence in lowering people's independence and quality of life. It is the most feared aspect of ageing. There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive changes. Seeking the determinants of cognitive ageing is a research priority. A limitation of many studies is the lack of a sufficiently long period between cognitive assessments to examine determinants. Here, the aim is to examine influences on cognitive ageing between childhood and old age. Methods/Design The study is designed as a follow-up cohort study. The participants comprise surviving members of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (SMS1947; N = 70,805 who reside in the Edinburgh area (Lothian of Scotland. The SMS1947 applied a valid test of general intelligence to all children born in 1936 and attending Scottish schools in June 1947. A total of 1091 participants make up the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They undertook: a medical interview and examination; physical fitness testing; extensive cognitive testing (reasoning, memory, speed of information processing, and executive function; personality, quality of life and other psycho-social questionnaires; and a food frequency questionnaire. They have taken the same mental ability test (the Moray House Test No. 12 at age 11 and age 70. They provided blood samples for DNA extraction and testing and other biomarker analyses. Here we describe the background and aims of the study, the recruitment procedures and details of numbers tested, and the details of all examinations. Discussion The principal strength of this cohort is the rarely captured phenotype of lifetime cognitive change. There is additional rich information to examine the determinants of individual differences in this lifetime cognitive change. This protocol report is important in alerting other researchers to the data available in the cohort.
Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A
Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.
Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G
Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.
Matheson, Melanie C; Haydn Walters, E; Burgess, John A; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Dharmage, Shyamali C
The association between childhood immunizations and risk of atopic diseases is unclear. No study has examined possible associations between childhood immunizations and such diseases in middle age. The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) is a population based cohort study of respiratory disease. The TAHS participants were followed from 7 to 44 yrs of age. Immunizations during childhood were examined for any association with asthma and atopic disease at age 44 yrs. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate relative risks while adjusting for confounders. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between childhood immunizations and asthma developing after the age of 7 yrs. We found no association between any childhood immunization (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, Smallpox) and asthma (ORs ranged from 0.87 to 1.17 p > 0.05), eczema (ORs ranged from 0.99 to 1.07 p > 0.05), food allergy (ORs ranged from 0.97 to 1.11 p > 0.05), or hay fever (ORs ranged from 1.02 to 1.05 p > 0.05) at age 44. Nor did we find any association between childhood immunizations and an increased risk of incident asthma after the age of 7 yrs (Diphtheria HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.82, 1.36; Tetanus HR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.88, 1.44; Pertussis HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81, 1.30; Polio HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.86, 1.54; Smallpox HR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.99, 1.48; DTP HR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.85, 1.30). Our analysis does not support any association between common childhood immunizations and risk of asthma and atopic disease in middle-age. Our findings should provide reassurance that in terms of life time risk of asthma and atopic disease, childhood immunization is safe.
Picavet, H Susan J; Berentzen, Nina; Scheuer, Ninotsjka; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet
For musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) among adults, several risk factors are known, but the most important determinant is an earlier episode of MSCs. Research has shifted to younger ages, showing a high prevalence of MSCs among children and adolescents. Our purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of
Slutske, Wendy S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related problems). A 90-min observational assessment at age 3 was used to categorize children into five temperament groups, including one primarily characterized by behavioral and emotional undercontrol. The children with undercontrolled temperament at 3 years of age were more than twice as likely to evidence disordered gambling at ages 21 and 32 than were children who were well-adjusted at age 3. These associations could not be explained by differences in childhood IQ or family socioeconomic status. Cleanly demonstrating the temporal relation between behavioral undercontrol and adult disordered gambling is an important step toward building more developmentally sensitive theories of disordered gambling and may put researchers in a better position to begin considering potential routes to disordered-gambling prevention through enhancing self-control and emotional regulation. PMID:22457426
Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.H.
Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.
Cornman, Jennifer C; Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Li; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shu-Hui; Liu, I-Wen; Liu, Hsia-Yuan; Weinstein, Maxine
The Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Taiwanese middle-aged and older adults. It adds the collection of biomarkers and performance assessments to the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA), a nationally representative study of adults aged 60 and over, including the institutionalized population. The TLSA began in 1989, with follow-ups approximately every 3 years; younger refresher cohorts were added in 1996 and 2003. The first wave of SEBAS, based on a sub-sample of respondents from the 1999 TLSA, was conducted in 2000. A total of 1023 respondents completed both a face-to-face home interview and, several weeks later, a hospital-based physical examination. In addition to a 12-h (7 pm-7 am) urine specimen collected the night before and a fasting blood specimen collected during the examination, trained staff measured blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumferences. A second wave of SEBAS was conducted in 2006 using a similar protocol to SEBAS 2000, but with the addition of performance assessments conducted by the interviewers at the end of the home interview. Both waves of SEBAS also included measures of health status (physical, emotional, cognitive), health behaviours, social relationships and exposure to stressors. The SEBAS data, which are publicly available at [http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACDA/studies/3792/version/5], allow researchers to explore the relationships among life challenges, the social environment and health and to examine the antecedents, correlates and consequences of change in biological measures and health.
Moore, Spencer; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette
The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging study was established: (i) to assess the added value in using formal network methods and instruments to measure social capital and its relationship to health; (ii) to determine whether older adults are more vulnerable to the effects of network and neighbourhood environments; and (iii) to examine longitudinally the relationship between social capital and health among adults in Montreal, Canada. The MoNNET-HA cohort consists of men and women aged 25 years and older, residing in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (MMA). Participants were recruited using a random stratified cluster sampling design with oversampling of adults older than 65 years. Initial MoNNET-HA study participants (n = 2707) were recruited for telephone interviews in the summer of 2008. Since 2008, participants were interviewed in the autumn of 2010 and the winter of 2013/2014. Data currently fall into five categories: (i) social network and social capital; (ii) psychosocial and psychological; (ii) socio-demographic and socioeconomic; (iv) health behaviours and conditions; and (v) neighbourhood environmental characteristics. Healthcare utilization data will be available for a subsample of participants. Upon funding, future work will measure anthropometric and metabolic health directly. Based on agreements with participants, external researchers should request access to data via collaborations with the study group.
Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie
The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.
Lyons Ronan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.
Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh
lifestyle during pregnancy. Various approaches to adjustment for potential residual confounding of the relation by maternal age did not affect the relative risk estimates. The paternal age-related risk of late fetal death was higher than the risk of early fetal death and started to increase from the age...... Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival...... analysis. Pregnancies fathered by a man aged 50 or more years (n = 124) had almost twice the risk of ending in a fetal loss compared with pregnancies with younger fathers (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 3.82), after adjustment for maternal age, reproductive history, and maternal...
Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.
Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel
Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957
This study examines historical patterns of aging through the perspectives of cohort evolution and mortality selection, where the former emphasizes the correlation across cohorts in the age dependence of mortality rates, and the latter emphasizes cohort change in the acceleration of mortality over the life course. In the analysis of historical cohort mortality data, I find support for both perspectives. The rate of demographic aging, or the rate at which mortality accelerates past age 70, is n...
Vlimmeren, van Leo A.; Graaf, van der Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at bir
Cronin, Frances M
Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM, alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline to 2nd grade elementary school (endline. Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry, BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025 compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.
Shenoy Ravikiran; Eranki Vivek; Pillai Anand; Hadidi Mahar
Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B ...
Venekamp, Roderick P; Menger, Jan-Thijs; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Smit, Henriette A; Schilder, Anne G M; de Hoog, Marieke L A
Using data on weight and height at 6 and 11 months of age and primary care electronic health records data from 1960 children participating in the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn birth cohort study, we found that body mass index at 6 and 11 months of age was not associated with otitis media oc
Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N
Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64, group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age, and group C (patients over the age of 85. Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.
Full Text Available To study age-related changes of intraocular pressure (IOP and assess the cohort effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings among elderly Chinese adults.Participants were enrolled from the Lingtou Eye Cohort Study with Chinese government officials aged 40 years and older at baseline and received physical check-up and ocular examinations from 2010 to 2012. IOP was measured using a non-contact tonometer according to standardized protocols, as well as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and body mass index (BMI. Participants who had attended IOP measurements in both 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. Cross-sectional association of IOP with age was assessed using multivariate liner regression analyses and based on the data of 2010. Longitudinal changes in IOP were assessed by paired t-test.A total of 3372 subjects were enrolled in the current analysis (2010 mean [SD] age, 61.9 [7.1] years; 60.2% men. The mean IOP in 2010 was 15.4 ± 2.3 mmHg for women and 15.2 ± 2.3 mmHg for men with an intersex difference (P = 0.029. Cross-sectional analysis showed that IOP was negatively associated with age (P = 0.003, β = -0.033 for women and P<0.001, β = -0.061 for men adjusted for baseline SBP, DBP and BMI. Paired t-test suggested that IOP was higher in the year 2012 than 2010 in women (P = 0.006 but did not change significantly in men within 2 years (P = 0.345. In addition, the 2-year changes of IOP were not associated with age adjusted for baseline IOP in 2010 (P = 0.249.Cross-sectional data suggests that IOP is lower in people with older age. Longitudinal data does not support such findings and thus the identified decreasing pattern with age in cross-sectional analysis is likely caused by cohort effects.
Vrijkotte Tanja GM
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during
Singh, Jatinder; Schupf, Nicole; Boudreau, Robert
data (2006-2009) on 28 traits representing 5 domains (cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, physical, and pulmonary) from 4,472 US and Danish individuals in 574 pedigrees from the Long Life Family Study (United States and Denmark), we constructed endophenotypes and assessed their relationship......One method by which to identify fundamental biological processes that may contribute to age-related disease and disability, instead of disease-specific processes, is to construct endophenotypes comprising linear combinations of physiological measures. Applying factor analyses methods to phenotypic...... with mortality. The most dominant endophenotype primarily reflected the physical activity and pulmonary domains, was heritable, was significantly associated with mortality, and attenuated the association of age with mortality by 24.1%. Using data (1997-1998) on 1,794 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study...
Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Davey Smith, George; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents. The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio for fathers aged more than 40 years when paternal age was modelled using restricted cubic splines. When modelled categorically, the adjusted hazard ratios of stillbirth were as follows: <25, 1.16 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.34); 25-29, 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.11); 35-39, 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26); 40-44, 1.41 (95% CI 1.26-1.59); 45-49, 1.20 (95% CI 0.97-1.49); 50+, 1.58 (95% CI 1.18-2.11), compared with fathers aged 30-34 years. These estimates attenuated slightly when further adjusted for parental education. Our study showed that paternal age was associated with the relative rate of stillbirth in a J-shaped manner with the highest hazard ratios among fathers aged more than 40 years.
Carr, Janet; Collins, Suzanne
Background: A population sample of people with Down syndrome has been studied from infancy and has now been followed up again at age 47 years. Methods: Intelligence and language skills were tested and daily living skills assessed. Memory/cognitive deterioration was examined using two test instruments. Results: Scores on verbal tests of…
Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven;
and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between...... boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when...
Elaine W Chong
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49. Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02. The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured
Chong, Elaine W; Wang, Yuanyuan; Robman, Liubov D; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Giles, Graham G; Graves, Stephen; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Guymer, Robyn H
Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of total hip replacement, accounting for more than 80% of all total hip replacements. Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis has a chronic inflammatory component to its pathogenesis similar to age-related macular degeneration. We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration and total hip replacement as proxy for severe osteoarthritis or fractured neck of femur in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. 20,744 participants had complete data on both age-related macular degeneration assessed from colour fundus photographs taken during 2003-2007 and total hip replacement. Total hip replacements due to hip osteoarthritis and fractured neck of femur during 2001-2011 were identified by linking the cohort records to the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age-related macular degeneration and risk of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis and fracture separately, adjusted for confounders. There were 791 cases of total hip replacement for osteoarthritis and 102 cases of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and grouped country of birth, intermediate age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement for osteoarthritis (odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.00-1.49). Late age-related macular degeneration was directly associated with total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur (odds ratio 5.21, 95% CI2.25-12.02). The association between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis suggests the possibility of similar inflammatory processes underlying both chronic diseases. The association of late age-related macular degeneration with an increased 10-year incidence of total hip replacement due to fractured neck of femur may be
Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A
Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).
Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hirai, Hiroshi
To evaluate the gender-specific impact of social exclusion on the mortality of older Japanese adults, we performed a prospective data analysis using the data of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). In AGES, we surveyed functionally independent residents aged 65 years or older who lived in six municipalities in Aichi prefecture, Japan. We gathered baseline information from 13,310 respondents in 2003. Information on mortality was obtained from municipal databases of the public long-term care insurance system. All participants were followed for up to 4 years. We evaluated social exclusion in terms of the combination of social isolation, social inactivity, and relative poverty. Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that socially excluded older people were at significantly increased risk (9-34%) for premature mortality. Those with simultaneously relative poverty and social isolation and/or social inactivity were 1.29 times more likely to die prematurely than those who were not socially excluded. Women showed stronger overall impact of social exclusion on mortality, whereas relative poverty was significantly associated with mortality risks for men. If these associations are truly causal, social exclusion is attributable to 9000-44,000 premature deaths (1-5%) annually for the older Japanese population. Health and social policies to mitigate the issue of social exclusion among older adults may require gender-specific approaches.
Full Text Available Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9-15.9 but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.
Kenji J Tsuchiya
Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.
Full Text Available The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions & language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood & daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla of the brain. The latter includes (i 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fibre tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates.
Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F
Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the age...
Interpretation: Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker.
Edwards, Susan Claire; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Butscher, Maria; Camann, David; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Li, Zhigang; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica
Background In this prospective cohort study of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we evaluated the role of prenatal exposure to urban air pollutants in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child intelligence at 5 years of age, controlling for potential confounders suspected to play a role in neurodevelopment. Methods A cohort o...
Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh
The evidence is limited on the relationship between reproductive factors and bladder cancer (BC). We studied 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton delivery between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. Each woman in the study cohort was tracked from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Vital status of the women was determined by crosswalking records with a computerized mortality database. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death from BC associated with maternal age at first birth and parity. The data showed 63 BC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. BC mortality rate was 0.90 cases for every 100,000 person-years. Compared with women who gave birth under the age of 23, the adjusted HR was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66–2.35) for women who gave birth between age 23 and 26 and 2.30 (95% CI = 1.21–4.39) for women who gave birth over the age of 26. Increasing age at first birth (p for trend = 0.01) is associated with a trend in increasing risk of BC mortality. Relative to women who had a single childbirth, the adjusted HRs were 1.17 (95% CI = 0.51–2.69) for women who gave birth to two children, and 1.31 (95% CI = 0.56–3.10) for women with three or more childbirths, respectively. These results were not statistically significant. Study results suggests that giving birth at an early age may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from BC. PMID:27918463
Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G
Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P valuesdiet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.
Willers, S. M.; Wijga, A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Scholtens, S.; Postma, D. S.; Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.
Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA)
Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Hendriks, H.; Durr, A.; Zuijlen, M.C.A. van; Stevanin, G.; Camuzat, A.; Sinke, R.J.; Brice, A.; Kremer, H.P.H.
In dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), the issue of whether non-CAG dependent factors contribute to onset age remains unsettled. Data on SCA genotype, onset age, normal/expanded CAG repeat length, sex of the patient and transmitting parent, and family details were available from 802 patients. B
McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.
We studied the effect of environmental exposure to lead on children's abilities at the age of four years in a cohort of 537 children born during 1979 to 1982 to women living in a community situated near a lead smelter. Samples for measuring blood lead levels were obtained from the mothers antenatally, at delivery from the mothers and umbilical cords, and at the ages of 6, 15, and 24 months and then annually from the children. Concurrently, the mothers were interviewed about personal, family, medical, and environmental factors. Maternal intelligence, the home environment, and the children's mental development (as evaluated with use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) were formally assessed. The mean blood lead concentration varied from 0.44 mumol per liter in midpregnancy to a peak of 1.03 mumol per liter at the age of two years. The blood lead concentration at each age, particularly at two and three years, and the integrated postnatal average concentration were inversely related to development at the age of four. Multivariate analysis incorporating many factors in the children's lives indicated that the subjects with an average postnatal blood lead concentration of 1.50 mumol per liter had a general cognitive score 7.2 points lower (95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 13.2; mean score, 107.1) than those with an average concentration of 0.50 mumol per liter. Similar deficits occurred in the perceptual-performance and memory scores. Within the range of exposure studied, no threshold dose for an effect of lead was evident. We conclude that postnatal blood lead concentration is inversely related to cognitive development in children, although one must be circumspect in making causal inferences from studies of this relation, because of the difficulties in defining and controlling confounding effects.
Middleton Sue M
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005 from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis. A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes, separation/divorce (asthma, unemployment (cancer, high waist circumference (diabetes, elevated cholesterol (angina and a family history of obesity (angina. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.
Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar
As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078
Darney, Blair G.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Walker, Dilys; Lozano, Rafael
Objectives To test the association of age (adolescents vs. older women) and place of delivery with receipt of immediate postpartum contraception in Mexico. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Mexico, nationally representative sample of women 12–39 years old at last delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression to test the association of self-reported receipt of postpartum contraception prior to discharge with age and place of delivery (public, employment based, private, or out of facility). We included individual and household-level confounders and calculated relative and absolute multivariable estimates of association. Results Our analytic sample included 7022 women (population, N = 9,881,470). Twenty percent of the population was 12–19 years old at last birth, 55% aged 20–29 and 25% 30–39 years old. Overall, 43% of women reported no postpartum contraceptive method. Age was not significantly associated with receipt of a method, controlling for covariates. Women delivering in public facilities had lower odds of receipt of a method (Odds Ratio = 0.52; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.40–0.68) compared with employment-based insurance facilities. We estimated 76% (95% CI = 74–78%) of adolescents (12–19 years) who deliver in employment-based insurance facilities leave with a method compared with 59% (95% CI = 56–62%) who deliver in public facilities. Conclusion Both adolescents and women ages 20–39 receive postpartum contraception, but nearly half of all women receive no method. Place of delivery is correlated with receipt of postpartum contraception, with lower rates in the public sector. Lessons learned from Mexico are relevant to other countries seeking to improve adolescent health through reducing unintended pregnancy. Implications Adolescents receive postpartum contraception as often as older women in Mexico, but half of all women receive no method. PMID:26828625
Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…
Full Text Available The currently available data on the distribution of C2 fracture subtypes is sparse. This study was designed to identify the proportions of the second cervical vertebra (C2 fracture subtypes and to present age and gender specific incidences of subgroups. A dataset of all patients treated between 2002 and 2014 for C2 fractures was extracted from the regional hospital information system. C2 fractures were classified into odontoid fractures types 1, 2, and 3, Hangman’s fractures types 1, 2, and 3, and atypical C2 fractures. 233 patients (female 51%, age 72±19 years were treated for a C2 fracture. Odontoid fractures were found in 183 patients, of which 2 were type 1, 127 type 2, and 54 type 3, while 26 of C2 fractures were Hangman’s fractures and 24 were atypical C2 fractures. In the geriatric subgroup 89% of all C2 fractures were odontoid, of which 71% were type 2 and 29% type 3. There was an increasing incidence of odontoid fractures types 2 and 3 from 2002 to 2014. 40% of C2 fractures were treated surgically. This study presents reliable subset proportions of C2 fractures in a prospectively collected regional cohort. Knowledge of these proportions facilitates future epidemiological studies of C2 fractures.
Robinson, Anna-Lena; Möller, Anders; Robinson, Yohan; Olerud, Claes
The currently available data on the distribution of C2 fracture subtypes is sparse. This study was designed to identify the proportions of the second cervical vertebra (C2) fracture subtypes and to present age and gender specific incidences of subgroups. A dataset of all patients treated between 2002 and 2014 for C2 fractures was extracted from the regional hospital information system. C2 fractures were classified into odontoid fractures types 1, 2, and 3, Hangman's fractures types 1, 2, and 3, and atypical C2 fractures. 233 patients (female 51%, age 72 ± 19 years) were treated for a C2 fracture. Odontoid fractures were found in 183 patients, of which 2 were type 1, 127 type 2, and 54 type 3, while 26 of C2 fractures were Hangman's fractures and 24 were atypical C2 fractures. In the geriatric subgroup 89% of all C2 fractures were odontoid, of which 71% were type 2 and 29% type 3. There was an increasing incidence of odontoid fractures types 2 and 3 from 2002 to 2014. 40% of C2 fractures were treated surgically. This study presents reliable subset proportions of C2 fractures in a prospectively collected regional cohort. Knowledge of these proportions facilitates future epidemiological studies of C2 fractures.
Arnold Steven E
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Motor impairment in old age is a growing public-health concern, and several different constructs have been used to identify motor impairments in older people. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of motor constructs more strongly predict adverse health outcomes in older people. Methods In total, 949 people without dementia, history of stroke or Parkinson's disease, who were participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (a longitudinal community-based cohort study, underwent assessment at study entry. From this, three constructs were derived: 1 physical frailty based on grip strength, timed walk, body mass index and fatigue; 2 Parkinsonian Signs Score based on the modified motor section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; and 3 a motor construct, based on nine strength measures and nine motor performances. Disability and cognitive status were assessed annually. A series of Cox proportional-hazards models, controlling for age, sex and education, were used to examine the association of each of these three constructs alone and in various combinations with death, disability and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Results All three constructs were related (mean r = 0.50, all P Conclusions Physical frailty, parkinsonian signs score and global motor score are related constructs that capture different aspects of motor function. Assessments using several motor constructs may more accurately identify people at the highest risk of adverse health consequences in old age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.
Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Osika, Walter; Bihagen, Erik; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott
It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant
Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H
Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients <40 years of age, 677 male patients newly diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED.
Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Xing, Qian; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong
The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included. A total of 4202 cases with 128,988 individuals from eight cohort studies were identified in the current meta-analysis. The meta-analyzed RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65–0.90) when any AMD was considered. Subgroup analyses by AMD stages showed that fish consumption would reduce the risk of both early (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and late (RR; 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.97) AMD. When stratified by the follow-up duration, fish consumption was a protective factor of AMD in both over 10 years (n = 5; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.97) and less than 10 years (n = 3; RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97) follow-up duration. Stratified analyses by fish type demonstrated that dark meat fish (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.46–0.99), especially tuna fish (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 95% CI, 0.47–0.71) intake was associated with reduced AMD risk. Evidence of a linear association between dose of fish consumption and risk of AMD was demonstrated. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that fish consumption can reduce AMD risk. Advanced, well-designed, randomized clinical trials are required in order to validate the conclusions in this study. PMID:27879656
Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.
Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (...
Full Text Available Using data from eight UK cohorts participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon research programme, with ages at physical capability assessment ranging from 50 to 90+ years, we harmonised data on objective measures of physical capability (i.e. grip strength, chair rising ability, walking speed, timed get up and go, and standing balance performance and investigated the cross-sectional age and gender differences in these measures. Levels of physical capability were generally lower in study participants of older ages, and men performed better than women (for example, results from meta-analyses (N = 14,213 (5 studies, found that men had 12.62 kg (11.34, 13.90 higher grip strength than women after adjustment for age and body size, although for walking speed, this gender difference was attenuated after adjustment for body size. There was also evidence that the gender difference in grip strength diminished with increasing age, whereas the gender difference in walking speed widened (p<0.01 for interactions between age and gender in both cases. This study highlights not only the presence of age and gender differences in objective measures of physical capability but provides a demonstration that harmonisation of data from several large cohort studies is possible. These harmonised data are now being used within HALCyon to understand the lifetime social and biological determinants of physical capability and its changes with age.
Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten;
Objective: Introduced to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), statins are now recommended for a range of other conditions, including asymptomatic individuals without cardiovascular disease or diabetes. The aim was to describe trends in Danish statin utilization according to indication...... and age during 1996-2009, and to analyse changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour during time intervals (driver periods) a priori defined by potential influential factors. Methods: A nationwide cohort (N = 4,998,580) was followed in Danish individual-level registries. Based on a hierarchy of register...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between presence of diabetes and adverse neighborhood and housing conditions and their effect on functional decline is unclear. We examined the association of adverse neighborhood (block face and housing conditions with incidence of lower-body functional limitations among persons with and those without diabetes using a prospective population-based cohort study of 563 African Americans 49-65 years of age at their 2000-2001 baseline interviews. Methods Participants were randomly sampled African Americans living in the St. Louis area (response rate: 76%. Physician-diagnosed diabetes was self reported at baseline interview. Lower-body functional limitations were self reported based on the Nagi physical performance scale at baseline and the three-year follow-up interviews. The external appearance of the block the respondent lived on and five housing conditions were rated by study interviewers. All analyses were done using propensity score methods to control for confounders. Results 109 (19.4% of subjects experienced incident lower-body functional limitations at three-year follow-up. In adjusted analysis, persons with diabetes who lived on block faces rated as fair-poor on each of the five conditions had higher odds (7.79 [95% confidence interval: 1.36-37.55] to 144.6 [95% confidence interval: 4.45-775.53] of developing lower-body functional limitations than the referent group of persons without diabetes who lived on block faces rated as good-excellent. At least 80 percent of incident lower-body functional limitations was attributable to the interaction between block face conditions and diabetes status. Conclusions Adverse neighborhood conditions appear to exacerbate the detrimental effects on lower-body functioning associated with diabetes.
Arnold Steven E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being alone, as measured by less frequent social interactions, has been reported to be associated with a more rapid rate of motor decline in older persons. We tested the hypothesis that feeling alone is associated with the rate of motor decline in community-dwelling older persons. Methods At baseline, loneliness was assessed with a 5-item scale in 985 persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal community-based cohort study. Annual detailed assessment of 9 measures of muscle strength and 9 motor performances were summarized in a composite measure of global motor function. Results Linear mixed-effects models which controlled for age, sex and education, showed that the level of loneliness at baseline was associated with the rate of motor decline (Estimate, -0.016; S.E. 0.006, p = 0.005. For each 1-point higher level of loneliness at baseline, motor decline was 40% more rapid; this effect was similar to the rate of motor decline observed in an average participant 4 years older at baseline. Furthermore, this amount of motor decline per year was associated with about a 50% increased risk of death. When terms for both feeling alone (loneliness and being alone were considered together in a single model, both were relatively independent predictors of motor decline. The association between loneliness and motor decline persisted even after controlling for depressive symptoms, cognition, physical and cognitive activities, chronic conditions, as well as baseline disability or a history of stroke or Parkinson's disease. Conclusions Among community-dwelling older persons, both feeling alone and being alone are associated with more rapid motor decline, underscoring the importance of psychosocial factors and motor decline in old age.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete
. Furthermore, the relationship between offspring birth dimensions and parental mortality is addressed. METHODS: In all 10 753 male singletons born in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953 whose birth certificates had been traced manually in 1965 were followed from 1968 to 2002 for information...... on parents' and own vital status by linkage with the Civil Registration System. Causes of death for the cohort members were identified by record linkage with the Cause-of-Death Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were calculated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Low birthweight and especially short birth...... and paternal lifespan. The associations between birthweight/birth length and mortality were stronger for the age group 35-49 years compared with the age group 15-34 years. Cause-specific mortality was inversely related to small birth dimensions for all causes of death, but strongest and graded for death from...
Bruce, A.; Fairley, L; Chambers, B; Wright, J.; Sheldon, TA
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of poor vision in children aged 4-5 years and determine the impact of visual acuity on literacy. Design: Cross-sectional study linking clinical, epidemiological and education data. Setting: Schools located in the city of Bradford, UK. Participants: Prevalence was determined for 11 186 children participating in the Bradford school vision screening programme. Data linkage was undertaken for 5836 Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort study children participat...
Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha
Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.
Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition
Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Król, Anna; Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Iwona
Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells), health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist) and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales). The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children's health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):883-893.
Full Text Available Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells, health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales. The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children’s health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:883-893
Chuang, Michael L; Massaro, Joseph M; Levitzky, Yamini S; Fox, Caroline S; Manders, Emily S; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J
Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease. However, the age- and gender-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3,285 participants (aged 50.2 ± 9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography from 1998 to 2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (n = 1,656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by gender and age (65 years old, nearly 90% of the referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of the referent group AAC as "high," the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each gender in the overall study sample. The AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort.
Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.
Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181
Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise
The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John D.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Castro-Costa, Erico; Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Ritchie, Karen; Scali, Jacqueline; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Lam, Linda C. W.; Fung, Ada W. T.; Vaccaro, Roberta; Davin, Annalisa; Kim, Ki Woong; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Butterworth, Peter; Scazufca, Marcia; Kumagai, Shuzo; Chen, Sanmei; Narazaki, Kenji; Lobo, Antonio; Lopez-Anton, Raúl; Santabárbara, Javier; Sachdev, Perminder S.
Background The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. Methods and findings We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54–105 y (42% male), including 3.3% with dementia at baseline. The studies began between 1989 and 2011, with all but three ongoing, and each had 2–16 assessment waves (median = 3) and a follow-up duration of 2–15 y. We analyzed standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and memory, processing speed, language, and executive functioning test scores using linear mixed models, adjusted for sex and education, and meta-analytic techniques. Performance on all cognitive measures declined with age, with the most rapid rate of change pooled across cohorts a moderate -0.26 standard deviations per decade (SD/decade) (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.35, -0.16], p < 0.001) for processing speed. Rates of decline accelerated slightly with age, with executive functioning showing the largest additional rate of decline with every further decade of age (-0.07 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.03], p = 0.002). There was a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the associations across cohorts, including a slightly faster decline (p = 0.021) on the MMSE for Asians (-0.20 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.12], p < 0.001) than for whites (-0.09 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.16, -0.02], p = 0.009). Males declined on the MMSE at a slightly slower rate than females (difference = 0
Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Bentley, Jason P; Simpson, Judy M; Bowen, Jenny R.; Morris, Jonathan M.; Roberts, Christine L; Nassar, Natasha
Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in childhood. Clinical studies have implicated caesarean section, early birth and formula feeding in modifying normal gut microbiota development and immune system homeostasis in early life. Rates of early birth and cesarean delivery are also increasing worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of the mode and timing of birth and breastmilk feeding with AGE hospitalisati...
Yasir Bin Nisar
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.
van Den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M A
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. METHODS: The study population consisted
van den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.
This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. The study population consisted of 3684 Dutch chi
Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine
Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247
Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.
BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963
Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.
Mohan, Devi; Stephan, Blossom C M; Allotey, Pascale; Jagger, Carol; Pearce, Mark; Siervo, Mario; Reidpath, Daniel D
Introduction There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies. Methods and analysis This is a community-based feasibility study focused on the assessment of cognition, embedded in the longitudinal study of health and demographic surveillance site of the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO), in Malaysia. In total, 200 adults aged ≥50 years are selected for an in-depth health and cognitive assessment including the Mini Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, blood pressure, anthropometry, gait speed, hand grip strength, Depression Anxiety Stress Score and dried blood spots. Discussion and conclusions The results will inform the feasibility, response rates and operational challenges for establishing an ageing study focused on cognitive function in similar middle-income country settings. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and dementia and risk factors for disease will inform local health priorities and management, and place these within the context of increasing life expectancy. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol is approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent is obtained from all the participants. The project's analysed data and findings will be made available through publications and conference presentations and a data sharing archive. Reports on key findings will be made available as
Clark, April K; Eisenstein, Marie A
Building on the previous work of Robinson and Jackson(1), this study addresses the extent to which interpersonal trust in America is changing due to age, period, or cohort effects (APC). The importance of APC in explaining variations in trust stems from the understanding that the specific source of change can have important - albeit different and possibly, negative - consequences on society. Moreover, 3years after the previous study concluded, the country experienced the largest concerted terrorist attacks on US soil. Little is known about how the attacks affected the dynamics of interpersonal trust relative to the processes of birth, aging, and historical change - such an investigation has important implications for our understanding of the sources and consequences of interpersonal trust. Two analysis techniques for disentangling APC effects are used: constrained generalized linear models and intrinsic estimator models. The results show that while period effects are an important contributor to declining trust, the attacks exert little influence over one's decision to trust others. Also, the investigation provides further confirmation that trust in others has fallen dramatically in the US with the scarcity being led by individuals coming of age in the late 1940s, after which, trust falls with each successive cohort. If this trend continues, through the process of cohort replacement, we will become a society of "distrusters".
Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik;
BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...... and the associated determinants using Cox regression models. RESULTS: We followed 27,185 WRA for 141,693 person-years-at-risk (PYO) among whom 9,093 moved out and 1,006 died. Overall standardized mortality rate was 759 per 100,000 PYO. WRA mortality did not decline, but three periods could be distinguished: a stable...
Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.
IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…
Hiroshi Hirai; Katsunori Kondo; Ichiro Kawachi
We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regress...
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to determine if rates of survival and major neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; infants born at 23–27 weeks gestation are changing over time. Methods Study infants were born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation without congenital anomalies at a tertiary medical center between July 1, 1990 and June 30, 2000, to mothers residing in a thirteen-county region in North Carolina. Outcomes at one year adjusted age were compared for two epochs of birth: epoch 1, July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1995; epoch 2, July 1, 1995 to June 30, 2000. Major neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Developmental Index more than two standard deviations below the mean, or blindness. Results Survival of ELGANs, as a percentage of live births, was 67% [95% confidence interval: (61, 72] in epoch 1 and 71% (65, 75 in epoch 2. Major neurodevelopmental impairment was present in 20% (15, 27 of survivors in epoch 1 and 14% (10, 20 in epoch 2. When adjusted for gestational age, survival increased [odds ratio 1.5 (1.0, 2.2, p = .03] and major neurodevelopmental impairment decreased [odds ratio 0.54 (0.31, 0.93, p = .02] from epoch 1 to epoch 2. Conclusion The probability of survival increased while that of major neurodevelopmental impairment decreased during the 1990's in this regionally based sample of ELGANs.
Anna-Lena Robinson; Anders Möller; Yohan Robinson; Claes Olerud
The currently available data on the distribution of C2 fracture subtypes is sparse. This study was designed to identify the proportions of the second cervical vertebra (C2) fracture subtypes and to present age and gender specific incidences of subgroups. A dataset of all patients treated between 2002 and 2014 for C2 fractures was extracted from the regional hospital information system. C2 fractures were classified into odontoid fractures types 1, 2, and 3, Hangman’s fractures types 1, 2, and ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-8.44. No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers.
Poulton, Alison S; Bui, Quoc; Melzer, Elaine; Evans, Richard
Stimulant medication is known to cause transient weight loss and slowing down of growth, but whether it delays physical maturation is unclear. We studied growth and bone age over the first 3 years of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (patients) compared with healthy siblings (controls). Bone age was estimated blindly by two independent radiologists using Tanner and Whitehouse version 3. Dexamphetamine or methylphenidate was titrated and continued when clinically indicated. Forty out of 73 patients, together with 22 controls, completed the study. There were no significant growth differences between the two groups at baseline. Despite slower growth on treatment [5.1 cm/year, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-5.5, vs. 6.3 cm/year, 95% CI: 5.7-6.8, P=0.002; and 2.7 kg/year, 95% CI: 2.1-3.3, vs. 4.4 kg/year, 95% CI: 3.5-5.3, P=0.005], the patients showed no significant maturational delay (RUS score: 49 U/year, 95% CI: 44-55, vs. 55 U/year, 95% CI: 47-63, P=0.27). A subgroup of patients underwent serial biochemistry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, recording a significant reduction in fat (5.61±3.56-4.22±3.09 kg, Peffect on the rate of maturation, which was instead predicted by baseline leptin (P=0.035 controlling for age and sex).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.
Kok Victor C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data are available on the risk ratios for fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD outcome from gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD in non-diabetic individuals. Methods Nationwide population-based retrospective prospective study with a 5-year follow-up to investigate the association between physician-diagnosed gout and CKD in non-diabetics aged 50 and above who had no pre-existing serious CVD and the subsequent risk of death from CVD. Hazard ratios (HR of CVD mortality were adjusted for gender, age, smoking- and alcoholism-related diagnoses, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and Charlson’s comorbidity index score. Results A case cohort (n=164,463 having gout and a control cohort (n= 3,694,377 having no gout were formed. The prevalence of gout in this study was 4.26% whereas that of gout plus CKD was 8.17%. Male to female ratio among the individuals with gout was 3.2:1. The relative risk (RR of subsequent cardiovascular mortality between the case and control cohort was 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.66-1.75. The presence of CKD in nondiabetic subjects with no gout (control group has a RR of CVD mortality at 3.05 (95% CI, 2.94-3.15. The presence of gout has protective effect on subjects with CKD with a RR of 1.84 (95% CI, 1.71-1.98. As compared with individuals with no gout, the adjusted HR (aHR for CVD mortality among the individuals with gout was 1.10 (95% CI 1.07-1.13. In a Cox model, when compared with subjects having neither gout nor CKD, the aHR in subjects with no gout but with CKD is 1.76 (95% CI, 1.70-1.82; in subjects with gout but without CKD, 1.10 (1.07-1.13; interestingly, the aHR is attenuated in subjects with concomitant gout plus CKD which is 1.38 (1.29-1.48. Conclusions Among non-diabetic individuals aged 50 years or above who had no preceding serious CVD, those with gout were 1.1 times more likely to die from CVD as were individuals without gout. The presence of gout appears to
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282
Dibben, Chris; Playford, Chris; Mitchell, Richard
Background Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position. Methods Using the 1958 birth cohort National Child Development Study, we tested whether Scouts–Guide attendance was associated with mental health (SF-36, Mental Health Index (MHI-5)) controlling for childhood risk factors and interacted with social class. Results Of the 9603 cohort members, 28% had participated in the Scouts–Guides. The average MHI-5 score was 74.8 (SD 18.2) at age 50. After adjustment, for potential childhood confounders, participation in Scouts–Guides was associated with a better MHI-5 score of 2.22 (CI 1.32 to 3.08). Among those who had not been a Scout–Guide, there was a gradient in mental health at age 50 by childhood social position, adjusting for other childhood risk factors. This gradient was absent among those who had been a Scout–Guide. Scout–Guides had an 18% lower odds of an MHI-5 score indicative of mood or anxiety disorder. The findings appeared robust to various tests for residual confounding. Conclusions Participation in Guides or Scouts was associated with better mental health and narrower mental health inequalities, at age 50. This suggests that youth programmes that support resilience and social mobility through developing the potential for continued progressive self-education, ‘soft’ non-cognitive skills, self-reliance, collaboration and activities in natural environments may be protective of mental health in adulthood. PMID:27834224
Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.
Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C
BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS......: We studied the effect of 2.5 mg or 5 mg of alendronate per day or placebo on bone mineral density in 1174 postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. An additional 435 women who were prepared to receive a combination of estrogen and progestin were randomly assigned to one of the above treatments...... or open-label estrogen-progestin. The main outcome measure was the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, distal forearm, and total body measured annually for two years by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The women who received placebo lost bone mineral density at all measured...
Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao
Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.
Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B
Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women. RESULTS: Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7 kg, 39.3 (23.0 s, 1.29 (0.25 m/s, 67.7 (10.0 cm, 1.94 (0.38 m/s, and 82.3 (11.6 cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0 kg, 36.8 (23.4 s, 1.25 (0.27 m/s, 60.8 (10.0 cm, 1.73 (0.36 m/s, and 69.7 (10.8 cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend. We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction. In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions except step length at maximum pace. CONCLUSION: Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes.
Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.
Wodskou, Pernille M; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B;
To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy.......To investigate the validity of self-reported birthweight among middle-aged and elderly women and to identify possible determinants of reporting accuracy....
Youn Ho Shin
Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0–74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.
Ruth M Pfeiffer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian
Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng
The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To
Thomas, Shari [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E., E-mail: Tye.Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Fraser, William D. [Sainte Justine University Hospital Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne [Center for Perinatal, Pediatric & Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); King, Will [Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)
Background: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Methods: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes. Results: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6 µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04–2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25 µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10–2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations. - Highlights: • Metals
Full Text Available Yu-Ching Chen,1 Victor C Kok,1,2 Ching-Hsuan Chien,1 Jorng-Tzong Horng,1,3 Jeffrey J P Tsai11Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, 3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, TaiwanIntroduction: Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces incident cancer development. Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of subsequent cancer development in diabetic cohorts receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. We conducted a population-based study in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic monotherapy.Methods: We identified a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetics aged ≥30 years receiving hypoglycemic monotherapy (n=7,325 from the 1998–2007 Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset. Patients were grouped according to the antidiabetic therapy they received into metformin (n=2,223, sulfonylurea (n=3,965, glitazone (n=53, meglitinide (n=128, acarbose (n=150, and insulin (n=806 groups. Patients with preexisting cancer were excluded. All patients were followed up until cancer development, dropout, death, or until December 31, 2008. Cox’s model was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking-related comorbidities, alcohol use disorders, morbid obesity, pancreatitis, hypertension, monthly income, and urbanization level. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative cancer incidence. Two-sided P-values <0.05 were required to reject the null hypothesis.Results: The overall median follow-up duration was 2.5 years (interquartile range, 3.6 years. Totally, 367 and 124 cancers developed in the sulfonylurea and metformin groups, respectively, representing an adjusted HR of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.67; P<0.005. No significant differences were observed between other groups. Increased adjusted HRs
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies focus on pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI and there is little information regarding the cause, anatomic level, and high risk population of SCI in children. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of pediatric SCI. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 8.7 million children aged<18 years in an 11-year period was analyzed for causes, age at injury, anatomic sites, disability, and familial socio-economic factors. Incidence rates and Cox regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 4949 SCI patients were analyzed. The incidence rates of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and other SCI were 4.06, 0.34, 0.75, and 0.85 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The proportional composition of gender, age, and socio-economic status of SCI patients were significantly different than those of non-SCI patients (all p<0.001. Male children were significantly more likely to have SCI than females in both the cervical and the other SCI groups [Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.03 and 1.52; both p<0.001]. Young adults and teenagers were also significantly more likely to have SCI than pre-school age children in the cervical SCI (IRR = 28.55 and 10.50, both p<0.001 and other SCI groups (IRR = 18.8 and 7.47, both p<0.001. Children in families of lower socio-economic status were also significantly more likely to have SCI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric population, the overall SCI incidence rate is 5.99 per 100,000 person-years, with traumatic cervical SCI accounting for the majority. The incidence rate increases abruptly in male teenagers. Gender, age, and socio-economic status are independent risk factors that should be considered.
Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sandin, Sven; Lof, Marie; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Adami, Hans-Olov
This study aimed to add to prospective data on the possible inverse association between coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk, already supported by several case-control studies. Coffee and tea consumption and possible confounding factors were assessed among 42,270 women aged 30-49 years at enrollment in 1991-1992 in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study, with complete follow-up through 2009. We calculated caffeine intake per day; Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate multivariable relative risks (mRR) for endometrial cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). One hundred forty-four endometrial cancers were diagnosed during follow-up. Women with and without endometrial cancer had a similar mean daily coffee consumption (549 vs. 547 g), tea consumption (104 vs. 115 g), and caffeine intake (405 vs. 406 mg). Compared to those consuming 3 cups had a mRR of 1.56 (95% CI: 0.94-2.59; P for trend = 0.17). Compared with the lowest tertile of caffeine intake, the highest tertile had a mRR of 1.32 (95% CI: 0.87-1.99; P for trend = 0.27). Our study provides no convincing evidence of an association between coffee consumption, tea consumption, or caffeine intake and endometrial cancer risk among middle-aged women.
Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali
Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Karner, T X
Understanding the impact of cohort values is important in trying to project future aging service needs. The cultural characteristics of cohorts yet to reach the age of 65 are compared with those already "old," with specific focus on the Baby Boomers. Aging policies (and available services) reflect the cultural notions of age and aging held as normative during the historical era in which they are enacted. Previous research into lifestyle preferences, consumer practices, and key characteristics is drawn upon to investigate the values of Baby Boomers in light of their projected needs for eldercare services. Cohort research and generational marketing practices offer a promising foundation for exploring how best to develop, target, and deliver aging services that most effectively utilize our social resources.
Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.
Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro
We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.
Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.
Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM. The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869: Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3 at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4 in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367: Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4, 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135 and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743. Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist
Levine, Hagai; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Astman, Nadav; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Mimouni, Daniel; Kark, Jeremy D
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a common cancer with increasing incidence in many parts of the world where light-skinned populations live. We conducted a large-scale nationally representative migrant cohort study to assess country of origin and age at migration as predictors of CM, controlling for possible confounders. Data on 1,086,569 Israeli Jewish males, who underwent a general health examination before compulsory military service at ages 16-19 between the years 1967-2005, were linked to Israel National Cancer Registry to obtain incident CM up to 2006. Cox proportional hazards was used to model time to event. Overall, 1562 incident cases were detected during 19.3 million person-years of follow-up. Origin was a strong independent predictor of CM. Incidence was higher for European (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.55-4.67) and Israeli origin (HR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.25-3.79) compared to N. African/Asian origin, adjusted for year of birth, years of education, residential socio-economic position, rural residence and body surface area (or height). Among those of European origin, the adjusted risk was significantly lower for those who immigrated after the age of 10 years (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73) but not for younger ages (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.23) compared to Israeli born. The high rates of CM among men of European origin and the almost twofold lower risk among those immigrating after age 10 provide solid support for the deleterious role of childhood sun exposure as a risk factor for melanoma. These findings will serve in directing public health and research efforts.
Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.
Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635
Full Text Available HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years.Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires.We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7 mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1 %/yr. Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years.The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time.
Muller, David C.; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, M. Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M.; Cirera, Lluís; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Struijk, Ellen A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul
Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk
Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Leite, Maria Lea Corrêa; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Gouveia, Mateus H; Leal, Thiago P; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Macinko, James; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
The study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (hypertension control (β=-0.35; 95% confidence interval, -0.63 to -0.08, respectively). Our results support the view that favors social and environmental factors as determinants of blood pressure and hypertension control.
Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: email@example.com [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.
McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise
Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.
Matthews Fiona E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions
Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.
Background ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. Objective To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Design Preliminary cohort study. Methods We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. Results We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001) with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). Conclusions These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer. PMID:28060910
Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto
To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer.
Rooth, Vera; Van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Deeg, Dorly J H; Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Picavet, H. Susan J
Purpose: To describe common trajectories of physical functioning and their determinants among an adult cohort, followed over a period of 15 years. Methods: The study sample consisted of 4,123 participants (initial ages 26-70 years) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, who participated in three or four
Scholz, Alexander; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Santa Marina, Loreto; Irazabal, Amaia; Romaguera, Dora; Guxens, Mònica; Julvez, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vioque, Jesus
Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793). TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day) intake (β 45.5) and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3). Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children. PMID:27735864
Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.
Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…
Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Matos, Divane Leite; Laurenti, Ruy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de; Cesar, Cibele Comini
The study objective was to examine differentials in time trends and predictors of deaths assigned to symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions in comparison with other ill-defined conditions (ill-defined cardiovascular diseases, cancer and injury) in a population-based cohort study. Of 1,606 baseline participants aged 60 years and over, 524 died during 9-year follow-up and were included in this study. Deaths coded to "symptoms" declined by 77% in the period from 1997-1999 to 2003-2005. Deaths coded to other ill-defined conditions remained unchanged. The calendar period 2003-2005 (RR = 0.25; 95%CI: 0.09-0.70) and in-hospital deaths (RR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.08-0.34) were independently associated with "symptoms", but not with other ill-defined conditions. Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and chronic diseases were not predictors of these outcomes. International and national agencies have focused on the reduction of deaths assigned to "symptoms" to improve the registration of vital statistics, while other ill-defined conditions have received little attention. Our data provide evidence supporting the need to redress this situation.
Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; César, Cibele Comini; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto
In order to investigate the association between satisfaction with the neighborhood environment and self-rated health among older elderly, data from 814 participants of the eleventh wave of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging were analyzed using robust Poisson regression analyses. Those elderly with higher satisfaction with their neighborhoods (PR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.63-0.87) were less likely to report worse self-rated health. The number of chronic diseases (two, PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.05-2.70, three or more, PR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.27-3.13), difficulty in performing daily activities (PR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.28-1.78), presence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.44-1.95) and frequency of leisure-time exercise in previous 90 days (less than once a week, PR =1.24; 95%CI: 1.03-1.50) were all positively and significantly associated with poor self-rated health. This study provided empirical evidence that satisfaction with the neighborhood environment was associated with the health of the older elderly. The findings further suggest the potential importance of including this indicator in analyses of place and health among the elderly.
Schmidt, S.C.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Gubbels, J.; Thijs, C.
Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body w
Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna
Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia.
Full Text Available Within this analysis of demographic and economic dependency ratios for 45 countries around the world, we reiterate the importance of age- and gender-specific employment levels as well as their determinants when discussing the economic challenges associated with population ageing. Building upon existing research on economic dependency, we portray and discuss cohort variation in employment and its possible effect on the challenges of population ageing, focusing on the implications of high youth unemployment, the role of changes in female employment and the evolution of retirement patterns across cohorts. The insights from our analysis reaffirm findings elsewhere that younger populations may not be as well off in the light of demographic change as an analysis of their demographic structure alone would suggest and stress the importance of considering the cohort dimension of employment in this discussion.
Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kerse, Ngaire
As part of the 12-month follow-up of the longitudinal cohort study, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand, dietary intake was assessed in 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori octogenarians using repeat 24-h multiple pass recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated, and food items reported were allocated to food groups used in the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS). Intakes were compared with the nutrient reference values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. The median BMI was higher for Māori (28·3 kg/m2) than for non-Māori (26·2 kg/m2) P=0·007. For Māori, median energy intake was 7·44 MJ/d for men and 6·06 MJ/d for women with 16·3 % energy derived from protein, 43·3 % from carbohydrate and 38·5 % from fat. Median energy intake was 7·91 and 6·26 MJ/d for non-Māori men and women, respectively, with 15·4 % of energy derived from protein, 45 % from carbohydrate and 36·7 % from fat. For both ethnic groups, bread was the top contributor to energy and carbohydrate intakes. Protein came from beef and veal, fish and seafood, bread, milk and poultry with the order differing by ethnic groups and sex. Fat came mainly from butter and margarine. Energy-adjusted protein was higher for Māori than non-Māori (P=0·049). For both ethnic groups, the median energy levels were similar, percent carbohydrate tended to be lower and percent fat higher compared with adults aged >70 years in NZANS. These unique cross-sectional data address an important gap in our understanding of dietary intake in this growing section of our population and highlight lack of age-appropriate NRV.
Connors, Lawreen H.; Sam, Flora; Skinner, Martha; Salinaro, Francesco; Sun, Fangui; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Berk, John L.; Seldin, David C.
Background Heart failure due to wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is an under-appreciated cause of morbidity and mortality in the aging population. The aims of this study were to examine features of disease and characterize outcomes in a large ATTRwt cohort. Methods and Results Over 20 years, 121 patients with ATTRwt were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Median age at enrollment was 75.6 years (range, 62.6–87.8); 97% of patients were Caucasian. The median survival, measured from biopsy diagnosis, was 46.69 months (95% CI, 41.95–56.77); 78% of deaths were due to cardiac causes. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 5-year survival was 35.7% (95% CI, 25–46). Impaired functional capacity (mean VO2 max of 13.5 mL/kg/min) and atrial fibrillation (67%) were common clinical features. Multivariate predictors of reduced survival were elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 482 ± 337 pg/mL) and uric acid (8.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, 50% median ranging 10-70%), and increased relative wall thickness (RWT, 0.75 ± 0.19). Conclusions In this series of patients with biopsy-proven ATTRwt amyloidosis, poor functional capacity and atrial arrhythmias were common clinical features. Elevated BNP and uric acid, decreased LVEF, and increased RWT were associated with limited survival of only 35.7% at 5 years for the group as a whole. These data establish the natural history of ATTRwt, provide statistical basis for the design of future interventional clinical trials, and highlight the need for more sensitive diagnostic tests and disease-specific treatments for this disease. PMID:26660282
Bak, Geske S; Sperling, Lene; Källén, Karin
IntroductionAn impact of maternal obesity on ultrasound dating of pregnancy at 11-14 gestational weeks is possible and was investigated. Material and methodsA prospective cohort study based on the Danish national population during a 4-year period in which we entered all mothers with singleton...... pregnancies who had a known last menstrual period (LMP), a recorded booking of body mass index (BMI), and a late first trimester ultrasound dating scan using crown-rump-length measurement (gestational age 11(+0)-13(+6)weeks). Almost all scans were performed transabdominally. Transvaginal ultrasound was only.......8% were overweight and 12.3% obese. Ultrasound EDD was 7days later than by LMP in 5.8% of normal-weight women, 7.3% of obese women, and 10.0% of women with morbid obesity. Compared with normal BMI (18.5-24.9), the OR for postponing EDD increased with increasing BMI; BMI 25-29.9 [OR 0.97, 95% confidence...
Volker J. Schmid
Full Text Available The software package BAMP provides a method of analyzing incidence or mortality data on the Lexis diagram, using a Bayesian version of an age-period-cohort model. A hierarchical model is assumed with a binomial model in the first-stage. As smoothing priors for the age, period and cohort parameters random walks of first and second order, with and without an additional unstructured component are available. Unstructured heterogeneity can also be included in the model. In order to evaluate the model fit, posterior deviance, DIC and predictive deviances are computed. By projecting the random walk prior into the future, future death rates can be predicted.
Hayman Karen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people of advanced age (85 years and older is increasing and health systems may be challenged by increasing health-related needs. Recent overseas evidence suggests relatively high levels of wellbeing in this group, however little is known about people of advanced age, particularly the indigenous Māori, in Aotearoa, New Zealand. This paper outlines the methods of the study Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand. The study aimed to establish predictors of successful advanced ageing and understand the relative importance of health, frailty, cultural, social & economic factors to successful ageing for Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. Methods/design A total population cohort study of those of advanced age. Two cohorts of equal size, Māori aged 80–90 and non-Māori aged 85, oversampling to enable sufficient power, were enrolled. A defined geographic region, living in the Bay of Plenty and Lakes District Health Board areas of New Zealand, defined the sampling frame. Rūnanga (Māori tribal organisations and Primary Health Organisations were subcontracted to recruit on behalf of the University. Measures - a comprehensive interview schedule was piloted and administered by a trained interviewer using standardised techniques. Socio-demographic and personal history included tribal affiliation for Māori and participation in cultural practices; physical and psychological health status used standardised validated research tools; health behaviours included smoking, alcohol use and nutrition risk; and environmental data included local amenities, type of housing and neighbourhood. Social network structures and social support exchanges are recorded. Measures of physical function; gait speed, leg strength and balance, were completed. Everyday interests and activities, views on ageing and financial interests complete the interview. A physical assessment by a trained nurse included
Chang, Hung-Yu; Lee, Pei-Hsien; Lei, Chen-Chou; Tung, Chun-Wu; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Huang, Tung-Jung
Background Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA) is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR) after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics) (β = 0.194, p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27–1.59, p<0.01). A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs) only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11–5.93, p<0.01) and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82–2.07, p = 0.15). Conclusion Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population. PMID:23637835
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics (β = 0.194, p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27-1.59, p<0.01. A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11-5.93, p<0.01 and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82-2.07, p = 0.15. CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population.
Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ≤ 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations.
Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv
Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...
Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn
Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...
Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira
Elevated risk of death from any cause and stroke associated with high body mass index (BMI) values decline with aging. However, it is not clear whether the effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension varies by sex or age. Cox regression analyses were performed using a large historical cohort composed of 6803 men and 22,800 women. In the final model, which included the main effect (sex, age, and BMI), all two-way interactions (sex*age, sex*BMI, and age*BMI), a three-way interaction (sex*age*BMI), and adjusted variables determined by backward elimination, the three-way interaction and two of the two-way interactions (age*sex and age*BMI) were not significant; the remaining two-way interaction between sex and BMI was significant (P = .016). In the next step, the effect of BMI on the incidence of hypertension stratified by sex was evaluated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were significantly higher for BMI 27.0 to obesity on the incidence of hypertension is stronger in women than in men.
Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J
A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.
Nelander, Maria; Cnattingius, S; Åkerud, Helena; Wikström, Johan; Pedersen, N.L.; Wikström, Anna-Karin
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to study pregnancy hypertensive disease and subsequent risk of dementia. The second aim was to study if the increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persist in an elderly population. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 3232 women 65 years or older (mean 71 years) at inclusion. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate risks of dementia, CVD and/or s...
Full Text Available Tadele Girum,1 Mesfin Kote,2 Befikadu Tariku,2 Henok Bekele3 1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, 2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, 3Department of Planning, Adare Hospital, Southern Region Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia Abstract: Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell’s concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox–Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3% children had died, and 414 (76% and 26 (4.8% children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days, respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329, altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763, altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867, shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919, anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97, nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575, hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87 and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9 were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death
Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok
Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions. PMID:28176953
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between foveal morphology and self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD and whether foveal characteristics are associated with Ranibizumab treatment response on the self-perceived visual function. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD found eligible for treatment with Ranibizumab. Foveal morphology of both eyes was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and all patients were interviewed using the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ. Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment with Ranibizumab. We evaluated foveal morphology at baseline in relation to VFQ scores at baseline and clinically meaningful changes in VFQ after 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: VFQ scores correlated with central foveal thickness, central foveal thickness of neuroretina (CFN, foveal RPE elevation, foveal integrity of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS, and external limiting membrane. In a multiple linear regression model, only best-corrected visual acuity of the better eye (p<0.001 and the IS/OS status in the better eye (p = 0.012 remained significant (Adjusted R(2 = 0.418. Lower baseline VFQ and a baseline CFN within 170-270 µm in the better eye were both associated with a clinically meaningful increase in the VFQ scores after 3 and 12 months. An absent foveal IS/OS band in the better eye was associated with a clinically meaningful decrease in the VFQ scores at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Foveal morphology in the better eye influences the self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular AMD and possesses a predictive value for change in the self-perceived visual function at 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. These findings may help clinicians provide patients more individualized information of their
Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, OH (United States))
This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.
MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…
Chang, Jie; Li, Boyang; Li, Jingjing; Sun, Yang
In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied. There was a log-linear increase in the age effect on IHD mortality as those aged 80–84 showed 277 and 161 times greater IHD mortality risk than those aged 20–24 in urban and rural populations, respectively. While there was an upward trend in the period effect in both populations, the influence of the cohort effect on mortality decreased over time for those born from 1904 to 1993. The age, period, and cohort effects on mortality in China were generally comparable between urban and rural populations. The results suggest that population aging is a major driver behind the rapid rise in IHD mortality. Increased exposure to air pollution may also have played a role in driving the period effect
Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;
cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. CONCLUSION: The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group.......BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out......-Mental State Examination. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895...
Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L
Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability was asse......Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability...... was assessed by 4 cognitive ability tests at ages 60, 70, and 80. RESULTS: Individuals in more intellectually challenging occupations had higher cognitive ability (r = .27-.38, p ages 50 and 60, p ...). In growth curve models, intellectual challenge continued to be associated with cognitive ability, controlling for sex, education, and social class. However, the association was reversed after accounting for cognitive ability at age 50; of 2 individuals with the same baseline level of cognitive ability...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.
Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn
This study compared young people and older adults with depression to identify differences in suicidality between these groups. A total of 1003 patients with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] score ≥14) were recruited from a national sample of 18 hospitals. Of the patients included in this study, 103 (10.3%) were placed in the younger group (age older group (age ≥25years). Suicide-related variables and predictive factors associated with significant suicidal ideation were compared between the two groups. Regardless of the severity of depression, subjects in the younger group were more likely than were those in the older group to report significant suicidal ideation (scores ≥6 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B], 79.6 vs. 53.7%, respectively; polder group, subjects in the younger group were more affected by their history of suicide attempts (OR [95% CI]: 12.4, [1.5-99.1]; p=0.018) and depressive episodes (OR [95% CI]: 13.0, [1.6-104.0]; p=0.016). Also in contrast to the older group, an increase in HDRS score was not identified as a possible precipitating factor of significant suicidal ideation in younger subjects. The present findings demonstrate that suicidality in depressed young people was more severe than in older adults, but that suicidality was not correlated with the severity of depression. These data suggest that close attention should be paid to young people even in mild or moderate depression.
Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008-2012 in people aged 5-69 years.Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8-10.0 and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4-331.5 due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0-69 years. Valuing life using Fiji's per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011-2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses.Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases.
Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.;
between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...... of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated...
Full Text Available Research is needed to examine the connection between older adults and their community as they age. This is important as increasing numbers of older adults wish to age in place. Regression models were examined across 3 cohorts testing relationships among social capital indicators (neighborhood trust, neighborhood support, neighborhood cohesion, neighborhood participation, and telephone interaction with health outcomes (self-rated health, activities of daily living (ADL, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL. Results showed that most social capital indicators remained significant for all health outcomes into very old age. Development of tools for individual and community interventions to ensure optimal fit between the aging individual and their environment is discussed, along with recommendations for enhancing social work theory and practice.
de Ree, Joppe; Alessie, Rob
Recent literature typically finds a U shaped relationship between life satisfaction and age. Age profiles, however, are not identified without forcing arbitrary restrictions on the cohort and/or time profiles. In this paper we report what can be identified about the relationship between life satisfa
Franz, Claudia; Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;
to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury. CONCLUSIONS: Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe......Abstract OBJECTIVES: It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate...... this to the frequency of sport sessions. DESIGN: Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. SETTING: 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg. PARTICIPANTS: 1270 children aged 6-13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. OUTCOMES...
Scholtens, Salome; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.
Compared with nonbreastfed children, breastfed children tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) at about 1 year of age. How the BMI of breastfed children develops after the first year when this difference in BMI at 1 year of age is considered is not clear. The authors studied the association betw
Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M
This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso
This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981
Full Text Available In this paper we present the R implementation of a GLIM macro which fits age-period-cohort model following Osmond and Gardner. In addition to the estimates of the corresponding model, owing to the programming capability of R as an object oriented language, methods for printing, plotting and summarizing the results are provided. Furthermore, the researcher has fully access to the output of the main function (apc which returns all the models fitted within the function. It is so possible to critically evaluate the goodness of fit of the resulting model.
Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Kerse, Ngaire; Adamson, Ashley
A high prevalence of undernutrition has previously been reported in indigenous Māori (49 %) and non-Māori (38 %) octogenarians and may be associated with risk of micronutrient deficiencies. We examined vitamin and mineral intakes and the contributing food sources among 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori participating in Life and Living to Advanced age a Cohort Study in New Zealand, using a repeat 24-h multiple-pass recall. More than half of the Māori and non-Māori participants had intakes below the estimated average requirement from food alone for Ca, Mg and Se. Vitamin B6 (Māori women only), folate (women only), vitamin E (Māori women; all men) and Zn (men only) were low in these ethnic and sex subgroups. Women had intakes of higher nutrient density in folate, vitamin C, Ca, Mg, K, vitamin A (non-Māori) and β-carotene (Māori) compared with men (P<0·05). When controlling for age and physical function, β-carotene, folate, vitamin C, Ca and Mg were no longer significantly different, but vitamins B2, B12, E and D, Fe, Na, Se and Zn became significantly different for Māori between men and women. When controlling for age and physical function, vitamins A and C and Ca were no longer significantly different, but vitamin B2, Fe, Na and Zn became significantly different for non-Māori between men and women. For those who took nutritional supplements, Māori were less likely to be deficient in food alone intake of vitamin A, folate and Mg, whereas non-Maori were less likely to be deficient in intakes of Mg, K and Zn, but more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12 intake. A lack of harmonisation in nutrient recommendations hinders the interpretation of nutrient adequacy; nonetheless, Ca, Mg and Se are key micronutrients of concern. Milk and cheese were important contributions to Ca intake, whereas bread was a key source of Mg and Se. Examination of dietary intake related to biochemical status and health outcomes will establish the utility of these observations.
Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.
Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.
van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Kwakkel, Gert; Bruin, Margje; Lindeman, Eline
Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients. Methods. Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and thr
Leng, Junhong; Hay, John; Liu, Gongshu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Huihuan; Yang, Xilin; Liu, Jian
Objective To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. Design Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. Setting Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. Participants 1572 women aged 19–39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24–28), glucose challenge test <7.8 mmol/L and singleton birth (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Main outcome measures SGA was defined as birth weight <10th centile for gender separated gestational age of Tianjin singletons. Results 164 neonates (10.4%) were identified as SGA. From multiple logistic regression models, the ORs (95% CI) of delivery of SGA were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98), 0.61 (0.49 to 0.74) and 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76) for every 1 SD increase in maternal BG, BMI and stature, respectively. When dichotomises, maternal BG (<6.0 vs ≥6.0 mmol/L), BMI (<24 vs ≥24 kg/m2) and stature (<160.0 vs ≥160.0 cm), those with BG, BMI and stature all in the lower categories had ∼8 times higher odds of delivering an SGA neonate (OR (95% CI) 8.01 (3.78 to 16.96)) relative to the reference that had BG, BMI and stature all in the high categories. The odds for an SGA delivery among women who had any 2 variables in the lower categories were ∼2–4 times higher. Conclusions Low maternal BG is associated with an increased risk of having an SGA infant. The risk of SGA is significantly increased when the mother is also short and has a low BMI. This may be a useful clinical tool to identify women at higher risk for having an SGA infant at delivery. PMID:27633632
Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.
Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik
Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…
Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira Ramalho; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa; Josélia O. A. Firmo; Sérgio Viana Peixoto
The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (< 450 MET....
In 2002 and 2006, review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established: the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983-1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975-1979) also included assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations.
Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50...
Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J;
To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...
Løkkegaard, E; Pedersen, A T; Laursen, P;
A maintenance and/or improvement of cognitive performance with postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is biological plausible. The objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of HRT on aging-related changes in cognitive performances, and to assess whether women who choose HRT have...... better cognitive performance prior to HRT....
M.L.A. de Hoog; M. van Eijsden; K. Stronks; R.J.B.J. Gemke; T.G.M. Vrijkotte
Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed
Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof
Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.
Crespo-Escobar, Paula; Mearin, Maria Luisa; Hervás, David; Auricchio, Renata; Castillejo, Gemma; Gyimesi, Judit; Martinez-Ojinaga, Eva; Werkstetter, Katharina; Vriezinga, Sabine Lisa; Korponay-Szabo, Ilma Rita; Polanco, Isabel; Troncone, Riccardo; Stoopman, Els; Kolaček, Sanja; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Sibylle; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen
Background: We previously found that the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 4-6 mo of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease (CD) in a group of high-risk children. However, the consumption of high amounts of gluten early in life has been suggested to increase CD risk.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by using data from the previous study of the PreventCD trial (www.preventcd.com).Design: Gluten intake was prospectively quantified by using specific food records between 11 and 36 mo of age in 715 children positive for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 from 5 European countries. According to the PreventCD protocol, infants received 100 mg immunologically active gluten/d or placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age, with a stepwise and fixed gluten increase until age 10 mo and unrestricted intake thereafter. The primary outcome of the present study was the impact of the amount of gluten consumed from age 10 mo onward on CD development.Results: Mean daily gluten intakes from 10 mo onward were significantly different between countries for children at all ages (P 0.05). The variables country, sex, intervention group, and gluten consumption pattern did not show significant associations with CD development risk (HRs not significant). In addition, the interaction between HLA risk group and gluten consumption pattern showed no significant risk on CD development, except for the DQ2.2/DQ7 haplotype (HR: 5.81; 95% CI: 1.18, 28.74; P = 0.031).Conclusions: Gluten consumption patterns as well as the amount of gluten consumed at 11-36 mo of age do not influence CD development for most related HLA genotypes in children with a genetic risk. This study reports the gluten consumption pattern in children at risk of CD from different European countries. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN74582487.
Jarvis, D; Luczynska, C; Chinn, S; Potts, J; Sunyer, J; Janson, C; Svanes, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Heinrich, J; Kerkhof, M; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, MM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P
Background: Cross-sectional studies show that the prevalence of IgE sensitization is lower in older age groups than younger age groups. This could reflect either a decrease in sensitization with aging or a higher prevalence of sensitization in more recent birth cohorts. Objective: To assess change i
This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…
Ramalho, Juciany Rodrigues de Oliveira; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Firmo, Josélia O A; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana
The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity energy expenditure among older adults. The study comprised 1,585 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged > 60 years (91% of the town's total elderly), and examined the frequency and duration of 23 types of physical activity among them. Median energy expenditure was 975 MET.min/week (1,195.8 among men and 803.1 among women), declining significantly with age in both sexes. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyles (MET.min/week) was 31.2%. Unhurried walking accounted for about 1/3 of total energy expenditure. Multivariate analysis based on ordinal logistic regression showed inverse associations between energy expenditure and age and hospitalizations in both sexes. Among men, inverse associations were observed with smoking, number of chronic diseases and number of medical appointments. These results emphasize the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity in older elderly, and underscore the high prevalence of walking in this group.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;
AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... to 20 years in a longitudinal register-based cohort study. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related information were obtained through Danish administrative registers. RESULTS: Cancer survivors had a small but significantly increased risk for unemployment following cancer. Stratified analyses showed...
For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle
Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah
This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael;
This article gives an overview of a nationally representive public health research database in Denmark, the Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS). DANCOS combines baseline data from health interview surveys with both pre- and post-baseline data from national health registries with date from a re...... Service Register recorded 980,043 contacts with general practitioners and specialist physicians. For 1943-1996, the Danish cancer Registry contained information about one or more cancer diseases among 1,432 people. A total of 4,334 people in the 1994 cohort were re-interview in 2000. DANCOS allows...
Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels
Objectives It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions. Design Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. Setting 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg. Participants 1270 children aged 6–13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Outcomes measures Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having an overuse injury of an extremity or not. The incidence of diagnosed overuse injury was calculated for each of the 9 most common sports in relation to 5-week periods. Incidence by frequency of sessions was calculated, and multivariable analysis was performed taking into account age, sex and frequency of physical education classes at school. Results Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose–response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury. Conclusions Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe activity for children. PMID:28087543
Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.
for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...... was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit. The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow‐up with highly specific end‐points, exposure assessments, and biobanking....... Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high‐dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.
Mutharasan, R Kannan; Thaxton, C Shad; Berry, Jarett; Daviglus, Martha L; Yuan, Chun; Sun, Jie; Ayers, Colby; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Wilkins, John T
HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle size are associated with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) events in middle-aged individuals; however, it is unclear whether these associations are present in older adults. We sampled 402 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants who underwent a dedicated carotid MRI assessment for lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) plaque. We measured HDL particle size, HDL particle number, and LDL particle number with NMR spectroscopy, as well as HDL efflux capacity. We quantified the associations between HDL particle size and HDL efflux using adjusted linear regression models. We quantified associations between the presence of LRNC and HDL and LDL particle number, HDL particle size, and HDL efflux capacity using adjusted logistic regression models. HDL efflux capacity was directly associated with large (β = 0.037, P HDL particle concentration and inversely associated with small (β = -0.0049, P = 0.018) HDL particle concentration in multivariable adjusted models. HDL efflux capacity and HDL particle number were inversely associated with prevalent LRNC plaque in unadjusted models (odds ratio: 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.96), but not after multivariable adjustment. HDL particle size was not associated with prevalent LRNC. HDL particle size was significantly associated with HDL efflux capacity, suggesting that differences in HDL efflux capacity may be due to structural differences in HDL particles. Future research is needed to determine whether HDL efflux is a marker of ASCVD risk in older populations.
Ogata, Yosihiko; Katsura, Koichi; Keiding, Niels;
ABIC, age-period-cohort decomposition, anisotropic smoothness prior, B-spline, detection rate, diabetes incidence, integrated likelihood, intensity function, Lexis diagram, random deletion......ABIC, age-period-cohort decomposition, anisotropic smoothness prior, B-spline, detection rate, diabetes incidence, integrated likelihood, intensity function, Lexis diagram, random deletion...
Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.
Full Text Available Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558 established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers.
Jiang, Bei; Carriere, Keumhee C
Age-period-cohort (APC) models are used to analyze temporal trends in disease or mortality rates, dealing with linear dependency among associated effects of age, period, and cohort. However, the nature of sparseness in such data has severely limited the use of APC models. To deal with these practical limitations and issues, we advocate cubic smoothing splines. We show that the methods of estimable functions proposed in the framework of generalized linear models can still be considered to solve the non-identifiability problem when the model fitting is within the framework of generalized additive models with cubic smoothing splines. Through simulation studies, we evaluate the performance of the cubic smoothing splines in terms of the mean squared errors of estimable functions. Our results support the use of cubic smoothing splines for APC modeling with sparse but unaggregated data from a Lexis diagram.
Jordan, Jennifer H; Thwin, Soe Soe; Lash, Timothy L; Buist, Diana S M; Field, Terry S; Haque, Reina; Pawloski, Pamala A; Petersen, Hans V; Prout, Marianne N; Quinn, Virginia P; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Silliman, Rebecca A; Geiger, Ann M
Five-year breast cancer survivors, diagnosed after 65 years of age, may develop more incident comorbidities than similar populations free of cancer. We investigated whether older breast cancer survivors have a similar comorbidity burden 6-15 years after cancer diagnosis to matched women free of breast cancer at start of follow-up and whether incident comorbidities are associated with all-cause mortality. In this prospective cohort study, 1,361 older 5-year early-stage breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 and 1,361 age- and health system-matched women were followed for 10 years. Adjudicated medical record review captured prevalent and incident comorbidities during follow-up or until death as collected from the National Death Index. Older 5-year breast cancer survivors did not acquire incident comorbidities more often than matched women free of breast cancer in the subsequent 10 years [hazard ratio (HR) 1.0, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.93, 1.1]. Adjusted for cohort membership, women with incident comorbidities had a higher mortality rate than those without incident comorbidities (HR 4.8, 95 % CI 4.1, 5.6). A breast cancer history continued to be a hazard for mortality 6-15 years after diagnosis (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1, 1.4). We found that older breast cancer survivors who developed comorbidities had an increased all-cause mortality rate even after adjusting for age and prevalent comorbidity burden. Additionally, survivors acquire comorbidities at a rate similar to older women free of breast cancer. These results highlight the association between comorbidity burden and long-term mortality risk among older breast cancer survivors and their need for appropriate oncology and primary care follow-up.
Full Text Available Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death.Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years.Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7] of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009. After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90] than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76].Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.
Harden, Janet K; Northouse, Laurel L; Mood, Darlene W
Prostate cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in men in all adult life stages. Normative developmental tasks of aging combined with disease-related stressors may negatively affect adjustment to prostate cancer and, consequently, affect the quality of life of both the man and his spouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of men with prostate cancer and their partners according to their life cycle cohort: 50-64 (late middle age), 65-74 (young-old), and 75-84 (old-old). Qualitative interviews with 15 couples were used to provide information about the dyad's experiences with prostate cancer. Interview data were analyzed to identify preliminary coding schemas, which were subsequently refined and modified into themes. Three major themes were identified from the data. Across all age groups, prostate cancer had a significant effect on: (1) couples' daily lives, (2) their dyadic and family relationships, and (3) their developmental stage. There were also differences in age groups. Couples in the late middle age group reported greater disappointment and anger at their inability to reach life goals and establish financial security. Couples in the young-old group made more spontaneous comments about being satisfied with their life than the couples in the other 2 groups. Couples in the old-old group reported slower recovery from the illness than the younger couples. Results indicate that although prostate cancer may have some universal effects on couples, it also may have differential effects by age cohort. Hence, targeted interventions by age cohort may be warranted.
Hagen, van M.A.E.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, B.W.
Objective-To determine mortality rate over time, risk factors for death, and heritability of life expectancy in Boxers. Animals-1,733 purebred Boxers born in The Netherlands between January 1994 and March 1995. Procedure-Dogs were followed up from weaning (ie, 49 days of age) to 10 years of age thro
Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.
Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...
Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Jung Jin; Yu, Je-Chun; Lee, Kyu Young; Won, Seung-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Shi Hyun
The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5. Early psychosis is defined as first episode patients who received antipsychotic treatment for fewer than 4 consecutive weeks after the onset of illness or stabilized patients in the early stages of the disorder whose duration of illness was less than 2 years from the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. The primary outcome measures are treatment response, remission, recovery, and relapse. Additionally, several laboratory tests are conducted and a variety of objective and subjective psychiatric measures assessing early life trauma, lifestyle pattern, and social and cognitive functioning are administered. This long-term prospective cohort study may contribute to the development of early intervention strategies and the improvement of long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:28096881
Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie
The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI: 1.32 – 1.36 in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47 in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden
Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U
Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.
Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet
Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.
Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie
Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.
J. Paul Fawcett; Gill O. Barbezat; Richie Poulton; Barry J. Milne; Harry H.X. Xia; Nicholas J. Talley
AIM: To determine seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) at age 26 in order toinvestigate seroconversion and seroreversion from age 11 to 26 and the association of seropositivity with risk factors for H pylori infection. METHODS: Participants in the DMHDS at age 26 and retrospectively at age 21 were tested for H pylori antibodies using two commercially available ELISA kits. Gender, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking, educational attainment and employment at age 26 were tested for association with H pylori seropositivity.RESULTS: At ages 21 and 26, seroprevalence of H pylori using one or other kit was 4.2% (n = 795) and 6.3% (n = 871) respectively. Seroreversion rate was lower than serocon version rate (0.11% vs0.53% per person-year) in contrast to the period from age 11 to 21 when seroreversion rate exceeded seroconversion rate (0.35% vs 0.11% per person-year). Serology in those tested at ages 11, 21, and 26 remained unchanged in 93.6% of the sample. Seroprevalence at age 26 was lower among those with a secondary school qualification (P = 0.042) but was not associated with gender, SES, smoking or employment status. CONCLUSION: H pylori seroprevalence in a New Zealandbirth cohort remains low between ages 11 and 26. H pylori infection remains stable from childhood to adulthood although seroreversion seems to be more common in the adolescent years than in young adults.
Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Høgdall, Estrid; Johansen, Julia
.0002), primiparity (p = 0.0003), and hypertension (p = 0.015). Serum YKL-40 increased from 12 to 20 weeks and decreased from 20-25 and 25-32 weeks of gestation. No association was found between preeclampsia and serum YKL-40. Small-for-gestational-age at birth was significantly associated with a 5.4% increase...
Otten, A.M.; Ottervanger, J.P.; Timmer, J.R.; Hof, A.W. van 't; Dambrink, J.H.; Gosselink, A.M.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; Suryapranata, H.; Maas, A.H.E.M.
BACKGROUND: Both acute hyperglycemia as diabetes results in an impaired prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. It is unknown whether there is a different prevalence of diabetes and acute hyperglycemia in men and women within age-groups. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2010, 4640
Karlsson, Peter; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Gudmundsson, Pia; Johansson, Boo
Later-born cohorts of older adults tend to outperform earlier born on fluid cognition (i.e., Flynn effect) when measured at the same chronological ages. We investigated cohort differences in level of performance and rate of change across three population-based samples born in 1901, 1906, and 1930, drawn from the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70), and measured on tests of logical reasoning and spatial ability at ages 70, 75, and 79 years. Estimates from multiple-group latent growth curve models (LGCM) revealed, in line with previous studies, substantial differences in level of performance where later-born cohorts outperformed earlier born cohorts. Somewhat surprisingly, later-born cohorts showed, on average, a steeper decline than the earlier-born cohort. Gender and education only partially accounted for observed cohort trends. Men outperformed women in the 1906 and 1930 cohorts but no difference was found in the 1901 cohort. More years of education was associated with improved performance in all three cohorts. Our findings confirm the presence of birth cohort effects also in old age but indicate a faster rate of decline in later-born samples. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
Bronwyn K Brew
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. METHODS: In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. RESULTS: Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81 and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00. Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71. The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders in long-term sick-listing. During 2000-2004, 125 Swedish primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, full-time sick-listed 6 weeks-2 years, were included in a randomized controlled trial to compare a cognitive-behavioural programme with traditional primary care. This prospective cohort study is a re-assessment of the data from the randomized trial with the 2 treatment groups considered as a single cohort. The aim was to investigate which baseline variables predict a stable return-to-work during a 2-year period after baseline: objective variables from function tests, socioeconomic, subjective and/or treatment variables. Stable return-to-work was a return-to-work lasting for at least 1 month from the start of follow-up. Methods Stable return-to-work was the outcome variable, the above-mentioned factors were the predictive variables in multiple-logistic regression models, one per follow-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. The factors from univariate analyzes with a p-value of at most .10 were included. The non-significant variables were excluded stepwise to yield models comprising only significant factors (p Results Three variables qualified, all of them represented in 3 follow-ups: Low total prior sick-listing (including all diagnoses was the strongest predictor in 2 follow-ups, 18 and 24 months, OR 4.8 [1.9-12.3] and 3.8 [1.6-8.7] respectively, High self prediction (the patients' own belief in return-to-work was the strongest at 12 months, OR 5.2 [1.5-17.5] and Young age (max 44 years the second strongest at 18 months, OR 3.5 [1.3-9.1]. Conclusions In primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, the strong predictors of stable return-to-work were 2 socioeconomic variables, Low total prior sick-listing and Young age, and 1 subjective variable, High self-prediction. Objective variables from function tests and treatment variables
Merz C Noel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is an established causal factor for atherosclerosis. However, the smoking effect on different echogenic components of carotid arterial wall measured by ultrasound is not well elucidated. Methods Middle-aged men and women who had IMT measurement ≥ 0.7 mm at baseline and follow-up were included (N = 413, age 40–60 years at baseline in 1995. Intima-media thickness of common carotid artery (CCA-IMT and its components (echogenic and echolucent layers were measured at baseline and in the follow-up examination 3 years later. IMT and its components were compared across current, former and never smokers. Individual growth models were used to examine how smoking status was related to the baseline and progression of overall IMT and IMT components. Results For both men and women, current smoking was associated with thicker echogenic layer than never smokers; former smokers exhibited thinner echogenic layer than current smokers after adjustment for cigarette pack-years. Among women, current smoking was also associated with a thinned echolucent layer that resulted in a non-significant overall association of current smoking with IMT for women. Conclusion Cigarette smoking is associated with carotid artery morphological changes and the association is sex-dependent. The atherogenic effect of smoking appears to be partly reversible among former smokers. IMT measurement alone may not be adequate to detect carotid atherosclerosis associated with cigarette smoking among middle-age women.
Klausen, Trond Beldo
This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…
Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A
Associations between HLA genotypes and measles vaccine humoral and cellular immune responses were examined to better understand immunogenetic drivers of vaccine response. Two independent study cohorts of healthy schoolchildren were examined: cohort one, 346 children between 12 and 18 years of age; and cohort two, 388 children between 11 and 19 years of age. All received two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. The purpose of this study was to identify and replicate associations between HLA genes and immune responses following measles vaccination found in our first cohort. Associations of comparable magnitudes and with similar p-values were observed between B*3503 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.07), DQA1*0201 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.03), DQB1*0303 (1st cohort p=0.10; 2 cohort p=0.02), DQB1*0602 (1st cohort p=0.07; 2nd cohort p=0.10), and DRB1*0701 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.07) alleles and measles-specific antibody levels. Suggestive, yet consistent, associations were observed between the B7 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.08) supertype and higher measles antibody levels in both cohorts. Also, in both cohorts, the B*0801 and DRB1*0301 alleles, C*0802 and DPA1*0202 alleles, and DRB1*1303 alleles displayed consistent associations with variations in IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 secretion, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of replicating HLA associations with measles vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and increases confidence in the results. These data will inform strategies for functional studies and novel vaccine development, including epitope-based measles vaccines. This is the first HLA association replication study with measles vaccine-specific immune responses to date.
Kienle Gunver S
Full Text Available Abstract Background When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to selected studies, and often mix different outcomes and follow-up periods. Here we give an example of a systematic comparison to all cohorts with identical outcomes and follow-up periods. Methods The therapy to be compared (anthroposophic medicine, a complementary therapy system had been evaluated in one single-arm cohort study: the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS. The five largest AMOS diagnosis groups (A-cohorts: asthma, depression, low back pain, migraine, neck pain were compared to all retrievable corresponding cohorts (C-cohorts receiving other therapies with identical outcomes (SF-36 scales or summary measures and identical follow-up periods (3, 6 or 12 months. Between-group differences (pre-post difference in an A-cohort minus pre-post difference in the respective C-cohort were divided with the standard deviation (SD of the baseline score of the A-cohort. Results A-cohorts (5 cohorts with 392 patients were similar to C-cohorts (84 cohorts with 16,167 patients regarding age, disease duration, baseline affection and follow-up rates. A-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than C-cohorts in 13.5% (70/517 of comparisons; improvements of the same order of magnitude (small or minimal differences: -0.49 to 0.49 SD were found in 80.1% of comparisons; and C-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than A-cohorts in 6.4% of comparisons. Analyses stratified by diagnosis had similar results. Sensitivity analyses, restricting the comparisons to C-cohorts with similar study design (observational studies, setting (primary care or interventions (drugs, physical therapies, mixed, or restricting comparisons to SF-36 scales with small baseline differences between A- and C-cohorts (-0.49 to 0.49 SD also had
Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Cristofalo, Doriana; De Santi, Katia; Bertani, Mariaelena; Bissoli, Sarah; Lazzarotto, Lorenza; Marrella, Giovanna; Lamonaca, Dario; Riolo, Rosanna; Gardellin, Francesco; Urbani, Anna; Tansella, Michele; Ruggeri, Mirella
Cannabis use is frequent among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and has been associated with several clinical features. This study aimed in an FEP sample to determine whether cannabis use is associated with (1) a higher level of positive symptoms, a lower level of depression and a better premorbid adjustment, (2) an earlier age of onset, and a better premorbid IQ. The study was conducted within the framework of the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS), a multisite collaborative research on FEP patients who attended the psychiatric services in Veneto Region, Italy. Standardized instruments were used to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and drug use data. A total of 555 FEP patients met the inclusion criteria, 517 of whom received an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychosis; 397 (55% males; mean age: 32 yrs ± 9.5) were assessed. Out of these, 311 patients agreed to be interviewed on drug and alcohol misuse; 20.3% was positive for drug misuse: cannabis (19.0%), cocaine (3.9%), and hallucinogens (3.9%). Cannabis use was not associated with a higher level of positive symptoms, but correlated with less severe depressive symptoms. No relationship was observed between premorbid adjustment or IQ and cannabis use. FEP patients who used cannabis had an earlier age of onset than abstinent patients, even after adjusting for gender and diagnosis. Our results suggest a possible causal role of cannabis in triggering psychosis in certain vulnerable subjects. Particular attention must be paid to this behaviour, because reducing cannabis use can delay or prevent some cases of psychosis.
C.R.A. Verlinden; D.B. Tuinzing; T. Forouzanfar
Venous thromboembolism is a common postoperative complication, and orthopaedic procedures are particularly at risk. We designed a retrospective, single centre, observational, cohort study of 4127 patients (mean (SD) age 27 (11) years) who had elective orthognathic operations or distraction osteogene
Kromhout, D.; Nedeljkovic, S.I.; Grujic, M.Z.; Ostojic, M.C.; Keys, A.; Menotti, A.; Katan, M.B.; Oostrom, van M.A.; Bloemberg, B.P.M.
The Serbian cohorts of the Seven Countries Study were examined four times during a 25-year period. Large changes were observed in average serum cholesterol, blood pressure and the prevalence of smoking in these ageing cohorts. Comparison of men of the same age strata e.g. men aged 50-59 examined at
Mathiasen, René; Hansen, Bo M; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;
children (pindividuals living alone without children (28.8% vs 21.8%; OR=1.45, CI 1.29-1.63). INTERPRETATION: VPT birth in the 1970s in Denmark is associated with a highly statistically significant educational and social disadvantage persisting into young adulthood. CP increased...... the relative risk of social disadvantage in VPT individuals. However, the majority of the survivors are well integrated in society.......AIM: To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. METHOD: Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n=208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were...
Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E;
Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....
S. Debette (Stéphanie); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); M. Schuur (Maaike); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); C. Wolf (Christiane); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); D.J.F. De Quervain (Dominique J.F.); V. Srikanth (Velandai); J. Lahti (Jari); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); L. Priebe; L. Yu (Lei); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.F. Wilson (James F); H. Campbell (Harry); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); R. Yeo (Robin); R. Boxall (Ruth); J.T. Becker (James); O. Stegle (Oliver); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun (Qi); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Resnick (Susan); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Kirin (Mirna); A. Wright (Alan); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Becker (Albert); N. Amin (Najaf); M.A. Nalls (Michael); S.T. Turner (Stephen); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Windham (Gwen); L.H. Coker (Laura); W. Zhao (Wei); D.S. Knopman (David); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.D. Griswold (Michael); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); L. Zgaga (Lina); I. Rudan (Igor); O. Polasek (Ozren); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Schofield (Peter); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Y. An (Yang); R.T. Perry (Rodney T.); R.E. Kennedy (Richard E.); M.M. Sale (Michèle M.); J. Wang (Jing); V.G. Wadley (Virginia G.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Liu (Xuan); R. Thomson (Russell); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.A. Assareh (Arezoo A.); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); E. Widen (Elisabeth); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Vogler (Christian); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Shulman (Lee); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J.-F. Dartigues (Jean-François); H. Amieva (Hélène); K. Räikkönen (Katri); M. Garcia (Melissa); P.A. Wolf (Philip); A. Hofman (Albert); W.T. Longstreth Jr; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Teumer (Alexander); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); S. Cichon (Sven); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A. Papassotiropoulos (Andreas); D.A. Bennett (David); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)
textabstractBACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragrap
Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique
BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifes
Jovanovska-Mishevska, Sasha; Atanasova-Boshku, Aleksandra; Bitoska, Iskra; Ahmeti, Irfan; Todorova, Biljana; Pemovska, Gordana; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Krstevska, Brankica
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex hormonal, metabolic and reproductive disorder and is a leading cause of female infertility. Hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance plays important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of different indices of insulin resistance and their relevance in a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 43 patients with PCOS and 29 noromo ovulatory women as a control group was conducted. Standard clinical, anthropometrical and hormonal testing for hyperandrogenism was conducted, as well as oral glucose tolerance test with determination of basal and stimulated glucose and insulin values. RESULTS: The dynamic I/G index showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, but the static indexes HOMA-IR and QUICKI, although based on only basal glycemic and insulinemic values, showed good sensitivity, 90.38% and 94.01% respectively. HOMA-IR showed significant positive correlation with the stimulated insulin values. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of static indexes in the evaluation of insulin resistance in women with PCOS in a clinical setting, offering a simple assessment of insulin resistance in PCOS, which holds great prognostic and treatment implications. PMID:28028399
Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational
Sørensen, H T; Riis, A H; Diaz, L J
Background: Venous thromboembolism has genetic determinants, but population-based data on familial risks are limited. Objectives: To examine the familial risk of venous thromboembolism. Methods: We undertook a nationwide study of a cohort of patients with deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary...... and expected number of venous thromboembolism cases among siblings, using population-specific, gender-specific and age-specific incidence rates. Results: We identified 30 179 siblings of 19 599 cases of venous thromboembolism. The incidence among siblings was 2.2 cases per 1000 person-years, representing...... with pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism has a strong familial component....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.
Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.
Charlotte L Ridgway
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence. METHODS: Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.
Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka
Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...
Ritchie, Stuart J; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses. Support for both concepts was mixed: although levels of physical functions and cognitive functions were correlated with one another, physical functions did not decline together, and there was little evidence for shared declines in physical and mental functions. Early-life intelligence, a potential marker of system integrity, made a significant prediction of the levels, but not the slopes, of later life physical functions. These data suggest that common causes, which are likely present within cognitive functions, are not as far-reaching beyond the cognitive arena as has previously been suggested. They also imply that bodily reserve may be similar to cognitive reserve in that it affects the level, but not the slope, of ageing-related declines.
Krishna, Murali; Kumar, G Mohan; Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Karat, Samuel Christaprasad; Coakley, Patsy; Osmond, Clive; Copeland, John R M; Chandak, Giriraj; Bhat, Dattatray; Varghese, Mathew; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline
Introduction For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population. Methods and analysis From 1934 onwards, the birth weight, length and head circumference of all babies born in the CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were recorded in obstetric notes. Approximately 800 men and women from the Mysore Birth Records Cohort aged above 55 years, and a reliable informant for each, will be asked to participate in a single cross-sectional baseline assessment for cognitive function, mental health and cardiometabolic disorders. Participants will be assessed for hypertension, type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease, nutritional status, health behaviours and lifestyles, family living arrangements, economic status, social support and social networks. Additional investigations include blood tests (for diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, renal impairment, thyroid disease and Apolipoprotein E genotype), anthropometry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry and body composition (bioimpedance). We will develop an analysis plan, first using traditional univariate and multivariable analytical paradigms with independent, dependent and mediating/confounding/interacting variables to test the main hypotheses. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital. The findings will be disseminated locally and at international meetings, and will be published in open access peer
Heikkinen, E; Kauppinen, M; Schroll, M
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While predictors of survival in older people have been examined in depth in a large number of studies, a literature search revealed no cross-national comparative prospective cohort studies on this issue. This study investigated survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85...... among three local Nordic populations using survival data on national cohorts as background information. METHODS: The data were derived from national registers and from samples of 75-year old living in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The subjects were invited to take part in interviews and examinations...... focusing on different domains of health, functional capacity, and physical and social activities. RESULTS: The proportion of survivors to age 75 was markedly smaller among the Finnish men and women than Danish or Swedish subjects. In the local population no marked differences in survival from age 75 to 85...
Agricola, Eleonora; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Gonfiantini, Michaela V; Gesualdo, Francesco; Romano, Mariateresa; Carloni, Emanuela; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Alberto E Tozzi
Background Preconception care may be an efficacious tool to reduce risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes that are associated with lifestyles and health status before pregnancy. We conducted a web-based cohort study in Italian women planning a pregnancy to assess whether a tailored web intervention may change knowledge and behaviours associated with risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods The study was entirely conducted on the web on a cohort of Italian women of childbearing age. ...
Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;
BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been ...
Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia
Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Age-Period-Cohort (APC analysis is routinely used for time trend analysis of cancer incidence or mortality rates, but in veterinary epidemiology, there are still only a few examples of this application. APC models were recently used to model the French epidemic assuming that the time trend for BSE was mainly due to a cohort effect in relation to the control measures that may have modified the BSE exposure of cohorts over time. We used a categorical APC analysis which did not require any functional form for the effect of the variables, and examined second differences to estimate the variation of the BSE trend. We also reanalysed the French epidemic and performed a simultaneous analysis of Italian data using more appropriate birth cohort categories for comparison. Results We used data from the exhaustive surveillance carried out in France and Italy between 2001 and 2007, and comparatively described the trend of the epidemic in both countries. At the end, the shape and irregularities of the trends were discussed in light of the main control measures adopted to control the disease. In Italy a decrease in the epidemic became apparent from 1996, following the application of rendering standards for the processing of specific risk material (SRM. For the French epidemic, the pattern of second differences in the birth cohorts confirmed the beginning of the decrease from 1995, just after the implementation of the meat and bone meal (MBM ban for all ruminants (1994. Conclusion The APC analysis proved to be highly suitable for the study of the trend in BSE epidemics and was helpful in understanding the effects of management and control of the disease. Additionally, such an approach may help in the implementation of changes in BSE regulations.
Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona
A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.
Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.
The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an
Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing studies are divided as to whether social inequalities in health widen or converge as people age. In part this is due to reliance on cross-sectional data, but also among longitudinal studies to differences in the measurement of both socioeconomic status (SES and health and in the treatment of survival effects. The aim of this paper is to examine social inequalities in health as people age using longitudinal data from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study to investigate the effect of selective mortality, the timing of the SES measure and cohort on the inequality patterns. Methods The Twenty-07 Study has followed three cohorts, born around 1932, 1952 and 1972, from 1987/8 to 2007/8; 4,510 respondents were interviewed at baseline and, at the most recent follow-up, 2,604 were interviewed and 674 had died. Hierarchical repeated-measures models were estimated for self-assessed health status, with and without mortality, with baseline or time-varying social class, sex and cohort. Results Social inequalities in health emerge around the age of 30 after which they widen until the early 60s and then begin to narrow, converging around the age of 75. This pattern is a result of those in manual classes reporting poor health at younger ages, with the gap narrowing as the health of those in non-manual classes declines at older ages. However, employing a more proximal measure of SES reduces inequalities in middle age so that convergence of inequalities is not apparent in old age. Including death in the health outcome steepens the health trajectories at older ages, especially for manual classes, eliminating the convergence in health inequalities, suggesting that healthy survival effects are important. Cohort effects do not appear to affect the pattern of inequalities in health as people age in this study. Conclusions There is a general belief that social inequalities in health appear to narrow at older ages; however, taking account of
Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J
Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure.
Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...
Background Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Aims Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. Method We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 yea...
Full Text Available In order to establish the cutoff with prognostic implications for white blood cell count and age at diagnosis in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, we conducted an observational, descriptive and analytical study nested in a retrospective cohort of patients with ALL treated by institutional protocol HGMLAL07 during 2007-2014. We study 255 patients, the 52.9% (n=135 were female and 47.1% (n=120 were male. The mean age was 31 (16-80 years-old. The disease-free survival (DFS decreases in both genders after 20 years-old (p = 0.001. Leukocyte count average was 56.1 x 109/L (0.1-850 x 109/L. DFS decreases significantly from an equal or greater leukocyte count of 20 x 109/L (p<0.05. With this results, we can conclude that use foreign cutoff for age and leukocyte count could determine a bad prognosis stratification and a consequent suboptimal treatment.
Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Lavikainen, Piia; Tanskanen, Antti; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Purpose The aim of the Medicine use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) study is to investigate the changes in medication and healthcare service use among persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medications in this group. This is important, because the number of persons with AD is rapidly growing and even though they are a particularly vulnerable patient group, the number of representative, large-scale studies with adequate follow-up time is limited. Participants MEDALZ contains all residents of Finland who received a clinically verified diagnosis of AD between 2005 and 2011 and were community-dwelling at the time of diagnosis (N=70 719). The diagnosis is based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCS-ADRDA) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for Alzheimer's disease. The cohort contains socioeconomic data (education, occupational status and taxable income, 1972–2012) and causes of death (2005–2012), data from the prescription register (1995–2012), the special reimbursement register (1972–2012) and the hospital discharge register (1972–2012). Future updates are planned. The average age was 80.1 years (range 34.5–104.6 years). The majority of cohort (65.2%) was women. Currently, the average length of follow-up after AD diagnosis is 3.1 years and altogether 26 045 (36.8%) persons have died during the follow-up. Findings Altogether 53% of the cohort had used psychotropic drugs within 1 year after AD diagnoses. The initiation rate of for example, benzodiazepines and related drugs and antidepressants began to increase already before AD diagnosis. Future plans We are currently assessing if these, and other commonly used medications are related to adverse events such as death, hip fractures, head injuries and pneumonia. PMID:27412109
Ybema, J.F.; Geuskens, G.A.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Jolings, C.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.
The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in employme
Ybema, Jan F.; Geuskens, Goedele A.; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna R M; Joling, Catelijne I.; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.
Aims: The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in em
Rankin, Jane L.; Lane, David J.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg
Adolescence is frequently described as a period of pervasive self-consciousness, but an age-related peak in adolescence is not consistently obtained, and higher self-consciousness in girls is frequently obtained but not predicted by theoretical accounts. Two cohorts of adolescents (N=393), initially assessed at 13 and 15, completed public and…
Schiepers, Olga; Van Boxtel, Martin; Harris, Sarah; Gow, Alan; Pattie, Alison; Brett, Caroline; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Starr, John; Deary, Ian
Schiepers, O. J. G., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Harris, S. E., Gow, A. J., Pattie, A., Brett, C. E., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Starr, J. M., & Deary, I. J. (2011). MTHFR polymorphisms and cognitive ageing in the ninth decade: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. Genes Brain and Behavior, 10, 354-364. DOI
Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas
The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…
Gao Bixia; Zhang Luxia; Wang Haiyan; Zhao Minghui
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences,especially cardiovascular risk and end-stage renal disease.A recent national survey demonstrated that CKD has become a leading health problem in China.There is an urgent need to implement an in-depth investigation of the CKD burden and also to explore underlying mechanisms of CKD progression and it association with adverse consequences.Methods The Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is the first national CKD cohort in China.It will enroll approximately 3 000 pre-dialysis CKD patients aged between 18 and 74 years and follow-up for at least 5 years.Questionnaires,anthropometric measures,laboratory tests,and biomaterials will be collected at baseline and annually.The principal clinical outcomes of the C-STRIDE consist of renal disease events,cardiovascular events,and death.Based on the longitudinal clinical data and biomaterials,the risk factors with CKD progression and other outcomes will be analyzed,and candidate markers and predicted models will be established.Conclusion The C-STRIDE would provide important evidence for underlying mechanisms of CKD progression,valuable information for clinical guidelines,and healthcare policies in China.
Uso de medicamentos do nascimento aos dois anos: Coorte de Nascimentos de Pelotas, RS, 2004 Uso de medicamentos desde el nacimiento hasta los dos años: Cohorte de Nacimientos de Pelotas, Sur de Brasil, 2004 Medicine use from birth to age two years: the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil Birth Cohort Study
Edilson Almeida de Oliveira
ógicos. Hubo aumento en la utilización de: medicamentos anti-infecciosos sistémicos, destinados al sistema músculo esquelético, al sistema respiratorio, analgésicos, antiparasitarios, insecticidas y repelentes. CONCLUSIONES: La utilización de medicamentos en esta cohorte fue elevada y remite a la necesidad de priorizar el uso racional de medicamentos en los primeros años de vida.OBJECTIVE: To describe medicine use by children at three, 12 and 24 months of age. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Southern Brazil, including: 3,985 children at three months, 3,907 children at 12 months, and 3,868 children at 24 months of age. The outcome investigated was use of medicine in the 15 days preceding the interview. Information on independent variables (medicine used, who indicated it, how it was obtained, periodicity of use, and therapeutic group were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during a home interview with the child's parents. RESULTS: Prevalence of medicine use at three, 12, and 24 months was 65.0% (95% CI: 63.5;66.5, 64.4% (95% CI: 62.9;65.9, and 54.7% (95% CI: 53.1;56.2, respectively. As age increased, there was a reduction in the total number of medicines used and an increase in self-medicine, which reached 34% at 24 months. Furthermore, frequency of sporadic medicine use increased, while that of continuous use decreased. Medicine was purchased mainly using private resources, with roughly 10% of drugs being purchased through the Brazilian National Health Care System. The profile of medicine types used also changed with age. The type of medicine most frequently used were dermatological products (36% at three months; respiratory system drugs (24% at 12 months; and analgesics (26% at 24 months of age. Compared to three months, medicine use at 24 months was characterized by decreased use of digestive tract and metabolism drugs, drugs for the sensory organs, cardiovascular system drugs, and dermatological
Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert
Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.
Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H;
The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into acco...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...
Li-Fang Zhang; Yan-Hua Li; Shang-Hang Xie; Wei Ling; Sui-Hong Chen; Qing Liu; Qi-Hong Huang; Su-Mei Cao
Introduction:In the past several decades, declining incidences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been observed in Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Los Angeles, and Singapore. A previous study indicated that the incidence of NPC in Sihui County, South China remained stable until 2002, but whether age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort affect the incidence of NPC remains unknown. Methods:Age-standardized rates (ASRs) of NPC incidence based on the world standard population were examined in both males and females in Sihui County from 1987 to 2011. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to quantify the changes in incidence trends. A Poisson regression age-period-cohort model was used to assess the effects of age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort on the risk of NPC. Results:The ASRs of NPC incidence during the study period were 30.29/100,000 for males and 13.09/100,000 for females. The incidence of NPC remained stable at a non-significant average annual percent change of 0.2%for males and−1.6%for females throughout the entire period. A significantly increased estimated annual percent change of 6.8%(95%confidence interval, 0.1%–14.0%) was observed from 2003 to 2009 for males. The relative risk of NPC increased with advancing age up to 50–59 and decreased at ages>60 years. The period effect curves on NPC were nearly flat for males and females. The birth cohort effect curve for males showed an increase from the 1922 cohort to the 1957 cohort and a decrease thereafter. In females, there was an undulating increase in the relative risk from the 1922 cohort to the 1972 cohort. Conclusions:The incidence trends for NPC remained generally stable in Sihui from 1987 to 2011, with an increase from 2003 to 2009. The relative risks of NPC increased in younger females.
Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.
Scheele, Jantine; Enthoven, Wendy T. M.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Peul, Wilco C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Bohnen, Arthur M.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Koes, Bart W.; Luijsterburg, Pim A. J.
The aim of the current study was to determine the course of back pain in older patients and identify prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up. We conducted a prospective cohort study (the BACE study) of patients aged >55 years visiting a general practitioner (GP) with a new episode
Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G.A.F.C. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Many studies have reported inverse associations between vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of several antioxidants and folate in this relationship. In the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer, 58,279 men of ages 55-69 y
Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland.
Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Dudarev, Alexey; Halling, Jónrit; Hansen, Solrunn; Muckle, Gina; Nøst, Therese; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Rautio, Arja; Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Wennberg, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar
This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland. PMID:27974135
Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.
Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410
Myridakis, Antonis; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Fotou, Marianna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda; Stephanou, Euripides G
Phthalate esters (PEs), bisphenol A (BPA), and parabens (PBs), which are used in numerous consumer products, are known for their endocrine disrupting properties. Organophosphate chemicals (OPs), which form the basis of the majority of pesticides, are known for their neurotoxic activity in humans. All of these chemicals are associated with health problems to which children are more susceptible. Once they enter the human body, PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs are metabolized and/or conjugated and finally excreted via urine. Hence, human exposure to these substances is examined through a determination of the urinary concentrations of their metabolites. This study assessed the exposure of Greek preschool-age children to PEs, BPA, PBs, and OPs by investigating the urinary levels of seven PEs metabolites, six PBs, BPA, and six dialkyl phosphate metabolites in five-hundred samples collected from 4-year-old children, subjects of the "RHEA" mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Daily intake of endocrine disruptors, calculated for 4 year old children, was lower than the corresponding daily intake for 2.5 year old children, which were determined in an earlier study of the same cohort. In some cases the daily intake levels exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values and the EFSA Reference Doses (RfD) (e.g., for di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate, 3.6% and 1% of the children exceeded RfD and TDi, respectively). Exposure was linked to three main sources: PEs-BPA to plastic, PBs-diethyl phthalate to personal hygiene products, and OPs to food.
LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Avilés-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.
PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here. PMID:20609344
Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Résénen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. M
Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.
The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp
Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei
Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…
Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.
Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity
Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin
Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Richard J Silverwood
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. METHODS: Cognitive function at age 60-64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment, prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity. RESULTS: Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306-1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure. Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study presents an evaluation of the bidirectional correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and epilepsy using 2 cohorts from the same population database. METHODS: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to establish 2 separate cohort studies with participants <19 years old. We subdivided Cohort 1 in 2 groups: (1 2468 patients initially diagnosed with epilepsy during the period 1999-2008, and (2 9810 randomly selected sex- and age-matched non-epileptic controls. We subdivided Cohort 2 into 2 groups: (1 3664 patients with newly diagnosed ADHD and (2 14 522 sex- and age-matched non-ADHD patients. We evaluated the risk of subsequent ADHD in relationship to epilepsy and vice versa in the 2 cohorts at the end of 2008. RESULTS: The ADHD incidence in Cohort 1 was 7.76 in patients with epilepsy and 3.22 in those without epilepsy (per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 7-7.5 years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for ADHD was 2.54 (95% CI 2.02-3.18 in the epilepsy group compared to the non-epilepsy group. In Cohort 2, the incidence of epilepsy was 3.24 in patients with ADHD and 0.78 in those without ADHD (per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 3-3.5 years and an HR of 3.94 (95% CI 2.58-6.03. CONCLUSION: This study shows a bidirectional association between ADHD and epilepsy in the 2 cohort studies. Causative factors may be common between these 2 disorders, leading to a cascade of transcriptional changes in the brain that alter behavior or cognition prior to seizures.
Yen, Chia-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Chen, Huei-Yong; Lu, Nan-Han; Kao, Chia-Hung
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between pneumoconiosis and congestive heart failure (CHF).We collected data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study sample comprised 8923 patients with pneumoconiosis and 35,692 nonpneumoconiosis controls enrolled from 2000 to 2011. Patients were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the incidence of CHF. The risk of CHF was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, and the analysis accounted for factors such as sex, age, comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m).The overall incidence of CHF was higher in the pneumoconiosis cohort (15.7 per 1000 person-y) than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (11.2 per 1000 person-y), with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.40 (P < 0.001). The HR for CHF was 1.38-fold greater in the pneumoconiosis cohort than in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort (P < 0.001) after the model was adjusted for age, sex, various comorbidities, and air pollutants (μg/m). The relative risk for CHF in the sex-specific pneumoconiosis cohort compared with the nonpneumoconiosis cohort was significant for men (adjusted HR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.62, P < 0.001). The incidence density rates of CHF increased with age; pneumoconiosis patients had a higher relative risk of CHF for all age group.Patients with pneumoconiosis were at higher risk for developing CHF than patients in the nonpneumoconiosis cohort, particularly in cases with coexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.
Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Schoen, Robert
Period life expectancy has increased more slowly than its cohort counterpart. This paper explores the differences between life expectancies at a given time (the gap) and the time required for period life expectancy to reach the current level of cohort life expectancy (the lag). Additionally......, to understand the disparity between the two life expectancies we identify and compare age-specific contributions to change in life expectancy. Using mortality models and historical data for Sweden, we examine the effect of mortality changes over time. Our results indicate that the widening of the gap between...... the two life expectancies is primarily a consequence of the dramatic mortality decline at older ages that occurred during the twentieth century. These results imply that the divergence between the two measures is likely to become even greater in the future as reductions in deaths are concentrated at older...
Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan; Skovbjerg, Sine; Madsen, Anja Lykke; Mehlsen, Jesper; Brinth, Louise; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Carstensen, Tina Wisbech; Schroder, Andreas; Fink, Per Klausen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jørgensen, Torben
The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18–76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures of cardiorespiratory and morphological fitness, metabolic fitness, neck mobility, heart rate variability, and pain sensitivity. A biobank including serum, plasma, urine, DNA, and microbiome has been established, and central registry data from both responders and nonresponders are similarly available on morbidity, mortality, reimbursement of medicine, heath care use, and social factors. A complete 5-year follow-up is scheduled to take place from year 2017 to 2020, and further reexaminations will be
Irene O L Wong
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hong Kong population has experienced drastic changes in its economic development in the 1940s. Taking advantage of Hong Kong's unique demographic and socioeconomic history, characterized by massive, punctuated migration waves from Southern China, and recent, rapid transition from a pre-industrialized society to the first ethnic Chinese community reaching "first world" status over the last 60 years (i.e., in two or three generations, we examined the longitudinal trends in infection related mortality including septicemia compared to trends in non-bacterial pneumonia to generate hypotheses for further testing in other recently transitioned economies and to provide generalized aetiological insights on how economic transition affects infection-related mortality. METHODS: We used deaths from septicemia and pneumonia not specified as bacterial, and population figures in Hong Kong from 1976-2005. We fitted age-period-cohort models to decompose septicemia and non-bacterial pneumonia mortality rates into age, period and cohort effects. RESULTS: Septicaemia-related deaths increased exponentially with age, with a downturn by period. The birth cohort curves had downward inflections in both sexes in the 1940s, with a steeper deceleration for women. Non-bacterial pneumonia-related deaths also increased exponentially with age, but the birth cohort patterns showed no downturns for those born in the 1940s. CONCLUSION: The observed changes appeared to suggest that better early life conditions may enable better development of adaptive immunity, thus enhancing immunity against bacterial infections, with greater benefits for women than men. Given the interaction between the immune system and the gonadotropic axis, these observations are compatible with the hypothesis that upregulation of the gonadotropic axis underlies some of the changes in disease patterns with economic development.
Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A
The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;
the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. Based on independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for three exposure-risk associations: a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, b) smoking during pregnancy...... and similar cohorts of pregnant women. The methodology used to compute confidence intervals for the relative odds ratios performed well in the scenarios considered....
Casasnovas José A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain. Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%. Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index. Participants will be followed-up for 10 years. Results The average (SD age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7 years, 27.7 (3.6 kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9 cm, respectively, among males (N = 5,048, and 40.8 (11.6 years, 24.4 (3.8 kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9 cm, among females (N = 351. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male, the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least
Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar
AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450
Juhl, Mette; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Larsen, Pernille Stemann;
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and the risk of fetal death according to gestational age. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Among 71 500 occupationally active women, 2886 experienced a fetal...
Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include
Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that include
Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.
Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other ri
Zijlema, Wilma L; Smidt, Nynke; Klijs, Bart; Morley, David W; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Scholtens, Salome; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Stolk, Ronald P
BACKGROUND: Lifelines is a prospective population-based cohort study investigating the biological, behavioral and environmental determinants of healthy ageing among 167,729 participants from the North East region of the Netherlands. The collection and geocoding of (history of) home and work addresse
Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Klaveren, J.D. van; Brandt, P.A. van den
The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by me
Maree L. Hackett; Nick Glozier; Stephen Jan; Richard Lindley
OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and
Port, I.G. van de; Kwakkel, G.; Schepers, V.P.; Lindeman, E.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a prognostic model to predict mobility outcome one year post-stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in patients with a first-ever stroke admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. PATIENTS: A total of 217 patients with stroke (mean age 58 years) following inpatient rehabilitation
Sørensen, M.; Andersen, Z.J.; Nordsborg, R.B.; Jensen, S.; Lillelund, K.G.; Beelen, R.M.J.; Schmidt, E.B.; Tjønneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
BACKGROUND Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 ca
Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L
In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone l...
Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation
Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Spee, Leo A A; Benninga, Marc A; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Berger, Marjolein Y
PURPOSE: Abdominal pain is a common complaint in children. Because few data exist on its natural history, we wanted to investigate the prognosis of abdominal pain in children in general practice. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of children (aged 4 to 17 years) complaining of abdominal pain, f
Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den
The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai
Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/).
Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Pal, S.M. van der; Verloove-Vanhoricka, S.P.; Walther, F.J.
In 1983, data of a unique nationwide cohort of 1338 very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) or VLBW (birth weight < 1500 g) infants in the Netherlands was collected and followed at several ages until they reached the age of 19 years. At 19 years of age a more extensive follow-up study was done, inclu
Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie
The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...
Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…
Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Sone, Toshimasa; Kakizaki, Masako; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro
Unrelieved pain is a major factor that influences suicide risk among terminally ill patients, but little is known about the relationship between pain and the risk of completed suicide in the general population. We prospectively examined the association between self-reports of pain and subsequent risk of completed suicide in 26,481 men aged 40 to 79 years from the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994. On the basis of a five-item questionnaire on pain, individuals were classified as having no pain, very mild pain, mild pain, or moderate or severe pain. Completed suicide cases were documented from 1995 to 2001. During 131,027 person-years, 64 completed suicides were documented. After adjustment for covariates, the risk for completed suicide was significantly higher in the subjects with more pain. Multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to the subjects who had no pain were 1.36 (0.67-2.75), 2.11 (1.02-4.33), and 2.93 (1.34-6.42) in the subjects who had very mild pain, mild pain, and moderate or severe pain, respectively (P for trend=0.004). Stratified analysis showed that the positive association between pain and suicide risk was robust in the subjects with good health, low stress, adequate sleep, good physical activity, and no history of chronic diseases. Our results suggest that pain is associated with an increased risk of completed suicide among Japanese men. The association was consistently observed among apparently healthy subjects.
Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Craig; Berr, Claudine; Artero, Sylvaine; Ancelin, Marie-Laure
International audience; OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated. DESIGN: Prospective seven year cohort study. SETTING: General population, Montpellier, France. PARTICIPANTS: 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination. RESULTS: Cox models we...
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, CT;
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic......-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. METHODS: We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...
Gow, Alan J; Mortensen, Erik L; Avlund, Kirsten
To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging.......To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging....
Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Davenport, Eddie; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Radford, Nina B.; De Fina, Laura F.; Stenger, Michael B.; Van Baalen, Mary
Acute effects of spaceflight on the cardiovascular system have been studied extensively, but the combined chronic effects of spaceflight and aging are not well understood. Preparation for and participation in space flight activities are potentially associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., altered dietary and exercise habits, physical and emotional stress, circadian shifts, radiation). Further, astronauts who travel into space multiple times may be at an increased risk across their lifespan. However, comparing the risk of cardiovascular disease in astronauts to other large cohorts is difficult. For example, comparisons between astronauts and large national cohorts, such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Information Survey, are hampered by significant differences in health status between astronauts and the general population, and most of these national studies fail to provide longitudinal data on population health. To address those limitations, NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health previously sought to compare the astronauts to a cohort of civil servants employed at the Johnson Space Center. However, differences between the astronauts and civil servants at the beginning of the study, as well as differential follow up, limited the ability to interpret the results. To resolve some of these limitations, two unique cohorts of healthy workers, U.S. Air Force aviators and Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants, have been identified as potential comparison populations for the astronaut corps. The Air Force cohort was chosen due to similarities in health at selection, screening, and some occupational exposures that Air Force aviators endure, many of which mirror that of the astronaut corps. The Cooper Clinic cohort, a generally healthy prevention cohort, was chosen for the vast array of clinical cardiovascular measures collected in a longitudinal manner complementary to those collected on
Cleary, Brian J
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.
O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles
The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca).
Full Text Available Purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to examine Generation Y consumer shopper typologies. The secondary purpose was to establish the influence of age in the identified shopper typologies.Rational: Marketers have ever been concerned with the behaviour of consumers. Generation Y consumers have emerged as an important marketing segment. Consequently, a need exists to investigate behavioural issues pertaining to this age cohort on a continuous basis.Methodology: A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenient sample of 230 Generation Y consumers of fashion apparel. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify shopper typologies. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the influence of age on the identified shopper typologies.Findings: The study identified seven shopper typologies that are applicable to the Generation Y cohort. These are quality conscious, brand conscious, novelty seeking, hedonistic, confused by over-choice, habitual, brand loyal and fashion conscious shopper typologies. The study also revealed that younger consumers were found to be more confused by over-choice than their older counterparts.Value of research: These findings may enable marketers to understand and predict the purchase behaviour of Generation Y consumers, thereby facilitating the development and implementation of more effective marketing strategies.
Chiotis, Konstantinos [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Carter, Stephen F. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Farid, Karim [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); APHP, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Savitcheva, Irina [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Collaboration: for the Diagnostic Molecular Imaging (DiMI) network and the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)
Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung
Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.
Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla
This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.
J.C. Bis (Joshua); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); X. Liu (Xiaoming); J. Brody (Jennifer); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); B.F.J. Verhaaren (Benjamin); S. Debette (Stéphanie); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); E. Shahar (Eyal); K.R. Butler Jr. (Kenneth); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); D. Muzny (Donna); C.L. Kovar (Christie); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Lumley (Thomas); M. Gupta (Mayetri); P.A. Wolf (Philip); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); R.A. Gibbs (Richard); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); W.T. Longstreth Jr. (W.); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M. Fornage (Myriam)
textabstractBackground: Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consort
Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.
Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t
Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.
Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t
Full Text Available Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Jeanette Frost Ebstrup,1 Allan Linneberg,1–3 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Anja Lykke Madsen,1 Jesper Mehlsen,4 Louise Brinth,4 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Tina Wisbech Carstensen,6,7 Andreas Schroder,6,7 Per Klausen Fink,6,7 Erik Lykke Mortensen,8 Torben Hansen,9 Oluf Pedersen,9 Torben Jørgensen1,10,11 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 4Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Research Unit, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, 9Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, 10Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 11Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Abstract: The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors
Naresh M Punjabi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the
Kiernan, Kathleen; Smith, Kate
This study uses information from the Millennium Cohort Study to examine the characteristics of families where children are born within a marriage, within a cohabiting union or outside of a co-residential partnership. For this latter group, for the first time in a national data set, an assessment can be made of the 'strength' of the parent's relationship at the time of the birth. We show that the context of childbearing varies with respect to geography, ethnicity, age, parity and educational status of the mother, and that the socioeconomic wellbeing of families varies according to the partnership status of their parents. A closer look at the non-partnered parents shows that the extent to which the fathers were involved with the mother of the child around the time the baby was born was related to the presence of the father at the birth of the child and whether his name was recorded on the child's birth certificate; as well as to subsequent behaviour, such as, whether they moved in with the mother, saw their children on a regular basis or contributed money to the child's maintenance.
Rasekhjahromi, Athar; Alipour, Farzaneh; Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Sobhanian, Saeed
Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher's Exact and binominal logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group). There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence) and independent (marriage and group) variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects. PMID:27688772
A cohort study on female sterilization has been carried out to compare the safety of field-based procedures with hospital-based procedures. A total of 217 women were recruited, consisting of 103 field-based and 114 hospital-based acceptors. Married and healthy women 20-45 years of age, having at least two living children, not obese, no history of major abdominal surgery, no signs of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and no contraindication to ketamin were included in the study. Women with severe pelvic adhesions encountered during surgery were excluded from the study. The ambulatory procedure was used for all acceptors except those who were sterilized in hospital immediately after delivery. They were asked to come to th Sarjito Hospital (hospital-based) or Puskesmas (primary health care center or field-based), after fasting the night before. Ketamin, 50-100 mg, was used intravenously for general anesthesia. Minilaparotomy followed by the Pomeroy method was used for standard female tubal sterilization. Tetracycline, 3 x 500 mg was given for five days prophylactically. Follow-up was carried out one and six weeks after the day of operation. Data were processed with an IBM-compatible PC, using version 3.0 SPSS program. Students t-test, chi-square test and relative risk (95% confidence limit (CL)) were used for statistical analysis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, parity, body weight, and body height. The duration of operation in the field was somewhat longer than that in the hospital, i.e. 24.58 vs 21.14 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo
The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.
Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B;
in the 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50-64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used......-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0·93, 95 % CI 0·84, 1·04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0·90, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·02). Menopausal status...
Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van
This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, respon
Ho, M-L; Hsiao, Y-H; Su, S-Y; Chou, M-C; Liaw, Y-P
The current paper describes the age, period and cohort effects on breast cancer mortality in Taiwan. Female breast cancer mortality data were collected from the Taiwan death registries for 1971-2010. The annual percentage changes, age- standardised mortality rates (ASMR) and age-period-cohort model were calculated. The mortality rates increased with advancing age groups when fixing the period. The percentage change in the breast cancer mortality rate increased from 54.79% at aged 20-44 years, to 149.78% in those aged 45-64 years (between 1971-75 and 2006-10). The mortality rates in the 45-64 age group increased steadily from 1971 to 1975 and 2006-10. The 1951 birth cohorts (actual birth cohort; 1947-55) showed peak mortalities in both the 50-54 and 45-49 age groups. We found that the 1951 birth cohorts had the greatest mortality risk from breast cancer. This might be attributed to the DDT that was used in large amounts to prevent deaths from malaria in Taiwan. However, future researches require DDT data to evaluate the association between breast cancer and DDT use.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence (LTP of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is the proportion of a population having met criteria for MDD during their life up to the time of assessment. Expectation holds that LTP should increase with age, but this has not usually been observed. Instead, LTP typically increases in the teenage years and twenties, stabilizes in adulthood and then begins to decline in middle age. Proposed explanations for this pattern include: a cohort effect (increasing incidence in more recent birth cohorts, recall failure and/or differential mortality. Declining age-specific incidence may also play a role. Methods We used a simulation model to explore patterns of incidence, recall and mortality in relation to the observed pattern of LTP. Lifetime prevalence estimates from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey, Mental Health and Wellbeing (CCHS 1.2 were used for model validation and calibration. Results Incidence rates predicting realistic values for LTP in the 15-24 year age group (where mortality is unlikely to substantially influence prevalence lead to excessive LTP later in life, given reasonable assumptions about mortality and recall failure. This suggests that (in the absence of cohort effects incidence rates decline with age. Differential mortality may make a contribution to the prevalence pattern, but only in older age categories. Cohort effects can explain the observed pattern, but only if recent birth cohorts have a much higher (approximately 10-fold greater risk and if incidence has increased with successive birth cohorts over the past 60-70 years. Conclusions The pattern of lifetime prevalence observed in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies seems most plausibly explained by incidence that declines with age and where some respondents fail to recall past episodes. A cohort effect is not a necessary interpretation of the observed pattern of age-specific lifetime prevalence.
Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to quantify longitudinal changes in waist circumference (WC among adults aged 45-64 years in Germany. Methods: Data of 15,444 men and 17,207 women from one nationwide and six regional prospective German cohort studies were analyzed. The sex-specific mean change in WC per year of follow-up was assessed for each study separately. Findings from the cohort-by-cohort analysis were combined by applying meta-analytic methods. Progression to central obesity (WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women within a standardized period of 10 years was described for each study. Results: The estimated mean change in WC per year of follow-up for all cohorts combined was 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.76 cm/year for men and 0.63 (0.48-0.77 cm/year for women, but varied between the included studies. Within 10 years, about 20% of individuals with low WC (Conclusion: The increase in mean WC with aging along with a profound increase of central adiposity is obviously and may have several adverse health effects. Obesity prevention programs should also focus on abdominal obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.
Bhautesh Dinesh Jani
Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.
Full Text Available The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011.The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.34-1.76. The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.90, those aged 50-64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09, or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54-2.13.Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estudiar la evolución de la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico en España y su posible aplicación a un modelo edad-periodo-cohorte, así como el efecto que pueden tener algunas medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se obtuvieron las tasas de mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico y las tasas en intervalos quinquenales de edad para cada sexo, lo que permite su estudio como tasas específicas de edad por cohortes de nacimiento. Para determinar la asociación entre las medidas de seguridad vial seleccionadas y la mortalidad se han construido modelos de regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS. Se observaron dos ondas evolutivas en la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico. Respecto a la edad, no podemos hablar de un efecto claro; tampoco se encontró un efecto cohorte ni para varones ni para mujeres. En relación con las medidas de seguridad vial, se discutió la consistencia que guardaban los modelos seleccionados con los resultados gráficos, y se obtuvo que el uso obligatorio del casco y de las luces de cruce en motocicletas se ha asociado significativamente a la reducción de la mortalidad (RR 0.73, pOBJECTIVE. To study the evolution of traffic accidents mortality in Spain and its possible application to an age-period-cohort analysis, as well as the effect of selected road safety measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Road accidents rates of mortality were obtained, and five-year interval age rates for each sex, which allows the study of specific rates of age by birth cohorts. To determine the association between the selected road safety measures and mortality, Poisson regression models were adjusted. RESULTS. Two waves emerge in the evolution of traffic accidents. There was no clear effect with respect to age, nor was there a cohort effect for men or women. As to the road safety measures, we discuss the consistency between the selected models and graphic results. The compulsory use of helmet and of crossing lights is
Richards, M.; Lissalde, G. Lavigne; Combescure, C.; Batorova, A.; Dolan, G.; Fischer, K.; Klamroth, R.; Lambert, T.; Lopez-Fernandez, M.; Perez, R.; Rocino, A.; Fijnvandraat, K.
Birth is the first haemostatic challenge for a child with haemophilia. Our aim was to examine the association between perinatal risk factors and major neonatal bleeding in infants with haemophilia. This observational cohort study in 12 European haemophilia treatment centres (HTC) incorporated 508 ch
Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.
BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu
Klijs, Bart; Scholtens, Salome; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Snieder, Harold; Stolk, Ronald P.; Smidt, Nynke
Background LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-regis
Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den
The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora
Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.
BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...
Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P
AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitiv......AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin....... highest quartile of beta-cell rate sensitivity was 2.04; P=0.01). Also, significant depressive symptoms were associated with a statistically significant decrease in the potentiation factor ratio in unadjusted models, but not in the fully adjusted model. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms were not related...
Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.
Objective: To explore whether "typical" coronary heart disease (CHD) such as fatal myocardial infarction and sudden death relate to major cardiovascular risk factors in the same way as the "atypical" CHD, such as fatal heart failure and chronic arrhythmias. Design and setting: Ten cohorts (6633 card
Shi Wu Wen; Yanfang Guo; Marc Rodger; Ruth Rennicks White; Qiuying Yang; Smith, Graeme N.; Perkins, Sherry L.; Walker, Mark C.
This prospective cohort study designed to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) took place in Ottawa, ON and Kingston, ON, Canada, from September 1, 2002 to August 31, 2008. Pregnant women, less than 20 weeks gestational age were recruited and delivered in the Ottawa region and the Kingston General Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the study participants and the patterns of supplementation of folic acid were described and occurren...
Background There is growing evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality. Few studies, however, specifically explored consuming raw versus cooked vegetables in relation to health and mortality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of all-cause mortality with: a) fruit and vegetable consumption, either combined or separately; b) the consumption of raw versus cooked vegetables in a large cohort of Australian middle-aged an...
Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung-Il
We examined time trend and age-period-cohort effects on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality in Korean adults from 1988 to 2007. Annual AMI mortality data and population statistics from 1988 to 2007 were obtained from the STATISTICS KOREA website. Age adjusted mortality for four 5-yr calendar periods (1988-1992 to 2003-2007) was calculated by direct standardization using the Year 2000 WHO world standard population. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on AMI mortality. In both genders, age-adjusted AMI mortality increased from period one (1988-1992) to period three (1998-2002) but decreased in period four (2003-2007). An exponential age effect was noted in both genders. The rate ratio of the cohort effect increased up to the 1943 birth cohort and decreased gradually thereafter, and the rate ratio of the period effect increased up to period three (1998-2002) and decreased thereafter. Our results suggest that AMI mortality in Korean adults has decreased since the period 1998-2002 and age, period, and cohort effects have influenced on AMI mortality.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease patients have deficits in specific cognitive domains, and susceptibility genes for this disease may influence human cognition in nondemented individuals. To evaluate the role of Alzheimer's disease-linked genetic variation on cognition and normal cognitive ageing, we investigated two Scottish cohorts for which assessments in major cognitive domains are available: the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921 and the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, consisting of 505 and 998 individuals, respectively. 158 SNPs from eleven genes were evaluated. Single SNP analyses did not reveal any statistical association after correction for multiple testing. One haplotype from TRAPPC6A was associated with nonverbal reasoning in both cohorts and combined data sets. This haplotype explains a small proportion of the phenotypic variability (1.8%. These findings warrant further investigation as biological modifiers of cognitive ageing.
Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;
BACKGROUND: The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a consortium of 26 leading European research centres committed to establish a European research area of excellence in the field of allergy and asthma. AIM: One of the GA2LEN work packages was designed to identify and compare...... asthma and atopic diseases. Data were collected by visiting most of the participating research teams and interviewing all relevant study personnel. For each study, the type of objective/subjective outcome parameters and potentially influential factors were recorded precisely for every time point during...... the existing European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review compares their subjective and objective outcomes as well as exposure variables. METHODS: A common database was established to assess study characteristics of observational birth cohort studies designed to examine...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS. Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6% patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration.
Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C
Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work.
Spangmose, Anne Lærke; Malchau, Sara; Schmidt, Lone
when compared with SC singletons, yet the differences were small and probably not of clinical relevance. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown similar intelligence quotient (IQ) levels in ART and SC children, but only a few have been on adolescents. Academic performance measured...... with two SC control cohorts: a randomly selected singleton population (n = 5660) and all twins (n = 7064) born from 1995 to 1998 in Denmark. Nine children who died during the follow-up period were excluded from the study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Mean test scores on a 7-point-marking scale...... singletons and ART twins. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Missing data on educational test scores occurred in 6.6% of adolescents aged 15-16 years for the birth cohorts 1995-1997, where all of the children according to their age should have passed the ninth grade exam at the time of data retrieval...
Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.
Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Tanaka, Toshiko; Foy, Millennia; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Djousse, Luc; Siscovick, David; Fretts, Amanda M; Johnson, Catherine; King, Irena B; Psaty, Bruce M; McKnight, Barbara; Rich, Stephen S; Chen, Yii-Der I; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Tang, Weihong; Bandinelli, Stefania; Jacobs, David R; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C; Gu, Xiangjun; Tsai, Michael Y; Steffen, Lyn M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush
BACKGROUND- Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that affect cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. They are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis and are the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Levels of these fatty acids have been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS- Genome-wide association studies were conducted in 5 population-based cohorts comprising 8961 participants of European ancestry to investigate the association of common genetic variation with plasma levels of these 4 fatty acids. We identified polymorphisms in 7 novel loci associated with circulating levels of ≥1 of these fatty acids. ALG14 (asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:0 (P=2.7×10(-11)) and lower 18:0 (P=2.2×10(-18)). FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7 (P=6.6×10(-13)) and 18:1n-9 (P=2.2×10(-32)) and lower 18:0 (P=1.3×10(-20)). LPGAT1 (lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase) polymorphisms were associated with lower 18:0 (P=2.8×10(-9)). GCKR (glucokinase regulator; P=9.8×10(-10)) and HIF1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1; P=5.7×10(-9)) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7, whereas PKD2L1 (polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1; P=5.7×10(-15)) and a locus on chromosome 2 (not near known genes) were associated with lower 16:1n-7 (P=4.1×10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS- Our findings provide novel evidence that common variations in genes with diverse functions, including protein-glycosylation, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, phospholipid modeling, and glucose- and oxygen-sensing pathways, are associated with circulating levels of 4 fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway. These results expand our knowledge of genetic factors relevant to de novo lipogenesis and
Prevoo, Tyas; ter Weel, Bas
This research estimates models of the importance of conscientiousness for socio-economic outcomes. We use measures of conscientiousness at age 16 to explain adult wages and other outcomes, such as crime, health and savings behaviour. We use several waves from the 1970 British Cohort Study. Our estimates suggest a significant and sizeable correlation between early conscientiousness and adult outcomes. Measurement error is corrected for by applying IV-techniques, errors-in-variables estimators ...
McMahon, Gearoid M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Rikki M Tanner; Jacques, Paul F.; Selhub, Jacob; Muntner, Paul; Fox, Caroline S.
Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were ...
Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni
Objectives We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Design Cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40–60 years at...
Dato, Serena; Soerensen, Mette; Montesanto, Alberto; Lagani, Vincenzo; Passarino, Giuseppe; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene
An efficient uncoupling process is generally considered to have a protective effect on the aging muscle by slowing down its age-related decay. Genetic polymorphisms in the Uncoupling Protein 3 (UCP3) gene, whose product is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, were suggested to be associated with hand grip (HG) performances in elderly populations. Considering the population specificity of the quality of aging, we aimed to add further support to this evidence by analyzing the association between four SNPs in the UCP3 gene and relative haplotypes in two large cohorts of middle aged (N=708) and oldest old Danes (N=908). We found that the variability at rs1685354 and rs11235972 was associated with HG levels both at single and haplotypic level in both cohorts. Furthermore, taking advantage of large cohort and period survival data of the oldest cohort, we tested the association of each SNP with survival at 10years from the baseline visit. Interestingly, we found that allele A at rs11235972, associated in this cohort with lowest HG scores, influences also the survival patterns, with people carrying this allele showing higher mortality rates. On the whole, our work supports the role of UCP3 gene in functional status and survival at old age.
Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao
AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study
Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana
In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research.
Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung
β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
Giltay, E.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Jacobs, D.R.; Adachi, H.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.
Background - Prospective cohort studies on biological risk factors of completed suicide are scarce. We aimed to test which biological risk factors independently identify subjects at increased risk of suicidal death. Methods - In the prospective cohort of the Seven Countries Study, 5,321 middle-aged
Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years wh
Epton Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.
Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G
Objective To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Design Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Setting Norwegian resource centre. Participants 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Interventions Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors’ situation and personal needs. Main ou...
Matta, Joane; Carette, Claire; Levy Marchal, Claire; Bertrand, Julien; Pétéra, Mélanie; Zins, Marie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Comte, Blandine; Czernichow, Sébastien
Background An obesity subphenotype, named ‘metabolically healthy obese’ (MHO) has been recently defined to characterise a subgroup of obese individuals with less risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities. To date no data are available on participants born with small weight for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). Objective Assess the risk of MUHO in SGA versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA) adult participants. Methods 129 young obese individuals (body mass index ≥30 kg/m²) from data of an 8-year follow-up Haguenau cohort (France), were identified out of 1308 participants and were divided into 2 groups: SGA (n=72) and AGA (n=57). Metabolic characteristics were analysed and compared using unpaired t-test. The HOMA-IR index was determined for the population and divided into quartiles. Obese participants within the first 3 quartiles were considered as MHO and those in the fourth quartile as MUHO. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI for being MUHO in SGA versus AGA participants were computed. Results The SGA-obese group had a higher risk of MUHO versus the AGA-obese group: RR=1.27 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.6) independently of age and sex. Conclusions In case of obesity, SGA might confer a higher risk of MUHO compared with AGA. PMID:27580829
Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa
This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.
Onoye, Jane M M; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji
Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project.
Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic
Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. Because they measure events in chronological order they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect. Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes. They are often used to generate hypotheses that can then be studied via prospective cohort or other studies.
Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon;
BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics......: the correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure.......BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics...... 75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination...
Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L.; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Rey, Luis C.; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando
To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9–16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373
R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractPURPOSE: To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlan
Deckers, I.A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Engeland, M. van; Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Baldewijns, M.M.L.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.
Background:As sodium, potassium and fluid intake are related to hypertension, an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC), they may be independent risk factors for RCC.Methods:The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) with case-cohort design included 120 852 participants aged 55-69 years. At ba
Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben
OBJECTIVE: Only few determinants of gallstone formation have been identified in cohort studies. The aim was to identify further determinants for gallstones in a Danish cohort and to perform a meta-analysis of results from existing cohorts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a cohort study was used...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. RESULTS: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one....... In addition, BMI was positively associated in men. The systematic review additionally identified associations for comorbidities, parity, and dietary factors. Meta-analysis confirmed the significant associations for incident gallstones and age, female sex, BMI, and non-HDL cholesterol. No significant...
Rasmussen, Line D; Kessel, Line; Molander, Laleh D;
Background. Premature aging has been suggested a risk factor for early death in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, the risk of age-related diseases, such as cataracts, should be increased in this population. In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we...... assessed the risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population.Methods. We identified 5315 HIV-infected individuals from a Danish national cohort of HIV-infected individuals and a population-based age- and sex-matched comparison cohort of 53 150 individuals. Data...... on cataract surgery were obtained from the Danish National Hospital registry. Cumulative incidence curves were constructed. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and impact of immunodeficiency, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and treatment with abacavir, tenofovir, protease inhibitors, and nonnucleoside...
Rasmussen, Line D; Kessel, Line; Molander, Laleh D;
Background. Premature aging has been suggested a risk factor for early death in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, the risk of age-related diseases, such as cataracts, should be increased in this population. In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we...... assessed the risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population. Methods. We identified 5315 HIV-infected individuals from a Danish national cohort of HIV-infected individuals and a population-based age- and sex-matched comparison cohort of 53¿150 individuals. Data...... on cataract surgery were obtained from the Danish National Hospital registry. Cumulative incidence curves were constructed. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and impact of immunodeficiency, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and treatment with abacavir, tenofovir, protease inhibitors, and nonnucleoside...
Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung
Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults
Nielsen, G.L.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, M.;
Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... habits. Methods We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County, Denmark from 1985 to 2003. Data on HbA1c values from the 20th gestational week to term were collected from medical records and the babies were classified as large, normal or small for gestational age. The association...
Schouten, L.J.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical
O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Brunet, Jennifer; Difranza, Joseph; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N.; Engert, James C.; Low, Nancy C.; Tyndale, Rachel F.
The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999–2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999–2005), for a t...
Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.
To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including
Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C;
had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population...
Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Hui-Tzu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wang, Tang-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung
This study determined whether there is an increased risk of tinnitus in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We used information from health insurance claims obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance (TNHI). Patients aged 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with TMJ disorder served as the study cohort. The demographic factors and comorbidities that may be associated with tinnitus were also identified, including age, sex, and comorbidities of hearing loss, noise effects on the inner ear, and degenerative and vascular ear disorders. A higher proportion of TMJ disorder patients suffered from hearing loss (5.30 vs. 2.11 %), and degenerative and vascular ear disorders (0.20 vs. 0.08 %) compared with the control patients. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of tinnitus in the TMJ disorder cohort was 2.73-fold higher than that in the control patients, with an adjusted HR of 2.62 (95 % CI = 2.29-3.00). The comorbidity-specific TMJ disorder cohort to the control patients' adjusted HR of tinnitus was higher for patients without comorbidity (adjusted HR = 2.75, 95 % CI = 2.39-3.17). We also observed a 3.22-fold significantly higher relative risk of developing tinnitus within the 3-year follow-up period (95 % CI = 2.67-3.89). Patients with TMJ disorder might be at increased risk of tinnitus.
Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A
Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13761 women (contributing 13867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19-22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17-18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile.
Tzeng, Huey-En; Lin, Che-Chen; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Po-Hao; Tsai, Chun-Hao
There is still debate on whether high uric acid increases bone mineral density (BMD) against osteoporotic fracture or bone resorption caused by gout inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate whether gout offers a protective effect on bone health or not. We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the association between gout history and risk factors of fracture.A retrospective cohort study was designed using the claim data from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID). A total of 43,647 subjects with gout and a cohort of 87,294 comparison subjects without gout were matched in terms of age and sex between 2001 and 2009, and the data were followed until December 31, 2011. The primary outcome of the study was the fracture incidence, and the impacts of gout on fracture risks were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.After an 11-year follow-up period, 6992 and 11,412 incidents of fracture were reported in gout and comparison cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence rate of fracture in individuals with gout was nearly 23%, which was higher than that in individuals without gout (252 vs 205 per 10,000 person-years) at an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-1.21). Age, sex, and fracture-associated comorbidities were adjusted accordingly. As for fracture locations, patients with gout were found at significant higher fracture risks for upper/lower limbs and spine fractures. In gout patient, the user of allopurinol or benzbromarone has significantly lower risk of facture than nonusers.Gout history is considered as a risk factor for fractures, particularly in female individuals and fracture sites located at the spine or upper/lower limbs.
Trivedi, Amit; Walker, Karen; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Halliday, Robert; J. A. Holland, Andrew; Badawi, Nadia
Aims: Despite increasing evidence in the literature regarding the impact of late prematurity on subsequent developmental impairment, the developmental outcome of late preterm infants who undergo major surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the developmental outcome for a cohort of late preterm surgical population. Methods: Late preterm infants with a gestational age from 34-36 weeks inclusive who were enrolled in the state-wide prospective Development After Infant Surgery (DAISy) study and who had undergone non-cardiac major surgery within the first ninety days of life were eligible for inclusion. Infants were assessed at one and three years of ages. Results: Forty-six infants were enrolled in the study, of which 38 infants had a complete developmental assessment at one year of age. Of these infants, late preterm infants scored significantly lower than the standardized norms of the assessment on the expressive language and gross motor subscales. At three years of age 26 infants were reassessed: late preterm infants who underwent major surgery only scored significantly lower than the standardized norms on the cognitive subscale (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: These data provide the evidence that late preterm infants who undergo major non-cardiac surgery are at risk of developmental impairment and consideration should be given to enrolling this cohort in multi-disciplinary developmental follow-up clinics. PMID:26023526
Full Text Available Aims: Despite increasing evidence in the literature regarding the impact of late prematurity on subsequent developmental impairment, the developmental outcome of late preterm infants who undergo major surgery remains unclear. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the developmental outcome for a cohort of late preterm surgical population.Methods: Late preterm infants with a gestational age from 34-36 weeks inclusive who were enrolled in the state-wide prospective Development After Infant Surgery (DAISy study and who had undergone non-cardiac major surgery within the first ninety days of life were eligible for inclusion. Infants were assessed at one and three years of ages.Results: Forty-six infants were enrolled in the study, of which 38 infants had a complete developmental assessment at one year of age. Of these infants, late preterm infants scored significantly lower than the standardized norms of the assessment on the expressive language and gross motor subscales. At three years of age 26 infants were reassessed: late preterm infants who underwent major surgery only scored significantly lower than the standardized norms on the cognitive subscale (p<0.001.Conclusions: These data provide the evidence that late preterm infants who undergo major non-cardiac surgery are at risk of developmental impairment and consideration should be given to enrolling this cohort in multi-disciplinary developmental follow-up clinics.
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…
Gurven, Michael; Fenelon, Andrew
G.C. Williams's 1957 hypothesis famously argues that higher age-independent, or "extrinsic," mortality should select for faster rates of senescence. Long-lived species should therefore show relatively few deaths from extrinsic causes such as predation and starvation. Theoretical explorations and empirical tests of Williams's hypothesis have flourished in the past decade but it has not yet been tested empirically among humans. We test Williams's hypothesis using mortality data from subsistence populations and from historical cohorts from Sweden and England/Wales, and examine whether rates of actuarial aging declined over the past two centuries. We employ three aging measures: mortality rate doubling time (MRDT), Ricklefs's omega, and the slope of mortality hazard from ages 60-70, m'(60-70), and model mortality using both Weibull and Gompertz-Makeham hazard models. We find that (1) actuarial aging in subsistence societies is similar to that of early Europe, (2) actuarial senescence has slowed in later European cohorts, (3) reductions in extrinsic mortality associate with slower actuarial aging in longitudinal samples, and (4) men senesce more rapidly than women, especially in later cohorts. To interpret these results, we attempt to bridge population-based evolutionary analysis with individual-level proximate mechanisms.
Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim
Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study. Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... were probable cases (1.7%) whereas for 449 (41.6%) the diagnosis could be excluded. The incidence rate was 1 per 1000 personyears. Out of the 632 cases 60% were DVT and 40% PE. 315 VT were considered idiopathic (49.8%), 311 were secondary (49.2%) and 15 were unclassifiable. 122 patients had cancer, 87...
We tested the hypothesis that personality plays a role in cancer outcome in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. In July 1990, 41 442 residents of Japan completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and a questionnaire on various health habits, and between January 1993 and December 1997, 890 incident cases of cancer were identified among them. These 890 cases were followed up until March 2001, and a total of 356 deaths from all causes was identified ...
Sanders, Anne E.; Slade, Gary D; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Greenspan, Joel D.; Maixner, William; Ohrbach, Richard
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) overlap with other health conditions but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18–44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006–08 at four U.S. study sites in the OPPERA prospective cohort study. First-...
Al-Sahab, B; Tamim, H; Mumtaz, G; Khawaja, M.; Khogali, M.; Afifi, R; Nassif, Y; Yunis, KA; National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network (NCPNN)
OBJECTIVE: Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the paediatrician. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Predictors of breast-feeding significant at the bivariate level were tested at 1 and 4 ...
Grech, Victor; Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Victoria
This study measured body mass index (BMI) in a national cohort of school-entry children in Malta (04/2007, n=3461). By International Obesity Task Force criteria, over a quarter are overweight/obese. CDC criteria classify one-third as overweight/obese. BMIs were higher in the less affluent south of the island, especially in the Grand Harbour area. Analysis by school showed differences in boys only with lowest BMIs in private schools, followed by subsidized church schools and by free State schools. These differences are attributed to a lower level of education with regard to the consequences of obesity in the less affluent southern part of the island, along with lifestyles adopted in this area. We estimate that obesity will eventually cost Malta 70,000,000 euros/annum and therefore hope that this study will serve as a catalyst for further population-based BMI estimations and for an intensive effort to curtail this chronic disease.
Lorenzo D Botto
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.
Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Cancer Survivorship, Memphis, TN (United States); Shelso, John [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Li, Chin-Shang [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Thomas, Nicole A.; Karimova, E.J.; Merchant, Thomas [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Gajjar, Amar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States)
Skeletal bone accretion occurs throughout childhood. The integrity of this process can influence future adult bone health and the risk of osteoporosis. Although surveillance of children who are at risk of poor bone accretion is important, the most appropriate method to monitor childhood bone health has not been established. Previous investigators have proposed using bone age (BA) rather than chronological age (CA) when interpreting bone mineral density (BMD) values in children. To investigate the value of BA assessment for BMD measurement in a cohort of children at risk of poor accretion. A cohort of 163 children with brain tumors who completed both a BMD assessment (quantitative computed tomography, QCT) and who had a BA within a 6-month interval were identified. The difference in BMD Z-scores determined by CA and BA was determined. The impact of salient clinical features was assessed. No significant difference between CA and BA Z-scores was detected in the overall cohort (P = 0.056). However, the scores in 18 children (all boys between the ages of 11 years and 15 years) were statistically determined to be outliers from the values in the rest of the cohort. Interpretation of BMD with BA measurement might be appropriate and affect treatment decisions in peripubertal males. (orig.)
Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung
Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.
Hsieh, S F; Yen, Y Y; Lan, S J; Hsieh, C C; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C
In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ("Yu-Cheng") occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.
Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.
One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between...... an exposure and disease either are restricted to cohorts with full confounder information, or use all cohorts but do not fully adjust for confounding. We propose using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis model to use information from all available cohorts while still adjusting for all the potential...... confounders. Our method uses both the fully adjusted and the partially adjusted estimated effects in the cohorts with full confounder information, together with an estimate of their within-cohort correlation. The method is applied to estimate the association between fibrinogen level and coronary heart disease...
Lapham, Kyle; Kvale, Mark N.; Lin, Jue; Connell, Sheryl; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Fang, Lynn; Hesselson, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; McGuire, William B.; Miles, Sunita; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Risch, Neil; Schaefer, Catherine; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis. PMID:26092717
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Gillman, Matthew W.;
Objective To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. Design Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. Subjects 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973...
Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend;
#ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. #ENTITYST...
Peeters, PHM; van Noord, PAH; Hoes, AW; Fracheboud, J; Gimbrere, CHF; Grobbee, DE
Background To investigate whether hypertension and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs are associated with breast cancer risk. Methods This was a prospective study of 11 011 women living in Utrecht, the Netherlands, aged 50-65 years at enrolment in a breast cancer screening project (DOM cohort). Wome
Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung
The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. However, little is known about the association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with splenic injury and splenectomy in trauma patients. The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of VTE following splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 6,162 splenic injury patients (3,033 splenectomised and 3,129 nonsplenectomised patients) and 24,648 comparison patients who were selected by frequency match based on sex, age, and the index year during 2000-2006. All patients were followed until the occurrence of VTE, 31 December, 2011, death, or withdrawal from the insurance program. The age of patients with splenic injury was 41.93 ± 16.44 years. The incidence rates of VTE were 11.81, 8.46, and 5.21 per 10,000 person-years in the splenic injury patients with splenectomy, splenic injury patients without splenectomy, and comparison patients, respectively. Compared with the comparison cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.21-fold risk of VTE (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-3.43), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.71-fold risk of VTE (95% CI, 1.05-2.80). The overall incidence rate of VTE was 1.97-fold higher in the splenic injury cohort than the comparison cohort (95% CI, 1.38-2.81). Although splenectomy increased the risk of VTE 1.35-fold compared with no splenectomy, the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.74-2.45). These results may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy.
Damani A Piggott
Full Text Available Frailty is associated with morbidity and premature mortality among elderly HIV-uninfected adults, but the determinants and consequences of frailty in HIV-infected populations remain unclear. We evaluated the correlates of frailty, and the impact of frailty on mortality in a cohort of aging injection drug users (IDUs.Frailty was assessed using standard criteria among HIV-infected and uninfected IDUs in 6-month intervals from 2005 to 2008. Generalized linear mixed-model analyses assessed correlates of frailty. Cox proportional hazards models estimated risk for all-cause mortality.Of 1230 participants at baseline, the median age was 48 years and 29% were HIV-infected; the frailty prevalence was 12.3%. In multivariable analysis of 3,365 frailty measures, HIV-infected IDUs had an increased likelihood of frailty (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.24-2.21 compared to HIV-uninfected IDUs; the association was strongest (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.62-3.48 among HIV-infected IDUs with advanced HIV disease (CD4<350 cells/mm3 and detectable HIV RNA. No significant association was seen with less advanced disease. Sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and prescription drug abuse were also independently associated with frailty. Mortality risk was increased with frailty alone (HR 2.63, 95% CI, 1.23-5.66, HIV infection alone (HR 3.29, 95% CI, 1.85-5.88, and being both HIV-infected and frail (HR, 7.06; 95%CI 3.49-14.3.Frailty was strongly associated with advanced HIV disease, but IDUs with well-controlled HIV had a similar prevalence to HIV-uninfected IDUs. Frailty was independently associated with mortality, with a marked increase in mortality risk for IDUs with both frailty and HIV infection.
Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.
Ibrahim, Nihal M; El-Kady, Ebtsam M; Eissa, Somiaa A; Wahby, Ahmed F
Pertussis specific antibodies were studied with respect to quality and quantity in a cohort of apparently healthy Egyptian children and adolescents, with their age range between 1 and 18 years, in an attempt to get a close and clear insight into the current humoral immunization status in this specified group and to try find a relation between the antibody levels and their avidities in eradication of this devastating infectious disease. Our results showed that avidity increase was most marked in young school children (6-8 years) where it seemed to reach a plateau in older children and adolescents. Antibody titer was highest in toddlers (1-2 years) and young school children (6-8 years) groups, most probably following vaccination and/or booster doses. Among children aged 1-5 years, 28% had highly avid and 50% had high titer antibodies, whereas in adolescents aged 13-18 years, 70% had highly avid antibodies and only 30% had high titer antibodies. The results clearly demonstrated that while levels of anti-Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antibodies wane with growing age, the avidity seems to increase, to a plateau, irrespective of further antigen exposure in a pattern showing complete independence of avidity on concentration. The present study draws attention to the importance of avidity measurements, together with conventional ELISAs, for evaluating immunity against pertussis. Being based on a limited sample size, it could open doors for larger-scale surveys to be possible indicators for the need and timing of booster vaccination doses among Egyptians.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for taking early retirement pension (ERP) in cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide and population based cohort study including 44,905 persons aged 30-60 years diagnosed with selected...... and the risk remained increased with up to 8 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly increased risk for taking early retirement up to 8 years after the cancer diagnosis and that the magnitude of the risk was dependent of cancer sites....
Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...
Nakaya, N; Tsubono, Y; Nishino, Y; Hosokawa, T; Fukudo, S; Shibuya, D; Akizuki, N; Yoshikawa, E; Kobayakawa, M; Fujimori, M; Saito-Nakaya, K; Uchitomi, Y; Tsuji, I
We tested the hypothesis that personality plays a role in cancer outcome in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. In July 1990, 41 442 residents of Japan completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and a questionnaire on various health habits, and between January 1993 and December 1997, 890 incident cases of cancer were identified among them. These 890 cases were followed up until March 2001, and a total of 356 deaths from all causes was identified among them. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death according to four score levels on each of four personality subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie), with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Multivariable HRs of deaths from all causes for individuals in the highest score level on each personality subscale compared with those at the lowest level were 1.0 for extraversion (95% CI=0.8-1.4; Trend P=0.73), 1.1 for neuroticism (0.8-1.6; Trend P=0.24), 1.2 for psychoticism (0.9-1.6; Trend P=0.29), and 1.0 for lie (0.7-1.5; Trend P=0.90). The data obtained in this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan do not support the hypothesis that personality is associated with cancer survival.
Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel
We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.
Michael Hartal; Yitshak Kreiss; Nirit Yavnai
Background:Occupation is a significant factor in life, health and well-being. Long-term military service is a unique career path that may influence life expectancy, even after excluding obvious risks such as battlefield mortality. However, it remains unclear what the effects of a military career are on the life trajectory of personnel who retire from service. We aimed to compare life expectancy among retired military personnel (RMP) to their sex- and birth cohort-specific reference populations. Methods:For this historical-cohort study we collected data on sex, year of birth, year of death, time in service, and rank at end of service for 4,862 Israeli RMPs. Data on reference populations were provided by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, by birth decade from 1900 to 1989. We calculated the difference between each individual RMP's age at death and the "expected" age at death, based on sex- and birth cohort-specific means in the reference populations. Results:Overall, 67.9% of RMPs lived longer than average relative to their sex specific birth cohort. This difference in life expectancy was more pronounced among women than among men. There was a significant trend of increasing difference between RMP males and reference males over time (P Conclusions:The mechanism of the protective effect of military service on life expectancy remains unknown, but our findings indicate that it affects men and women differently, with women being more likely to benefit from the protective effect of military service. The healthy worker effect is known to vary from one occupation to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the magnitude of the healthy worker effect among career military servicemen and women.
Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J
The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies.
Caliber Associates, Fairfax, VA.
This paper summarizes similarities and differences between two cohorts of the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) clients, those age 45 or older and those younger than 45. Results reveal the following: Clients in the 45+ cohort were considerably more likely to be treated for problems with alcohol or with heroin, and they were…
Moran, Lisa J.; Grieger, Jessica A; Mishra, Gita D; Teede, Helena J.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women. While lifestyle management is first-line treatment in PCOS, the dietary intake of women with PCOS is unclear and there is no research assessing dietary patterns of women with and without PCOS. The aim of this study was to examine dietary patterns in a large cohort of women with and without PCOS. Data were from 7569 participants in the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health popul...
Sandel Megan T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain......, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort...... hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler...
Mary B Pierce
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. CONCLUSIONS: Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the
Sethi Neeraj K
Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called â€˜gaunaâ€. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.
Strömberg, Cecilia; Böckelman, Camilla; Song, Huan; Ye, Weimin; Pukkala, Eero; Haglund, Caj; Nilsson, Magnus
Background and study aims: Elevated long-term risk of cholangiocarcinoma is reported after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), but in a previous study we found a trend towards a decreased risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association in a larger cohort with a longer follow-up. Patients and methods: Data concerning all patients having had an inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were collected from the hospital discharge registries of Finland and Sweden. Incident cases of malignancy were identified through linkage to the nationwide Cancer Registries. Patients with a diagnosis of malignancy, before or within 2 years of the ERCP, were excluded. The cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of malignancy, death or emigration, or end of follow-up (end of 2010). The relative risk of malignancy was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) compared with the general population, inherently adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year of follow-up. Results: A total of 69 925 patients undergoing ERCP from 1976 through 2008 were included in the pooled cohort. ES was performed in 40 193 subjects. The risk of malignancy was elevated in the total cohort (SIR = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1 – 2.5) irrespective of whether ES was performed or not. The SIRs diminished with duration of follow-up. Conclusions: We found an elevated risk of malignancy both in the bile ducts alone and in the bile ducts, liver or pancreas together, after ERCP. The risk was the same, regardless of whether ES had been performed or not, so ES was unlikely to be the cause, and a common carcinogenic exposure previous to the ERCP procedure, possibly ductal gallstone disease, was more likely.
Lee, Ming-Chia; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Jer-Hwa; She, Han-Lin; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih
The association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still controversial.From the National Health Insurance Database of Taiwan, COPD cases with history of acute exacerbation (AE) were identified (COPD cohort). Time-dependent Cox regression analysis was applied to investigate the risk factors for pneumonia with COPD severity controlled by surrogate variables. Among the COPD cohort, those who continuously used ICS for more than 360 days without interruption were selected (ICS cohort). The incidence rate of pneumonia during ICS use was compared with those before ICS use and after ICS discontinuation by using pair t test.A total of 6034 and 842 cases were identified as the COPD and ICS cohorts, respectively. In the COPD cohort, recent ICS use was independently associated with pneumonia (hazard ratio: 1.06 [1.02-1.11] for per 80 mg of budesonide). Other independent risk factors included age, male, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, low income, baseline pneumonia event, and recent use of oral corticosteroids and aminophylline. In the ICS cohort, while AE rate gradually decreased, the incidence rate of pneumonia significantly increased after ICS use (from 0.10 to 0.21 event/person-year, P = 0.001).This study demonstrates the association between ICS use and pneumonia in patients with COPD and history of AE. ICS should be judiciously used in indicated COPD patients.
Gholam Reza Kheirabadi
Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.
Lee, Hye Ah; Park, Hyesook
Objectives Economic growth and development of medical technology help to improve the average life expectancy, but the western diet and rapid conversions to poor lifestyles lead an increasing risk of major chronic diseases. Coronary heart disease mortality in Korea has been on the increase, while showing a steady decline in the other industrialized countries. An age-period-cohort analysis can help understand the trends in mortality and predict the near future. Methods We analyzed the time tren...
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker
of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...
Maasland, Denise H. E.; Brandt, Piet A. van den; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J.
Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40–7.82) for subjects with a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, compared to participants with a BMI of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. Among HNC subtypes, this association was strongest for OCC and OHPC. The association between BMI at age 20 and HNC risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found. PMID:26634678
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Predictors including the preventive effects of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs on cerebral infarction (CI events have not yet been clarified in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of CI and preventive effects of these drugs in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Methods: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (n=1,551, median age (interquartile range, 69.0 (59.0-78.0 years; 41.5% female were enrolled in the Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study and prospectively followed-up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox's regression analyses were used to clarify the risk of CI. Results: Eighty-four patients developed CI at an incidence of 21.5/1000 patients per year. The presence of a previous history of CI, atrial fibrillation (AF, and diabetes mellitus in addition to age were also identified as predictive factors for new CI, whereas no relationship was observed between antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant usage and CI. Furthermore, no significant difference was noted in the frequency of CI events between patients with AF who received warfarin and those who did not. Conclusions: The incidence of CI was higher in dialysis patients with a previous history of CI and AF; however, the preventive effects of antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs on the development of CI were not evident.
Background:For both men and women worldwide, colorectal cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death. This study aimed to assess the mortality trends of colorectal cancer in Serbia between 1991 and 2010, prior to the introduction of population-based screening. Methods:Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate average annual percent change (AAPC) with the cor-responding 95% conifdence interval (CI). Furthermore, age-period-cohort analysis was performed to examine the effects of birth cohort and calendar period on the observed temporal trends. Results:We observed a signiifcantly increased trend in colorectal cancer mortality in Serbia during the study period (AAPC=1.6%, 95% CI 1.3%–1.8%). Colorectal cancer showed an increased mortality trend in both men (AAPC=2.0%, 95% CI 1.7%–2.2%) and women (AAPC=1.0%, 95% CI 0.6%–1.4%). The temporal trend of colorectal cancer mortality was signiifcantly affected by birth cohort (P Conclusions:We found that colorectal cancer mortality in Serbia increased considerably over the past two decades. Mortality increased particularly in men, but the trends were different according to age group and subsite. In Serbia, interventions to reduce colorectal cancer burden, especially the implementation of a national screening program, as well as treatment improvements and measures to encourage the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, are needed.
Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C
The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.
Hsiao, Yung-Tsung; Cheng, Wen-Chien; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shen, Te-Chun; Chen, Wei-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung
The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and asthma remains controversial and has led to new interest in these 2 disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among young people with T1DM and asthma and offer a clinical demonstration of the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort consisted of 3545 T1DM cases and 14,180 controls established during the 1998 to 2011 period. Of the 3545 T1DM patients, 55.1% were girls and 26.5% were in the age group asthma was 47% higher in the T1DM cohort than in the control cohort (6.49 vs 4.42 per 1000 person-y), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.62). Moreover, T1DM patients who visited the emergency room (ER) more than twice for diabetes had a higher adjusted HR of 17.4 (95% CI = 12.9-23.6) of developing asthma. The adjusted HR of asthma was 38.6 (95% CI = 28.5-52.2) in T1DM patients who had been hospitalized more than twice for diabetes.We observed a significantly higher incidence of asthma in young patients with T1DM than in the general population. Among young people of T1DM with more ER visits or frequent hospitalization because of diabetes mellitus were associated with risk of asthma, may indicate that poor glycemic control significantly contributes to asthma risk.
Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188
Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Marlowe Gates Dieckmann; Laura Gottlieb; Jessica Chow; Fernald, Lia C. H.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO ...
Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati
The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort.
DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.
We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait
Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M
Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new
Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy
Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...
steeper decline in females than males.Conclusion: Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD.Keywords: cohort study, lung function, body mass index, tobacco smoking, COPD, respiratory symptoms
Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W
The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of fish intake.
Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro
Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698
Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...... or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63...
This article examines the impact of bullying between age 13 and 16 years on negative outcomes at age 17 years, taking into account various resilience factors at the individual, family, and community level. Using longitudinal data from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, a prospective cohort study of around 4,300 young people in…
Santos, Catarina; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Ritchie, Karen; Barros, Henrique
Alzheimer's disease has emerged in recent decades as a major health problem and the role of lifestyles in the modulation of risk has been increasingly recognized. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect for caffeine intake in dementia. We aimed to quantify the association between caffeine dietary intake and cognitive decline, in a cohort of adults living in Porto. A cohort of 648 subjects aged > or =65 years was recruited between 1999-2003. Follow-up evaluation (2005-2008) was carried out on 58.2% of the eligible participants and 10.9% were deceased. Caffeine exposure in the year preceding baseline evaluation was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive evaluation consisted of baseline and follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease > or =2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) estimates adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were computed using Poisson regression. Caffeine intake (> 62 mg/day [3rd third] vs. cognitive decline in women (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.24-0.97), but not significantly in men (RR=0.65, 95%CI 0.27-1.54). Our study confirms the negative association between caffeine and cognitive decline in women.
Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria
Objective Early temperamental characteristics may influence children’s developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child’s sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. Method 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003–2011), were followed from 24–28 weeks of pregnancy to the child’s fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children’s overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001), emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001), conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001) and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01) at 5.5 years. Infants’ active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02), while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child’s temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children’s own or family characteristics. Conclusion An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways. PMID:28199415
Ana Paula Hermont
Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.
Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.
McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan
The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.
Yang, Fu-Chi; Lin, Te-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Kao, Chia-Hung
Previous studies suggest that an association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and migraine exists. However, population-based data are unavailable in Asian cohorts. Our study thus aims to evaluate the association between migraine and RLS in a nationwide, population-based cohort in Taiwan and to examine the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbidities on RLS development.Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used. Patients aged 20 years or older with newly diagnosed migraine from 2000 to 2008 were included; 23,641 patients with newly diagnosed migraine and 94,564 subjects without migraine were randomly selected and followed until RLS development, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance, or until the end of 2011. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the risk of RLS in patients with migraine after adjustment for demographic characteristics and comorbidities.Both cohorts were followed for a mean of 7.38 years. After adjustment for covariates, the risk of RLS was 1.42-fold higher (95% confidence interval = 1.13-1.79) in the migraine cohort than in the nonmigraine cohort (7.19 versus 3.42 years per 10,000 person-years). The increased risk was more prominent in males in the migraine cohort (1.87-fold increased risk, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.85). Neither comorbidity status nor migraine subtype influenced the RLS risk.This population-based study demonstrated that migraine is associated with an increased risk of RLS compared with those without migraine, particularly in male patients with migraine and regardless of the comorbidity status.
Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Cohort. METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted......OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008. POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth...... for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...
As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...
Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Risques, Rosa Ana; Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Weinstein, Maxine
Telomere length has generated substantial interest as a potential predictor of aging-related diseases and mortality. Some studies have reported significant associations, but few have tested its ability to discriminate between decedents and survivors compared with a broad range of well-established predictors that include both biomarkers and commonly collected self-reported data. Our aim here was to quantify the prognostic value of leukocyte telomere length relative to age, sex, and 19 other variables for predicting five-year mortality among older persons in three countries. We used data from nationally representative surveys in Costa Rica (N = 923, aged 61+), Taiwan (N = 976, aged 54+), and the U.S. (N = 2672, aged 60+). Our study used a prospective cohort design with all-cause mortality during five years post-exam as the outcome. We fit Cox hazards models separately by country, and assessed the discriminatory ability of each predictor. Age was, by far, the single best predictor of all-cause mortality, whereas leukocyte telomere length was only somewhat better than random chance in terms of discriminating between decedents and survivors. After adjustment for age and sex, telomere length ranked between 15th and 17th (out of 20), and its incremental contribution was small; nine self-reported variables (e.g., mobility, global self-assessed health status, limitations with activities of daily living, smoking status), a cognitive assessment, and three biological markers (C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and glycosylated hemoglobin) were more powerful predictors of mortality in all three countries. Results were similar for cause-specific models (i.e., mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all other causes combined). Leukocyte telomere length had a statistically discernible, but weak, association with mortality, but it did not predict survival as well as age or many other self-reported variables. Although telomere length may eventually help scientists
Hollier, Lauren P; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O
Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in umbilical cord blood are associated with expressive vocabulary development, in a large birth cohort. Cord blood samples were taken immediately after delivery and expressive vocabulary was measured at two years of age using the language development survey (LDS). BioT concentration significantly predicted vocabulary size in males (n=197), such that higher concentrations were associated with lower LDS scores, indicating smaller vocabulary. This relationship between BioT concentrations and vocabulary at aged 2 years was not observed in girls (n=176). Higher circulating prenatal testosterone concentrations at birth may be associated with reduced vocabulary in early childhood among boys.
Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M
(aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...
Perez Roberto SGM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable
Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post
Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Münster, Eva
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. METHODS: A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study...
Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered quest
Thiago Silva Torres
Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy during the 1990s was crucial to the decline in the rates of morbidity and death related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection into a chronic condition. Consequently, the HIV/AIDS population is becoming older. The aim of this study was to describe the immunological, clinical and comorbidity profile of an urban cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS followed up at Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrospective data from 2307 patients during January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2008 were collected. For continuous variables, Cuzick's non-parametric test was used. For categorical variables, the Cochran-Armitage non-parametric test for tendency was used. For all tests, the threshold for statistical significance was set at 5%. In 2008, 1023 (44.3%, 823 (35.7%, 352 (15.3% and 109 (4.7% were aged 18-39, 40-49, 50-59 and >60 years-old, respectively. Older and elderly patients (>40 years were more likely to have viral suppression than younger patients (18-39 years (p 0.001. No significant difference in the latest CD4+ T lymphocyte count in the different age strata was observed, although elderly patients (> 50 years had lower CD4+ T lymphocyte nadir (p 0.02. The number of comorbidities increased with age and the same pattern was observed for the majority of the comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction, HCV, renal dysfunction and also for non-AIDSrelated cancers (p 0.001. With the survival increase associated to successful antiretroviral therapy and with the increasing new infections among elderly group, the burden associated to the diagnosis and treatment of the non-AIDS related HIV comorbidities will grow. Longitudinal studies on the impact of aging on the HIV/AIDS population are still necessary
Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NO(x and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. RESULTS: We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (L(den was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.22 and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02-1.23 preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner.
Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J
Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40-7.82) for subjects with a BMI risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found.
Gary Kim Kuan Low
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.
Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.
Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage
Angélica Salatino-Oliveira; Joseph Murray; Christian Kieling; Júlia Pasqualini Genro; Guilherme Polanczyk; Luciana Anselmi; Fernando Wehrmeister; Barros, Fernando C; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Luis Augusto Rohde; Mara Helena Hutz
Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val 158 Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire w...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although important to public policy, there have been no rigorous evidence syntheses of the long-term consequences of late adolescent drinking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This systematic review summarises evidence from general population cohort studies of drinking between 15-19 years old and any subsequent outcomes aged 20 or greater, with at least 3 years of follow-up study. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 35 were assessed to be vulnerable to bias and/or confounding. The principal findings are: (1 There is consistent evidence that higher alcohol consumption in late adolescence continues into adulthood and is also associated with alcohol problems including dependence; (2 Although a number of studies suggest links to adult physical and mental health and social consequences, existing evidence is of insufficient quality to warrant causal inferences at this stage. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for high quality long-term prospective cohort studies in order to better understand the public health burden that is consequent on late adolescent drinking, both in relation to adult drinking and more broadly. Reducing drinking during late adolescence is likely to be important for preventing long-term adverse consequences as well as protecting against more immediate harms. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug development is ideally a logical sequence in which information from small early studies (Phase I is subsequently used to inform and plan larger, more definitive studies (Phases II-IV. Phase I trials are unique because they generally provide the first evaluation of new drugs in humans. The conduct and dissemination of Phase I trials have not previously been empirically evaluated. Our objective was to describe the initiation, completion, and publication of Phase I trials in comparison with Phase II-IV trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed a cohort of all protocols approved by a sample of ethics committees in France from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. The comparison of 140 Phase I trials with 304 Phase II-IV trials, showed that Phase I studies were more likely to be initiated (133/140 [95%] versus 269/304 [88%], more likely to be completed (127/133 [95%] versus 218/269 [81%], and more likely to produce confirmatory results (71/83 [86%] versus 125/175 [71%] than Phase II-IV trials. Publication was less frequent for Phase I studies (21/127 [17%] versus 93/218 [43%], even if only accounting for studies providing confirmatory results (18/71 [25%] versus 79/125 [63%]. CONCLUSIONS: The initiation, completion, and publications of Phase I trials are different from those of other studies. Moreover, the results of these trials should be published in order to ensure the integrity of the overall body of scientific knowledge, and ultimately the safety of future trial participants and patients.
Hughes, L.A.E.; Simons, C.C.J.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.
A large body size may differentially influence risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) by anatomic location. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years who self-reported weight, height, and trouser/skirt size at baseline (1986), as well as weight at age 20 years. Derived va
Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van
A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to de
Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)
The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.
Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan
AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462～0.7392,P＜0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604～0.8198,P＜0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298～0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.
Kjeldgaard, Helena Kames; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Nordeng, Hedvig; Vikanes, Åse Vigdis
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy condition characterised by debilitating nausea and vomiting. HG has been associated with depression during pregnancy but the direction of the association remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether previous depression is associated with HG. This is a population-based pregnancy cohort study using data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study reviewed 731 pregnancies with HG and 81,055 pregnancies without. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between a lifetime history of depression and hyperemesis gravidarum. Odds ratios were adjusted for symptoms of current depression, maternal age, parity, body mass index, smoking, sex of the child, education and pelvic girdle pain. A lifetime history of depression was associated with higher odds for hyperemesis gravidarum (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.23; 1.79)). Two thirds of women with hyperemesis gravidarum had neither a history of depression nor symptoms of current depression, and 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG. A lifetime history of depression increased the risk of HG. However, given the fact that only 1.2% of women with a history of depression developed HG and that the majority of women with HG had no symptoms of depression, depression does not seem to be a main driver in the aetiology of HG.
Objectives In recent years, large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies have improved our understanding of healthy ageing and pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A particular focus of these studies is group differences and identification of participants at risk of deteriorating to a worse diagnosis. For this, statistical analysis using linear mixed-effects (LME) models are used to account for correlated observations from individuals measured over time. A Bayesian framework for LME models in AD is introduced in this paper to provide additional insight often not found in current LME volumetric analyses. Setting and participants Longitudinal neuroimaging case study of ageing was analysed in this research on 260 participants diagnosed as either healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI) or AD. Bayesian LME models for the ventricle and hippocampus regions were used to: (1) estimate how the volumes of these regions change over time by diagnosis, (2) identify high-risk non-AD individuals with AD like degeneration and (3) determine probabilistic trajectories of diagnosis groups over age. Results We observed (1) large differences in the average rate of change of volume for the ventricle and hippocampus regions between diagnosis groups, (2) high-risk individuals who had progressed from HC to MCI and displayed similar rates of deterioration as AD counterparts, and (3) critical time points which indicate where deterioration of regions begins to diverge between the diagnosis groups. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of Bayesian LME models to neuroimaging data which provides inference on a population and individual level in the AD field. The application of a Bayesian LME framework allows for additional information to be extracted from longitudinal studies. This provides health professionals with valuable information of neurodegeneration stages, and a potential to provide a better understanding of disease pathology
Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H
The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.
Pin-Liang Chen; Wei-Ju Lee; Wei-Zen Sun; Yen-Jen Oyang; Jong-Ling Fuh
BACKGROUND: Hypnotics have been reported to be associated with dementia. However, the relationship between insomnia, hypnotics and dementia is still controversial. We sought to examine the risk of dementia in patients with long-term insomnia and the contribution of hypnotics. METHODS: Data was collected from Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged 50 years or older with a first diagnosis of insomnia from 2002 to 2007. The comparison cohort...
Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H
Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis.
Anne-Sophie Halkjær Christensen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study was conducted enrolling patients notified with TBM in Denmark from 1972-2008 and alive one year after TBM diagnosis. Data was extracted from national registries. From the background population we identified a control cohort of individuals matched on gender and date of birth. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR and analyse causes of death. FINDINGS: A total of 55 TBM patients and 550 individuals from the background population were included in the study. Eighteen patients (32.7% and 107 population controls (19.5% died during the observation period. The overall MRR was 1.79 (95%CI: 1.09-2.95 for TBM patients compared to the population control cohort. TBM patients in the age group 31-60 years at time of diagnosis had the highest relative risk of death (MRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.34. The TBM patients had a higher risk of death due to infectious disease, but not from other causes of death. CONCLUSION: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death.