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Sample records for aged prevalence covariates

  1. Mental health in the aged: prevalence, covariates and related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular and inflammatory factors of successful aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Günther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known about its psycho-physiologic and endocrine underpinnings. KORA-Age is a population-based, longitudinal study designed to determine the prevalence of successfully aged men and women between 65 and 94 years old in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort of randomly selected inhabitants. Specifically, we aim to identify predictors of successful aging and to elucidate bio-psychosocial mechanisms that maintain mental health and successful adaptation despite adverse experiences of life and aging. Methods/Design Components of successful aging were assessed in a telephone survey of 4,127 participants (2008-2009 enrolled in the MONICA/KORA cohort, on average, 13 years earlier. Psychosocial, somatic and behavioural predictors are used to determine factors that contribute to successful aging. An age-stratified random sub-sample (n = 1,079 participated in a personal interview where further psychological mechanisms that may underlie successful adaptation (resilience, social support, attachment were examined. The interactions among neuroendocrine systems in the aging process are investigated by studying the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ratio, the level of insulin-like growth factor I, and oxytocin. Discussion Longitudinal determinants of successful aging can be assessed based on a follow-up of an average of 13 years. A comprehensive analysis of biological as well as physio-psychological information provides a unique opportunity to investigate relevant outcomes such as resilience and frailty in the elderly population.

  2. Locally dependent latent class models with covariates: an application to under-age drinking in the USA.

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    Reboussin, Beth A; Ip, Edward H; Wolfson, Mark

    2008-10-01

    Under-age drinking is a long-standing public health problem in the USA and the identification of underage drinkers suffering alcohol-related problems has been difficult by using diagnostic criteria that were developed in adult populations. For this reason, it is important to characterize patterns of drinking in adolescents that are associated with alcohol-related problems. Latent class analysis is a statistical technique for explaining heterogeneity in individual response patterns in terms of a smaller number of classes. However, the latent class analysis assumption of local independence may not be appropriate when examining behavioural profiles and could have implications for statistical inference. In addition, if covariates are included in the model, non-differential measurement is also assumed. We propose a flexible set of models for local dependence and differential measurement that use easily interpretable odds ratio parameterizations while simultaneously fitting a marginal regression model for the latent class prevalences. Estimation is based on solving a set of second-order estimating equations. This approach requires only specification of the first two moments and allows for the choice of simple 'working' covariance structures. The method is illustrated by using data from a large-scale survey of under-age drinking. This new approach indicates the effectiveness of introducing local dependence and differential measurement into latent class models for selecting substantively interpretable models over more complex models that are deemed empirically superior.

  3. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde;

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  4. Sparse representation of brain aging: extracting covariance patterns from structural MRI.

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    Longfei Su

    Full Text Available An enhanced understanding of how normal aging alters brain structure is urgently needed for the early diagnosis and treatment of age-related mental diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a reliable technique used to detect age-related changes in the human brain. Currently, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA enables the exploration of subtle and distributed changes of data obtained from structural MRI images. In this study, a new MVPA approach based on sparse representation has been employed to investigate the anatomical covariance patterns of normal aging. Two groups of participants (group 1:290 participants; group 2:56 participants were evaluated in this study. These two groups were scanned with two 1.5 T MRI machines. In the first group, we obtained the discriminative patterns using a t-test filter and sparse representation step. We were able to distinguish the young from old cohort with a very high accuracy using only a few voxels of the discriminative patterns (group 1:98.4%; group 2:96.4%. The experimental results showed that the selected voxels may be categorized into two components according to the two steps in the proposed method. The first component focuses on the precentral and postcentral gyri, and the caudate nucleus, which play an important role in sensorimotor tasks. The strongest volume reduction with age was observed in these clusters. The second component is mainly distributed over the cerebellum, thalamus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These regions are not only critical nodes of the sensorimotor circuitry but also the cognitive circuitry although their volume shows a relative resilience against aging. Considering the voxels selection procedure, we suggest that the aging of the sensorimotor and cognitive brain regions identified in this study has a covarying relationship with each other.

  5. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

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    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging.

  6. Family-based association test method: age of onset traits and covariates.

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    Horvath, S; Wei, E; Xu, X; Palmer, L J; Baur, M

    2001-01-01

    We apply different family-based association test (FBAT) statistics for age of onset traits to the Genetics Analysis Workshop 12, problem 2 data. To evaluate different FBAT statistics we used the software package FBAT, which allows one to evaluate any test statistic that can be expressed as the sum of products between an arbitrary function of an offspring's genotype with an arbitrary function of the offspring's phenotype even if there are missing parental information. For single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gene 1, our age-of-onset FBAT test based on the exponential model is significantly more powerful than the test by Mokliatchouk et al. [Hum Hered 51:46-53, 2000], which is based on the Cox model. We suggest incorporating covariates into FBAT statistics by replacing the trait values by their regression residuals. For the age of onset trait statistics we find that deviance residuals have much more power than "plain" martingale residuals. We discuss why for SNPs in gene 1, the usual affectation status trait, which underlies the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), has higher power than the age-of-onset trait. We find only weak evidence (p = 0.0002) that marker D06G032 is associated with the affectation status.

  7. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

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    Ram Lakhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002 of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000 than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044. Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019 as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000 and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000 in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID.

  8. Autism Prevalence Trends Over Time in Denmark: Changes in Prevalence and Age at Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parner, Erik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of changing age at diagnosis on the diagnosed prevalence of autism among different birth cohorts. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Children were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry and psychiatric outcomes were obtained via linkage...... with the Danish National Psychiatric Register. PARTICIPANTS: All children born in Denmark from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 1999 (N = 407 458). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The age-specific prevalence, hazard ratio, and relative risk by age. RESULTS: Statistically significant shifts in age at diagnosis were...... prevalence of autism in young children in the more recent cohorts compared with the oldest cohort. This study supports the argument that the apparent increase in autism in recent years is at least in part attributable to decreases in the age at diagnosis over time....

  9. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

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    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "s

  10. Simulation studies of age-specific lifetime major depression prevalence

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    Gordon-Brown Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence (LTP of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is the proportion of a population having met criteria for MDD during their life up to the time of assessment. Expectation holds that LTP should increase with age, but this has not usually been observed. Instead, LTP typically increases in the teenage years and twenties, stabilizes in adulthood and then begins to decline in middle age. Proposed explanations for this pattern include: a cohort effect (increasing incidence in more recent birth cohorts, recall failure and/or differential mortality. Declining age-specific incidence may also play a role. Methods We used a simulation model to explore patterns of incidence, recall and mortality in relation to the observed pattern of LTP. Lifetime prevalence estimates from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey, Mental Health and Wellbeing (CCHS 1.2 were used for model validation and calibration. Results Incidence rates predicting realistic values for LTP in the 15-24 year age group (where mortality is unlikely to substantially influence prevalence lead to excessive LTP later in life, given reasonable assumptions about mortality and recall failure. This suggests that (in the absence of cohort effects incidence rates decline with age. Differential mortality may make a contribution to the prevalence pattern, but only in older age categories. Cohort effects can explain the observed pattern, but only if recent birth cohorts have a much higher (approximately 10-fold greater risk and if incidence has increased with successive birth cohorts over the past 60-70 years. Conclusions The pattern of lifetime prevalence observed in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies seems most plausibly explained by incidence that declines with age and where some respondents fail to recall past episodes. A cohort effect is not a necessary interpretation of the observed pattern of age-specific lifetime prevalence.

  11. Prevalence and structure of periodontal disease in young aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kholodnyak, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Under modern condotions the problem of prevention and treatment of periodontal does not lose its relevance, This is significant prevalence of periodontal lesions, including young people. One of the promising areas that help to reduce the incidence and intensity of periodontal disease is the development and implementation of objective methods for predicting and preventing their development. Data on periodontal status in young aged adults are contradictory, and rates of prevalence of periodonta...

  12. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  13. Prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in Western Mexico.

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    Arias-Merino, Elva Dolores; Mendoza-Ruvalcaba, Neyda Ma; Arias-Merino, Martha Judith; Cueva-Contreras, Jazmín; Vazquez Arias, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in Western Mexico and to analyze its variability by age, sex, education, marital status, and pension. Methods. This study employs data from the Health, Wellbeing, and Aging Study (SABE) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Successful aging was operationalized in accordance with no important disease, no disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and being actively. There were a total of 3116 elderly. Results. 12.6% of older adults were "successful" aging. The old-old is a lower proportion of successful aging people; it ranges from 18.9% among people aged 60-69 years to 3.9% in the 80-89 years and up to 1% in people 90 and older. There were also differences according to sex (P = .000), with a higher proportion of successful aging men (18.4% compared with 9.2% of women). There were differences in educational level (P = .000); those higher with education were found to be more successful aging, and also there were differences in marital status for married people (P = .000). Discussion. A small number of older adults meet the criteria definition of successful aging, suggesting the need to analyze in depth the concept and the indicators.

  14. Prevalence of Successful Aging in the Elderly in Western Mexico

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    Elva Dolores Arias-Merino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of successful aging in the elderly in Western Mexico and to analyze its variability by age, sex, education, marital status, and pension. Methods. This study employs data from the Health, Wellbeing, and Aging Study (SABE in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. Successful aging was operationalized in accordance with no important disease, no disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and being actively. There were a total of 3116 elderly. Results. 12.6% of older adults were “successful” aging. The old-old is a lower proportion of successful aging people; it ranges from 18.9% among people aged 60–69 years to 3.9% in the 80–89 years and up to 1% in people 90 and older. There were also differences according to sex (P=.000, with a higher proportion of successful aging men (18.4% compared with 9.2% of women. There were differences in educational level (P=.000; those higher with education were found to be more successful aging, and also there were differences in marital status for married people (P=.000. Discussion. A small number of older adults meet the criteria definition of successful aging, suggesting the need to analyze in depth the concept and the indicators.

  15. Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Adults Aged 20-64 Years in 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; Moran, Andrew E; Feigin, Valery L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that stroke is increasing as a cause of morbidity and mortality in younger adults, where it carries particular significance for working individuals. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of stroke burden are important for planning stroke prevention and management...... in younger adults. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and their trends for total, ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in the world for 1990-2013 in adults aged 20-64 years. METHODOLOGY: Stroke prevalence, mortality and DALYs...... were estimated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 methods. All available data on rates of stroke incidence, excess mortality, prevalence and death were collected. Statistical models were used along with country-level covariates to estimate country-specific stroke burden. Stroke...

  16. COMPONENTS OF (COVARIANCE FOR AGE AT FIRST AND SECOND CALVING OF NELLORE FEMALES RAISED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Dionéia Magda Everling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic correlation and estimated breeding values for age at first (AFC and second calving (ASC for Nellore females raised in Southern Brazil. The (covariance and estimated breeding values were obtained using Bayesian inference in a bivariate analysis, adopting an animal model. The average ages were 49.30 and 69.85 months, and the heritabilities were 0.25 and 0.26, respectively for AFC and ASC. The genetic correlation between AFC and ASC was 0.88. The correlation between the classifications of sires according to their estimated breeding values was 0.93. The heritability estimates for AFC and ASC suggest the possibility of obtaining genetic gain by selection. The correlation between these traits close to one indicates that they are controlled by virtually the same genes and when selected for one will advance correlated gain for the other.

  17. Covariation of deep Southern Ocean oxygenation and atmospheric CO2 through the last ice age.

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    Jaccard, Samuel L; Galbraith, Eric D; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Anderson, Robert F

    2016-02-11

    No single mechanism can account for the full amplitude of past atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration variability over glacial-interglacial cycles. A build-up of carbon in the deep ocean has been shown to have occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the mechanisms responsible for the release of the deeply sequestered carbon to the atmosphere at deglaciation, and the relative importance of deep ocean sequestration in regulating millennial-timescale variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration before the Last Glacial Maximum, have remained unclear. Here we present sedimentary redox-sensitive trace-metal records from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean that provide a reconstruction of transient changes in deep ocean oxygenation and, by inference, respired carbon storage throughout the last glacial cycle. Our data suggest that respired carbon was removed from the abyssal Southern Ocean during the Northern Hemisphere cold phases of the deglaciation, when atmospheric CO2 concentration increased rapidly, reflecting--at least in part--a combination of dwindling iron fertilization by dust and enhanced deep ocean ventilation. Furthermore, our records show that the observed covariation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and abyssal Southern Ocean oxygenation was maintained throughout most of the past 80,000 years. This suggests that on millennial timescales deep ocean circulation and iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean played a consistent role in modifying atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  18. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

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    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  19. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

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    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  20. High age-adjusted prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Inuits in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Pakkenberg, Henning; Jeune, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of PD among Inuits in Greenland has not been determined. The authors found 40 patients with PD at the prevalence date January 1, 2000. The crude prevalence of PD was estimated to be 81.0 per 100.000 inhabitants born in Greenland. However, owing to the low proportion of 50+ year old...... Inuits (16.5 vs 33.5% in Denmark) the age-adjusted prevalence was much higher-187.5 per 100,000 persons....

  1. Prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis according to age and sex systematic review and metaregression analysis

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    de Weerd, M.; Greving, J.P.; de Jong, A.W.F.; Buskens, E.; Bots, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In the discussion on the value of population-wide screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS), reliable prevalence estimates are crucial. We set out to provide reliable age- and sex-specific prevalence estimates of ACAS through a systematic literature review and

  2. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population

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    Juan J. Madrid-Valero

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women.

  3. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  4. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Mihas Constantinos; Mouzakis Vasilios; Vasiliadis Elias; Grivas Theodoros B; Koufopoulos Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among nor...

  5. Age and prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in children.

    OpenAIRE

    McClellan, D L; Griffen, A L; Leys, E J

    1996-01-01

    The acquisition of Porphyromonas gingivalis was examined in a cross-sectional study of 198 subjects from 0 to 18 years of age using a PCR-based assay. P. gingivalis was detected in the oral cavities of 37% of subjects and at similar frequencies among subjects of all ages. These data indicate that P. gingivalis may be acquired in the first days of life.

  6. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar

    2011-01-01

    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  7. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

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    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  9. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  10. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in school children aged 8-12 years in Chennai

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    Savitha Deepthi Yannam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.

  11. Prevalence and socio-economic burden of heart failure in an aging society of South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hankil; Oh, Sung-Hee; Cho, Hyeonseok; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Kang, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in South Korea. With the rapidly aging population in the country, the prevalence of HF and its associated costs are expected to rise continuously. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and economic burden of HF in order to understand its impact on our society. Methods A prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study was conducted using the 2014 Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National...

  12. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students Aged 7-22 Years in Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taha Hussein Musa; WEI Li; LI Xiao Shan; PU Yue Pu; WEI Ping Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity among students aged 7-22 years in Jiangsu, 2010 to 2013. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of students physical fitness and health survey in Jiangsu province. A total of 255,581 subjects (50.03%males and 49.97%females) enrolled in 82 school and 10 universities in Jiangsu. Weights and heights were obtained for each subject and its body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the Chinese Working Group on Obesity in China (CWGO). Results Anthropometric measurement including bodyweight, height, BMI and bust were significantly different between males in urban compared to females living rural areas (P<0.001). The total prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.4%and 5.7%. Males had a significantly higher rate than in female’s student. The prevalence of overweight and obesity by age groups was (14.5%, 10.3%) at age 7-11 years, (11.2%, 6.8%) at age 12-14 years, (11.7%, 3.1%) at age 15-17 years, and (11.4%, 2.3%) at age 18-22 years. By regions; the highest prevalence of overweight obesity reported in Taizhou (10%, 14.2%), Xuzhou (9.4%, 12.5%), and Nanjing (9.2%, 15.6%), respectively.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of atrial fibrillation in preterminal inpatients aged 60 years and over

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jie-fu; LIU Bing; LIU Dong-ge; LUO Yao; FANG Fang

    2008-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia and a major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. We investigated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and its relation to age, gender and underlying heart disease in patients aged 60 years and over who died during hospitalization.Methods Between 1955 and 2005, 1519 autopsies of in-hospital deaths in Beijing Hospital were performed. Among them, 540 cases met criteria of age ≥60 years and full clinical history including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, myocardial perfusion images and detailed cardiac pathology records from autopsy.Results Atrial fibrillation occurred in 193 of 540 patients and prevalence increased with age (10.5% in patients younger than 60 years, 39.6% (80-89 years) and 54.8% (≥90 years)) being higher in patients with underlying heart disease than without heart disease (P<0.0001). Coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, cardiac valve dysfunction and chronic renal failure were associated with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). CAD with anterior myocardial infarction or left anterior descending artery disease was also associated with an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (P <0.05). Following autopsy, clinical misdiagnosis of CAD increased with age and missed clinical diagnosis of CAD decreased with age. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis revealed independent predictors of atrial fibrillation: age (OR=1.335, 95% Cl: 1.114-1.600, P<0.0001), underlying heart disease (OR=2.019, 95% CI: 1.244-3.278, P <0.005), chronic heart failure (OR=1.873, 95% CI: 1.272-2.757, P <0.005), mitral regurgitation (OR=2.163, 95% Cl: 1.093-4.278, P<0.05) and mitral stenosis (OR=33.575, 95% CI: 2.852-395.357, P<0.05). Conclusions A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation was found in Chinese patients

  14. Prevalence

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    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  15. Change in prevalence of IgE sensitization and mean total IgE with age and cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D; Luczynska, C; Chinn, S; Potts, J; Sunyer, J; Janson, C; Svanes, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Heinrich, J; Kerkhof, M; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, MM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional studies show that the prevalence of IgE sensitization is lower in older age groups than younger age groups. This could reflect either a decrease in sensitization with aging or a higher prevalence of sensitization in more recent birth cohorts. Objective: To assess change i

  16. Prevalence of hypospadias in Italy according to severity, gestational age and birthweight: an epidemiological study

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    Magnani Cinzia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypospadias is a congenital displacement of the urethral meatus in male newborns, being either an isolated defect at birth or a sign of sexual development disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rate of hypospadias in different Districts of Italy, in order to make a comparison with other countries all over the world. Methods We reviewed all the newborns file records (years 2001–2004 in 15 Italian Hospitals. Results We found an overall hypospadias prevalence rate of 3.066 ± 0.99 per 1000 live births (82.48% mild hypospadias, 17.52% moderate-severe. In newborns Small for Gestational Age (birthweight th percentile of any gestational age the prevalence rate of hypospadias was 6.25 per 1000 live births. Performing multivariate logistic regression analysis for different degrees of hypospadias according to severity, being born SGA remained the only risk factor for moderate-severe hypospadias (p = 0.00898 but not for mild forms (p > 0.1. Conclusion In our sample the prevalence of hypospadias results as high as reported in previous European and American studies (3–4 per 1000 live births. Pathogenesis of isolated hypospadias is multifactorial (genetic, endocrine and environmental factors: however, the prevalence rate of hypospadias is higher in infants born small for gestational age than in newborns with normal birth weight.

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

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    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  18. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic sta...

  19. Prevalence of insomnia and its relationship to menopausal status in middle-aged Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chol; Lee, Sangyeol; Lee, Taewook; Shin, Kyungrim; Yi, Hyeryeon; Kimm, Kuchan; Cho, Namhan

    2005-08-01

    Although the prevalence of insomnia and the association of insomnia with menopause have been well reported, not much work has been conducted in population-based research on insomnia and menopause in Korea. The purpose of the present report was to determine overall and different prevalence of insomnia by menopausal status, and the relationship between insomnia and menopause in a population-based sample of middle-aged Korean women. A total of 96.1% of 2497 randomly selected middle-aged Korean women participated. Insomnia was defined as occurring three times a week or more in the previous month. Subjects were categorized into three groups: premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause. The overall prevalence of insomnia in middle-aged Korean women was 14.3%. The most common symptom of insomnia was difficulty maintaining sleep (9.7%), followed by difficulty initiating sleep (7.9%), and early morning awakening (7.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that menopause was independently associated with insomnia after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, income, and depression. Perimenopause was significantly associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of insomnia, but there was no significant association for postmenopause. The major finding is that insomnia is significantly associated with the menopausal transition. The prevalence of insomnia increases significantly by the transition from premenopause to perimenopause, but not to postmenopause. A further prospective study is needed to investigate the influence of menopause on insomnia.

  20. Age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus : a nationwide registration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godefrooij, Daniel A; de Wit, G Ardine; Uiterwaal, Cuno S; Imhof, Saskia M; Wisse, Robert P L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in the modern era of diagnostics. DESIGN: Epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: 4.4 million patients from a mandatory health insurance database. METHODS: Data were extracted from the largest health insurance provider in the

  1. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in older Europeans: The European Eye Study (EUREYE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Augood (Cristina); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); J.H. Seland (Johan ); G. Soubrane; L. Tomazzoli (Laura); F. Topouzis (Fotis); G.C. Bentham (Graham ); M. Rahu; J. Vioque (Jesus); I.S. Young (Ian ); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To estimate the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an older population from 7 European countries. Methods: Randomly sampled people 65 years and older were invited to an eye examination in centers across 7 European countries (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy

  2. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  3. Age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity in primary care: the swiss fire project

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    Rizza Alessandro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners often care for patients with several concurrent chronic medical conditions (multimorbidity. Recent data suggest that multimorbidity might be observed more often than isolated diseases in primary care. We explored the age- and gender-related prevalence of multimorbidity and compared these estimates to the prevalence estimates of other common specific diseases found in Swiss primary care. Methods We analyzed data from the Swiss FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC Research using Electronic Medical Record project database, representing a total of 509,656 primary care encounters in 98,152 adult patients between January 1, 2009 and July 31, 2011. For each encounter, medical problems were encoded using the second version of the International Classification of primary Care (ICPC-2. We defined chronic health conditions using 147 pre-specified ICPC-2 codes and defined multimorbidity as 1 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 rubrics, 2 two or more chronic health conditions from different ICPC-2 chapters, and 3 two or more medical specialties involved in patient care. We compared the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity defined by the three methodologies with the prevalence estimates of common diseases encountered in primary care. Results Overall, the prevalence estimates of multimorbidity were similar for the three different definitions (15% [95%CI 11-18%], 13% [95%CI 10-16%], and 14% [95%CI 11-17%], respectively, and were higher than the prevalence estimates of any specific chronic health condition (hypertension, uncomplicated 9% [95%CI 7-11%], back syndrome with and without radiating pain 6% [95%CI 5-7%], non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 3% [95%CI 3-4%], and degenerative joint disease 3% [95%CI 2%-4%]. The prevalence estimates of multimorbidity rose more than 20-fold with age, from 2% (95%CI 1-2% in those aged 20–29 years, to 38% (95%CI 31-44% in those aged 80 or more years. The

  4. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bharathi; Shekar, Malathi; Maiti, Biswajit; Karunasagar, Indrani; Padiyath, Sreeshma

    2015-01-01

    Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  5. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

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    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  6. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  7. Estimating Cosmological Parameter Covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bias and error in estimates of the cosmological parameter covariance matrix, due to sampling or modelling the data covariance matrix, for likelihood width and peak scatter estimators. We show that these estimators do not coincide unless the data covariance is exactly known. For sampled data covariances, with Gaussian distributed data and parameters, the parameter covariance matrix estimated from the width of the likelihood has a Wishart distribution, from which we derive the mean and covariance. This mean is biased and we propose an unbiased estimator of the parameter covariance matrix. Comparing our analytic results to a numerical Wishart sampler of the data covariance matrix we find excellent agreement. An accurate ansatz for the mean parameter covariance for the peak scatter estimator is found, and we fit its covariance to our numerical analysis. The mean is again biased and we propose an unbiased estimator for the peak parameter covariance. For sampled data covariances the width estimat...

  8. The anorexia of ageing: physiopathology, prevalence, associated comorbidity and mortality. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafarina, Vincenzo; Uriz-Otano, Francisco; Gil-Guerrero, Lucía; Iniesta, Raquel

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes of ageing and factors prevalent in the elderly such as comorbidities and polypharmacy often cause loss of appetite in the elderly, which we call anorexia of ageing. Social factors, together with changes in the sensory organs, can be important causes of a reduction in both appetite and ingestion. This review assesses the regulation of appetite in the elderly and the development of anorexia of ageing. It also examines the prevalence of this type of anorexia, its associated comorbidities and mortality rates. We have reviewed 27 studies, with a total of 6208 patients. These reported changes in the secretion and response of both central and peripheral hormones that regulate appetite. Anorexia, very prevalent among hospitalized and institutionalized elderly people, is associated with comorbidity and represents a predictive factor for mortality. No treatment for it has been proved to be effective. The mechanism regulating ingestion in elderly people is complex and difficult to resolve. Comorbidity as a cause or a consequence of anorexia of ageing has become a research field of great interest in geriatrics. A correct nutritional evaluation is a fundamental part of an integrated geriatric assessment.

  9. The Age Related Prevalence of Aggression and Self-Injury in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Louise; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse statistically published data regarding the age related prevalence of aggression and self-injury in persons with intellectual disability. Studies including prevalence data for aggression and/or self-injury broken down by age band were identified and relative risk analyses conducted to generate indices of age…

  10. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

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    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  11. Gender and age groups interactions in the quantification of bone marrow fat content in lumbar spine using 3T MR spectroscopy: A multivariate analysis of covariance (Mancova)

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    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto, E-mail: ernest.roldan@usa.net [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Piña-Jimenez, Carlos [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City (Mexico); Favila, Rafael [GE Healthcare, Mexico City (Mexico); Rios, Camilo [Neurochemistry Department, Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: There is an age-related conversion of red to yellow bone marrow in the axial skeleton, with a gender-related difference less well established. Our purpose was to clarify the variability of bone marrow fat fraction (FF) in the lumbar spine due to the interaction of gender and age groups. Methods: 44 healthy volunteers (20 males, 30–65 years old and 24 females, 30–69 years old) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and conventional MRI examination of the lumbar spine; single-voxel spectrum was acquired for each vertebral body (VB). After controlling body mass index (BMI), a two-way between-groups multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed the gender and age group differences in FF quantification for each lumbar VB. Results: There was a significant interaction between gender and age group, p = .017, with a large effect size (partial η{sup 2} = .330). However the interaction explained only 33% of the observed variance. Main effects were not statistically significant. BMI was non-significantly related to FF quantification. Conclusions: Young males showed a high FF content, which declined in the 4th decade, then increased the next 3 decades to reach a FF content just below the initial FF means. Females’ FF were low in the 3rd decade, depicted an accelerated increase in the 4th decade, then a gradual increase the next 3 decades to reach a FF content similar to males’ values. Our findings suggest that quantification of bone marrow FF using MRS might be used as a surrogate biomarker of bone marrow activity in clinical settings.

  12. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...... guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks......: Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and they often appeared as single symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged youth: a prevalence and correlates study in Guangdong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; He, Yuan; Lu, Ciyong; Deng, Xueqing; Gao, Xue; Guo, Lan; Wu, Hong; Chan, Fanfan; Zhou, Ying

    2015-02-28

    Bullying among school-aged youth is a common issue worldwide and is increasingly being recognized as an important problem affecting both victims and perpetrators. Most of the bullying studies have been conducted in western countries, and their implications in other regions are limited due to different cultural contexts. The goal of our study is to identify the prevalence of bullying and its correlates school-aged youth in Guangdong province. In total, 1098 (7.1%) students reported having bullied other students, 744 (4.8%) students reported having been bullied by other students and 396 (2.6%) students reported having both bullied other students and been bullied by other students. There was a strong association between bullying others as well as being bullied and suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts, and self-harm behaviors. The prevalence of bullying and its associations with delinquent behaviors warrant the importance of school facility based preventive intervention taking into account both victims and perpetrators.

  14. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Amália de Moura; Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias; Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the...

  16. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent ...

  17. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

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    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  18. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  19. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Northwest Ohio: Correlates of Prevalence and Age at Onset

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    James H. Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of smoking initiation among adolescents. We have used data from adolescents (n=5,392 ages 10-18 who participated in the 2003 Tobacco Survey, a representative sample of adolescents in Northwest Ohio. A selfreport of cigarette smoking was obtained using a questionnaire administered in classrooms. Data were analyzed using weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regressions in SAS that accounted for the survey design. The prevalence rates for adolescents that ever tried smoking were 7.4% in elementary (grades 4-5; 17.7% in middle (grades 6-8, and 41.4% in high (grades 9-12 schools, respectively. The highest prevalence rate was among Hispanics. Having a close friend that smoked and a smoker at home correlated significantly with both initiation of smoking and smoking at an earlier age. Smoking was correlated with low academic achievement among adolescents in all grades. Students who reported smoking by parents or siblings were significantly more likely to start smoking at an earlier age, compared to other students living in a non-smoking home environment. Smoking prevention program should include components focused on adolescents’ home environment and should start as early as the 4th grade.

  20. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  1. Prevalence of elimination dysfunction, among primary school age children in Sari

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    M. Basiri,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Elimination dysfunction is referred to have various difficulties in urination and defecation, such as urinary frequency, delayed with difficulty in voiding or defecation. The prevalence of elimination dysfunction has been varied in different studies, as 21% of children experience elimination dysfunction during their childhood period. Presently, there are no studies pertaining to this difficulty in our country. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study in primary schools from the Sari Township, regarding voiding and defecation dysfunction among children, and also we identified the epidemiology of the disease, in order to solve problems by implementing teaching programs and screening methods.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on Primary school age students in the Sari Township, during 2007 through 2008. Considering the prevalence of elimination dysfunction (15-25%, confidence coefficient 95%, SE 10%, and the sample size of 2,200 were randomly and equally selected from different parts of the township among the two-sex groups. A standard questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 10 questions on voiding status, in addition to 19 questions regarding defecation status was prepared. Questionnaires were distributed to the students by responsible school personnel and then referred to parents for completion. Data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Chi Square test (χ² and Student T-test were used to compare the Means. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 2201 primary school age students, 48.7% were girls. The mean age was 8.96±1.43 year. Voiding and defecation dysfunction was reported in 38.4% and 29% of the cases respectively. There was no significant relationship between prevalence of voiding dysfunction and other factors such as mean age, sex and level of education; however, there was a significant

  2. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

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    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group.METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity.RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity was higher in private schools (37.3% than in public ones (32.9% and among males (37.5%, compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05. The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0 and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0. The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4 and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group.

  3. Prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and life style of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Sarah Saleem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : Objectives: To determine the prevalence of menopause, chronic illnesses and lifestyle of middle aged women in Karachi, Pakistan. Design: A Cross Sectional survey was conducted among women of 40-60 years living in socio-economically different areas of Karachi. Information was gathered on their current menstrual status, age at menopause, body mass index, exercise habits, weekly recall of food consumed and chronic illnesses. These variables were also examined according to the socio economic status of the area where women reside. Results: A total of 1764 women in age group 40-60 years were interviewed. The prevalence of menopausal women in this age group was 39.3 percent (%. The mean age at menopause was 45.2 (±3.8 years. Only seven percent of women were doing some kind of exercise and approximately eighty percent had their Body Mass Index ≥ 23 kg/m2 according to Asian Standard. Approximately 31 percent (% of women reported eating any type of meat at least four times a week, of these most were from higher income area. Majority consumed meat less than three times a week. Similar pattern was observed for consumption of fruits and milk. Approximately 36 percent (% of women reported diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardio vascular heart disease and arthritis. Conclusion: The sedentary life style, obesity and chronic illnesses are highly prevalent and are serious emerging public health problem for 40-60 years old women of Karachi. We recommend that awareness about balanced diet, exercise and healthy eating habits should be inculcated in women early in life, where possible through schools and media. Health policies and public health messages should be formulated according to the various stages of life cycle of women, so that women can prepare themselves for the next stage of life.

  4. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

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    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  5. Prevalence of dental mottling in school-aged lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities.

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    Butler, W J; Segreto, V; Collins, E

    1985-01-01

    The severity of dental mottling in 2,592 school-aged, lifetime residents of 16 Texas communities was investigated in 1980-81 to identify factors associated with mottling and to construct a prediction model for the prevalence of mottling. The communities were selected to obtain a wide range of levels of fluoride in the drinking water. The children within each of the communities were contacted through their schools and received a dental examination to assess the severity of mottling. Information on demographic, dental health practice, and other candidate predictor variables was obtained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. A number of water quality measurements were also recorded for each community. White and Spanish-surname children had about the same prevalence of mottling while Blacks had a higher prevalence, odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.4, 3.7. Children from homes which had air conditioning had a lower prevalence of mottling (OR = .6, (0.4, 0.8)). The use of fluoride toothpaste or drops and the number of fluoride treatments were almost identical among those who did and did not develop moderate mottling. In addition to fluoride, total dissolved solids and zinc were water quality variables associated with mottling. PMID:4061713

  6. Evaluating the Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age and Its Associated Risk Factors

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    Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Small for gestational age (SGA fetuses have birth weights below 10th percentile or abdominal circumference less than 10th percentile for gestational age Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SGA and its associated risk factors in Iran. Patients and Methods This is a retrospective study. A total of 341 pregnant women were evaluated in fetal health care clinic of perinatology from January 2013 to January 2014. Results Of 312 pregnant women, 33 had SGA fetuses. The average of body mass index (BMI was lower in SGA group than non-SGA. Pulsatility index has no stastical meaningful between SGA and nonSGA groups. In Gestational age had no difference between 2 groups. Severe SGA (< 3rd centile estimated fetal weight was observed in 2.6% of all cases. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of SGA was approximately one tenth of all pregnancies. SGA incidence was associated with nulliparity and more frequently seen in lower age group.

  7. Age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by grade of cervical cytology in Tibetan women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiong; SHEN Keng; LI Hui; ZHOU Xian-rong; HUANG Hui-fang; LENG Jin-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is believed to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. However,little is known about the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the distribution of HPV types as well as risks for abnormal cervical cytology in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 3036 women. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Logistic regression model.Results In this population, 3.66% (111/3036) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS),1.45% (44/3036) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 1.09% (33/3036) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Tibetan women (5.74%, 137/2387) exhibited lower abnormal cytology rates than non-Tibetan women (8.01%, 52/649, P=0.03). The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 9.19% (279/3036). We failed to identify any differences in HPV prevalence by age. In the groups with normal, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, the overall HPV prevalences were 7.41% (211/2847), 24.32% (27/111), 56.82% (25/44) and 45.45% (15/33), respectively. HPV 16 (1.52%,46/3036) was the most common type, and was also the most prevalent in women with ASCUS (8.11%, 9/111) and HSIL (15.15%, 5/33). The most common HPV type for Tibetan women was HPV 16 (1.42%, 34/2387), whereas for non-Tibetan individuals it was HPV 33 (2.31%, 15/649). Of the 279 HPV-infected women, 40 individuals (14.34%) presented with multiple HPV positivity. Women who had two pregnancies were more likely to have abnormal cytology smear (OR=1.67;95% CI: 1.07-2.61).Conclusions A low prevalence of HPV positivity was observed in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and HPV type distributions were

  8. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  9. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

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    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  10. Epidemiological correlates of contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group in rural area

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    Sujata K. Murarkar, S. G. Soundale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of availability of a wide range of contraceptives and mass media campaigns population control is a distant dream to achieve. It is pertinent to identify the factors responsible for poor contraceptive acceptance. The study was conducted to find out contraceptive prevalence in married women of reproductive age group and to study epidemiological correlates affecting contraceptive practices. A cross-sectional population based study covered 512 married women in reproductive age group in the village Chanai, Taluka- Ambajogai, Dist.-Breed. They were interviewed by predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Out of 512 married women 48.63% were contraceptive acceptors. Contraceptive acceptance was more in women who are graduate and above(82.76%, women from nuclear family (58.79%, Upper middle socioeconomic class (79.62%.Contraceptive acceptance was lowest in agricultural laborer(38.87% .A significant association was found between contraceptive acceptance and literacy status, occupation, type of family, socioeconomic status and age at marriage.

  11. [Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.

  12. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

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    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  13. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans among Brazilian Women of Reproductive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula; Ferreira, Lana Cristina Evangelista Sá; Da Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are no studies assessing the simultaneous occurrence of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) in the primary health care in Brazil. Despite different conditions to establishment of each one, the co-detection of both has been reported by some authors in previous studies from other regions. Aim To compare the prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. albicans in correlation with associated variables. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in a family health clinic in the Federal District of Brazil, between November 2014 and March 2015. Vaginal swabs were collected from 201 women of the reproductive age selected from women registered at the family health clinic. Minors and pregnant women were excluded. The rates of T. vaginalis and Candida albicans prevalence were evaluated with vaginal pH, the whiff test, sexual practices and other social and demographic variables. Difference between proportions was assessed by Z-Test. Results C. albicans was present in 20% of the women, while 16% of them had T. vaginalis. The simultaneous occurrence of the agents was found in 1.5%. Significant differences were found between prevalence rates for the variables race/skin colour, practice of anilingus and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusion The prevalence of T. vaginalis exceeds C.albicans among women with higher numbers of sexual partners. The prevalence of C. albicans was higher than T. vaginalis among white women and those who practice active and receptive anilingus. The simultaneous occurrence of the two microorganisms was uncommon. PMID:28050410

  14. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF CONGENITAL OCULAR ANOMALIES IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

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    Tupe Parag N, Chaudhari Sagar V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most congenital anomalies are present long before the time of birth, some in the embryonic period (up to the7th week of gestation and other in the fetal period (8th week to term Purpose: To study the incidence of congenital ocular anomalies in paediatric age group. Materials & Methods: In this study total 9350 patients were screened. The age and sex of the patient, gestational age, occurrence of consanguineous, distribution of various subtype of congenital anomalies, subtype of congenital cataract, age at presentation and diagnosis were noted. Results: The age variation in the study was between 0-12 years. The maximum number of patients were in the age group of 0-2 years. Male: female ratio was 1:1.4. Number cases were reported in anterior segment with full term delivery.32 cases having no positive history of consanguineous marriage. Total 12 cases were found about chronic dacryocystitis, 8 cases of coloboma of iris and choroid and each 5 cases of congenital cataract and Microhthalmos were found. None of the cases had any history of antenatal, obstetric complication, radiation and drug intake. Conclusion: A prevalence of 0.053% of congenital ocular anomalies. Most common anomaly was congenital dacryocystitis (24%, congenital cataract and microphthalmos being the second most common anomalies (14% each.

  15. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

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    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  16. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  17. Prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of bronchiectasis: a retrospective study on 144 symptomatic patients.

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    Scala, R; Aronne, D; Palumbo, U; Montella, L; Giacobbe, R; Martucci, P; Del Prato, B

    2000-04-01

    The incidence of bronchiectasis (BCT) has probably decreased in developed countries in recent years, but reliable statistical data on its occurrence are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of BCT, diagnosed in a selected series of symptomatic patients of a Western country by using bronchography. The authors analysed the main known predisposing and associated conditions (PACs), and the occurrence and age distribution of BCT in 144 consecutive patients who underwent bronchological examination (fibreoptic bronchoscopy and bronchography) in the years 1987-1994 because of recurrent purulent bronchitis and/or haemoptysis. The overall prevalence of BCT was 34% (49/144); its age distribution was: 17.2% (0-10 yrs), 43.7% (11-20 yrs), 38% (21-30 yrs), 37.5% (31-40 yrs), 33.3% (41-50 yrs), 40% (51-60 yrs), and 20% (61-70 yrs). Thirty-one PACs were found in 29/144 patients of the whole study group. The prevalence of BCT was significantly higher in the subgroup of 29 patients with PACs than in the subgroup of 115 patients without PACs (75.9% versus 23.5%; p dermatomiositis (one), and toxin inhalation (one). The authors conclude that bronchiectasis still occurs in a large percentage of symptomatic patients of a developed country in the post-antimicrobial era, especially in the second to sixth decades, as well as in the presence of predisposing and associated conditions; its aetiology remains unknown in more than half of cases.

  18. Correlation between tea consumption and prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Yang, J; Zhu, X S; Li, S C; Ho, P C

    2016-01-01

    By a cross-sectional epidemiology study, we attempted to correlate the consumption of tea and/or health supplements, living habits and socio-demographic factors to the prevalence of hypertension among Singaporean Chinese residents. Singaporean Chinese residents aged ⩾40 years were randomly selected and interviewed face-to-face by clinical research assistants. Hypertension was defined as measured systolic blood pressure at least 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure at least 90  mmHg or self-reported history/treatment for hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among the whole investigated population (N=1184, 58.27% females) was 49.73% and the prevalence increased to 66.47% in the sub-population aged ⩾60 years. High risk of hypertension was associated with age ⩾60 years (odds ratio (OR): 4.15-4.19, P25 kg m(-2), OR: 2.10-2.11, Ptea at least 150 ml per week was associated with lower hypertension risk (OR: 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.91, Ptea and British tea was associated with higher reduction in the risk of hypertension (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39-0.85, Ptea, especially green tea and British tea, was associated with lowering the risk of hypertension. On the other hand, consumption of coffee could be a risk factor of hypertension. These findings may provide useful information for health promotion to reduce risk of hypertension and warrant further study to confirm and elucidate such association.

  19. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  20. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome among women of child-bearing age with regular menstrual cycle

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    Nodira Khodjaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS with various severities was conducted in a cohort of fertile female residents of Tashkent aged from 18 to 30. Clinical and medical history data on psycho-emotional and physical PMS symptoms was put into a specially developed card-questionnaire. Severity of symptoms was determined by total score to fill in a PMS symptom scale on the basis of the examinees’ self-observation. The associations of PMS with social-demographic factors, such as, level of education, employment status, sexual satisfaction and stress index were analyzed.

  1. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  3. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I; Friedman, David J; Field, John K; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E; Hicks, Pamela J; Hocking, Lynne J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W; Raji, Olaide Y; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Plenge, Robert M; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C; Schaumberg, Debra A; Chasman, Daniel I; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2) test statistics and a

  4. Prevalence of microalbuminuria among middle-aged population of China: a multiple center cardiovascular epidemiological study.

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    Hao, Guang; Wang, ZengWu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and the relationships with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among a middle-aged Chinese population. Data from 10 313 participants were included in our cross-sectional survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as the urine albumin to creatinine ratio of 30:300 mg/g from a single-spot morning urine sample. Microalbuminuria was found to be common in males and females (15.04% vs 10.09%) aged 35 to 64 years in this Chinese general population, especially in those with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Multivariate analysis found that body mass index, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and diabetes were independently associated with MAU. Microalbuminuria may be a useful indicator for risk of CV disease in general populations.

  5. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Frank T; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p deficiency was iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia.

  6. Prevalence and Severity of Anaemia Stratified by Age and Gender in Rural India

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    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR, 9.8–12.4 in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6–14.2 in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  7. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M.; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Matijasevich, Alícia; dos Santos, Iná S.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M.; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. Aims To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). Methods In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. Results At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. Conclusion For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. PMID:27595410

  8. School screening and point prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 4000 Norwegian children aged 12 years

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    Brox Jens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is discussed. The aim of the present study was to describe the point prevalence of AIS and to evaluate the effectiveness of school screening in 12-year- old children. Methods Community nurses and physical therapists in the Southern Health region of Norway including about 12000 school children aged 12 years were invited to participate. All participating community nurses and physical therapists fulfilled an educational course to improve their knowledge about AIS and learn the screening procedure including the Adam Forward Bending Test and measurement of gibbus using a scoliometer. Results Sub-regions including 4000 school children participated. The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis defined as a positive Adam Forward Bending Test, gibbus > 7° and primary major curve on radiographs > 10°, was 0.55%. Five children (0.13% had a major curve > 20°. Bracing was not indicated in any child; all children were post menarche; four had Risser sign of 4, and one with Risser 1 did not have curve progression > 5° at later follow-up. In one of these 5 children however, the major curve progressed to 45° within 7 months after screening and the girl was operated. Conclusion The point prevalence of AIS in 12- year old children is in agreement or slightly lower than previous studies. The screening model employed demonstrates acceptable sensitivity and specificity and low referral rates. Screening at the age of 12 years only was not effective for detecting patients with indication for brace treatment.

  9. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  10. Post eclosion age predicts the prevalence of midgut trypanosome infections in Glossina.

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    Deirdre P Walshe

    Full Text Available The teneral phenomenon, as observed in Glossina sp., refers to the increased susceptibility of the fly to trypanosome infection when the first bloodmeal taken is trypanosome-infected. In recent years, the term teneral has gradually become synonymous with unfed, and thus fails to consider the age of the newly emerged fly at the time the first bloodmeal is taken. Furthermore, conflicting evidence exists of the effect of the age of the teneral fly post eclosion when it is given the infected first bloodmeal in determining the infection prevalence. This study demonstrates that it is not the feeding history of the fly but rather the age (hours after eclosion of the fly from the puparium of the fly when it takes the first (infective bloodmeal that determines the level of fly susceptibility to trypanosome infection. We examine this phenomenon in male and female flies from two distinct tsetse clades (Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina palpalis palpalis infected with two salivarian trypanosome species, Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon brucei brucei and Trypanosoma (Nannomonas congolense using Fisher's exact test to examine differences in infection rates. Teneral tsetse aged less than 24 hours post-eclosion (h.p.e. are twice as susceptible to trypanosome infection as flies aged 48 h.p.e. This trend is conserved across sex, vector clade and parasite species. The life cycle stage of the parasite fed to the fly (mammalian versus insect form trypanosomes does not alter this age-related bias in infection. Reducing the numbers of parasites fed to 48 h.p.e., but not to 24 h.p.e. flies, increases teneral refractoriness. The importance of this phenomenon in disease biology in the field as well as the necessity of employing flies of consistent age in laboratory-based infection studies is discussed.

  11. Manifestly covariant electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillion, P. [Institut Henri Poincare' , Le Vesinet (France)

    1999-03-01

    The conventional relativistic formulation of electromagnetism is covariant under the full Lorentz group. But relativity requires covariance only under the proper Lorentz group and the authors present here the formalism covariant under the complex rotation group isomorphic to the proper Lorentz group. The authors discuss successively Maxwell's equations, constitutive relations and potential functions. A comparison is made with the usual formulation.

  12. Methods for projecting the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases in aging populations: application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookmeyer, R; Gray, S

    Projections of the incidence and prevalence of disease are important for public health planning. This paper describes methods for projecting the incidence and prevalence of a chronic disease in ageing populations. The approach uses age-specific disease incidence rates together with assumptions about survival to reconstruct disease prevalence. The methods can be used to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions that may prevent disease or prolong survival. We used the methods to project the future prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in the United States. We found that the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease will nearly quadruple over the next 50 years. Although projections of the absolute prevalence are sensitive to assumptions about the age-specific incidence rates of disease, the proportionate growth is relatively insensitive. The increase in prevalence results from the ageing of the U.S. population. In order to perform the calculations, we have assembled U.S. Census population projections and U.S. mortality rates into computer software that is available from the authors at www.jhsph.edu/Departments/Biostats/software.h tml.

  13. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  14. Estruturas de covariância de peso em função da idade de animais Nelore das regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil Covariance structure of body weight in function of age for Nellore animals from Southeast and Center West of Brazil

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    B.D. Valente

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados de peso de animais da raça Nelore de 90 a 450 dias de idade das regiões Sudeste (SE e Centro-Oeste (CO do Brasil foram utilizados para comparar estruturas de (covariância de efeitos aleatórios em função de idade estimadas para as duas regiões por meio de modelos de regressão aleatória. Componentes de (covariância referentes aos coeficientes de regressão aleatória foram estimados por EMREML por meio do programa REMLF90. Os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo e os efeitos aleatórios genético aditivo direto, genético aditivo materno e permanente de ambiente foram modelados por polinômios quadráticos de Legendre. As comparações envolveram estruturas de covariância e de correlação dos efeitos aleatórios, herdabilidades direta e materna e a razão entre variâncias genéticas de diferentes regiões. As herdabilidades e estruturas de covariância e de correlação apresentaram comportamento semelhante nas duas regiões. A variância residual e as variâncias de efeito permanente de ambiente foram menores no CO, bem como a variância genética aditiva materna dos 150 aos 400 dias de idade. Trajetórias dos efeitos fixos em função de idade de diferentes grupos contemporâneos apresentaram diferentes formas, sugerindo a necessidade de estimar um conjunto de coeficientes de regressão específico para cada grupo contemporâneo. A variância do efeito genético aditivo materno apresentou maior heterogeneidade entre regiões do que a variância genética aditiva direta.Body weight records from 90 to 450 days of age of Nellore animals from the Southeast and Center West of Brazil were used do estimate covariance structures of age dependent random effects for each region using random regression models. Covariance components of the regression coefficients were estimated by EMREML using the software REML90. The fixed effects of contemporary groups and additive genetic, additive maternal and permanent environment random effects

  15. Mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose and age-specific prevalence rate from endemic chronic arsenic poisoning: a human toxicology study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zald' ivar, R.; Ghai, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a mathematical model of mean age, mean arsenic dietary dose, and age-specific prevalence rate for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning. Data on mean age (years), mean arsenic dietary dose (mg/kg body weight/day), and age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population for endemic chronic arsenic poisoning in Antofagasta Commune, northern Chile, for the 1968 to 1971 period, were collected. Endemic chronic arsenic poisoning means here chronic arsenical dermatosis associated with marked or sever symptoms (or signs) of chronic arsenic poisoning (chronic diarrhea, hepatic cirrohsis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent broncho-pneumonia, cardiomegaly, systemic occlusive arterial disease, cerebral thrombosis, etc.). There was a strong positive correlation between age-specific pevalence rate per 100,000 population and mean arsenic dose (r = + 0.9593) and a negative correlation between prevalence rate and mean age (r = 0.8789). These findings show that the prevalence rate declines with the advancing age and increases with the increase of arsenic dose. A multiple linear regression model E(y) = alpha + beta X1 + gamma X2, where y represents the age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 population, X1 the mean arsenic dose, and X2 the mean age, was fitted to the data. The estimates of the parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma) were obtained by minimizing the residual sum of squares sigma(y - alpha - beta X1 - gamma X2)2. The following multiple linear regression equation was obtained: Y = 202.161 + 8452.455 X1 - 2.394 X2. Of the total variability in the prevalence rate, 96.22 percent was accounted for by the multiple regression.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  17. Prevalence of dominant mutations in Spain: effect of changes in maternal age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Herranz, I; Salvador, J; Prieto, L; Ramos-Arroyo, M A; Rodríguez-Pinilla, E; Cordero, J F

    1988-12-01

    We studied the birth prevalence of autosomal dominant mutations in Spain and estimated how a decrease in maternal age distribution may lead to reduction in dominant mutations. The data were collected by the Estudio Colaborativo Español de Malformaciones Congénitas from April, 1976, to December, 1985. Among 553,270 liveborn infants monitored during the period, 66 infants with autosomal dominant conditions were identified. These included Apert, Crouzon, Hay-Wells, Treacher-Collins, Robinow, Stickler, Adams-Oliver, and the blepharophimosis syndromes, achondroplasia, cleidocranial dysostosis, and thanatophoric dysplasia. The overall rate of autosomal dominant conditions was 1.2 per 10,000 liveborn infants. Thirteen (20%) had an affected relative, and 52 (79%) had a negative family history. One case was excluded because of insufficient family data. The rate of autosomal dominant mutations was 0.9 per 10,000 liveborn infants, or 47 per 1 million gametes. A reduction in the maternal age distribution of mothers age 35 years and older from the current 10.8% to 4.9%, as in Atlanta, Georgia, would reduce the rate of Down syndrome in Spain by 33% and through a change in parternal age distribution may lead to a reduction in dominant mutations of about 9.6%. This suggests that a public health campaign to reduce older maternal age distribution in Spain may also lead to a reduction in dominant mutations and emphasizes the potential that a direct campaign for fathers to complete their families before age 35 years may have a small, but measurable, effect in the primary prevention of dominant mutations.

  18. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  19. Congenital cataract: prevalence and surgery age at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC.

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    Haotian Lin

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract (CC is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness. Population-based assessments of prevalence and surgery age of CC, which are critical for improving management strategies, have been unavailable in China until now. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of the hospital charts of CC patients younger than 18 years old from January 2005 to December 2010 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC in Guangzhou, China. Residence, gender, age at surgery, hospitalization time, and the presence of other ocular abnormalities were extracted and statistically analyzed in different subgroups. The search identified 1314 patients diagnosed with CC from a total of 136154 hospitalizations, which accounted for 2.39% of all the cataract in-patients and 1.06% of the total in-patients over the six-year study period. Of the identified CC patients, 9.2% had ≥ 2 hospitalizations due to the necessity of additional surgeries, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 1.75 ∶ 1. Based on a subgroup analysis according to age, patients 2-6 years old constituted the highest proportion (29.22% of all hospitalized CC patients, and those 13-18 years old constituted the lowest proportion (13.47% of the total number. The average age at surgery was 27.62 ± 23.36 months, but CC patients ≤ 6 years old (especially ≤ 6 months old became increasingly prevalent throughout the 6-year study period. A total of 276 cases (20.93% of CC were associated with one or more other ocular abnormalities, the highest incidence rates were observed for exotropia (6.24%, nystagmus (6.16%, and refractive error (3.65%. In conclusion, CC patients accounted for 2.39% of all cataract in-patients in a review of 6 years of hospitalization charts from ZOC. The age at the time of surgery decreased over the 6-year study period, which probably reflects the continuing improvement of public awareness of children's eye care in China.

  20. Congenital cataract: prevalence and surgery age at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haotian; Yang, Ye; Chen, Jingjing; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Wan; Luo, Lixia; Qu, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Danying; Zhan, Jiao; Wu, Hanfu; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Yu; Xiang, Wu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness. Population-based assessments of prevalence and surgery age of CC, which are critical for improving management strategies, have been unavailable in China until now. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of the hospital charts of CC patients younger than 18 years old from January 2005 to December 2010 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC) in Guangzhou, China. Residence, gender, age at surgery, hospitalization time, and the presence of other ocular abnormalities were extracted and statistically analyzed in different subgroups. The search identified 1314 patients diagnosed with CC from a total of 136154 hospitalizations, which accounted for 2.39% of all the cataract in-patients and 1.06% of the total in-patients over the six-year study period. Of the identified CC patients, 9.2% had ≥ 2 hospitalizations due to the necessity of additional surgeries, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 1.75 ∶ 1. Based on a subgroup analysis according to age, patients 2-6 years old constituted the highest proportion (29.22%) of all hospitalized CC patients, and those 13-18 years old constituted the lowest proportion (13.47%) of the total number. The average age at surgery was 27.62 ± 23.36 months, but CC patients ≤ 6 years old (especially ≤ 6 months old) became increasingly prevalent throughout the 6-year study period. A total of 276 cases (20.93%) of CC were associated with one or more other ocular abnormalities, the highest incidence rates were observed for exotropia (6.24%), nystagmus (6.16%), and refractive error (3.65%). In conclusion, CC patients accounted for 2.39% of all cataract in-patients in a review of 6 years of hospitalization charts from ZOC. The age at the time of surgery decreased over the 6-year study period, which probably reflects the continuing improvement of public awareness of children's eye care in China.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years

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    Louise Amália de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30 as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0% of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%, with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007 and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016. Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety.

  2. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  3. Prevalence of hormone replacement therapy in a sample of middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Jeune, B

    1988-01-01

    A survey based on a postal questionnaire sent to a random sample of Danish women aged 40-59 yr living on the island of Fünen (n = 401, response rate = 79%) revealed that the overall prevalence of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was 16%, the highest rate being in the 50-54 age group (21......%). Among post-menopausal women the rate was 21% and it was highest of all (37%) in those who had undergone an artificial menopause. The median age at the start of treatment was 44.3 yr among the artificial menopause and 48.9 yr among the natural menopause subjects. About half of the women were treated...... with natural oestrogen alone and over a third with cyclic natural oestrogen in combination with progestogens. Almost one-third of the women had consulted their doctor about climacteric complaints and two-thirds of these were current or past users of HRT. The women had ambiguous feelings towards HRT...

  4. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

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    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  5. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  6. Variations of pterygium prevalence by age, gender and geographic characteristics in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Chang, Xinlei; Wang, Manli

    2017-01-01

    Background Pterygium is a common chronic ophthalmic condition, which may result in significant visual morbidity or lead to blindness in extreme cases. The prevalence of pterygium in China has not been reported at the sub-national level. Methods In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of pterygium in China. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), PubMed, Embase and Medline were searched before September 2016. We performed a multilevel mixed-effect meta-regression based on the included studies, our results showed that age, gender and latitude were significantly associated with pterygium prevalence. Based on the final model, the age and gender-specific prevalence of pterygium in 31 Chinese provinces (except Hongkong, Macau and Taiwan) and the whole country was generated. Results In 2010, the overall prevalence of pterygium in Chinese people aged 15–84 years was 9.84% (95% CI: 6.72–14.14), and the number of pterygium cases in China was 108.65 million (95% CI: 74.23–156.13). Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of pterygium in Chinese population in 2010 was estimated at both the national and provincial levels. The higher burden of pterygium across the country calls for efforts to advocate public health education encouraging people to take appropriate protective measures. PMID:28355301

  7. Are the prevalence and treatment of asthma similar in elite athletes and the aged-matched non-athlete population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Marks, G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and use of asthma medications in elite athletes compared with an age-matched non-athlete population. Data were collected from the respiratory component of annual medical screening of 424 elite athletes from the Queensland Academy of Sport. Measures included the prevalence of current asthma and ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, and the prevalence of use of treatment for asthma including beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroid medication. The prevalence of current asthma in athletes aged 18-29 years was 14% (95% CI, 9-19%), which did not differ significantly from the prevalence in the non-athlete control population (11%; 95% CI, 9-12%, P=0.3). Of athletes with current asthma, 27% were not taking any medications for asthma, and 25% were treated with short-acting beta-agonist medications alone and were not taking inhaled corticosteroids. These data indicate that the overall cumulative and period prevalence of asthma in Queensland athletes is similar to that in the general age-matched population. Athletes use beta-agonists with a frequency similar to the general population.

  8. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  9. Covariant Hamiltonian field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    1999-01-01

    We study the relationship between the equations of first order Lagrangian field theory on fiber bundles and the covariant Hamilton equations on the finite-dimensional polysymplectic phase space of covariant Hamiltonian field theory. The main peculiarity of these Hamilton equations lies in the fact that, for degenerate systems, they contain additional gauge fixing conditions. We develop the BRST extension of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism, characterized by a Lie superalgebra of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries.

  10. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A;

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses......, and among the well educated. During the study period, the unadjusted prevalence of heavy smoking decreased from 52% to 38% in men, while it increased from 17% to 21% in women. The multivariate analysis showed that the time trend for heavy smoking only depended on sex, while educational attainment and age...

  11. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  12. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  13. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  14. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Bangladeshi married women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahumud RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Md Golam Hossain,2 Abdur Razzaque Sarkar,1 Md Nurul Islam,2 Md Ripter Hossain,2 Aik Saw,3 Jahangir AM Khan1,4 1Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Center for Equity and Health Systems, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence for Research and Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Adjunct Faculty, Health Economics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: Contraceptive discontinuation is a worldwide incident that may be connected with low incentive to avoid pregnancy. Contraceptive discontinuation highly contributes to unplanned pregnancy and unwanted births.Objectives: The objective of this study was to observe the prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive methods among Bangladeshi married women. In addition, the sociodemographic factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching were assessed.Methods: Secondary cross-sectional data was used in this study. A total of 16,273 married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age (15–49 years were considered in the present study, from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Logistic regression models were used to determine the relationships between key sociodemographic factors and user status.Results: The prevalence of discontinuation and switching of contraceptive method among women were 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively. The logistic regression model demonstrated that women in early reproductive years (25–29 years and 30–34 years significantly more often (odds ratio [OR] =0.84 and 0.71, respectively discontinued use of contraceptives. Significantly higher rates of discontinuation were pronounced among women who

  16. Prevalence of thrombophilia according to age at the first manifestation of venous thromboembolism: results from the MAISTHRO registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarz, Lea; Schwonberg, Jan; Schindewolf, Marc; Hecking, Carola; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Erbe, Matthias; Weber, Adele; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Linnemann, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    Thrombophilia is a well-established risk factor for a venous thromboembolic event (VTE), and it has been proposed that hereditary thrombophilia may substantially contribute to the development of VTE in young patients. We aimed to analyse the prevalence of thrombophilia with special regard to the age of VTE manifestation. The study cohort consisted of 1490 patients (58% females) with a median age 43 years at the time of their first VTE. At least one thrombophilic disorder was identified in 50·1% of patients. The probability of detecting a hereditary thrombophilia declined significantly with advancing age (from 49·3% in patients aged 20 years and younger to 21·9% in patients over the age of 70 years; P thrombophilia was more prevalent in unprovoked compared with risk-associated VTE (57·7% vs. 47·7%; P = 0·001). The decline in the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia with older ages supports the use of a selected thrombophilia screening strategy dependent on age and the presence or absence of additional VTE risk factors.

  17. How high is the prevalence of depression in old age? Qual é a prevalência de depressão na terceira idade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Snowdon

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in late life - in Brazil and around the world. Some experts have argued that depression is less common in old age, quoting studies that show a lower prevalence of major depression in late life. Results from cross-age studies have been remarkably inconsistent, both regarding which age-group has the peak rate and regarding actual rates. A majority of surveys of the prevalence of depressive conditions in old age (not just major depression, warranting clinical interventions, report it to be over 10%. Physical ill-health is the most significant associated factor, but it may distract doctors from recognising depression. Clinical interventions for late life depression are worthwhile. It is recommended that funding be allocated to training in assessment and management, environmental initiatives to counter feelings of helplessness and lowered self-esteem, and research.Sintomas depressivos são altamente prevalentes em fases tardias da vida - no Brasil e no mundo todo. Alguns "experts" argumentam que a depressão é menos comum na terceira idade e citam estudos que mostram prevalência menor de depressão maior entre idosos. Os resultados de estudos que avaliam diferentes grupos etários são inconsistentes no que se refere à faixa etária que apresenta a taxa de pico e em relação à própria freqüência da depressão. A maioria dos estudos de prevalência de transtornos depressivos entre idosos (não limitados à depressão maior que requerem intervenção clínica indica que mais de 10% dos idosos apresentam quadros depressivos. Doença física é um dos fatores de risco mais significativos, embora essa associação possa impedir os clínicos de reconhecerem a depressão. Intervenções clínicas para depressão na velhice valem a pena, e se recomenda a alocação de recursos adequados para treinar profissionais na avaliação e no manejo desses pacientes, desenvolver iniciativas ambientais dirigidas aos

  18. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Population of a Nigerian Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Ejim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs causes of worldwide preventable morbidity and mortality. CVDs are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and rates are expected to rise over the next few decades. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is dramatically increasing in low-and middle-income African countries, particularly in urban areas. We carried out a cross-sectional population-based survey in Imezi-Owa, a rural community in South East Nigeria to estimate the prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women aged 40–70 years. A total of 858 individuals made up of 247 (28.8% males and 611 (71.2% females were recruited. The mean age of the subjects was 59.8±9.9 years. The prevalence of the different cardiovascular risk factors among the 858 subjects was as follows: hypertension 398 (46.4% subjects, generalized obesity as determined by BMI 257 (30% subjects, abdominal obesity 266 (31% subjects, dysglycaemia 38 (4.4% subjects and hypercholesterolaemia 32 (3.7% subjects. Prevalence of hypertension and dysglycaemia was higher in men while the others were higher in women. Only hypertension (P=.117 and hypercholesterolaemia (P=.183 did not reveal any significant association with gender. Prevalence of CVD risk factors was highest in subjects aged 65 to 70 years.

  19. Prevalence of primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in men and women aged 55-94 years (Bruneck Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, J; Kiechl, S; Seppi, K; Sawires, M; Stockner, H; Erlacher, T; Mairhofer, M L; Niederkofler, H; Rungger, G; Gasperi, A; Poewe, W; Willeit, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of all primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in the general community. As part of the population-based Bruneck Study, 574 men and women aged 55-94 years underwent extensive neurological and laboratory examinations involving a standardized headache interview. In the Bruneck Study population the lifetime prevalence of all primary headaches combined and of cranial neuralgias was 51.7 and 1.6%, respectively. Tension-type headache (40.9%) and migraine (19.3%) emerged as the most common types of headache. In men and women aged 55-94 years the 1-year prevalence of primary headaches was high at 40.5%. In this age range headaches caused significant impairment of health-related quality of life. The Bruneck Study has confirmed the high lifetime prevalence of primary headaches and cranial neuralgias in the general population and provided first valid prevalence data for all primary headaches based on International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition criteria.

  20. Predictors and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring in 1001 middle aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, J R; Crosby, J H

    1991-02-01

    One thousand and one men, aged 35-65 years, were identified from the age-sex register of one group general practice. Over four years 900 men were visited at home and asked questions about symptoms potentially related to sleep apnoea and snoring. Height, weight, neck circumference, resting arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and spirometric values were also determined. All night oximetry was then performed at home and the tracing analysed for the number of dips in SaO2 of more than 4%. Subjects with more than five dips of 4% SaO2 or more per hour were invited for sleep laboratory polysomnography. Seventeen per cent of the men admitted to snoring "often." Multiple linear regression techniques identified and ranked neck circumference (r2 = 7.2%), cigarette consumption (r2 = 3.4%), and nasal stuffiness (r2 = 2%) as the only significant independent predictors of snoring. Together these account for at least a sixfold variation in the likelihood of being an "often" snorer. Forty six subjects (5%) had greater than 4% SaO2 dip rates of over five an hour and 31 of these had full sleep studies. Three subjects had clinically obvious and severe symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea, giving a prevalence of three per 1001 men (0.3%; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.9%). Eighteen men had obstructive sleep apnoea only when supine and in 10 the cause of the SaO2 dipping on the original home tracing was not elucidated. The greater than 4% SaO2 dip rates correlated with the history of snoring. Multiple linear regression techniques identified and ranked neck circumference (r2 = 7.9%), alcohol consumption (r2 = 3.7%), age (r2 = 1%) and obesity (r2 = 1%) as the only significant independent predictors of the rate of overnight hypoxic dipping. This study shows that snoring in this randomly selected population correlates best with neck size, smoking, and nasal stuffiness. Obstructive sleep apnoea, defined by nocturnal hypoxaemia, correlates best with neck size and alcohol, and less so with age

  1. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  2. Prevalence of endometrial polyps and abnormal uterine bleeding in a Danish population aged 20-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, E; Stampe Sorensen, S; Ibsen, P H;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of endometrial polyps and to investigate associated abnormal uterine bleeding in a Danish population aged 20-74 years. METHODS: This was a study of a random selection of women from the Danish Civil Registration System: 1660 women were invited of whom 686 were...... was performed in 619 women (two failures of TVS and 60 failures of SCSH, in two women SCSH was contraindicated (endometrial cancer), in two women hysteroscopy was contraindicated, and one polyp was lost before histology). World Health Organization histopathological criteria were used for diagnosing true...... diagnosed in 4.2% (26/622; 95% CI, 2.6-5.8%) and intramural myomas in 11.1% (76/684; 95% CI, 8.8-13.5%) of women. Polyps were diagnosed in 2% of oral-contraceptive and 25% of hormone-therapy users. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of endometrial polyps was 7.8% and the prevalence increased with age...

  3. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-01-19

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  4. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children older adults. Children iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Predictors of Insulin Resistance in Reproductive-Aged Thai Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Thanyarat Wongwananuruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR and its predictors in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009. Participants were 250 Thai women with PCOS. Information regarding medical history and physical examination and results of 75 gram OGTT were recorded. Results. The overall prevalence of IR was 20.0%, comprising the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetic mellitus of 3.2%, 13.6%, and 5.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors for IR were age of ≥30 years old, waist circumference (WC of ≥80 cm, presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN, and dyslipidemia with odds ratios (95% confidence interval of 2.14 (1.01–4.52, 3.53 (1.28–9.75, 2.63 (1.17–5.88, and 3.07 (1.16–8.11, respectively. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of IR in reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS is 20.0%. Age ≥30 years old, WC ≥80 cm, the presence of AN, and dyslipidemia are the significant clinical predictors.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  7. High prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in children 4 yrs of age or younger with symptoms of allergic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that sensitization to aeroallergens is rare in preschool children is based on population studies in which most subjects have little or no symptoms of atopic disease. We assessed the prevalence of atopic sensitization in children 0 to 4 yr of age presenting with symptoms of allergic di

  8. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  9. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  10. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

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    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  11. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  12. [Prevalence of common genetic mutations and clinical characteristics analysis in patients at different ages with nonsyndromic hearing impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu-Qin; Chen, Bo-Bei; Chen, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xue-Jun; Zheng, Jing; Gao, Jin-Jian; Huang, Sai-Yu; Nan, Ben-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Yao; Yu, Xiao; Guan, Min-Xin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the correlation between genetic mutations and the age in nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) and the clinical characteristics of NSHI, 215 patients with NSHI were enrolled between April 2006 and April 2012. All patients were divided into four groups according to ages of hearing loss onset and clinic presentation (0-3, 3-6, 6-18 and 18+ years). The mutations of GJB2 and mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) 1555G/C1494T were screened from peripheral blood samples in each age group. The prevalence of mutations and the age ratio were obtained. The study showed that 18.14% of all patients were found to have GJB2 mutations and 11.16% were found to have mtDNA A1555G/C1494T mutations. The prevalence of GJB2 mutation in adult group (5.26%) was lower than juvenile group who sought medical attention at 0-18 years of age (22.36%), while the prevalence of mtDNA A1555G/C1494T in adult group (31.48%) was higher than juvenile group (4.97%). Significant differences in the prevalence of GJB2 (χ2=7.108, P=0.008) and mtDNA A1555G/C1494T (χ2=20.852, P=0.000) were observed in both of two groups. The prevalence of GJB2 mutations between adult and juvenile groups according to ages of hearing loss onset was statistically significant different (0%, 20.10%, respectively, and P=0.023), while the prevalence of mtDNA A1555G/C1494T mutations was not different (14.29%, 11.34%, respectively, and P=0.698). The onset age of 66.67% of patients with GJB2 mutations was less than 1 year old, while the onset of patients with mtDNA A1555G/C1494T mutations could be found at any age group. Different standardizations of hearing loss could also show different results. These data strongly suggest that most of GJB2 mutations are found in congenital deafness and mtDNA A1555G/C1494T mutations mainly represent acquired deafness, which can be induced or aggravated by aminoglycoside antibiotics in all age groups and should be tested mainly ranging from 4 kHz to 8 kHz. Both newborn hearing screening and genetic

  13. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P;

    2012-01-01

    Clinical manifestations and metabolic risk factors may differ according to age in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, a retrospective trans-sectional study in academic tertiary-care medical center was designed. A cohort of 446 premenopausal, Caucasian women (age range 15......, fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...... resistance were unchanged between age groups, but glucose levels were significantly higher in older age groups. Rotterdam criteria: The prevalence of PCO and biochemical hyperandrogenism decreased in the oldest age group whereas clinical hyperandrogenism increased. Young patients are characterized by PCO...

  14. Prevalence of cryptosporidium in children under 5 years of age, immunocompromised patients and high risk persons in Isfahan province

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    Mehdi Azami

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is an important enteric parasite which causes diarrheal illness in humans and animals worldwide. With attention to the role of cryptosporidium in producing diarrhea and mortality in immunocopromised patients and children under 5 years of age, the present study was designed to identify the prevalence of cryptosporidium and potential risk factors in Isfahan province. Methods: This descriptive study was done in Isfahan province from October 2003 to April 2004. A total of 642 children under 5 years of age, immunocompromised patients and high risk persons selected randomly and their stool samples were studied microscopically using Sheater's Sucrose Flotation technique and stained by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Results: The overall prevalence of cryptosporidium was 4.7% (30 samples. The prevalence rates of infection were 4.6%, 3.5% and 5.4% in children under 5 years of age, immunocompromised patients and high risk persons, respectively. The highest prevalence of infection (6.2% belonged to 1-2 years old children in the group of under 5 years of age, 3-4 years in immunocompromised patients group and 5-10 years in high risk persons group (10%, 6.2% and 14.8% respectively. Conclusion: Cryptosporidium is significantly prevalent in children under 5 years of age, immune compromised patients and high risk persons in Isfahan province. Therefore, health policy makers have to design a plan to identify and treat infected subjected with cryptosporidium thus as a result the transmission of the disease can be prevented in the society.

  15. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Genaro G; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Flores-Saiffe, María E; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA), Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men); no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men); no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31-4.60). Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  16. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Depression among a Population Aged over 60 Years in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico

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    Genaro G. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive impairment is an important clinical issue among elderly patients with depression and has a more complex etiology because of the variable rate of neurodegenerative changes associated with depression. The aim of the present work was to examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression in a representative sample of adults aged ≥60 years. Methods. The presented work was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling to obtain subjects that represent a population of the Guadalajara metropolitan area (GMA, Mexico. Cognitive function and depression were assessed by applying standardized Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, respectively. Results. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 13.8% (14.5% women, 12.6% men; no significant differences by gender and retired or pensioner were found. Prevalence of depression was 29.1% (33.6% women, 21.1% men; no significant differences by retired or pensioner were found. Cognitive impairment was associated with depression (OR  =  3.26, CI 95%, 2.31–4.60. Prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression is associated with: being woman, only in depression being older than 75 years being married, and a low level of education. Conclusion. Cognitive impairment and depression are highly correlated in adults aged ≥60.

  17. Spinocerebellar ataxias in the Netherlands - Prevalence and age at onset variance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Warrenburg, BPC; Sinke, RJ; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Scheffer, H; Brunt, ER; Ippel, PF; Maat-Kievit, JA; Dooijes, D; Notermans, NC; Lindhout, D; Knoers, NVAM; Kremer, HPH

    2002-01-01

    Background. International prevalence estimates of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) vary from 0.3 to 2.0 per 100,000. The prevalence of ADCA in the Netherlands is unknown. Fifteen genetic loci have been identified (SCA-1-8, SCA-10-14, SCA-16, and SCA-17) and nine of the corresponding gene

  18. Spinocerebellar ataxias in the Netherlands: prevalence and age at onset variance analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Sinke, R.J.; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.C.; Scheffer, H.; Brunt, E.R.; Ippel, P.F.; Maat-Kievit, J.A.; Dooijes, D.; Notermans, S.L.H.; Lindhout, D.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International prevalence estimates of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) vary from 0.3 to 2.0 per 100,000. The prevalence of ADCA in the Netherlands is unknown. Fifteen genetic loci have been identified (SCA-1-8, SCA-10-14, SCA-16, and SCA-17) and nine of the corresponding gene

  19. Prevalence of Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptoms in European School-Aged Children and its Relationship with Childhood Adversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... conducted to investigate: (a) the contribution of the number and (b) the specific types of experienced adversities on the occurrence of PES. 45.7% of the children experienced at least one PES, with low emotional well-being during the last week being most frequently reported (38.2%). No sex differences were...

  20. Age-related changes in prevalence and symptom characteristics in kidney deficiency syndrome with varied health status: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Yin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.

  1. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  2. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  3. Prevalence of hypertension among reproductive age group tribal women in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    S. Appala Naidu

    2016-04-01

    Results: Among the study women, 40.6% belonged to prime tribe groups (PTG and 36% of women had debts. Two fifths (40.7% of tribal women were normotensive and another two fifths (42.1% were in pre-hypertensive stage. Stage-1 hypertension was observed in 16.3% of study women. Non- PTGs and women with debts had significantly high prevalence of hypertension when compared to other groups. Conclusions: Prevalence of HTN was more in tribal women when compared to national prevalence indicating the need of screening of blood pressures in tribal communities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1224-1228

  4. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and affecting factors of diabetes mellitus in adult age group in Van province

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    Hatice Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regional studies of diabetes mellitus (DM are important to determine of effective environmental factors in the development of DM and defining strategy against these factors. This study aims to define the frequency of DM prevalence in the province of the Van city, distribution of DM according to age groups, effective socio-economical, geographical and metabolic factors over the diabetes development.Material and methods: This study included 191 male and 209 female totals 400 person aged year 16 years or over. Blood-Glucose levels of persons were measured with Accu-check glucometer and questionnaires were filled with face-to-face interviews.Results: Age mean of subjects was 35.09±13.75 years, DM prevalence was %13.4 between the females and %9.1 males, disglisemi (DG prevalence were %9.1 between the females and %5.8 between the males. 74.4% of impaired glucose metabolism persons were people who they do not make physical exercise and adopted sedentary lifestyle.Conclusion: In this study, age and family history from unchangeable factors were found to be effective on the development of DM but sex, educational level, social security, incomes were not found to be effective on development of DM. Exercise, blood pressure levels, obesity and diets from changeable factors are the factors that influence the frequency of DM was determined in this study. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 392-399

  6. A seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis A in Spanish children. Relationship of prevalence to age and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J L; Huber, L; Gallego, S; Alvarez, G; Diez-Delgado, J; González, A; Aguilar, L; Dal-Ré, R

    1992-01-01

    Three child population groups from the Madrid area were studied for anti-HAV antibodies. Analysis was carried out with respect to age and socio-environmental factors. The population understudy was composed of 156 children, with ages ranging from 1 to 14 years; they were stratified in three socio-environmental groups (white-family unit, gypsy-family unit and orphanage), and also divided into subgroups according to age. As a whole, an age-related increase in prevalence was found. The overall seroprevalence by socio-environmental groups was: gypsy-family unit 63%, orphanage 46%, and white-family unit 23%. Significant differences between groups appeared from seven years on, being more marked among the eldest subgroups. Among the factors evaluated, hygienic-sanitary conditions and overcrowding influenced the high prevalence rate found in the gypsy-family unit subjects, whereas overcrowding appeared to be responsible for the higher prevalence in orphanage residents, as compared to white-family unit children.

  7. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  8. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait

  9. Age- and gender-related changes in the cellularity of human bone marrow and the prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschler, G F; Nitto, H; Boehm, C A; Easley, K A

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow harvested by aspiration contains connective tissue progenitor cells which can be induced to express a bone phenotype in vitro. The number of osteoblastic progenitors can be estimated by counting the colony-forming units which express alkaline phosphatase (CFU-APs). This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that human aging is associated with a significant change in the number or prevalence of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow. Four 2-ml bone marrow aspirates were harvested bilaterally from the anterior iliac crest of 57 patients, 31 men (age 15-83) and 26 women (age 13-79). A mean of 64 million nucleated cells was harvested per aspirate. The mean prevalence of CFU-APs was found to be 55 per million nucleated cells. These data revealed a significant age-related decline in the number of nucleated cells harvested per aspirate for both men and women (P = 0.002). The number of CFU-APs harvested per aspirate also decreased significantly with age for women (P = 0.02), but not for men (P = 0.3). These findings are relevant to the harvest of bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitors for bone grafting and other tissue engineering applications, and may also be relevant to the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss and post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

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    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages (< 5 months, 5-12 months and > 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  11. Prevalence of periodontitis among the adolescents aged 15-18 years in Mangalore City: An epidemiological and microbiological study

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    K Pallavi Nanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth. Both aggressive periodontitis (AP and chronic periodontitis (CP have a multifactorial etiology, with dental plaque as the initiating factor. However, the initiation and progression of periodontitis are influenced by other factors including microbiologic, social and behavioral and systemic and genetic factors. The prevalence of periodontal diseases varies in different regions of the world according to the definition of periodontitis and the study population, and there are indications that they may be more prevalent in developing than in developed countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adolescents of 15-18 years of age in Mangalore City. One thousand one hundred students aged 15-18 years were selected for the study from the schools and colleges in Mangalore City using a convenient sampling method. The prevalence of AP and CP were assessed in the study using a community periodontal index. Students who were diagnosed clinically and radiographically were subjected to microbiological examination to confirm AP. Results: A high prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis was found in students belonging to the lower socioeconomic status group compared with the higher socioeconomic groups, which were associated with poor oral hygiene habits. The prevalence of AP was found to be 0.36% and that of CP was found to be 1.5%. Conclusion: Oral diseases have a significant impact on the social and psychological aspects of an individual′s life. Exposure to risk factors, such as age, low socio-economic status, poor education, low dental care utilization, poor oral hygiene levels, smoking, psychosocial stress and genetic factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis among adolescents. Although genetic factors play a major role in periodontitis, the treatment outcome will still be

  12. Prevalence of stroke and metabolic disorders in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuebing; Mu Yiming; Yan Wenhua; Ba Jianming; Li Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is now the most prevalent and debilitating disease affecting diabetic population in China.The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of stroke and metabolic disorders in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes.Methods A total of 4 629 subjects with type 2 diabetes (males:1 917; females:2 712) aged > 40 years from Shijingshan district,Beijing,China from November 2011 to August 2012 were included in the study.Data on demographic information,lifestyle,history of diabetes mellitus,stroke,coronary heart disease,hypertension,and dyslipidemia were collected.The oral glucose tolerance test or a standard meal test was performed.Non-fatal stroke was reported by the subjects.The 2-tailed test was used,and P <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.Results Prevalence of stroke in the subjects with type 2 diabetes was 5.5%.The prevalence of smoking,overweight or obesity,hypertension,and dyslipidemia was 41.0%,65.8%,67.4%,and 52.0% in males,and 2.2%,65.5%,69.5%,and 57.6% in females.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that increased age,hypertension,diabetic duration,and overweight or obesity were positively correlated with stroke in the population with type 2 diabetes,whereas highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol level was negatively correlated with stroke.After adjustment for age and gender,the odds ratio values of stroke in subjects having 1,2 or >3 of 4 risk factors,including smoking,overweight or obesity,hypertension and dyslipidemia,were 2.302 (95% CI:0.789-6.712),4.089 (95% CI:1.470-11.373),6.023 (95% CI:2.176-16.666),compared with subjects without any of the above 4 risk factors.Conclusions The prevalence of stroke was higher in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes than that in the general population.With the aggregation of risk factors,the prevalence of stroke increased.

  13. Surveys of serum reproductive hormone levels and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism in Chinese aging males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shan-jie; Li Xian-kun; Lu Wen-hong; Liang Xiao-wei; Yuan Dong; Li Hong; Gu Yi-qun; Zhang Bao-long; Ji Yu-dang; Wang Can-gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change patterns of reproductive hormones in serum of aging males and the difference among male age brackets and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism (LOH) in males in Chinese middle and aging males.Methods:Subjects included 1,498 men aged 40 to 69 from a county,and the serum reproductive hormones of 434 subjects were measured and calculated.In addition,the prevalence rates of LOH were analyzed by cut-off point of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (cFT),and screening scales (a questionnaire of androgen deficiency in the aging males (ADAM) and a scale of aging males' symptoms (AMS)).TT,cFT,bio-available testosterone (Bio-T),luteinizing hormone (LH),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),testosterone secretion index (TSI),free testosterone index (FTI),the positive rates of LOH screening,androgen deficiency rates and the clinical prevalence rates of LOH were measured or calculated.Results:The serum TT levels did not change significantly with male aging while serum LH and SHBG levels gradually increased,but cFT,Bio-T,TSI and FTI levels gradually decreased with male aging.There was very significant difference in other six parameters of reproductive hormones (P<0.01),except for serum TT among the four age brackets(P>0.05).There was no correlation between serum TT levels and aging,LH levels(P>0.05).However,there was significantly a positive correlation between serum LH,SHBG and age (P<0.01),while there were negative correlation between cFT,Bio-T,TSI,FTI and age,LH levels (P<0.01).Moreover,SHBG level was positively correlated with LH level (P<0.01).Utilizing the Questionnaire of ADAM and AMS to screen subjects aged 40 to 69 years,mean positive rates of LOH screening were 80.77% and 32.34% respectively.Mean androgen deficiency rates were 14.02% and 43.69%by using TT and cFT cut-off point.In addition,mean LOH clinical prevalence rates of subjects on positive questionnaire results were 37.85% and 15.42

  14. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  15. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  16. Prevalence and impact of primary headache disorders among students and working population in 18-25 years age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Aishwarya S, Eswari N, Chandrasekar M, Chandra Prabha J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache or cephalalgia is defined as pain in the head. Headache is an extremely common symptom that may have a profound impact on peoples’ functioning and quality of life. According to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD, they are Primary and Secondary headaches. Primary Headaches are triggered by stress, alcohol, changes in sleep pattern, anxiety, poor posture, all of which are part and parcel our day-to-day life. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence of primary headache disorders and its severity of impact among students and working population in the age group 18-25. Methods: The study was conducted on 718 subjects of which 483 subjects were medical and engineering students from the age group 18-21 and 235 subjects were working people from the age group 22-25. Written consent was taken from each of them. Headache Impact Test-6 (version 1.1 and the HARDSHIP Questionnaire by Timothy Steiner et al. were the questionnaires used to diagnose the severity of impact and the type of headache respectively. The study was ethically approved by Ethical Clearance Board of MAHER University. People suffering from psychiatric illness were excluded from the study. Result: There was increased prevalence of migraine in the age group 18-21 and tension type headache in the age group 22-25.Over 50%of subjects from both the age groups had headaches that have substantial to severe impact on their lives. There was no significant gender variation in headache prevalence.

  17. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  18. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-03-31

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China.

  20. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Banaeipour; Shahnaz Rostami; Kourosh Zarea; Bahman Cheraghian

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random samplin...

  1. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  2. Diabetes and pre-diabetes among persons aged 35 to 60 years in eastern Uganda: prevalence and associated factors.

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    Roy William Mayega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR (i.e. diabetes and pre-diabetes and its associated factors among people aged 35-60 years so as to clarify the relevance of targeted screening in rural Africa. METHODS: A population-based survey of 1,497 people (786 women and 711 men aged 35-60 years was conducted in a predominantly rural Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. Participants responded to a lifestyle questionnaire, following which their Body Mass Index (BMI and Blood Pressure (BP were measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured from capillary blood using On-Call® Plus (Acon rapid glucose meters, following overnight fasting. AGR was defined as FPG ≥6.1 mmol L⁻¹ (World Health Organization (WHO criteria or ≥5.6 mmol L⁻¹ (American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Diabetes was defined as FPG >6.9 mmol L⁻¹, or being on diabetes treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 45 years for men and 44 for women. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.4% (95%CI 6.1-8.8, while prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.6% (95%CI 7.3-10.2 using WHO criteria and 20.2% (95%CI 17.5-22.9 with ADA criteria. Using WHO cut-offs, the prevalence of AGR was 2 times higher among obese persons compared with normal BMI persons (Adjusted Prevalence Rate Ratio (APRR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8. Occupation as a mechanic, achieving the WHO recommended physical activity threshold, and higher dietary diversity were associated with lower likelihood of AGR (APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; APRR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9 respectively. The direct medical cost of detecting one person with AGR was two US dollars with ADA and three point seven dollars with WHO cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of AGR among people aged 35-60 years in this setting. Screening for high risk persons and targeted health education to address obesity, insufficient physical activity and non-diverse diets are necessary.

  3. Covariant canonical quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, G.M. von [University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Wohlfarth, M.N.R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. This procedure agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and we apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses. Covariant canonical quantization can thus be understood as a ''first'' or pre-quantization within the framework of conventional QFT. (orig.)

  4. Covariant canonical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, G M; Hippel, Georg M. von; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. Covariant canonical quantization agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses.

  5. Multiple Comorbid Conditions among Middle-Aged and Elderly Hemophilia Patients: Prevalence Estimates and Implications for Future Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroub A. Khleif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Advances in hemophilia care and treatment have led to increases in the life expectancy among hemophiliacs. As a result, persons with hemophilia are reaching an older age and experiencing various age-related health conditions never seen before in this population. Aim. To determine the prevalence of comorbidities among middle-aged and elderly hemophilia A and hemophilia B patients. Methods. Retrospective chart review among all hemophilia patients, who attended the Gulf States Hemophilia and Thrombophilia Center. Results. All patients had at least one comorbid condition other than hemophilia, and the majority had between 3 and 6 comorbidities. The most common conditions identified were chronic hepatitis C, hypertension, HIV, chronic arthropathy, and overweight/obesity. Conclusions. Since persons with comorbidities are more likely to have poorer health outcomes and require greater care in managing their health needs, caring for aging hemophiliacs is likely to pose various social and economic challenges for both patients and providers.

  6. Age, season and spatio-temporal factors affecting the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taenia taeniaeformis in Arvicola terrestris

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    Deplazes Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia taeniaeformis and the related zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis both infect the water vole Arvicola terrestris. We investigated the effect of age, spatio-temporal and season-related factors on the prevalence of these parasites in their shared intermediate host. The absolute age of the voles was calculated based on their eye lens weights, and we included the mean day temperature and mean precipitation experienced by each individual as independent factors. Results Overall prevalences of E. multilocularis and T. taeniaeformis were 15.1% and 23.4%, respectively, in 856 A. terrestris trapped in the canton Zürich, Switzerland. Prevalences were lower in young (≤ 3 months: E. multilocularis 7.6%, T. taeniaeformis 17.9% than in older animals (>7 months: 32.6% and 34.8%. Only 12 of 129 E. multilocularis-infected voles harboured protoscoleces. Similar proportions of animals with several strobilocerci were found in T. taeniaeformis infected voles of E. multilocularis. In one trapping area, prevalences varied on an exceptional high level of 40.6-78.5% during the whole study period. Low temperatures significantly correlated with the infection rate whereas precipitation was of lower importance. Significant spatial variations in prevalences were also identified for Taenia taeniaeformis. Although the trapping period and the meteorological factors temperature and precipitation were included in the best models for explaining the infection risk, their effects were not significant for this parasite. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, besides temporal and spatial factors, low temperatures contribute to the risk of infection with E. multilocularis. This suggests that the enhanced survival of E. multilocularis eggs under cold weather conditions determines the level of infection pressure on the intermediate hosts and possibly also the infection risk for human alveolar echincoccosis (AE. Therefore, interventions against the

  7. Covariance Applications with Kiwi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Brown, D.; Elliott, J. B.

    2012-05-01

    The Computational Nuclear Physics group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a new tool, named `Kiwi', that is intended as an interface between the covariance data increasingly available in major nuclear reaction libraries (including ENDF and ENDL) and large-scale Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) studies. Kiwi is designed to integrate smoothly into large UQ studies, using the covariance matrix to generate multiple variations of nuclear data. The code has been tested using critical assemblies as a test case, and is being integrated into LLNL's quality assurance and benchmarking for nuclear data.

  8. Covariance Applications with Kiwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott J.B.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Computational Nuclear Physics group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL is developing a new tool, named ‘Kiwi’, that is intended as an interface between the covariance data increasingly available in major nuclear reaction libraries (including ENDF and ENDL and large-scale Uncertainty Quantification (UQ studies. Kiwi is designed to integrate smoothly into large UQ studies, using the covariance matrix to generate multiple variations of nuclear data. The code has been tested using critical assemblies as a test case, and is being integrated into LLNL's quality assurance and benchmarking for nuclear data.

  9. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szymon Nowak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44–9.64 subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18–14.03. AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14–5.54 of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21–4.30 had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47–1.69 had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17–6.85 of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68–3.56 had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95–2.48 and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06–0.85, respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population.

  10. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  11. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  12. Prevalence of asthma symptoms among adults aged 20-44 years in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfreda, J; Becklake, M R; Sears, M R;

    2001-01-01

    Reported prevalence rates of asthma vary within and between countries around the world. These differences suggest environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in the cause of the disease and may provide clues for preventive strategies. We examined the variability of asthma-related symptom...

  13. Prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in males aged 0 to 18 years referred for scrotal sonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hofman, H.A.; Wagenvoort, A.M.; Pierik, F.H.; Hack, W.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively uncommon and usually asymptomatic condition that is characterized by multiple 1-3 mm nonshadowing echogenic foci within the parenchyma of the testis. Objectives: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis was assessed retrospectively in mal

  14. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  15. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  16. Influence of full-time education in the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder in school age children

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    Thamires Francelino Mendonça de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD among Brazilian children between 7 and 10 years of age participating in a full-time school program or attending regular school, by assessing the influence of different performance components on motor development related to DCD. Methods: The sample was composed of 50 children divided into two groups, according to the type of education received. Neuropsychomotor development was assessed using the Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2 Test, according to UK norms for 4-16 year olds. The prevalence of DCD was calculated according to the test results. The relationship between form of education and motor development was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test; the correlation between performance components was analyzed by the Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (RHO. Results: DCD prevalence among the participating children was 8%. The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant correlation between the variables type of education and motor performance of children. We observed a strong correlation between the hand dexterity component and the presence of DCD, with increased prevalence of the disorder among girls. Conclusion: The results suggest that the full-time education programs conducted in Brazilian public schools are not providing proper stimuli to children’s development, as advocated. This fact could be related with improper organization and lack of structuring in this educational modality in schools, indicating the necessity of proper evaluation of full-time programs.

  17. A Study of Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Diseases in Asymptomatic Middle Aged and Elderly Subjects

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    Arvind Kumar, Sandeep Garg, Hem Lata Gupta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease(CAD in apparently healthy middle aged and elderly population and to find the different betweenurban and rural group.Atotal of 160 individuals (80 urban and 80 rural were included in the study.All the subjects underwent detailed history and physical examination with special emphasis oncardiovascular system. The biochemical investigations were done in all the subjects which includedblood sugar, serum LDL and serum triglyceride levels. The prevalence of 2 or more than 2 riskfactors were observed in 95% subjects. The prevalence of smoking was 63%, which was moreprevalent in the rural population. The sedentary lifestyle was seen in 80% subjects more in femalesand urban group. The prevalence of asymptomatic hypertensives and isolated systolic hypertensionwere seen in 34% and 10% individuals respectively. Other risk factors were-diabetes mellitus (4%,Increase LDL (38%, hypertriglyceridemia (23% and central obesity (27.50%. The two mostcommon risk factors for CADwere sedentary lifestyle and smoking. These risk factors are modifiableand their reduction during adulthood can lead to marked reduction in the burden of CAD in middleaged and elderly Indian population.

  18. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere

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    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.

  19. Menopause as a potential cause for higher prevalence of low back pain in women than in age-matched men

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    Yi Xiang J. Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones play an important role in the aetiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative oestrogen deficiency, resulting in narrower intervertebral disc space in women than age-matched men, increased prevalence of spondylolisthesis, and increased prevalence of facet joint osteoarthritis. Postmenopausal women also show higher osteoporosis related spine fracture rate, particularly at the thoracic–lumbar junction site. I propose the concept that low back pain (LBP is more prevalent in postmenopausal women than age-matched men and is associated with the physiological changes caused by the relatively lower level of sex hormones after menopause in women. Considering hormone replacement treatment (HRT's consistent efficacy reported with menopause-associated osteoarthritis, an in-depth understanding of the role of the gonadal hormones in LBP modulation warrants further study. HRT initiated at early postmenopausal phase may be protective for recurring LBP. If this is the case, further cost–benefit analysis should be performed for optimal HRT regimen in cases of women with high risk of recurring severe LBP.

  20. Seasonal prevalence of Taenia taeniaeformis: relationship to age, sex, reproduction and abundance of an intermediate host (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, J H; Schwab, R G

    1992-01-01

    Livers from 4,501 deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) collected from a weedy habitat in northeastern California during 48 consecutive monthly samplings were examined microscopically for Taenia taeniaeformis larva. Although there were pronounced seasonal fluctuations in host density, there were no significant annual or season-related differences in cestode intensities in adult deer mice. There were no significant differences in prevalences associated with sex of the host, nor were there significant changes in level of reproduction noted between infected and non-infected hosts. There were, however, significant differences in prevalences between young (1.2%) and adult (4.2%) hosts. Plausible mechanisms for this age-related difference in prevalence rates include (1) differential susceptibility due to the activity pattern of adult mice and/or (2) passive immunity in neonates as a result of colostrum- and/or transplacentally-transferred immunoglobulins and (3) capture of subadult animals before they had completed the period of highest susceptibility to T. taeniaeformis. Density of larvae per mouse liver was determined during a 21 mo consecutive period. The intensity of T. taeniaeformis larvae was not significantly different between the sexes of the adult mice. The larval stage showed an overdispersion pattern within the adult population. These results suggest that determinations of T. taeniaeformis abundances can be accurately made, at least in this P. maniculatus population, at any time of the year provided adjustment is made for the relative age structure of the host population.

  1. Chronic disease prevalence and associations in a cohort of Australian men: The Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS

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    Middleton Sue M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of Australia's chronic disease burden is carried by the ageing male. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma, cancer, diabetes, angina and musculoskeletal conditions and their relationship to behavioural and socio-demographic factors in a cohort of Australian men. Methods Self-reports of disease status were obtained from baseline clinic visits (August 2002 – July 2003 & July 2004 – May 2005 from 1195 randomly selected men, aged 35–80 years and living in the north-west regions of Adelaide. Initially, relative risks were assessed by regression against selected variables for each outcome. Where age-independent associations were observed with the relevant chronic disease, independent variables were fitted to customized multiadjusted models. Results The prevalence of all conditions was moderately higher in comparison to national data for age-matched men. In particular, there was an unusually high rate of men with cancer. Multiadjusted analyses revealed age as a predictor of chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, angina, cancer & osteoarthritis. A number of socio-demographic factors, independent of age, were associated with chronic disease, including: low income status (diabetes, separation/divorce (asthma, unemployment (cancer, high waist circumference (diabetes, elevated cholesterol (angina and a family history of obesity (angina. Conclusion Socio-demographic factors interact to determine disease status in this broadly representative group of Australian men. In addition to obesity and a positive personal and family history of disease, men who are socially disadvantaged (low income, unemployed, separated should be specifically targeted by public health initiatives.

  2. Prevalence of malnutrition in subjects over 65 years of age in the Community of Madrid: the DREAM + 65 Study

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    Cristina Cuerda

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disease-related malnutrition (DRM is a frequent community healthcare problem that predominantly affects adults over 65 years of age and increases morbidity and mortality rates, while also decreasing quality of life. Objective: To study the prevalence of DRM in adults over 65 in different community healthcare centres belonging to the Regional Social Welfare Service of the Community of Madrid. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 33 community healthcare centres in Madrid (6 primary healthcare centres (PC, 9 care centres for the elderly (CE, 9 hospitals (H and 9 nursing homes (NH selected by means of multistage sampling. The variables studied were age, sex, level of dependence according to the Red Cross disability scale, reason for admission and underlying disease, habitat (urban-periurban-rural and geographical distribution (north-centre-south. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-screening was employed as a nutritional screening tool in all the centres. In the case of patients with positive screening (at risk-malnutrition, the MNA-assessment was carried out. Statistical analysis was conducted with the SPSS 21.0 package and included descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test and univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis (LR. Statistical significance was considered to be p < 0.05. Results: A total of 1,103 subjects were recruited (275 PC, 278 CE, 281 H, 269 NH, mean age 79.5 ± 8.4 years (41.2% were males and 58.8% females. The subjects from H and NH had a higher degree of disability (p < 0.001. The overall prevalence of DRM was 10%, 23.3% being at risk of malnutrition, with differences among the 4 types of community healthcare centres (p < 0.001. The univariate LR analysis showed significant differences in the prevalence of malnutrition according to age, sex, degree of dependence, type of community healthcare centre, habitat and geographical

  3. Epilepsy Prevalence in the 0-17 Age Group in Trabzon, Turkey

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    Murat Topbaş

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epilepsy is a most common serious neurological disorder and is one of the world’s most prevalent non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of epilepsy in 0–17 year old children in Trabzon, Turkey.Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological investigation was performed in two phases, a screening phase and a confirmation of the diagnosis phase. The gold standard was a clinical investigation and neurological examination. The diagnosis of epilepsy followed clinical guidelines proposed by the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE. The chi-square test was used in analysis of the results and P-value <0.05 was calculated.Findings: The prevalence per 1000 participants of epilepsy was 8.6 (5.9–11.4; 95%CI. We detected 37 cases(18 males and 19 females of epilepsy. The male/female ratio was 0.95. This study showed an increased risk for epilepsy with low socioeconomic level, a history of postpartum seizure, meningitis, head trauma, febrile convulsion and family history of epilepsy. More than one seizure type was present in 15 (40.5% of epileptic children. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were determined in 24 patients (64.9% and absence type in 9 (24.3%. It was found that 25.0% of children with epilepsy had never visited the school at the time the study was performed due to the disease and attendant seizures.Conclusion: The prevalence of epilepsy in Trabzon is low compared to other parts of Turkey and other developing countries.

  4. Iodine nutritional status and goiter prevalence in primary school children aged 6-12 of Panchmahal district, Gujarat, India

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    Vihang Mazumdar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD create major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. Panchmahal district is known for endemic iodine deficiency. The present study was conducted to (1 estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children, (2 determine median urinary iodine concentration, (3 assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop level, and (4 profile of salt sold at retail shops in Panchmahal district, Gujarat. Methods: A total of 70 students including five boys and five girls from 1st to 7th standard who were present on the day of the first visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each standard in each cluster. From the community, at least 28 students, including two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group, were examined, and salt samples were tested from their households. A total of 2100 students were examined in schools and 928 students were examined in the selected villages. From each village, one retail shop was visited, and salts purchased from those shops were immediately tested for iodine with spot kits.Results: Among young primary school children, goiter prevalence was 23.35% (grade 1—18.35%, grade 2—5.0%. As the ages increase, goiter prevalence also increases except for 9-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 µg/L. An iodine level >15 ppm was found in 78.3% of the salt samples tested at household level. Conclusion: The present study showed considerable goiter prevalence in primary school children in Panchmahal district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at the household level.

  5. The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in soccer player children, ages 7 to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Yousefi, Azizollah; Movahedi, Massoud; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Noorian, Rohollah

    2007-03-01

    This study represents an attempt to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm among soccer player children. A total of 234 soccer player boys of all soccer schools from Shahr-Rey enrolled in this study. They did not have any history of a recent or chronic respiratory tract disease, a history of allergic diseases, and history of bronchodilator drugs consumption during the 24 hours prior to the study. Pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed for each participant before exercise and 6 and 15 minutes after playing soccer. The diagnosis of EIB was by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by at least 10% and in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) by at least 15% with exercise challenge. If there was reduction in one parameter alone, the participants were considered as prone to EIB. Considering both FEV1 and PEFR the prevalence of EIB was 2.1% and 18.4% were prone to EIB. If FEV1 or PEFR tests were used as criteria for diagnosis of airway obstruction, the prevalence of EIB would be 6% and 15.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the post of players, family history of allergic disease and EIB in soccer players. This study suggests that at least 2.1% of soccer players will develop bronchospasm even if they do not have any history of asthma and allergy.

  6. Age-Related Decline and Diagnostic Performance of More and Less Prevalent Clinical Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate…

  7. Using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with Fallible Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Aguinis, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used widely in psychological research implementing nonexperimental designs. However, when covariates are fallible (i.e., measured with error), which is the norm, researchers must choose from among 3 inadequate courses of action: (a) know that the assumption that covariates are perfectly reliable is violated but…

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45 to 75 years.

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    Xianhui Qin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l] and IFG (6.1-6.9 mmol/l were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal were important independent associated factors for IFG. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if

  9. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal Tablo"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  10. Covariantly Quantum Galileon

    CERN Document Server

    Saltas, Ippocratis D

    2016-01-01

    We derive the 1-loop effective action of the cubic Galileon coupled to quantum-gravitational fluctuations in a background and gauge-independent manner, employing the covariant framework of DeWitt and Vilkovisky. Although the bare action respects shift symmetry, the coupling to gravity induces an effective mass to the scalar, of the order of the cosmological constant, as a direct result of the non-flat field-space metric, the latter ensuring the field-reparametrization invariance of the formalism. Within a gauge-invariant regularization scheme, we discover novel, gravitationally induced non-Galileon higher-derivative interactions in the effective action. These terms, previously unnoticed within standard, non-covariant frameworks, are not Planck suppressed. Unless tuned to be sub-dominant, their presence could have important implications for the classical and quantum phenomenology of the theory.

  11. Prevalence and Diversity of Salmonella Serotypes in Ecuadorian Broilers at Slaughter Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, María; Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Bertrand, Sophie; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is frequently found in poultry and represent an important source for human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serotypes in broilers from Ecuador. Caeca content from 388 at random selected broiler batches were collected in 6 slaughterhouses during 1 year and analyzed by the ISO 6579/Amd1 protocol for the isolation for Salmonella. Isolates were serotyped and genotypic variation was acceded by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. MIC values for sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, tetracycline, streptomycin, trimethropim, chloramphenicol, colistin, florfenicol, kanamycin and nalidixic acid were obtained. Presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCMY; and mcr-1 plasmid genes was investigated in resistant strains to cefotaxime and colistin respectively. Prevalence at batch level was 16.0%. The most common serotype was S. Infantis (83.9%) followed by S. Enteritidis (14.5%) and S. Corvallis (1.6%). The pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that S. Corvallis, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis isolates belonged to 1, 2 and 12 genotypes respectively. S. Infantis isolates showed high resistance rates to 12 antibiotics ranging from 57.7% (kanamycin) up to 98.1% (nalidixic acid and sulfamethoxazole). All S. Enteritidis isolates showed resistance to colistin. High multiresistant patterns were found for all the serotypes. The blaCTX-M gene was present in 33 S. Infantis isolates while mcr-1 was negative in 10 colistin resistant isolates. This study provides the first set of scientific data on prevalence and multidrug-resistant Salmonella coming from commercial poultry in Ecuador. PMID:27414038

  12. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  13. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  15. Prevalence of depression and its effect on disability in patients with age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee Anindya; Kumar Suresh; Kulhara Parmanand; Gupta Amod

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To estimate depression in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and study the relationships among depression, visual acuity, and disability. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling (n = 53) of patients with AMD aged 50 years and above attending the retina clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Depression, general disability and vision-specific disability were assessed in subjects meeting selection criteria. Assessment...

  16. Adjusting for covariate effects on classification accuracy using the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Holly; Pepe, Margaret S

    2009-06-01

    Recent scientific and technological innovations have produced an abundance of potential markers that are being investigated for their use in disease screening and diagnosis. In evaluating these markers, it is often necessary to account for covariates associated with the marker of interest. Covariates may include subject characteristics, expertise of the test operator, test procedures or aspects of specimen handling. In this paper, we propose the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of covariate-adjusted classification accuracy. Nonparametric and semiparametric estimators are proposed, asymptotic distribution theory is provided and finite sample performance is investigated. For illustration we characterize the age-adjusted discriminatory accuracy of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

  17. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in eastern centre province, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboura, H H; Banga-Mboko, H; Maes, D; Youssao, I; Traore, A; Bayala, B; Dembele, M A

    2006-03-01

    The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG) counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months) were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91% were infected by one or more parasites. Ascaris suum (40%; 100-1 400 EPG) was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21%; 100-4200 EPG), Oesophagostomum spp. (18%; 100-1000 EPG), Hyostrongylus rubidus (11%; 100-1 800 EPG), Globocephalus spp. (10%; 100-400 EPG) and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG). The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239) than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  18. Prevalence of Age-Related Changes in Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Discs during Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisolle, Jean-François; Bihin, Benoît; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Neveu, Fabienne; Clegg, Peter; Dugdale, Alexandra; Wang, Xiaoqing; Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ovine models are used to study intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The objective of the current study was to assess the naturally occurring age-related changes of the IVD that can be diagnosed by CT and MRI in the lumbar spine of sheep. We used CT and T2-weighted MR images to score the IVD (L6S1 to L1L2) in 41 sheep (age, 6 mo to 11 y) that were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease. T2 mapping and measurement of T2 time of L6S1 to L2L3 were performed in 22 of the sheep. Degenerative changes manifested as early as 2 y of age and occurred at every IVD level. Discs were more severely damaged in older sheep. The age effect of the L6S1 IVD was larger than the average age effect for the other IVD. The current study provides evidence that lesions similar to those encountered in humans can be identified by CT and MRI in lumbar spine of sheep. Ideally, research animals should be assessed at the initiation of preclinical trials to determine the extent of prevalent degenerative changes. The ovine lumbosacral disc seems particularly prone to degeneration and might be a favorable anatomic site for studying IVD degeneration.

  19. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders.

  20. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

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    Zeinab Banaeipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  1. Prevalence of and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Female Students Aged 13 to 15 Years in Vietnam, 2007

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    Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors.MethodsWe used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10 from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking.ResultsPrevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5, and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9 of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements.ConclusionOur findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  2. Sex differences in the prevalence and clinical outcomes of subclinical peripheral artery disease in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Jade S; Katz, Ronit; Ix, Joachim H; Wassel, Christina; Rodondi, Nicolas; Windham, B Gwen; Harris, Tamara; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne; Shlipak, Michael G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if there are sex-based differences in the prevalence and clinical outcomes of subclinical peripheral artery disease (PAD). We evaluated the sex-specific associations of ankle-brachial index (ABI) with clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in 2797 participants without prevalent clinical PAD and with a baseline ABI measurement in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. The mean age was 74 years, 40% were black, and 52% were women. Median follow-up was 9.37 years. Women had a similar prevalence of ABI prevalence of ABI 0.9-1.0 (15% versus 10%, respectively; P disease (CHD) mortality, incident clinical PAD and incident myocardial infarction in both women and men. ABI prevalence of subclinical PAD.

  3. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection Decreases with Older Age in Atrophic Gastritis

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    Shaohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical pathological characteristics of 3969 adult patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were retrospectively studied. The positivity of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in atrophic gastric specimens increased with age; however, H. pylori positivity and inflammatory activity decreased significantly with increased age. H. pylori infection was present in 21.01% of chronic atrophic gastritis patients, and 92.33% of the subjects with H. pylori infection were found to have simultaneous inflammatory activity. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity markedly increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. In conclusion, the incidence of H. pylori infection decreased with age and correlated significantly with inflammatory activity in atrophic gastritis patients. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity notably increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. Large population-based prospective studies are needed to better understand the progression of CAG.

  4. Prevalence, Vascular Distribution, and Multiterritorial Extent of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Peñalvo, José L; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the presence, distribution, and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PESA (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) study prospectively enrolled 4184 asymptomatic participants 40 to 54 years of age (mean...... age, 45.8 years; 63% male) to evaluate the systemic extent of atherosclerosis in the carotid, abdominal aortic, and iliofemoral territories by 2-/3-dimensional ultrasound and coronary artery calcification by computed tomography. The extent of subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as presence of plaque...... or coronary artery calcification ≥1, was classified as focal (1 site affected), intermediate (2-3 sites), or generalized (4-6 sites) after exploration of each vascular site (right/left carotids, aorta, right/left iliofemorals, and coronary arteries). Subclinical atherosclerosis was present in 63...

  5. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

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    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  6. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of covariance realism is to properly size a primary object's covariance in order to add validity to the calculation of the probability of collision. The covariance realism technique in this paper consists of three parts: collection/calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics. An empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) method is employed to determine if a covariance is properly sized by comparing the empirical distribution of Mahalanobis distance calculations to the hypothesized parent 3-DoF chi-squared distribution. To realistically size a covariance for collision probability calculations, this study uses a state noise compensation algorithm that adds process noise to the definitive epoch covariance to account for uncertainty in the force model. Process noise is added until the GOF tests pass a group significance level threshold. The results of this study indicate that when outliers attributed to persistently high or extreme levels of solar activity are removed, the aforementioned covariance realism compensation method produces a tuned covariance with up to 80 to 90% of the covariance propagation timespan passing (against a 60% minimum passing threshold) the GOF tests-a quite satisfactory and useful result.

  7. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Genetic Relationships of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each TS-asso

  8. Prevalence and determinants of age related macular degeneration in north Indian city of Dehradun, Uttarakhand

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    Megha Luthra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is among the fourth leading cause of blindness in India after cataract, refractive errors and glaucoma. Aim and Objective: To find out magnitude and determinants of blinding AMD among patients presenting at a tertiary level eye care centre in Dehradun with this condition. Material and methods: This was a study of eye patients above age 45 years seen from July 2010 to October 2013. After taking preliminary information, optometrist noted the best-corrected vision. Ophthalmologists examined eyes using a slit-lamp bio-microscope. AMD was confirmed by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. The age, sex, history of smoking, sun exposure, family history of AMD, diet, body mass index (BMI, history of hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes were noted.  Results: Of the 14,698 patients seen, 221 had AMD (dry or wet in at least one eye, the overall proportion of AMD being 1.50%. Of all AMD patients, 103 had blinding wet AMD (46.61%.Further analysis revealed that old age (71-80 years, male sex and history of hypertension, diabetes etc were significant risk factors of  wet AMD. Of the 221 patients with AMD, nearly a third, that is 71 patients (32.13% had visual acuity of better eye < 3/60, which was taken as criteria for blindness. Conclusions: AMD does not seem to be a problem of public health magnitude in the study area. Age, being male, history of hypertension, diabetes etc are significant risk factors for wet AMD.

  9. Universality of Covariance Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, Natesh S

    2011-01-01

    We prove the universality of covariance matrices of the form $H_{N \\times N} = {1 \\over N} \\tp{X}X$ where $[X]_{M \\times N}$ is a rectangular matrix with independent real valued entries $[x_{ij}]$ satisfying $\\E \\,x_{ij} = 0$ and $\\E \\,x^2_{ij} = {1 \\over M}$, $N, M\\to \\infty$. Furthermore it is assumed that these entries have sub-exponential tails. We will study the asymptotics in the regime $N/M = d_N \\in (0,\\infty), \\lim_{N\\to \\infty}d_N \

  10. Covariant Magnetic Connection Hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pegoraro, F

    2016-01-01

    In the single fluid, nonrelativistic, ideal-Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma description magnetic field lines play a fundamental role by defining dynamically preserved "magnetic connections" between plasma elements. Here we show how the concept of magnetic connection needs to be generalized in the case of a relativistic MHD description where we require covariance under arbitrary Lorentz transformations. This is performed by defining 2-D {\\it magnetic connection hypersurfaces} in the 4-D Minkowski space. This generalization accounts for the loss of simultaneity between spatially separated events in different frames and is expected to provide a powerful insight into the 4-D geometry of electromagnetic fields when ${\\bf E} \\cdot {\\bf B} = 0$.

  11. Covariant Projective Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许天周; 梁洁

    2003-01-01

    @@ The theory of crossed products of C*-algebras by groups of automorphisms is a well-developed area of the theory of operator algebras. Given the importance and the success ofthat theory, it is natural to attempt to extend it to a more general situation by, for example,developing a theory of crossed products of C*-algebras by semigroups of automorphisms, or evenof endomorphisms. Indeed, in recent years a number of papers have appeared that are concernedwith such non-classicaltheories of covariance algebras, see, for instance [1-3].

  12. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in Chile in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02).

  13. The prevalence of internal and external parasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in Southeast District, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoso, S J; Mosala, K P; Ndebele, R T; Ramabu, S S

    2000-09-01

    Botswana imports most pig-based products from neighbouring countries. Pig farming is limited by, among other things, the negative effect of parasites and diseases on production. The object of this study was to determine the prevalence of ecto- and endoparasites in pigs of different ages and sexes in the Southeast District of Botswana. Thirty-nine pigs were sampled for endoparasites and 19 for ectoparasites during a period of 2 1/2 months. Of all the pigs sampled, 54,55% were infected with Ascaris suum, 20,45% with Trichostrongylus spp. and 6,82% with Trichuris suis. Ascaris suum was found to be the most common endoparasite infesting both mature, i.e. 12 months and older, and young, i.e. less than 12 months old, pigs. Although not significantly different (P > 0,05), the prevalence of this parasite species was slightly higher (68,42% with an average of 1,023 +/- 545 eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces per pig) in mature than in young pigs (55% with an of average 1,500 +/- 846 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of Trichostrongylus spp. was lower in mature (5,26% with 20 +/- 14 EPG of faeces per pig) than in young pigs (25% with 22 +/- 9 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of T. suis was also lower in mature (0% infection) than in young pigs (15% with 9 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig). The prevalence of the three endoparasite species was not significantly different between the sexes A. suum (1,020 +/- 883 v. 1,503 +/- 522 EPG of faeces per pig), Trichostrongylus spp. (24 +/- 14 v. 18 +/- 8 EPG of faeces per pig) and T. suis (11 +/- 6 v. 2 +/- 4 EPG of faeces per pig) for male and female pigs respectively. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only ectoparasite identified on the pigs sampled for external parasites. It infested 40% of all pigs but the infestation on young pigs (70%) was higher than on the mature ones (33,33%). Since the infection of internal and external parasites was similar in young and old pigs of both sexes, controlling parasites is of great importance since these

  14. Influence of age on prevalence rates of chronic complications of hospitalized aged patients with hypertension——analysis of 17,682 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Cui; Yixin Hu; Li Fan; Guoliang Hu; Wei Dai

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the relationship between age and chronic complications in hospitalized aged patients with hypertension, to provide evidence for hypertension prevention and control. Methods To retrospectively analyze the clinical and laboratory data on 17,682 patients with essential hypertension during Jan 1st,1993-Dee 12th, 2008 in PLA general hospital. Results 1)Among all of the inrolled cases, those aged 60-64 account for 27.87%, 65-69 years group account for 26.55%, 70-74 years group accounted for 23.96%, 75-79 years group accounted for 14.14%, 80-84 years group accounted for 5.26%, 85-89 years group accounted for 1.69%, > 90 years accounted for 0.41%. 2) The prevalence rate of chronic complications in 60-69 years group were 31.3-31.2% for diabetes and,22.6-27.0% for cerebrovascular disease, 9.5-11.1% for myocardial infarction, 6.7-9.1% for heart failure, 5.8-6.0% for renal dysfanction 4.9-6.8% for atrial fibrillation, 0.1-0.3% for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in the elderly(P <0.05 ). 3) The first four complications of hypertension were diabetes(33.5%), cerebrovascular disease (31.9%), myocardial infarction(13.2%) and heart failure(12.3%) in 70-74 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease (42.8%), diabetes (32.8%), heart failure (16.5%) and myocardial infarction(15.9%) in 75-79 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease (45.4%), diabetes (35.0%), heart failure (21.1%) and myocardial infarction(15.9%) in 80-84 years group (P<0.05), cerebrovascular disease(42.5%), diabetes (35.8%), heart failure (23.1%) and renal dysfanction (17.7%) in 85-89 years group(P<0.05 ),and cerebrovascular disease (45. 2%), heart failure(31.5%), diabetes (26.0%) and renal dysfanction (20.5%) in patients more than 90 years group (P<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence rate and kinds of chronic complications in hospitalized aged patients with hypertension were changed with the increasing age, and the first kind of complication is cerebrovascular disease. It is of

  15. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  16. Age-dependent prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae before conjugate vaccine introduction: a prediction model based on a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Polain de Waroux

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S.pneumoniae in all age groups are important to help predict the impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV into routine infant immunization, given the important indirect effect of the vaccine. Yet most carriage studies are limited to children under five years of age. We here explore the association between carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in children aged ≥5 years and in adults compared to children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies providing carriage estimates across age groups in healthy populations not previously exposed to PCV, using MEDLINE and Embase. We used Bayesian linear meta-regression models to predict the overall carriage prevalence as well as the prevalence and distribution of vaccine and nonvaccine type (VT and NVT serotypes in older age groups as a function of that in <5 y olds. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies compromising of 20,391 individuals were included in the analysis. In all studies nasopharyngeal carriage decreased with increasing age. We found a strong positive linear association between the carriage prevalence in pre-school childen (<5 y and both that in school aged children (5-17 y olds and in adults. The proportion of VT serotypes isolated from carriers was consistently lower in older age groups and on average about 73% that of children <5 y among 5-17 y olds and adults respectively. We provide a prediction model to infer the carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in 5-17 y olds and adults as a function of that in children <5 years of age. CONCLUSION: Such predictions are helpful for assessing the potential population-wide effects of vaccination programmes, e.g. via transmission models, and thus assist in the design of future pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies.

  17. The Covariant Stark Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Land, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Stark effect, as a first order perturbation of manifestly covariant hydrogen-like bound states. These bound states are solutions to a relativistic Schr\\"odinger equation with invariant evolution parameter, and represent mass eigenstates whose eigenvalues correspond to the well-known energy spectrum of the non-relativistic theory. In analogy to the nonrelativistic case, the off-diagonal perturbation leads to a lifting of the degeneracy in the mass spectrum. In the covariant case, not only do the spectral lines split, but they acquire an imaginary part which is lnear in the applied electric field, thus revealing induced bound state decay in first order perturbation theory. This imaginary part results from the coupling of the external field to the non-compact boost generator. In order to recover the conventional first order Stark splitting, we must include a scalar potential term. This term may be understood as a fifth gauge potential, which compensates for dependence of gauge transformat...

  18. Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982-1997, 69094 men and women aged 19-78 years, wi...

  19. PREVALENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND TYPE OF GASTRO OESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION MALIGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin Eldo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of the oesophagus is the ninth most common malignancy, causes 2% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. This study was aimed to determine the type of malignancy more common in gastro oesophageal junction as well as to know the age and gender distribution of malignancy. METHODS Longitudinal study was done by including all the diagnosed cases of carcinoma of gastro oesophageal junction who had undergone oesophagectomy. The resected specimen of the subset of patients with adenocarcinoma was examined for the presence of intestinal metaplasia using haematoxylin and eosin stain. RESULTS A total of 36 patients were studied. Among the 36 cases, 21 cases (58.33% were squamous cell carcinoma with 13 patients (61.9% between 50 years and 70 years of age and rest 15 cases (41.66% were adenocarcinoma with 8 patients (53.3% between 50 to 60 years of age. All the adenocarcinomas were presented in late stage (T3 or T4, 60% with lymph node metastasis and 20% of patients had intestinal metaplasia. Among the patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 62% presented with T3 disease and 33% presented with T2 disease and only 19% of patients had lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION Among the malignancy at the gastro oesophageal junction, squamous cell carcinoma with female dominance was more common than adenocarcinoma with male dominance. Most of the cases were with well differentiated tumours presenting at a late stage of the disease either T3 or T4 with low incidence of lymph node metastasis. Adenocarcinoma showed a low incidence of specialized intestinal metaplasia.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among school age children in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok N. Solanki

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among school children especially with low income, lower age, family history of enuresis and history of urinary tract infection. Enuresis is a pediatric public health problem and efforts at all levels should be made such as preventive, etiological and curative. The ratio of males to females in this study was 1.86 that is comparable to other data of the same study. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 202-205

  1. Prevalence of depression and its effect on disability in patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Anindya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To estimate depression in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD and study the relationships among depression, visual acuity, and disability. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling (n = 53 of patients with AMD aged 50 years and above attending the retina clinic of a tertiary care hospital in North India. Depression, general disability and vision-specific disability were assessed in subjects meeting selection criteria. Assessments were done using the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM- IV Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis -I Disorders, Clinical Version (SCID-CV, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II (WHODAS-II and Daily Living Tasks dependent on Vision scale (DLTV. Non-parametric correlation analyses and regression analyses were performed. Results: Out of 53 participants, 26.4% (n = 14 met DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of depressive disorder. Depressed patients had significantly greater levels of general and vision-specific disability than non-depressed patients. General disability was predicted better by depression and vision-specific disability than by visual acuity. Conclusion: Depression is a major concern in patients with AMD and contributes more to disability than visual impairment.

  2. Higher prevalence of X-ray selected AGN in intermediate age galaxies up to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Barro, Guillermo; Aird, James; Ferreras, Ignacio; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolás; Esquej, Pilar; Gallego, Jesús; Nandra, Kirpal; Rodríguez-Zaurín, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the stellar populations in the host galaxies of 53 X-ray selected optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 0.3410^10.5 M_sun) and that the observed fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN increases with the stellar mass. A careful selection of random control samples of inactive galaxies allows us to remove the stellar mass and redshift dependencies of the AGN fraction to explore trends with several stellar age indicators. We find no significant differences in the distribution of the rest-frame U-V colour for AGN hosts and inactive galaxies, in agreement with previous results. However, we find significantly shallower 4000 AA breaks in AGN hosts, indicative of younger stellar populations. With the help of a model-independent determination of the extinction, we obtain extinction-corrected U-V colours and light-weighted average stellar ages. We find that AGN hosts have younger stellar populations and higher extinction compared to inactive galaxies with the same stellar mass and at the same redshift. ...

  3. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  4. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children--New York City and Los Angeles County, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    Recent studies have reported evidence of a leveling and decline in childhood obesity prevalence in New York and California. However, some areas of the United States continue to experience increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity. To assess differences and changes over time in early childhood obesity in the two most populous cities in the United States, obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in New York City (NYC) was compared with obesity prevalence among WIC-enrolled children in Los Angeles County (LAC) during 2003-2011. In NYC, from 2003 to 2011, obesity prevalence decreased among blacks, whites, and Hispanics, but increased among Asians. In LAC, obesity prevalence decreased among Asians and increased and then decreased among blacks and Hispanics from 2003 to 2011. Hispanic WIC-enrolled children had the greatest prevalence of obesity for all years in both areas. In 2011, the obesity prevalence among Hispanics in NYC was 19.1%, compared with 21.7% in LAC. Comparisons of obesity prevalence data among cities and states might suggest interventions and policies to help reverse childhood obesity increases in some populations.

  5. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  6. Prevalence of self-injury performed by adolescents aged 16–19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2016-02-01

    1. Self-injury is performed by 14% of adolescents aged 16–19 years, significantly more girls than boys. 2. Significantly more adolescents who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not do it, use psychoactive substances, get drunk, report planning suicide, neglect school and more often consume alcohol. 3. Significantly more adolescents who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not perform it, raised in a single parent family inform about alcohol addiction of a family member, conflicts with parents and the experienced psychological and physical violence experienced from their parents and peers. Significantly more girls who perform self-injury, as compared to those who do not perform it, experienced sexual abuse. 4. Performing self-injury by adolescents coexists with factors motivating to this type of behaviours: sense of helplessness, rejection, loneliness, sense of guilt, anger, impulsiveness, desire for revenge, school problems, conflicts with parents and peers.

  7. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION AMONG ADULTS AGED 30 YEARS AND ABOVE IN A RURAL DWELLING OF KOTTAYAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Rising prevalence of hypertension is a major public health challenge in India especially in Kerala. This cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants in a rural population of Kottayam, Kerala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was carried out among 400 adults aged 30 years and above in a randomly selected ward of Ettumanoor panchayath, which is the field practice area of Govt. Medical college, Kottayam. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding socio demographic and behavioral factors. Standardized sphygmomanometric blood pressure measurement was taken by trained team members twice for each individual and the average of the two was taken as blood pressure. Anthropometric measurements were also done. A systolic blood pressure of ≥140mm of Hg and or diastolic BP≥90mm of Hg was regarded as hypertension. Data analysis was done using the software Epi-info version 3.4.3. Chi square test revealed the association between hypertension (dependent variable and other socio demographic and behavioural factors (independent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. All the significant variables are included in the binary logistic regression to find out Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 35% (males-33.8% females -35.6%. The variables which evolved as significant and remained so in binary logistic regression analysis were single status after marriage/ unmarried (AOR-2.45 95% CI 1.38-4.38, low educational status (AOR- 2.31, 95%CI-1.46-3.64, family history of hypertension (AOR-1.85 95%CI-1.2-2.85 and trunkal obesity in females (AOR-2.41 95%CI-1.37-4.24 CONCLUSION: The present study revealed the prevalence (35% and risk factors for hypertension in the study area. The results of the study can be used to develop messages to make the people aware of the problem of hypertension

  8. Covariant Macroscopic Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, Craig J

    2012-01-01

    A covariant noncommutative algebra of position operators is presented, and interpreted as the macroscopic limit of a geometry that describes a collective quantum behavior of the positions of massive bodies in a flat emergent space-time. The commutator defines a quantum-geometrical relationship between world lines that depends on their separation and relative velocity, but on no other property of the bodies, and leads to a transverse uncertainty of the geometrical wave function that increases with separation. The number of geometrical degrees of freedom in a space-time volume scales holographically, as the surface area in Planck units. Ongoing branching of the wave function causes fluctuations in transverse position, shared coherently among bodies with similar trajectories. The theory can be tested using appropriately configured Michelson interferometers.

  9. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  10. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-11-01

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  11. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Renyi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  12. Covariant Residual Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, Veronika E

    2014-01-01

    A recently explored interesting quantity in AdS/CFT, dubbed 'residual entropy', characterizes the amount of collective ignorance associated with either boundary observers restricted to finite time duration, or bulk observers who lack access to a certain spacetime region. However, the previously-proposed expression for this quantity involving variation of boundary entanglement entropy (subsequently renamed to 'differential entropy') works only in a severely restrictive context. We explain the key limitations, arguing that in general, differential entropy does not correspond to residual entropy. Given that the concept of residual entropy as collective ignorance transcends these limitations, we identify two correspondingly robust, covariantly-defined constructs: a 'strip wedge' associated with boundary observers and a 'rim wedge' associated with bulk observers. These causal sets are well-defined in arbitrary time-dependent asymptotically AdS spacetimes in any number of dimensions. We discuss their relation, spec...

  13. A population-based cross-sectional study of age-specific risk factors for high risk human papillomavirus prevalence in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Megan A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer, caused by persistent infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, is particularly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with a high mortality rate. Some studies in West Africa, including our own, have found unusually high HR-HPV across all ages with a slight peak in older women. This increased prevalence at older ages may complicate screen-and-treat programs, which are implemented in regions where HPV prevalence declines with age and typically target women between 30-49 years. A better understanding of the determinants of high HR-HPV prevalence at older ages is needed. The goal of this study is to explore risk factors for HR-HPV prevalence by age among women in our population-based study in Irun, a rural town in southwestern Nigeria. Methods 1,420 women were administered a clinic-based questionnaire regarding sexual and reproductive behavior, marital status (including co-wives, and malaria exposure. Logistic regression compared questionnaire responses and PCR positivity for a set of 13 carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Results were stratified by age (15-29, 30-45, 46-55, and 56+ years. Results Birth control use and age at first pregnancy were associated with HR-HPV (p-value = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. Early age at sexual debut and multiple sex partners were risks for HR-HPV, but did not reach significance (p-value = 0.1 and 0.07, respectively. Neither self-reported malaria nor presence of co-wives in the household was associated with HR-HPV (p-value = 0.85 and 0.24, respectively. In age sub-categories, early age at sexual debut was a significant risk factor for HR-HPV among women 35-45 years (p-value = 0.02. Early age at first pregnancy remained a significant risk factor for women aged 56+ years (p-value = 0.04. Greater than 2 sex partners and use of birth control were associated (though not significantly with HR-HPV in women aged 30-45 (p-value = 0.08, respectively. Conclusions In this

  14. Country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of screen-based behaviour and family-related factors among school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: New information and communication technologies have become an important part of adolescents' everyday lives. However, the sedentary behaviour of young people in Central Europe has become more similar to that found in Western European countries. This study can provide baseline data for a future comparison and investigation of lifestyle and health behaviours in this region in the future. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess country, age, and gender differences in the prevalence of sedentary behaviour activities and family-related factors among school-aged children. Methods: Using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was performed in 2013, collecting data from 11- and 15-year-old Slovak (n = 488 and Czech (n = 418 children. The data was explored using c2 tests to determine statistical significance. Results: Two-thirds of the respondents watch television or use a computer for at least two hours a day. The older children (older vs. younger: 73.6% vs. 53.9%, c2 = 35.6, p < .001 spent excessive amounts of time watching television. More than half of the children have a television (51.9% or a computer (73.0% in their bedroom. More than half of their parents rarely or never apply rules about how long they can watch TV (63.9% or time spent on the computer (55.5%. The Slovak children reported watching television together with their parents every day significantly more frequently than their Czech peers (Slovak vs. Czech children 31.0% vs. 18.7%, c2 = 17.9, p < .001. Conclusions: The prevalence of screen-based behaviour is relatively high, as is screen time spent together with parents, especially among the Slovak children. Moreover, many children reported that their parents rarely or never applied rules about the length and content of their television watching or time spent on the computer.

  15. The Prevalence of Enamel Defects in Students 7-12 Years of Age in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmodian J

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental enamel is the end product of amelogenesis, which can be considered to take place in"nthree interrelated phases. When this complex sequence of cytological and physicochemica! events"ndisrupted by genetic or environmental factors, the function of the ameloblasts may be disrupted"npermanently or temporarily. The result shows qualitative and quantitative defects that may range from a"ncomplete absence of enamel or a slight discoloration. The aim of this study was to determine the"nprevalence of enamel defects by DDE index in a randomly selection group of 1637 students age 7-12"nyears old in Isfahan (0.2-0.3 PPMF". Enamel defects were present on one or more teeth in 27% of the"ncases. The most common affected tooth was the central maxillary and then first molar of maxilla. The"nmost common affected surfaces were buccal. Hypoplastic defects were found in first molar; however"npremolar and canine were affected by diffuse white lines opacity.

  16. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewchuk Tanya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  17. Age trends in the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-positive women in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atashili, Julius

    2012-10-29

    AbstractBackgroundCervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) are more frequent in HIV-positive women overall. However the appropriate age at which to begin and end cervical cancer screening for early detection of lesions in HIV-positive women is not clear. We assessed the age-specific prevalence of any SIL and SIL requiring colposcopy in HIV-positive women in Cameroon.MethodsWe enrolled, interviewed and conducted conventional cervical cytology in 282 women, aged 19--68 years, initiating antiretroviral therapy in three clinics in Cameroon. In bivariable analyses, the crude relationship between age and the presence of lesions was assessed using locally weighted regression (LOWESS) methods. In multivariate analyses, generalized linear models with prevalence as the outcome, an identity link and a binomial distribution, were used to estimate prevalence differences. Bias analyses were conducted to assess the potential effect of inaccuracies in cytology.ResultsSIL were detected in 43.5% of the 276 women with satisfactory samples, 17.8% of whom had ASC-H\\/HSIL. On average, women aged 26 to 59 tended to have a slightly higher prevalence of any SIL than other women (Prevalence difference PD: 6.5%; 95%CI: -11.4, 24.4%). This PD was a function of CD4 count (heterogeneity test p-value =0.09): amongst patients with CD4 counts less than 200cells\\/uL, the prevalence was higher in patients aged 26--59, while there was essentially no difference amongst women with CD4 counts greater than 200 cells\\/uL. ASC-H\\/HSIL were present in women as young as 19 and as old as 62. Overall the prevalence of ASC-H\\/HSIL increased by 0.7% (95%CI: -3.8%, 5.1%) per decade increase in age.ConclusionBoth severe and less severe lesions were prevalent at all ages suggesting little utility of age-targeted screening among HIV-positive women. Nevertheless, the long-term evolution of these lesions needs to be assessed in prospective studies.

  18. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls.

  19. Prevalence of HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Mamishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Febrile convulsion is a common disorder in children. Viral infections such as human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 which results in roseola infantum may contribute to developing seizure. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 by detecting DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of children with febrile convulsion and without any rash of roseola infantum.In this descriptive cross-sectional study, CSF of 100 children younger than 2 years of age with febrile convulsion was evaluated for detecting HHV-6 DNA by PCR. All of them were referred to emergency ward in Pediatric Medical Center from March 2010 to March 2011. General information, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and outcomes were collected in the questionnaires.One hundred children including 59 males and 41 females were evaluated. HHV-6 was detected from CSF in six patients (6% by PCR. Mean age was 8 months old. All children were younger than 12 months old. The most common primary manifestation was fever alone. None of them had rash. Majority of cases occurred in winter. All patients recovered without any encephalitis.These findings showed that primary infection with HHV-6 is frequently associated with febrile convulsion in infants which may be at risk for subsequent development of epilepsy.

  20. Prevalence of memory disorders in ambulatory patients aged ≥70 years with chronic heart failure (from the EFICARE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; de Groote, Pascal; Galinier, Michel; Isnard, Richard; Logeart, Damien; Komajda, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this multicenter observational study conducted in France was to determine the prevalence of memory impairment in ambulatory patients aged≥70 years with chronic heart failure (HF). Two hundred ninety-one cardiologists recruited 912 ambulatory patients with HF (mean age 79.2±5.8 years) from January to November 2009. Memory was evaluated by the delayed-recall Memory Impairment Screen (MIS-D). Memory impairment was defined as MIS-D score≤6 and severe memory impairment as MIS-D score≤4. HF was diagnosed 4.4±4.8 years earlier and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 43.6±12.0%. Memory impairment was found in 416 subjects (45.6%, 95% confidence interval 42.4 to 48.8) and severe memory impairment in 213 subjects (23.4%, 95% confidence interval 20.6 to 26.1), whereas cardiologists only suspected memory impairment in 109 patients (12%; before evaluation by MIS). Determinants of memory disorders included older age, lower education level, depression, history of stroke, renal failure, and less regular physical activity. The severity of memory impairment increased with increasing severity of HF (New York Heart Association classification; p<0.00001). In conclusion, memory impairment in older patients with HF is common. The use of a simple-to-use tool such as the MIS-D may identify patients at risk and enable implementation of management strategies to improve therapeutic compliance.

  1. Probit Models to Investigate Prevalence of Total Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among Aged 45 Years or Older Adults in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Minghui; Augustin, Balekouzou; Shu, Chang; Qin, Tingting; Yin, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to identify the most important predictors of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and estimate the mean change in the predicted probability among aged 45+ adults in China. We used baseline data collected from 2011 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (n = 9,513). First, we estimated the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed, and undiagnosed diabetes. Second, we used probit models to determine whether individual attributes, socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral health factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, central obesity, are associated with total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. We also consider other factors, including contact with medical system, hypertension and urban/rural settings. Third, we estimated average marginal effects of variables in probit models. Among Chinese people aged 45+, the prevalence of diagnosed, measured, total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes were 5.8% (95%CI, 5.3%-6.3%), 14.7% (95%CI, 14.0%-15.4%), 17.0% (95%CI, 16.3%-17.7%), 11.3% (95%CI, 10.6%-12.0%), respectively. The probability of total diagnosed diabetes is 3.3% (95% CI, 1.2%-5.3%) and 10.2% (95% CI, 7.0%-13.5%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 5.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-7.1%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference, 5.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-7.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%- 2.7%) higher in urban areas than in rural areas, respectively. The probability of undiagnosed diabetes is 2.7% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.2%) and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-9.6%) higher for overweight and obesity than normal BMI, 2.6% (95% CI, 0.9%-4.4%) higher for central obesity than normal waist circumference and 2.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-4.0%) higher for hypertensive than normotensive, respectively, and -1.5% (95% CI, -2.5% to -0.5%) lower for individuals who were in contact with the medical system. Greater focus on prevention of diabetes is necessary for obesity

  2. Socioeconomic status, body mass index and prevalence of underweight and overweight among Polish girls aged 7-18: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronka, Iwona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.

  3. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment according to World Health Organization and United States criteria in an aged, urban Scandinavian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; Nielsen, N V

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in an epidemiologic study of aged, urban individuals in Denmark. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 1000 randomly selected residents aged 60 to 80 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Of 976...... eligible persons, 946 (96.9%) could be examined. Information about best-corrected visual acuity (VA) was obtained from 944 cooperative persons (96.7%). METHODS: Data from the Copenhagen City Eye Study were used to assess the cause-specific prevalence of visual impairment as defined by the World Health...

  4. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Jeddi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys; about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04, lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02, and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02 compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039. Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures.

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM and Associated Hearing Impairment Among School-aged Children in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Muftah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is one of the leading causes of preventable disabling hearing impairment (DHI in developing countries. Early detection and management complements advances made in other survival programs, improves work capacity, and enhances learning opportunities for school children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CSOM and associated DHI among school children aged six to 16 years in Socotra Island, Yemen. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional community-based survey, from 20 April 2011 to 20 June 2011. The study procedures involved completing a questionnaire, an otoscopic ear examination, an audiometric test of hearing, and tuning fork tests for the type of DHI. Results: A total of 686 children were interviewed and examined for CSOM and associated DHI of CSOM cases. The prevalence of CSOM was 7.4%, (95% CI 5.5–9.4. CSOM status was significantly associated with DHI (p=0.001, but no significant associations were found between demographic characteristics and CSOM status. Logistic regression identified four significant independent contributing factors: history of ear discharge in the last 12 months (odds ratio (OR 7.8, 95% CI 3.9–15.6; swimming in local pools (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.4–25.4; recurrent respiratory tract infection more than three times per year (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.5–11.0; and overcrowding with more than three families per house (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7–11.5. . Conclusion: The burden of CSOM in the children studied indicates a high level of DHI in these communities within Yemen. A history of ear discharge, swimming in local pools, recurrent respiratory infections, and overcrowded housing were the strongest predictors for CSOM. There is a need for better ear care and screening programs for early detection and management of this disease.

  6. Secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006 to 2009 in urban asian Indian adolescents aged 14-17 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available The present study examines the secular trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Asian Indian adolescents in New Delhi (North India. The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 3493 in year 2006 and 4908 in year 2009, aged 14-17 years studying in privately-funded and government-funded schools. Age, gender and Asian Indian-specific cut offs of body mass index (BMI were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 9.8% in 2006 to 11.7% in 2009 (p<0.01, whereas underweight decreased from 11.3% to 3.9% (p<0.001. There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42 and obese (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.66 in year 2009 than 2006, after adjusting for age, gender and type of school. Males and privately-funded school children had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese over the three years. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban Asian Indian adolescents. More specifically, the study showed the association of this increasing trend of overweight and obesity prevalence with male gender and high socio-economic status, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures.

  7. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  8. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  9. Covariate-adjusted measures of discrimination for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Ian R; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Discrimination statistics describe the ability of a survival model to assign higher risks to individuals who experience earlier events: examples are Harrell's C-index and Royston and Sauerbrei's D, which we call the D-index. Prognostic covariates whose distributions are controlled...... by the study design (e.g. age and sex) influence discrimination and can make it difficult to compare model discrimination between studies. Although covariate adjustment is a standard procedure for quantifying disease-risk factor associations, there are no covariate adjustment methods for discrimination...

  10. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were a...

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients Examined at a Health Promotion Center in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Byung Gil; Joe, Soo Geun; Hwang, Jong-Uk; Kim, Hong Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Yoon, Young Hee

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors for early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Koreans 50 yr of age or older who were examined at a single health promotion center. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 10,449 subjects who visited the center over a 6-month period. Fundus photography was performed on all subjects, and systematic risk factor analysis was conducted using a structured questionnaire. All patients (n = 322) were initially diagnosed with drusen or early AMD usi...

  12. Covariant representations of subproduct systems

    CERN Document Server

    Viselter, Ami

    2010-01-01

    A celebrated theorem of Pimsner states that a covariant representation $T$ of a $C^*$-correspondence $E$ extends to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra of $E$ if and only if $T$ is isometric. This paper is mainly concerned with finding conditions for a covariant representation of a \\emph{subproduct system} to extend to a $C^*$-representation of the Toeplitz algebra. This framework is much more general than the former. We are able to find sufficient conditions, and show that in important special cases, they are also necessary. Further results include the universality of the tensor algebra, dilations of completely contractive covariant representations, Wold decompositions and von Neumann inequalities.

  13. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  14. Prevalence of impaired left ventricular systolic function and heart failure in a middle-aged and elderly urban population segment of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, I.; Pedersen, F.; Steensgaard-Hansen, F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of impaired left ventricular systolic function and manifest heart failure in a general population aged 50-89 years. DESIGN: In this cross sectional survey, participants filled in a heart failure questionnaire. ECG, blood tests, and echocardiography were performed...

  15. Age-Related Changes in the Prevalence of Osteoporosis according to Gender and Skeletal Site: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

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    Jongseok Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incidence of osteoporosis and its related fractures are expected to increase significantly in the rapidly aging Korean population. Reliable data on the prevalence of this disease is essential for treatment planning. However, sparse data on Korean patients is available.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed according to the World Health Organization T-score criteria. We analyzed the BMD data of 17,208 people (men, 7,837; women, 9,368.ResultsThe adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis was 7.8% in men versus 37.0% in women. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of osteopenia between genders (men, 47.0%; women, 48.7%. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men in their 50s was 4.0%, in their 60s was 7.2%, in their 70s was 15.1%, and in their 80s was 26.7%. The figures in women were 15.2%, 36.5%, 62.7%, and 85.8%, respectively. The age group with the maximal BMD differed between genders. In the men, 20s had the highest value in all the skeletal sites. However, in the women, the maximal BMD in the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and the total hip was observed in their 20s, 30s, and 40s, respectively. The onset age of osteoporosis differed between genders. Osteoporosis in the femoral neck began at 55 years in the women and at 60 years in the men.ConclusionThe prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea was significantly high. In addition, the age-related changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis differed according to gender and skeletal site.

  16. The prevalence of hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia in individuals of over 30 years of age belonging to minorities from the pasture area of Xinjiang

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    Luo Wen-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of population-wide hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia has not been well studied in the pasture area of Xinjiang. The present epidemiological study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia in minority populations from the pasture area of Xinjiang and to discuss the potential risk factors for hypertension. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study in the Xinjiang pasture area was performed which included 2251 participants aged over 30 years (90.33% participation rate of whom 71.26% were Kazaks. Several risk factors were considered: hypertension (defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure or both of at least 140/90 mmHg measured on one occasion or treatment for hypertension overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 alcohol intake, smoking/tobacco use and dyslipidemia. Outcomes were prevalence of hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia and the associated risk factors of hypertension detected by multivariate logistic regression analysis taking into account various metabolic and lifestyle characteristics. Results The prevalence of hypertension, overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia in all participants from the pasture area of Xinjiang was 51.9%, 47.9% and 49.2% respectively. Independently, the prevalence and awareness of hypertension was 52.6% and 15.3% among Kazaks (n = 1604, 54.6% and 14.1% among Uygurs (n = 418, 39.5% and 16.1% among Mongolians (n = 81 and 43.9% and 18.2% among non-Xinjiang-born Han immigrants (n = 148. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Kazaks, Uygurs, Mongolians and Han immigrants was 46.7%, 48.9%, 62.5% and 50.3%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in the four ethnic groups mentioned was 53.5%, 34.8%, 49.3% and 47.3%, respectively. The mean blood pressure in all participants was 136/86 mmHg (pre-hypertensive, the mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m2. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors for

  17. General covariance in computational electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    We advocate the generally covariant formulation of Maxwell equations as underpinning some recent advances in computational electrodynamics—in the dimensionality reduction for separable structures; in mesh truncation for finite-difference computations; and in adaptive coordinate mapping as opposed...

  18. Obesity in preschool children is more prevalent and identified at a younger age when WHO growth charts are used compared with CDC charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf-Manasseh, Zeina; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2011-06-01

    Our objective was to compare the prevalence and determinants of child obesity using the WHO child growth standards compared with the CDC growth reference. We used data from 143,787 2- to 5-y olds who participated in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program between 2001 and 2006. The prevalence of obesity (>95th percentile, BMI-for-age) was 23.3% when we used the WHO standards vs. 16.9% using the CDC reference; for obesity plus overweight (>85th percentile), the prevalence was 42.2 vs. 33.8%, respectively. The difference between the prevalence estimates was greatest at 24-36 mo of age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that child obesity (based on the WHO standards) was more common in boys, Hispanics, children of less educated mothers, and those born to obese mothers. These results confirm that the prevalence of child obesity is higher according to the WHO standards and indicate that the WHO charts allow for a more timely detection of obesity in childhood.

  19. A Radiographic Study on the Associations of Age and Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures with Abdominal Aortic Calcification in Japanese Postmenopausal Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Iwamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the associations of age and history of non- and low-traumatic fractures with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men. Four hundred and one Japanese persons (24 men and 377 postmenopausal women, mean age: 73.8 years for whom thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs had been obtained to evaluate their posture prior to patient participation in a fall-prevention exercise program were enrolled. The associations of sex, age, history of hip fracture, prevalence of vertebral fracture, and spondylosis grade (the Nathan degree with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification (length of calcification, as evaluated according to the number of vertebral bodies were analyzed. Nine subjects (2.2% had a history of hip fracture, and 221 (55.1% had at least one prevalent vertebral fracture. Two hundred and sixty-seven subjects (66.6% had first-degree spondylosis. Age and the number of prevalent vertebral fractures, but not sex, history of hip fracture, or spondylosis grade, were significantly associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification. The present study confirmed that age and the number of vertebral fractures were associated with the severity of abdominal aortic calcification in Japanese postmenopausal women and men.

  20. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 40 102 Patients With First-Ever Ischemic Stroke A Nationwide Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Andersen, Z. J.; Olsen, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    underwent evaluation including stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale), CT, and cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, intermittent arterial claudication, previous myocardial infarction, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We estimated...... the independent effect of gender and age on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and calculated age and gender-specific prevalence rates for each risk factor. Results—The register contained 47.9% women and 52.1% men. Men had more often diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, intermittent arterial...... claudication, and over the limit alcohol consumption. Women had more often hypertension and obesity. Atrial fibrillation and smoking were equally frequent in both genders. Age stratification revealed that the lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors smoking, alcohol, and obesity were more common in the younger...

  1. Prevalência e severidade da cárie dentária em escolares de seis e doze anos de idade Prevalence and severity of dental caries among schoolchildren aged six and twelve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz Traebert

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária e as necessidades de tratamento em escolares de 6 e 12 anos de idade, comparando-se os alunos de escolas públicas com os de privadas. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a população de escolares do município de Blumenau, SC, a partir de uma amostra de 1.473 escolares, representativa de quatro estratos: escolares de 6 anos de escolas públicas, de 6 anos de escolas privadas, de 12 anos de escolas públicas e de 12 anos de escolas privadas. Utilizaram-se os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial de Saúde (1997. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de cárie na dentição decídua em escolares de 6 anos foi de 60,9% em escolas públicas e de 34,9% em escolas privadas (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and to assess treatment needs among schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 in Blumenau, Brazil, and to compare the results found for private and public schools. METHODS: A schoolchildren population of Blumenau, SC, Brazil, was studied. A random sample of 1,473 schoolchildren from Blumenau, Brazil, was obtained. Four strata were studied: 6 and 12 years old schoolchildren attending public and private schools. WHO (1997 criteria for caries diagnosis and treatment needs were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in the primary dentition of 6-years-old children was 60.9% and 34.9% in public and private schools (p<0.0001, respectively. The mean DMF-T for children aged 6 was 2.98 and 1.32 for public and private schools, respectively, (p<0.0001, and 2.42 for the whole sample. The prevalence of caries in the permanent dentition of 12-years-old children was 54.7% and the mean DMF-T was 1.46 for public schools. The response rate for private schools was low and the results could not be analyzed. Forty-two percent and 77.0% of children aged six of public and private schools, respectively, had no treatment needs. For those aged 12, the percentage was 53.0% for public

  2. Prevalence and distribution of abdominal aortic calcium by gender and age group in a community-based cohort (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Michael L; Massaro, Joseph M; Levitzky, Yamini S; Fox, Caroline S; Manders, Emily S; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2012-09-15

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease. However, the age- and gender-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3,285 participants (aged 50.2 ± 9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography from 1998 to 2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (n = 1,656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by gender and age (65 years old, nearly 90% of the referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of the referent group AAC as "high," the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each gender in the overall study sample. The AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort.

  3. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  4. The coexistence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: prevalence and risk factors in young, middle-aged and elderly people from the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The joint distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has not been well described. This study aims at determining the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnoses of asthma, COPD and of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome and to assess whether these conditions share a common set of risk factors. METHODS: A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, diagnoses and risk factors was administered by mail or phone to random samples of the general Italian population aged 20-44 (n = 5163 45-64 (n = 2167 and 65-84 (n = 1030 in the frame of the multicentre Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study. RESULTS: A physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis/COPD was reported by 13% and 21% of subjects aged <65 and 65-84 years respectively. Aging was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of diagnosed asthma (from 8.2% to 1.6% and with a marked increase in the prevalence of diagnosed COPD (from 3.3% to 13.3%. The prevalence of the overlap of asthma and COPD was 1.6% (1.3%-2.0%, 2.1% (1.5%-2.8% and 4.5% (3.2%-5.9% in the 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 age groups. Subjects with both asthma and COPD diagnoses were more likely to have respiratory symptoms, physical impairment, and to report hospital admissions compared to asthma or COPD alone (p<0.01. Age, sex, education and smoking showed different and sometimes opposite associations with the three conditions. CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD are common in the general population, and they coexist in a substantial proportion of subjects. The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome represents an important clinical phenotype that deserves more medical attention and further research.

  5. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar

    2016-11-17

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  6. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition- associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤−2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤−2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1- 2 years. We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.

  7. Data Covariances from R-Matrix Analyses of Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, G.M., E-mail: ghale@lanl.gov; Paris, M.W.

    2015-01-15

    After first reviewing the parametric description of light-element reactions in multichannel systems using R-matrix theory and features of the general LANL R-matrix analysis code EDA, we describe how its chi-square minimization procedure gives parameter covariances. This information is used, together with analytically calculated sensitivity derivatives, to obtain cross section covariances for all reactions included in the analysis by first-order error propagation. Examples are given of the covariances obtained for systems with few resonances ({sup 5}He) and with many resonances ({sup 13}C ). We discuss the prevalent problem of this method leading to cross section uncertainty estimates that are unreasonably small for large data sets. The answer to this problem appears to be using parameter confidence intervals in place of standard errors.

  8. Covariate-free and Covariate-dependent Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M

    2016-12-01

    Classical test theory reliability coefficients are said to be population specific. Reliability generalization, a meta-analysis method, is the main procedure for evaluating the stability of reliability coefficients across populations. A new approach is developed to evaluate the degree of invariance of reliability coefficients to population characteristics. Factor or common variance of a reliability measure is partitioned into parts that are, and are not, influenced by control variables, resulting in a partition of reliability into a covariate-dependent and a covariate-free part. The approach can be implemented in a single sample and can be applied to a variety of reliability coefficients.

  9. How do different diagnostic criteria, age and gender affect the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults? An epidemiological study in a Hungarian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, István; Simon, Viktoria; Bálint, Sára; Mészáros, Agnes; Czobor, Pál

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of different diagnostic criteria on prevalence estimates of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (2) to provide prevalence estimates of adult ADHD for the first time in a Hungarian sample. Subjects between 18 and 60 years were included in the screening phase of the study (N = 3,529), conducted in 17 GP practices in Budapest. Adult self-report scale 6-item version was used for screening. Out of 279 positively screened subjects 161 subjects participated in a clinical interview and filled out a self-report questionnaire to confirm the diagnosis. Beside DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, we applied four alternative diagnostic criteria: 'No-onset' (DSM-IV criteria without the specific requirement for onset); full/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria); and reduced/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria with a reduced threshold for symptom count). Crude prevalence estimates adjusted for the specificity and sensitivity data of the screener were 1.35% in the 'DSM-IV' group, 1.64% in the 'No-onset' group, 3.65% in the 'Sx/full' group and 4.16% in the 'Sx/reduced' group. Logistic regression analysis showed that ADHD was significantly more prevalent with younger age and male gender [chi(2) = 14.46; P = 0.0007]. Prevalence estimates corrected for the 'not-interviewed' subsample and adjusted for specificity and sensitivity data of the screener was 2.3% in males, 0.91% in females; 2.02% in the 40 years age group, based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Prevalence rates found in this study are somewhat lower, but still are in line with those reported in the literature.

  10. A community-based iron supplementation program, "Iron-Like Turkey", and the following prevalence of anemia among infants aged 12-23 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, S Songül; Tezel, Başak; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Pekcan, Gülden; Ozbaş, Sema; Köksal, Eda; Tunç, Bahattin; Sahinli, Selvi; Altunsu, A Tanju; Köse, M Rifat; Buzgan, Turan; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-01-01

    During the second year of the "Iron-like Turkey" Project, in which all children aged 4-6 months in Turkey receive iron supplementation for 5 months, we aimed to assess the utilization of iron supplementation in the field, as well as the prevalence of anemia in healthy infants aged 12-23 months, while determining a variety of sociodemographic and nutritional factors for anemia in three of the 12 NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions (regions with the highest, lowest and middle under-5 malnutrition levels). In a community-based, cross-sectional survey using a multi-staged, weighted, cluster-selected sample, children aged 12-23 months with birthweight ≥2500 g, no chronic illness, no history of blood disease, and from term and singleton pregnancy were enrolled; 1589 children met the criteria. The mean±SD age of children surveyed was 17.8±3.6 months. Of the parents, 72.4% claimed that their physician had recommended iron supplementation, and 68.8% had given supplementation to their children. Overall prevalence of anemia was 7.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the frequency of anemia decreased significantly in older infants, when supplementation was recommended by health providers, when an infant was breastfed longer than 6 months, and when the mother received iron supplementation during pregnancy. However, anemia prevalence increased when the infant received iron supplementation at a later age (³9 months), lived in a crowded family (³6 persons), and when the mother had a history of iron deficiency anemia. Anemic infants had significantly lower z scores of weight for age than non-anemic ones. This survey suggests that iron supplementation during pregnancy, initiation of iron supplementation in infants at 4-6 months of age, effective counseling on supplementation, subsequent compliance, support of breastfeeding, and effective training of health care personnel are effective strategies for prevention of anemia in the community.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of co-use of alcohol and tobacco among men in working age group (18-59 years in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between tobacco and alcohol use is very important in making strategies containing use of these products. Alcohol and tobacco use were studied separately in Indian studies, which can undermine their co-occurrences. The objective of the study is to know the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use among men in working age groups.Data Sources: The data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave1 was used. It was a cross sectional household survey, which collected information for adults aged 18 years and above.Results: The prevalence of co-use of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 18-59 years was 23.5%. High use of tobacco was found among alcohol user. Age cohorts were also the important determinants of alcohol and tobacco use. The inverted U or V-shape relation was found between age groups and co-use of tobacco and alcohol. The prevalence was lowest for age groups 18-24 years and 50-59 years. Low education attainment and working in informal sector were the main risk factors for high co-use of these substances among men. The study also tried to look at the relationship between the co-use of alcohol and tobacco with some selected health indicators. Use of alcohol and tobacco was significantly related with under nutrition and increasing blood pressure levels among men in India.Conclusion: To contain the use of alcohol and tobacco to improve heath condition among adult men, policies and strategies must be form keeping the importance of their co-occurrences.

  12. Levy Matrices and Financial Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Zdzislaw; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    2003-10-01

    In a given market, financial covariances capture the intra-stock correlations and can be used to address statistically the bulk nature of the market as a complex system. We provide a statistical analysis of three SP500 covariances with evidence for raw tail distributions. We study the stability of these tails against reshuffling for the SP500 data and show that the covariance with the strongest tails is robust, with a spectral density in remarkable agreement with random Lévy matrix theory. We study the inverse participation ratio for the three covariances. The strong localization observed at both ends of the spectral density is analogous to the localization exhibited in the random Lévy matrix ensemble. We discuss two competitive mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of an extensive and delocalized eigenvalue at the edge of the spectrum: (a) the Lévy character of the entries of the correlation matrix and (b) a sort of off-diagonal order induced by underlying inter-stock correlations. (b) can be destroyed by reshuffling, while (a) cannot. We show that the stocks with the largest scattering are the least susceptible to correlations, and likely candidates for the localized states. We introduce a simple model for price fluctuations which captures behavior of the SP500 covariances. It may be of importance for assets diversification.

  13. Prevalence, intensity of infection and risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EU Amuta; RS Houmsou

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection and the risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed to process urine specimens and to determine presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Questionnaires were also administered to children to collect information on socio-demographic data and water-contact activities. Results: An overall prevalence of 55.0% (165/300) was recorded out of the 300 urine samples examined. Prevalence of infection varied between 36.0%-64.0% with a significant difference (χ2= 11.59, P=0.041) between the different communities visited. Males were more infected (60.6%, 103/170) than females (47.7%, 62/130) with a significant difference (χ2= 4.95, P=0.026). The age-related prevalence showed higher prevalence (70.5%, 36/52) in the 11-15 year old children than that in the 1-5 year old ones (44.9%, 53/118). A significant difference was observed in the prevalence between the age groups (χ2=10.56, P=0.014). The prevalence of light intensity of infection (1-49 eggs/10 mL of urine) (86.6%) was significantly higher than that of heavy intensity of infection (≥50 eggs/10 mL of urine) (13.3%) in the area (t=16.48, P=0.000). Water contact activities of the children revealed that children that were involved in irrigation and those that went swimming in water bodies were observed to be at higher risk of becoming infected with urinary schistosomiasis in the area with odd ratios (risk factors) of 2.756 (1.334-5.693) and 2.366 (1.131-4.948) respectively at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: The study revealed the hyperendemicity of urinary schistosomiasis in the pre-school and school aged children in Guma Local Government Area. It is therefore recommended that praziquantel should be administered to children in the area and systematic epidemiological

  14. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals.

  15. Prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns e contexto social: análise multinível do São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Silva Coutinho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O contexto social pode ter papel importante na etiologia dos transtornos mentais e na sua prevalência. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar fatores de risco que contribuem para a prevalência de transtornos mentais comuns (TMC, considerando distintos níveis contextuais: indivíduo, domicílio e setor censitário. Para isso, utilizou-se uma amostra de base populacional de 2.366 indivíduos participantes do São Paulo Ageing & Health Study. A presença de TMC foi identificada pelo instrumento SRQ-20. Sexo, idade, escolaridade e ocupação foram características individuais associadas à prevalência de TMC. Modelos de regressão logística multinível mostraram que parte da variância na prevalência de TMC foi associada ao nível do domicílio, com associações entre aglomeração, renda familiar e prevalência de TMC, mesmo após controle para características individuais. Esses resultados sugerem que características do ambiente onde as pessoas vivem contribuem para sua saúde mental.

  16. Population-based prevalence, type- and age-specific distribution of HPV in women before introduction of an HPV-vaccination program in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K.; Breugelmans, Gabrielle; Munk, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on a population level is important. We conducted a large population-based study in Denmark to determine the overall and age-specific HPV prevalence, and HPV type distribution in women. Liquid-based cytology samples (SurePath) were...... collected consecutively. HPV testing was performed with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Digene) (high-risk and low-risk probes), and LiPA (Innogenetics) was used for genotyping. We analyzed samples from 11,617 women; 94.0% had normal cytology, 4.3% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low....../11. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types increased from 19.2% in women with normal cytology to 100% in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.0% of all women), and was also the most prevalent in women with HSIL (35.1%) and CIN3 (53...

  17. Covariance evaluation work at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, Phillip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, M B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Little, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos evaluates covariances for nuclear data library, mainly for actinides above the resonance regions and light elements in the enUre energy range. We also develop techniques to evaluate the covariance data, like Bayesian and least-squares fitting methods, which are important to explore the uncertainty information on different types of physical quantities such as elastic scattering angular distribution, or prompt neutron fission spectra. This paper summarizes our current activities of the covariance evaluation work at LANL, including the actinide and light element data mainly for the criticality safety study and transmutation technology. The Bayesian method based on the Kalman filter technique, which combines uncertainties in the theoretical model and experimental data, is discussed.

  18. Szekeres models: a covariant approach

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the 1+1+2 formalism to covariantly describe the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres models. It is shown that an \\emph{average scale length} can be defined \\emph{covariantly} which satisfies a 2d equation of motion driven from the \\emph{effective gravitational mass} (EGM) contained in the dust cloud. The contributions to the EGM are encoded to the energy density of the dust fluid and the free gravitational field $E_{ab}$. In addition the notions of the Apparent and Absolute Apparent Horizons are briefly discussed and we give an alternative gauge-invariant form to define them in terms of the kinematical variables of the spacelike congruences. We argue that the proposed program can be used in order to express the Sachs optical equations in a covariant form and analyze the confrontation of a spatially inhomogeneous irrotational overdense fluid model with the observational data.

  19. Prevalence, demographic characteristics and associated risk factors of malnutrition among 0-5 aged children: a cross-sectional study from Van, eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baran Serdar Kizilyildiz; Bülent Sönmez; Kamuran Karaman; Burhan Beger; Adnan Mercen; Süleyman Alioğlu; Yaşar Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  20. Prevalence, Demographic Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors of Malnutrition Among 0-5 Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study From Van, Eastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; SÖNMEZ Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; CESUR, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and ot...

  1. Obesity increases the prevalence and severity of focal knee abnormalities diagnosed using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects - data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laberge, Marc A.; Baum, Thomas; Virayavanich, Warapat; Nardo, Lorenzo; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, M.C.; Lynch, J.; McCulloch, C.E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    To study the effect of BMI on the prevalence, severity, and 36-month progression of early degenerative changes in the knee by using 3T MRI in middle-aged subjects without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). We examined baseline and 36-month follow-up MR studies from 137 middle-aged individuals (45-55 years old) with risk factors for knee OA but no radiographic OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Subjects were grouped into three categories: normal BMI (BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 38), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37), and obese (BMI {>=} 30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 62). Using 3T MRI, cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow abnormalities were graded using the OA Whole-organ MR Imaging Score (WORMS). The statistical analysis was corrected as necessary for differences in age, sex, and OA risk factors other than BMI. The overall prevalence of lesions was 64% for meniscus and 79% for cartilage (including low grade lesions). At baseline, the prevalence and severity of knee lesions was positively associated with BMI, with a nearly fourfold increase in meniscal tears and more than twofold increase in high-grade cartilage defects in obese individuals relative to normal-weight subjects. Over the 36-month follow-up period, the number of new or worsening cartilage lesions of any grade was significantly higher in obese subjects (p = 0.039), while there was no significant difference in meniscal lesion progression. Obesity was associated with both higher prevalence and severity of early degenerative changes in the knee in middle-aged individuals without radiographic OA and with significantly increased cartilage lesion progression (of any grade) over 36 months. (orig.)

  2. Cosmic Censorship Conjecture revisited: Covariantly

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Aymen I M; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the trapped region using a frame independent semi-tetrad covariant formalism for general Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. We covariantly prove some important geometrical results for the apparent horizon, and state the necessary and sufficient conditions for a singularity to be locally naked. These conditions bring out, for the first time in a quantitative and transparent manner, the importance of the Weyl curvature in deforming and delaying the trapped region during continual gravitational collapse, making the central singularity locally visible.

  3. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Cristina; Rossetti, Paola; Baratta, Roberto; La Spina, Nadia; La Delfa, Lavinia; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI), BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all); these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001), whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001) in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006) than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04) and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002) than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012). The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005) in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  4. Secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren aged 11-13 years during the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Parrino

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to gender and area of residence between two cohorts of students aged 11-13 years in Sicily. The analysis was performed on 1,839 schoolchildren, with 924 and 915 children being studied in 1999-2001 and 2009-2010, respectively. The children who were enrolled during 2009-2010 had significantly higher body mass indexes (BMI, BMI z-scores, and waist circumferences than the children who were studied during 1999-2001 (p<0.0001 for all; these differences was also observed when the cohort was subdivided according to gender or residence area The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 7.9% in 1999-2001 to 13.7% in 2009-2010 (p<0.0001, whereas thinness decreased significantly from 10.1% to 2.3% (p<0.0001 in the same periods. The increase of trends in the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in males (9.7% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.0006 than in females (6.3% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04 and was slightly higher in urban areas (8.8% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.002 than in rural areas (7.8% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.012. The male gender was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (odds ratio: 1.63; 95% confidence intervals: 1.24-2.15; p = 0.0005 in 2009-2010 than in 1999-2001, after adjusting for age and the residence area. In conclusion, this study showed an increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sicilian schoolchildren during the last decade and that this trend was related to gender, age and the area of residence. More specifically, our data indicated that the prevalence of obesity increased by 5.8%, the prevalence of thinness decreased by 7.8% and the prevalence of normal-weight children did not change over the course of a decade. These results suggest a shift in the body weights of Sicilian children toward the upper percentiles.

  5. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p = 0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth.

  6. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  7. Prevalence and factors of addictive Internet use among adolescents in Wuhan, China: interactions of parental relationship with age and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: This study examined the prevalence of addictive Internet use and analyzed the role of parental relationship in affecting this behavior among a random sample of adolescents in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Students (n = 1,101 were randomly selected from four schools, including 638 boys and 463 girls with a mean age of 13.8 (standard deviation = 1.2 years. Addictive Internet use, parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured by validated instruments. Prevalence rate, ANOVA and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the level of Internet addiction and its association with parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity, as well as the interaction of parental relationship with chronological age and hyperactivity-impulsivity. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01. Compared to non-addictive users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity. Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study indicate that adolescent addictive Internet use is a significant public health threat in China. Prevention interventions targeting parental relationship must consider adolescent's age and hyperactivity-impulsivity tendency.

  8. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Yan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Yong-Dong; Du, Xin-Hua; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-An; Xu, Dong-Hong; Huang, Yi-Min; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment among elderly (≥60 years of age) Chinese people in a metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. METHODS Random cluster sampling was conducted to identify participants among residents ≥60 years of age living in the Xietu Block, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were checked by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual chart. All eligible participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Blindness and visual impairment were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS A total of 4190 persons (1688 men and 2502 women) participated in the study, and the response rate was 91.1%. Based on PVA, the prevalence of blindness was 1.1% and that of visual impairment was 7.6%. Based on BCVA, the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment decreased to 0.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Older (≥80 years of age) women, with low educational levels and smoking habits, exhibited a significantly greater chance for blindness and visual impairment than did those with high educational levels and no smoking habits (PAMD). CONCLUSION Our findings help to identify the population in need of intervention, to highlight the need for additional eye healthcare services in urban China. PMID:28149791

  9. THE PREVALENCE OF OCCLUSION CLASSIFICATIONS OF PERMANENT DENTITION IN TEHRAN'S STUDENTS AGED 12 To 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nClassification of occlusion is the first step in diagnosing the relationship between the upper and lower jaw's teeth. Based on Angle's classification, occlusion is divided into three categories: class I, class II, and class III. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occlusion categories, based on Angle's classification, in adolescents with permanent dentition in Tehran. This is an epidemiological cross sectional, randomized and descriptive study. Based on minimum rate of prevalence belonging to class III, number of cases was calculated and 1524 students, equal boys and girls, were studied. The prevalence of each classification in boys, girls and in total was determined. Among all cases, 79% were in class I occlusion; about 14.5% were in class II and 6.5% in class III. From Angle's 1899 study of prevalence of occlusion type until now, many studies have been done with different results. It seems that prevalence of occlusion type strongly depends on genetic factors and area of the study.

  10. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  11. The prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in rural-urban India, Sankara Nethralaya Rural-Urban Age-related Macular degeneration study, Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R; Pal, S S; Ganesan, S; Gella, L; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) and associated risk factors in rural and urban Indian population.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in South India between 2009 and 2011. Of the 6617 subjects ≥60 years enumerated ones, 5495 (83.04%) participated in the eye examination. A detailed history including data on demographic, socioeconomic, and ocular history was obtained. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including 30° 3-field photograph as per Age-Related Eye Disease Study protocol. The ARM was graded according to the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.ResultsAge- and gender-adjusted prevalence of early ARM was 20.91% (20.86-20.94) in the rural population and 16.37% (16.32-16.42) in the urban population. Similarly, the prevalence of late ARM was 2.26% (2.24-2.29) and 2.32% (2.29-2.34) in the rural and urban population, respectively. In both rural and urban populations, risk factors that were related to both early and late ARM were age, per year increase (OR, range 1.00-1.08); middle socioeconomic status (OR, range 1.05-1.83); and smokeless tobacco (OR, range 1.11-2.21). Protective factor in both was the presence of diabetes mellitus in all ARM (OR, range 0.34-0.83). Risk factors, only in the rural arm, were female gender (OR, range 1.06-1.64), past smoker (OR, 1.14), and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR, 1.03).ConclusionsThe study reports smokessless tobacco as a risk factor for both early and late ARM and identified a higher prevalence of early ARM in the rural population compared with urban population.

  12. Stroke Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years in Children and Youth Aged 0-19 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnamurthi, Rita V; deVeber, Gabrielle; Feigin, Valery L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of stroke as an important contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. Current estimates of global childhood stroke burden and its temporal trends are sparse. Accurate and up-to-date estimates of childhood stroke burden are important for planning...... for the period from 1990 to 2013. RESULTS: In 2013, there were 97,792 (95% UI 90,564-106,016) prevalent cases of childhood IS and 67,621 (95% UI 62,899-72,214) prevalent cases of childhood HS, reflecting an increase of approximately 35% in the absolute numbers of prevalent childhood strokes since 1990....... There were 33,069 (95% UI 28,627-38,998) deaths and 2,615,118 (95% UI 2,265,801-3,090,822) DALYs due to childhood stroke in 2013 globally, reflecting an approximately 200% decrease in the absolute numbers of death and DALYs in childhood stroke since 1990. Between 1990 and 2013, there were significant...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for penile lesions/anomalies in a cohort of Brazilian men ≥ 40 years of age

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    Frederico R Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To report the prevalence and risk factors of penile lesions/anomalies in a Metropolitan Brazilian city. Materials and Methods All participants undergoing prostate cancer screening in the city of Curitiba were systematically examined to identify penile lesions including cutaneous mycosis, sexually transmitted diseases, penile cancer, meatal stenosis, hypospadias, and Peyronie's disease. Outcomes of interest included the prevalence and the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals of the lesions/anomalies according to age, school level, race, personal history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, nonspecific urethritis, and vasectomy. Results Balanoposthitis occurred in 11.8% of all participants, with an increased risk in those with diabetes (RR = 1.73, or past history of nonspecific urethritis (RR = 1.58; tinea of the penis was present in 0.2%; condyloma acuminata in 0.5%; herpes virus infection in 0.4%; urethral discharge in 0.2%; genital vitiligo in 0.7%, with an increased prevalence in non-white men (RR = 4.43, and in subjects with lower school level (RR = 7.24; phimosis in 0.5%, with a nearly 7-fold increased risk in diabetics; lichen sclerosus in 0.3%; stenosis of the external urethral meatus in 0.7%, with a higher prevalence in subjects with lichen sclerosus (RR = 214.9, and in those older than 60 years of age (RR = 3.57; hypospadia in 0.6%; fibrosis suggestive of Peyronie's disease in 0.9%, especially in men older than 60 years (RR = 4.59 and with diabetes (RR = 3.91; and penile cancer in 0.06%. Conclusion We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of commonly seen penile diseases in an adult cohort of Brazilian men.

  14. Covariant description of isothermic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tafel, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We present a covariant formulation of the Gauss-Weingarten equations and the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equations for surfaces in 3-dimensional curved spaces. We derive a coordinate invariant condition on the first and second fundamental form which is necessary and sufficient for the surface to be isothermic.

  15. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Starke, R

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of relativistic generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic plasmas in astrophysics and cosmology. Here we propose an alternative route to this problem by introducing the most general Lorentz covariant first order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor $\\chi^\\mu_{~\

  16. [Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994-2012 period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Keshabyants, E E; Peskova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Fikru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in low income countries. Prospective studies of predictors of infant growth in rural low-income country settings are relatively scarce but vital to guide intervention efforts. Methods A population-based sample of 1065 women in the third trimester of pregnancy was recruited from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, south-central Ethiopia, and followed up until the infants were one year of age. After standardising infant weight and length using the 2006 WHO child growth standard, a cut-off of two standard deviations below the mean defined the prevalence of stunting (length-for-age Results The prevalence of infant undernutrition was high at 6 months (21.7% underweight, 26.7% stunted and 16.7% wasted and at 12 months of age (21.2% underweight, 48.1% stunted, and 8.4% wasted. Significant and consistent predictors of infant undernutrition in both logistic and linear multiple regression models were male gender, low birth weight, poor maternal nutritional status, poor household sanitary facilities and living in a rural residence. Compared to girls, boys had twice the odds of being underweight (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.39, 2.86 at 6 months, and being stunted at 6 months (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.69, 3.33 and at 12 months of age (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.59, 2.89. Infant undernutrition at 6 and 12 months of age was not associated with infant feeding practices in the first two months of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of undernutrition in the first year of infancy in this rural Ethiopia population, with significant gender imbalance. Our prospective study highlighted the importance of prenatal maternal nutritional status and household sanitary facilities as potential targets for intervention.

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

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    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  19. PREVALENCE AND AT EARLY AGE ONSET OF HYPO AND HYPERTHYROIDISM IN POST-IODIZATION ERA: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA

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    Fathima Nusrath, Baderuzzaman, Anees Syyeda , Siraj M, N Parveen , Ishaq M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction has been considered as one of the most common endocrine disorder in clinical practice throughout the world. Its increasing prevalence had led to the screening of general population in different parts of the world in order to investigate causes for rising incidence. A nationwide survey on epidemiology of thyroid dysfunction in selected cities of India suggested the need for further studies in order to have a more comprehensive analysis of epidemiological aspect for better awareness and control of this endocrine disorder. Aim: The major objective of the present study was to identify the prevalence and early age at onset of hypo and hyperthyroidism in post-iodization era based on a hospital based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 516 subjects visiting department of Medicine, Princess ESRA Hospital, Hyderabad, in age group of 10 to 75 years were included in the study from June 2013 to January 2014. Serum TSH, T3, and T4 assays were assessed by chemiluminescence method. Based on thyroid dysfunction test results, subjects were classified into Hypothyroidism, Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism. Results: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was highest in the females 33.52 % (n=173 as compared to males 2.32% (n=12 and hyperthyroidism in females 4.06% (n=21 and 0.19% (n=1 in males. Subclinical hypothyroidism in females was 7.55% (n=39. Conclusions: An inordinately high increase in the prevalence rate in women was observed particularly in the age group 21-30years. Monitoring of thyroid profile is necessary to prevent adverse outcome at clinical and subclinical levels related to infertility, pregnancies and other complications.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied.

  1. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, van den G.; Liakopoulos, A.; Mevius, D.J.; Geurts, Y.; Fluit, A.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pelt, van W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria

  2. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI among high school students in relation to age and sex.

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    Halina Kądziela-Olech

    2015-08-01

    Conducting further research in the area of NSSI seems to be crucial due to chronicity and prevalence as well as the fact that numerous repeated self-injuries bringing relief or causing positive state of mind might indicate a mechanism similar to an addiction syndrome in adolescence.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  5. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-02-02

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  6. [Prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Jansen, Karen; Godoy, Russélia Vanila; Souza, Luciano Dias Mattos; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2009-12-01

    This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of weapons possession and associated factors and involvement in physical aggression among adolescents 15 to 18 years of age (n = 960) in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Ninety of the city's 448 census tracts were selected, and 86 houses in each tract were visited. The statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence rates in the sample were 22.8% for involvement in fights with physical aggression and 9.6% for weapons possession in the previous 12 months. The study concluded that young males that use alcohol and/or illegal drugs and present minor psychiatric disorders show a higher probability of weapons possession and involvement in physical fights.

  7. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the population aged 45 to 64 years assisted by attending physician of the Institución de Asistencia Médica Colectiva

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    Marcelo Morales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are two of the major health problems at present, dyslipidemia is one of the major vascular risk factors modifiable. Since 2009 the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to care promoted the participation of "Medical Reference", especially in the 45 to 64 years. This care is a goal to achieve by the IAMC in Uruguay, which results in a payment to the institutions achieve compliance. It is in our interest to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this age group and association with other vascular risk factors. A study in 2009 found a prevalence CUDAM of dyslipidemia reported 25% in this age range. Objectives: 1 Determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia among users 45 to 64 of CUDAM assisted by their referring physician. 2 To determine the percentage of patients who know their dyslipidemia and the degree of compliance with medical therapy. 3 To evaluate the association with other vascular risk factors defined. Methods: 454 patients between 45 and 64 years attended between 01/07 and 31/12/10 by the referring doctor with lipid profile. We conducted a telephone survey to find the presence of dyslipidaemia, treatment, compliance and associated vascular risk factors. Results: 454 patients with lipid profiles, mean cholesterol levels of 211 mg / dl. 25% and 18.9% of patients have LDL levels of cholesterol and triglycerides respectively the reference value. 56% reported having dyslipidemia for interrogation, of which 26% had normal levels of LDL and triglycerides. Discussion: In these patients, the prevalence of dyslipidemia and vascular risk factors consistent with the literature further analyzed. The need to be controlled by your referring doctor raised the level of detection and dyslipidemic patients' knowledge of CUDAM.

  8. Discrete Symmetries in Covariant LQG

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    We study time-reversal and parity ---on the physical manifold and in internal space--- in covariant loop gravity. We consider a minor modification of the Holst action which makes it transform coherently under such transformations. The classical theory is not affected but the quantum theory is slightly different. In particular, the simplicity constraints are slightly modified and this restricts orientation flips in a spinfoam to occur only across degenerate regions, thus reducing the sources of potential divergences.

  9. Phenotypic covariance at species’ borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species’ borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Results Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Conclusions Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species’ borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future. PMID:23714580

  10. Prevalência de má oclusão em crianças de 7 a 12 anos de idade Prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 7 to 12 years

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    Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência de más oclusões em 3.466 crianças com 7 a 12 anos de idade, matriculadas em escolas públicas nas cidades de Lins/SP e Promissão/SP. MÉTODOS: considerou-se a relação sagital entre as arcadas dentárias, a relação interarcadas no sentido transversal e a relação de incisivos nos sentidos vertical e horizontal. Na relação intra-arcada avaliou-se a prevalência de diastemas, apinhamentos e perdas dentárias. RESULTADOS: entre as más oclusões, 55,25% das crianças apresentaram uma relação molar de Classe I, seguida de 38% de Classe II e 6,75% de Classe III. Na relação de incisivos houve prevalência de mordida aberta em 17,65% dos casos, seguida de 13,28% para mordida profunda e 5,05% de mordida cruzada anterior. A mordida cruzada posterior foi encontrada em 13,3% das crianças. Na relação intra-arcada, 31,88% das crianças mostraram diastemas; 31,59%, apinhamento; e 4,65%, perdas dentárias.OBJECTIVE: This study determined the prevalence of malocclusion in a group of 3,466 children aged 7 to 12 years enrolled in public school in the cities of Lins and Promissão, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: It was analyzed the sagittal relationships between dental arches, the transverse relationship between arches, and the vertical and horizontal relations of incisors. The prevalence of diastemas, crowding and tooth losses were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the types of malocclusion, 55.25% of the children had a Class I molar relationship; 38%, Class II; and 6.75%, Class III. The analysis of incisor relationships revealed 17.65% of open bite, followed by 13.28% of deep bite and 5.05% of anterior crossbite; 13.3% of the children had a posterior crossbite. The analysis of relationships between arches showed that 31.88% of the children had diastemas; 31.59%, crowding; and 4.65, tooth losses.

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis of Acute Respiratory tract Infections in Rural areas of Kashmir valley under 5 Years of Age

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    Abid Ali Mir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: How important is acute respiratory tract infections in children less than 5 years of age and what are the main factors that need attention. Objective: To determine the magnitude of ARI under 5 years of age in rural areas of Kashmir valley. 2 To identify various risk factors responsible for ARI. Methodology: Community based Cross sectional study using multistage sampling procedure was used to study 1644 children. A house to house survey was carried out in the defined geographical region in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ARI less than 5 years of age. Results: Among 1644 children under 5 years of age studied, 886 (53.89% were males and 758 (46.11% female. An overall prevalence of 21.41% under 5 years of age was observed in a Kashmir valley. The prevalence of ARI varied according to the age of child being 19.3% in age group of 0–1 years, 23.0% in 1–3 years and 20.4% in age group of 3–5 years. Prevalence of ARI was more (22.5% in male children as compared to female (20.05% children [P>0.05]. The socio demographic variables that showed a significant relationship with ARI prevalence were parental literacy status (OR = 1.806; CI = 1.333 – 2.447; P < 0.05 and more so the Mother’s literacy status (OR = 1.635; CI = 1.284 – 2.083; P < 0.05. ARI risk being high among Malnourished children (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.804 – 3.157; P<0.05, inappropriately immunized children (OR=2.41; CI = 1.853 – 3.154, P<0.05, children lacking exclusive Breast feeding (OR = 4.854; CI = 3.735 – 6.309; P< 0.05 or put on early or delayed weaning (OR = 1.66; CI = 1.302 – 2.140; P < 0.05. Environmental / housing variables also showed significant association with ARI with risk being high in children living in poor ventilation (OR = 4.865; CI = 3.78 – 6.259; P < 0.05, overcrowded houses (OR = 1.829; CI = 1.442 – 2.320; P < 0.05, houses with kitchen not separate (OR = 1.829, CI = 1.442 – 5.481, P < 0.05, and using cooking fuel

  12. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years: prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  13. Punishment and reward in parental discipline for children aged 5 to 6 years : prevalence and groups at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H. C.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined the use and predictors of different discipline practices by parents of children aged 5 to 6 years. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 5 to 6 years within the setting of routine well-child visits

  14. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    , with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research....

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin C deficiency in north and south India: a two centre population based study in people aged 60 years and over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravilla D Ravindran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies from the UK and North America have reported vitamin C deficiency in around 1 in 5 men and 1 in 9 women in low income groups. There are few data on vitamin C deficiency in resource poor countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in India. DESIGN: We carried out a population-based cross-sectional survey in two areas of north and south India. Randomly sampled clusters were enumerated to identify people aged 60 and over. Participants (75% response rate were interviewed for tobacco, alcohol, cooking fuel use, 24 hour diet recall and underwent anthropometry and blood collection. Vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid. We categorised vitamin C status as deficient (28 µmol/L. We investigated factors associated with vitamin C deficiency using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: The age, sex and season standardized prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was 73.9% (95% confidence Interval, CI 70.4,77.5 in 2668 people in north India and 45.7% (95% CI 42.5,48.9 in 2970 from south India. Only 10.8% in the north and 25.9% in the south met the criteria for adequate levels. Vitamin C deficiency varied by season, and was more prevalent in men, with increasing age, users of tobacco and biomass fuels, in those with anthropometric indicators of poor nutrition and with lower intakes of dietary vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: In poor communities, such as in our study, consideration needs to be given to measures to improve the consumption of vitamin C rich foods and to discourage the use of tobacco.

  16. Competing risks and time-dependent covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates...

  17. Prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM IV mental disorders and their severity among school going Omani adolescents and youths: WMH-CIDI findings

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    Morsi Magdi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies exploring the magnitude of mental disorders amongst adolescents and youths in the Arab world. To our knowledge, this phase 2 survey in Oman is the first nationally representative school-based study to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders (lifetime and over the preceding 12 months, their age-of-onset distributions and determine their severity over the past 12 months using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the WMH-CIDI, used for international comparison. Methods A total of 1,682 (91.61% students out of 1836 students who formed the phase 2 random sub-sample of a multi-stage, stratified, random sampling design (phase 1, participated in the face-to-face structured interview using the Arabic-version of WMH-CIDI 3.0. Results The phase 1 results using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Child Depression Inventory (CDI showed depressive symptoms to be 17% prevalent in the larger sample of 5409 adolescents and youths. Amongst the phase 2 respondents from this sample, 13.9% had at least one DSM IV diagnostic label. The lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD was 3.0%; Bipolar Mood Disorder (BMD was 1%, Specific phobia 5.8% and Social phobia 1.6%. The female gender was a strong predictor of a lifetime risk of MDD (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.3, p = 0.000; Any Mood Disorders (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3, p = 0.002 and Specific Phobia (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p = 0.047. The severity of illness for cases diagnosed with 12 month DSM IV disorders was found to be 80% lower in females (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.0-0.8. The estimates over the previous 12 month period when compared with the lifetime prevalence showed a 25% to 40% lower prevalence for MDD, Specific phobia, Social phobia, Any Anxiety Disorders (AAD and Any Mood disorders (AMD while the rate was 80% lower for Separation Anxiety Disorder/Adult Separation Anxiety (SAD/ASA. Mood disorders were significantly

  18. Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders in outpatients at Al-Badar Dental College and Hospital and its relationship to age, gender, occlusion and psychological factors

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    Raheel Ahmed Syed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a collective term that encompasses many clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ and associated structures and it has high prevalence among populations. Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of TMD and its relationship to age, gender, occlusion and psychological factors and to evaluate which age group, gender, malocclusion parameters and psychological factors contribute to the prevalence of TMD. Materials and methods: The study includes a sample of 250 young adults (134 girls and 116 boys with age ranging from 18 to 25 years, the presence and severity of TMD was determined using a self-administered anamnestic questionnaire composed of 10 questions regarding common TMD symptoms. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle′s classification (molar classes I, II, III and to evaluate the psychological factors, The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS developed by Zigmond and Snaith was used. Results: Data were computerized and the SPSS package (version 11.2 was used and nonparametric test of Chi-square for data analysis and unpaired t-test was also used for statistical data analysis. Anamnestic index (AI showed that the percentage of women (5522% had higher degree of TMD symptoms than compared with men (50.86%, comparing the age of men and women free TMD and with TMD, the statistical difference was not significant as (t = 1.35, p > 0.5, distribution of the cases among Angle′s class I, II, III occlusion the difference was not statistically significant as (p > 0.5, the degree of anxiety and TMD degree among men and women patients, women had higher anxiety levels as compared to men and no statistical difference was found between the cases of men and women in the depression levels. Conclusion: Prevalence of TMD symptoms in our sample of 250 patients was high for women- Morphologic occlusion was not associated with the presence of TMD

  19. The prevalence of probable migraine and sleep quality among women aged 20-49 living in a semi-rural area in western Turkey

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    Egemen Unal

    2015-09-01

    Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.8+/-7.3 years. Prevalence of probable migraine was 13.3% (n=60 and it was significantly higher in women who have been smoking and who had a physician diagnosed chronic diseases. Of the women, 45.1% had poor sleep quality based on the PSQI. The sleep quality of probable migraineurs was found significantly lower than healthy women. Conclusions: To control the probable migraine symptoms and attacks, we suggest to giving regular treatment to women with chronic diseases and reducing the smoking. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2240-2245

  20. High levels of prevalence related to age and body condition: host-parasite interactions in a water frog Pelophylax kl hispanicus

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    Mar Comas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger, three nematode species (Icosiella neglecta, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Rhabdias sp. and one acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhychus laevis. We found that prevalence was positively correlated with snout-vent length and weight, but did not differ with body condition or sex. We found that prevalence and mean species richness increased with age. Our results show that abundance of Icosiella neglecta was positively correlated with higher values for host body condition. In fact, we found that high prevalence and mean species richness do not necessarily imply poorer body condition in the parasitized host. In conclusion, our results show that the helminth community in this taxon has great diversity, and this host-parasite system seems to be evolved to low levels of virulence, helminths maintaining a commensal relationship with this frog.

  1. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

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    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  2. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

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    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  3. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Arumugam Mohan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies of micronutrients can affect the growth and development of children. There is increasing evidence of vitamin D deficiency world-wide resulting in nutritional rickets in children and osteoporosis in adulthood. Data on the micronutrient status of children in Malaysia is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and micronutrient status of primary school children in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Methods A cross sectional study of primary aged school children was undertaken in 2008. A total of 402 boys and girls aged 7-12 years, attending primary schools in Kuala Lumpur participated in the study. Fasting blood samples were taken to assess vitamin D [as 25(OHD], vitamin B12, folate, zinc, iron, and ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. Height-for-age and body mass index for age (BMI-for-age of the children were computed. Results Most of the children had normal height-for-age (96.5% while slightly over half (58.0% had normal BMI-for-age. A total of 17.9% were overweight and 16.4% obese. Prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among the boys (25% than in the girls (9.5% (χ2 = 22.949; P 12. In contrast, 35.3% of the children had serum 25(OHD concentrations indicative of vitamin D deficiency(≤37.5 nmol/L and a further 37.1% had insufficiency concentrations (> 37.5-≤50 nmol/L. Among the boys, a significant inverse association was found between serum vitamin D status and BMI-for-age (χ2 = 5.958; P = .016. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status among urban primary school children in a tropical country. In light of the growing problem of obesity in Malaysian children, these findings emphasize the important need for appropriate interventions to address both problems of obesity and poor vitamin D status in children.

  4. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission in Mali is seasonal and peaks at the end of the rainy season in October. This study assessed the seasonal variations in the epidemiology of malaria among children under 10 years of age living in two villages in Selingué: Carrière, located along the Sankarani River...... but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. METHODS: Geographically, Selingué area is located...... in the basin of Sakanrani and belongs to the district of Yanfolila in the third administrative region of Mali, Sikasso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in October 2010 (end of transmission season) and in July 2011 (beginning of transmission season) to determine the point prevalence of asymptomatic...

  5. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.;

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese elderly in an urban community: results from the Shanghai aging study.

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    Jianfeng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. METHODS: This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI. Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS. A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI = 38.6-44.5%, with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9-49.7%] than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4-40.1%]. The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8-36.4% in those aged 60-69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9-59.1% in those aged ≥ 80 years (p value for trend<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01-1.05], p<0.001, less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.014, living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02-2.58], p = 0.04, anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05-1.12], p<0.001, number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07-1.30], p = 0.14 and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05-2.01], p = 0.025 were risk factors of poor sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities might alleviate the sleep problem in the elderly.

  7. Prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation in a large French population selected for nonthrombotic history: geographical and age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Elisabeth; Ripoll, Laurent; Gueguen, René; Tiret, Laurence; Collet, Jean-Philippe; dit Sollier, Claire Bal; Roussi, Jacqueline; Drouet, Ludovic

    2009-10-01

    Among inherited risk factors for venous thrombosis, the most common are the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms. The FV-G1691A polymorphism is preferentially observed in Europe, with differences between European countries. The FII-G20210A polymorphism is observed all over the world. The study was designed to compare the prevalence of the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms in a large French population of unrelated individuals with no thrombotic disease history and to determine the age and geographical distributions. Over a period of 18 months, 6154 individuals were included throughout France and FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms were determined. The FV-G1691A prevalence was 3.84% (95% confidence interval 3.35-4.33) and the FII-G20210A prevalence was 3.07% (95% CI 2.63-3.51). A north-east/south-west gradient was observed in the FV-G1691A geographical distribution. No difference was observed in the geographical distribution of FII-G20210A polymorphism nor in the age distribution of the two polymorphisms. The prevalence of the two polymorphisms was similar whatever the blood group (O or non-O). Plasma D-dimers were significantly higher in healthy individuals with FV-G1691A but not in individuals with FII-G20210A. Thirty percent of variation in plasma prothrombin level was explained by environmental factors (serum cholesterol, age, oral contraception, hormonal replacement therapy, body mass index, sex) and genetic factors (FII-G20210A). As expected, individuals with FII-G20210A displayed higher plasma prothrombin level compared with individuals with wild type. However, this was not associated with a modification of the fibrin clot elastic modulus. This study shows a differential distribution of the two polymorphisms among the French territory. These polymorphisms confer a very mild hypercoagulable state as shown by the limited increased in basal D-dimers in mutated FV-G1691A populations and only a trend that does not reach statistical significance for FII

  8. the potential of AGE MODE, an age-dependent model, to estimate usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes in a population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Boer, Jolanda M A; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Rossum, Caroline T M van

    2006-01-01

    Dietary intake data often stem from short-term measurements. However, for dietary assessment, generally the habitual intake distribution is of interest. Currently, habitual intake distributions are often estimated separately for subgroups of gender and age and do not take into account the variation

  9. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

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    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  10. Legionella pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients suffering from severe respiratory infections: Role of age, sex and history of smoking in the prevalence of bacterium

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    Faradonbeh Fatemeh Alaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Legionella pneumophila is the most commonly detected cause of legionellosis, which is an acute respiratory tract infection with high morbidity and mortality rates. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of L. pneumophila in bronchoalveolar lavages and study the role of sex, age and history of smoking as risk factors for susceptibility to the bacterium. Methods. One hundred bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected from the Iranian health centers and immediately transferred to laboratory. The samples were cultured and those that were L. pneumophila positive were subjected to PCR method with respect to the 16S rRNA gene. Results. Twelve out of 100 samples were positive for L. pneumophila (12%. Patients older than 70 years had the highest incidence of L. pneumophila (17.77%. Prevalence of L. pneumophila in male and female patients was 14.81% and 8.69%, respectively. Total incidence of L. pneumophila in patients with and without history of smoking was 18% and 6%, respectively. There were significant differences in the incidence of bacterium between groups of our study. Conclusion. Sex, age and history of smoking are predominant risk factors for the occurrence of L. pneumophila. However, more studies should be undertaken to confirm these results.

  11. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

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    Mehmet Enes Gokler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73. The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each. The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70. In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05. Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women.

  12. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e indicadores de adiposidade central em escolares de Santa Catarina, Brasil Prevalence of overweight and obesity and central adiposity indexes among school-aged children in Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gabriela Dalsasso Ricardo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade entre escolares e sua associação com região, sexo, faixa etária e rede de ensino, e a correlação entre os índices antropométricos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com 4.964 escolares entre 6 a 10 anos de idade matriculados em 345 escolas do ensino fundamental do Estado de Santa Catarina. Foi utilizado o índice de massa corporal para diagnosticar sobrepeso e obesidade. Como indicadores de distribuição de gordura foram utilizadas circunferência de cintura, relação cintura-quadril, relação cintura-altura, dobras cutâneas triciptal e subescapular e razão subescapular-triciptal. Foram estimadas as razões de chance com IC 95% e calculada correlação de Pearson para avaliar a relação entre índice de massa corporal e índices antropométricos. RESULTADO: Do total dos escolares, 52,2% eram do sexo feminino. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 15,4% e de obesidade 6,0%. Não foi encontrada associação entre sobrepeso ou obesidade com regiões, sexo e faixa etária, somente entre sobrepeso e rede particular. Os escolares da rede particular apresentaram 1,46 (1,22-1,74 vezes mais chance de desenvolverem sobrepeso. Foi encontrada correlação forte entre o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência de cintura (r = 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: Os escolares da rede particular estão mais expostos ao sobrepeso e à obesidade, sugerindo que a condição socioeconômica dos escolares possa ser a explicação. A circunferência de cintura, além de indicador de adiposidade central, poderá ser utilizada como indicador de adiposidade total.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children, their association with region, gender, age, school system, and correlation between anthropometric indexes. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with 4,964 children between 6 and 10 years of age of 345 elementary schools in the state of Santa Catarina. Body mass index was used to

  13. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  14. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

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    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  15. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

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    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  16. Comparative investigation of the traumatic injuries' prevalence of primary and permanent incisors at children aged 3 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcheva, Anni B; Ilieva, Emilia L; Veleganova, Vania Kr

    2003-01-01

    Traumatic injures distribution of children's teeth is determined of different factors at different ages: beginning to walk, games, sport, orthodontic anomalies. The aim of this investigation is to compare tooth traumatic injures distribution of temporary and permanent incisors at children aged 3 to 14. Object of investigation are 1825 children aged 3 to 14 from the town of Plovdiv. A clinical dental examination has been carried out and had been registrated: expulsio dentis, fractura coronae dentis involving only the enamel, involving and the dentin, exposing the pulp. There also has been pointed out if the fracture is treated or not. The data received has been statistically processed. The results show that tooth traumatic injures distribution at primary teeth is 31-40 per cent of boys and 16-30 per cent of girls and at permanent teeth is 12-33 per cent of boys and 4-19 per cent of girls. There is a statistical significance of differences between tooth traumatic injures of primary and permanent incisors.

  17. Prevalence of the acetabular sublabral sulcus at MR arthrography in patients under 17 years of age: does it exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerkurth, Olaf [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Jacobson, Jon A.; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bedi, Asheesh; Sekiya, Jon K. [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-18

    To retrospectively determine characteristics of contrast-filled acetabular labral clefts in patients under the age of 17 years at MR arthrography (Mra) correlated with arthroscopy, which may impact the thinking regarding the existence of a sublabral sulcus. After IRB approval, 41 patients under the age of 17 who had MRa were identified. The following observations of contrast-filled clefts were assessed: (1) presence/absence, (2) location, (3) depth, (4) abnormal signal within the labrum and (5) shape (linear, gaping, complex). Fisher's exact and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test were performed. Interreader agreement was calculated with Cohen's k. Reader 1 found clefts in 41 %. Depth was less than half in 6 %, more than half in 65 % and full thickness in 29 %. Shape was linear in 53 %, gaping in 18 % and complex in 29 %. Signal changes occurred in 88 %. Reader 2 found clefts in 29 %. Depth was less than half in 17 %, more than half in 58 % and full thickness in 25 %. Shape was linear in 50 %, gaping in 42 % and complex in 17 %. Signal changes occurred in 50 %. None of the clefts fulfilled the criteria for a sublabral sulcus at MRa and arthroscopy. None of the clefts found in our subjects under the age of 17 years met the MRa and arthroscopy criteria for a sublabral sulcus, which supports the theory that such clefts represent labral tears. (orig.)

  18. Prevalência de dilatação da aorta abdominal em coronariopatas idosos Prevalence of abdominal aortic dilatation in patients aged 60 years or older with coronary disease

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    Guilherme Vieira Meirelles

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A realização de programas de triagem para o aneurisma da aorta abdominal de forma indiscriminada auxiliará uma pequena porcentagem de indivíduos, mas ao considerarmos grupos com fatores de risco relacionados à dilatação da aorta, aumentando a probabilidade da doença, este permitirá um direcionamento adequado dos recursos e um benefício maior à população. Programas direcionados pelas sociedades médicas, permitindo um diagnóstico precoce das doenças vasculares e conseqüentemente um melhor preparo do doente, promoveriam melhores taxas de sobrevida com menor morbidade. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da dilatação da aorta abdominal em uma amostra de pacientes idosos com mais de 60 anos de idade, portadores de coronariopatia aterosclerótica diagnosticada por cineangiocoronariografia. MÉTODOS: Para a seleção dessa amostra, levou-se em consideração o fato de que a avaliação pré-operatória de cirurgia vascular não tenhasido a indicação do cateterismo. Procedeu-se então a avaliação, baseada na anamnese, exame físico e Doppler ultra-som da aorta abdominal. A análise estatística iniciou-se com o teste qui-quadrado, com a posterior análise de regressão logística multivariada e regressão logística univariada, considerando significativo um p BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate screening programs for abdominal aortic aneurysm will help a small percentage of individuals. However, when considering groups with risk factors associated with aortic dilatation, which increases the probability of the disease, such programs will provide an adequate allocation of resources and a greater benefit to the population. Programs guided by medical societies, providing an early diagnosis of vascular diseases and consequently a better preparation of patients, would result in better survival rates with lower morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of abdominal aortic dilatation in patients aged 60 years or older with

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011-2012.

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    Muhammad Atif Habib

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey.Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011-2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS.A total of 7138 children aged between 6-59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.55 p <0.05, stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23-1.63 p<0.05, presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93-6.56 p<0.05, having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47-2.01 p<0.05 and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10-1.40 P<0.05 were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65-0.90 p<0.05 and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76-0.98 p<0.05 were associated with reduced odds of IDA.The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation and long term horizontal programs including wheat

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of <110 g/L and ferritin levels of < 12 μg/L. Data analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age < 24 months (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18–1.55 p <0.05), stunting (AOR 1.42 CI 1.23–1.63 p<0.05), presence of clinical anemia (AOR 5.69 CI 4.93–6.56 p<0.05), having a mother with IDA (AOR 1.72 CI 1.47–2.01 p<0.05) and household food insecurity (AOR 1.20 CI 1.10–1.40 P<0.05) were associated with IDA. Living in a rural area (AOR 0.77 CI 0.65–0.90 p<0.05) and being a female child (AOR 0.87 CI 0.76–0.98 p<0.05) were associated with reduced odds of IDA. Conclusion The prevalence of IDA amongst Pakistani children represents a moderate burden that disproportionately affects the youngest, growth retarded children, affected children are more likely to have mothers with IDA and live in areas where food security is lacking. National efforts to alleviate the burden of IDA should involve both short term vertical programs such as iron supplementation

  1. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AMONG WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE ATTENDING RURAL TERTIARY CARE INSTITUTE OF WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH

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    Amit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge among women of child bearing age and is associated with adverse obstetric and gynaecologic outcomes. OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of BV by use of Nugent’s criteria and to identify modifiable and nonmodifiable, the risk factors associated with BV in women of reproductive age. METHODOLOGY A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013, among women of child bearing age with complaints of vaginal discharge, attending Gynaecology and Obstetric OPD at UPRIMS & R, Saifai, Etawah. Bacterial morphotypes indicative of BV were identified by Nugent’s criteria. A pre-coded questionnaire was used to collect demographic and behavioural characteristics (including contraceptive usage, douching practice in the study participants. DATA ANALYSIS Bivariate and multivariate analyses by logistic regression method performed. Crude Odds ratio and Adjusted Odds Ratio for the association between BV and demographic or behavioural characteristics was calculated using Poisson regression. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were calculated keeping Nugent score of 7 for BV as ‘Gold standard.’ RESULTS A prevalence of 31.5.0%, (95% CI 25.6-38.2 was obtained from the study population. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Amsler’s criteria for clinical diagnosis of BV was 67.7%, 89.39%, 74.58% and 85.02% respectively. Low socioeconomic status including occupation, illiteracy, Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD usage, douching practice and condom usage were significantly associated with BV. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of BV was 31.5% in this population. Concordance between Amsel’s criteria and Nugent’s was low (67.67%. Among individual Amsel’s parameters, vaginal pH >4.5 had highest sensitivity (84.61% and demonstration of ‘Clue Cell’ was most specific (92.2%. Risk factors for BV ought to

  2. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

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    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  3. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed "covariant diagrams." The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  4. Parameter inference with estimated covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Sellentin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    When inferring parameters from a Gaussian-distributed data set by computing a likelihood, a covariance matrix is needed that describes the data errors and their correlations. If the covariance matrix is not known a priori, it may be estimated and thereby becomes a random object with some intrinsic uncertainty itself. We show how to infer parameters in the presence of such an estimated covariance matrix, by marginalising over the true covariance matrix, conditioned on its estimated value. This leads to a likelihood function that is no longer Gaussian, but rather an adapted version of a multivariate $t$-distribution, which has the same numerical complexity as the multivariate Gaussian. As expected, marginalisation over the true covariance matrix improves inference when compared with Hartlap et al.'s method, which uses an unbiased estimate of the inverse covariance matrix but still assumes that the likelihood is Gaussian.

  5. ROC curves of obesity indicators have a predictive value for children hypertension aged 7-17 years

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    Li Tai-shun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the distribution of integrated covariate and its association with blood pressure (BP among children in Anhui province, China, and assess the predictive value of integrated covariate to children hypertension. Methods: A total of 2,828 subjects (1,588 male and 1,240 female aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waistline, hipline and BP of all subjects were measured, obesity and overweight were defined by an international standard, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. High BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP > 95th percentile for age and gender. Results: Our results revealed that the prevalence of children hypertension was 11.03%, the SBP and DBP of obesity group were significantly higher than that of normal group. Anthropometric obesity indices such as body mass index (BMI were positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Integrated covariate had a better performance than the single covariate in the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve, the cut-off value; the sensitivity and the specificity of the integrated covariate were 0.112, 0.577, 0.683, respectively. Conclusion: Integrated covariate is a simple and effective anthropometric index to identify childhood hypertension.

  6. Age- and sex-related prevalence and drug utilization pattern in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases: A comparative study

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    S Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of 250 cases of type 2 diabetes management was conducted in a governmental tertiary care hospital of urban south India to determine the comparative prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases in diabetic population, core drug use indicators and drug utilization pattern in the management of diabetics entirely and with cardiovascular diseases. Highest prevalent age group for type 2 diabetes/cardiovascular diseases (greater incidence in female than male was 51-60 years. The 62.8% prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population ascertained in the study could provide an evidence-based rationale for the World Health Organization guidelines for the management of hypertension in type 2 diabetics. Incidence of polypharmacy (6.06, the mean number of total drug products prescribed; 59.26% of encounters prescribed antibiotics; 17.6 and 18.5 min of average consultation and dispensing time, respectively; 100% of drugs actually dispensed and adequately labeled; 81.26% of patients having knowledge of correct dosage and average drug cost of Indian Rupees 145.54 per prescription were the core drug use indicators found mainly. Moreover, drugs prescribed from the Essential Drug List were more than 90% and thereby indicated the drug use in this set-up quite rational. Around 71.09% of cardiovascular agents prescribed by generic name revealed the cost effective medical care. Among the agents in type 2 diabetes management, Actrapid® (35.43% was the highest. Among the cardiovascular agents prescribed, lasix (19.37% was the highest. Cardiovascular agents prescribed orally by 76.48% signified the good prescription habit indicating the improved patients' adherence to the treatment. The present study emphasizes the need of early detection of hypertension as a preliminary diagnostic parameter of cardiovascular diseases in diabetics and appropriate management through concomitant therapy of

  7. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections.

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    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010-2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(± 2)% to 36(± 5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(± 5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(± 1) to 40(± 2) with a corresponding increase from 59(± 2)% to 80(± 6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  8. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gutfraind

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs (PWID are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV. HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK. APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010-2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(± 2% to 36(± 5%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(± 5%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years. APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(± 1 to 40(± 2 with a corresponding increase from 59(± 2% to 80(± 6% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  9. The Association Between Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors and the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD in Middle-Aged and Older Men

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    Ryoma Michishita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in middle-aged and older men. Methods: The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized selfadministered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1 lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2 lack of daily physical activity, 3 slow walking speed, 4 fast eating speed, 5 late-night dinner, 6 bedtime snacking, and 7 skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0–1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors. Results: According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria was found to be significantly higher in the ≥4 group than in the 0–1 group (OR 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–14.40. Moreover, subjects’ lack of habitual moderate exercise (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.13–8.32 and presence of late-night dinner (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.40–5.75 and bedtime snacking behaviors (OR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.27–6.45 were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD. Conclusions: These results suggest that an accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD.

  10. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in Japanese patients aged diabetes mellitus: The Dogo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, S; Sakai, T; Niiya, T; Miyaoka, H; Miyake, T; Yamamoto, S; Maruyama, K; Ueda, T; Senba, H; Todo, Y; Torisu, M; Minami, H; Onji, M; Tanigawa, T; Matsuura, B; Hiasa, Y; Miyake, Y

    2017-01-01

    Only limited epidemiological evidence exists regarding the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and erectile dysfunction (ED) among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate the relationship between diabetic neuropathy and ED among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 287 male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, age (19-65 years). Diabetic neuropathy was diagnosed if the patients showed two or more of the following three characteristics: neuropathic symptoms, decreased or disappeared Achilles tendon reflex and/or abnormal vibration perception. ED, moderate to severe ED, and severe ED were defined as present when a subject had a Sexual Health Inventory for Men score diabetic neuropathy and severe ED were 47.0 and 39.0%, respectively. Diabetic neuropathy was independently positively associated with severe ED, but not ED and moderate ED: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.38). No relationships were found between diabetic retinopathy or diabetic nephropathy and ED. Diabetic neuropathy is positively associated with severe erectile dysfunction among Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged <65 years.

  11. Group B streptococcus serotype prevalence in reproductive-age women at a tertiary care military medical center relative to global serotype distribution

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    Williams Julie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS serotype (Ia, Ib, II-IX correlates with pathogen virulence and clinical prognosis. Epidemiological studies of seroprevalence are an important metric for determining the proportion of serotypes in a given population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of individual GBS serotypes at Madigan Healthcare System (Madigan, the largest military tertiary healthcare facility in the Pacific Northwestern United States, and to compare seroprevalences with international locations. Methods To determine serotype distribution at Madigan, we obtained GBS isolates from standard-of-care anogenital swabs from 207 women of indeterminate gravidity between ages 18-40 during a five month interval. Serotype was determined using a recently described molecular method of polymerase chain reaction by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps genes associated with pathogen virulence. Results Serotypes Ia, III, and V were the most prevalent (28%, 27%, and 17%, respectively. A systematic review of global GBS seroprevalence, meta-analysis, and statistical comparison revealed strikingly similar serodistibution at Madigan relative to civilian-sector populations in Canada and the United States. Serotype Ia was the only serotype consistently higher in North American populations relative to other geographic regions (p Conclusion This study establishes PCR-based serotyping as a viable strategy for GBS epidemiological surveillance. Our results suggest that GBS seroprevalence remains stable in North America over the past two decades.

  12. Changes in prevalence of obesity and high waist circumference over four years across European regions: the European male ageing study (EMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from transitional, compared with cities from non

  13. Use of analgesics for exercise-associated pain: prevalence and predictors of use in recreationally trained college-aged students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Christi B; Bentley, John P; Hallam, Jeffrey S; Woodyard, Catherine D; Waddell, Dwight E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the use of the analgesics for the relief of exercise-associated pain (EAP) and to examine personal and/or exercise characteristics that might potentially predict such use in recreationally trained college-aged individuals. Recreationally trained college-aged students (N = 263) were invited to complete a self-administered 16-item questionnaire concerning personal exercise habits and analgesic use for EAP. The primary dependent variable was analgesic use for EAP, and additional items sought to characterize patterns and behaviors related to the use. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were calculated for all items, and logistic regression was used to evaluate the ability of 4 variables to predict analgesic use for EAP: gender, length of time performing regular exercise, weekly frequency of aerobic exercise, and weekly frequency of resistance exercise. Approximately 36% of respondents reported analgesic use for EAP, with data indicating acute use for what is generally acute pain. With predictors considered individually, gender was a significant predictor, with female respondents being more likely to use analgesics for EAP (p = 0.04). With all predictors considered concurrently, the model did not significantly contribute to the prediction of use in this sample. Potential for misuse was highlighted by a large percentage of users who described themselves as very unlikely to follow label directions and more likely to take a dose exceeding recommendations. In light of research that reports a potential detriment to muscular regeneration when analgesics are consumed with exercise, it is important to be cognizant of the use of these drugs in individuals striving to improve muscular fitness. Coaches and trainers should educate athletes about the associated risks and caution those who may unnecessarily take analgesics.

  14. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  15. Low prevalence of pneumococcal carriage and high serotype and genotype diversity among adults over 60 years of age living in Portugal.

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    Sónia T Almeida

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n = 1,945 or in a rural area (n = 1,416, were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8-2.8. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9-9.2, 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1-3.6 and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2-3.5, respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5% had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel

  16. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  17. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: Seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-11-30

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011-June 2012) in piglets (n = 152), starter pigs (n = 234), fatteners (n = 230) and sows (n = 240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (oo-)Cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium or Giardia infections were observed in 40.9% (350/856) and 14.0% (120/856) of the pigs, respectively, including 8.2% (70/856) infected with both parasites. Prevalence, intensity of infections and presence of Cryptosporidium species varied significantly between age-groups; 53.3% piglets, 72.2% starter pigs, 40.4% fatteners and 2.9% sows were infected with Cryptosporidium, whereas 2.0% piglets, 27.4% starter pigs, 17.8% fatteners and 5.0% sows were infected with Giardia. The overall prevalence was stable throughout the year, except for dual-infections that were more prevalent in September and December (p parasites, and dual-infected pigs tended to excrete lower levels of oocysts compared to pigs harbouring only Cryptosporidium. Likewise, pigs infected with Cryptosporidium

  19. COVARIATION BIAS AND THE RETURN OF FEAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; VANDENHOUT, MA; MERCKELBACH, H

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that phobic fear is accompanied by a covariation bias, i.e. that phobic Ss tend to overassociate fear relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes. Such a covariation bias seems to be a fairly direct and powerful way to confirm danger expectations and enhance fear. Therefore

  20. On the Origin of Gravitational Lorentz Covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence that general relativity is the unique spatially covariant effective field theory of the transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. The Lorentz covariance of general relativity, having not been assumed in our analysis, is thus plausibly interpreted as an accidental or emergent symmetry of the gravitational sector.

  1. Covariant derivative of fermions and all that

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Ilya L

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed pedagogical derivation of covariant derivative of fermions and some related expressions, including commutator of covariant derivatives and energy-momentum tensor of a free Dirac field. The text represents a part of the initial chapter of a one-semester course on semiclassical gravity.

  2. Prevalence of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over and its impact on health related quality of life in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Didem Arslantas; Unal Ayranci; Alaettin Unsal; Mustafa Tozun

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypertension is common,especially in individuals aged 40 years and over,and it affects about half of the population aged 60 years and over.This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over,and to examine its effect on the health related quality of life(HRQOL).Methods This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two settlements in a region of western Turkey between March 1 and April 30,2007.A questionnaire concerning life habits associated with hypertension,medical histories,and demographic characteristics was filled in by a face to face interview.The SF·36 scale was used to assess HRQOL Body mass index(BMI)was calculated by measuring the weight and length of the body. Results of 1599 individuals living in the region,1193 participated in the survey(48.3%men and 51.7%women).The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 59.5%(n=710),being 58.O%in men and 60.9% in women(P>0.05).The variables that most positively influenced hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one)were older age(especially the age group of those aged 60 and over),single,no health insurance,consumption of animal fat in meals,and family history of hypertension.The HRQOL of the patients with hypertension was lower than that of those without hypertension(P≤0.05). The HRQOL was better in hypertensive patients whose blood pressure was under control,whereas it was worse in those with at least one chronic disorder accompanying hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one).Conclusions Great emphasis should be placed on the need for a public health program for the detection,prevention, and control of hypertension,including other risk factors,as well as for the modification of foods and life habits,specifically in individuals who are most likely to be at risk of hypertension.

  3. Covariance structure models of expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M J; Goldman, M S; Coovert, M D; Carnevalla, N

    1994-05-01

    Antecedent variables under the broad categories of genetic, environmental and cultural influences have been linked to the risk for alcohol abuse. Such risk factors have not been shown to result in high correlations with alcohol consumption and leave unclear an understanding of the mechanism by which these variables lead to increased risk. This study employed covariance structure modeling to examine the mediational influence of stored information in memory about alcohol, alcohol expectancies in relation to two biologically and environmentally driven antecedent variables, family history of alcohol abuse and a sensation-seeking temperament in a college population. We also examined the effect of criterion contamination on the relationship between sensation-seeking and alcohol consumption. Results indicated that alcohol expectancy acts as a significant, partial mediator of the relationship between sensation-seeking and consumption, that family history of alcohol abuse is not related to drinking outcome and that overlap in items on sensation-seeking and alcohol consumption measures may falsely inflate their relationship.

  4. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...

  5. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...

  6. Covariate Adjustment in Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis for PSA in Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre DEMIR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Markers which are used for classification into two groups, such as patient / healthy, benign/malignant or prediction of optimal cut off value for diagnostic test and evaluating the performance of diagnostic tests is evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnostic test researches. In classification accuracy research, some variables such as gender and age, commonly is not similar in groups. In these cases, covariates should be considered to estimate in the area under ROC and covariate adjustment for ROC should be performed. This study aims to introduce methods in the literature for the effect of covariate adjustment and to present an application with sample from the health field. Material and Methods: In the study, we introduced methods used in the literatüre for covariate adjustment and prediction of the area under ROC curves as well as an application with data from the field of urology. In this study, 105 PSA (prostate specific antigen measurements were taken in order to examine the covariate effect for the age variable and to assess the diagnostic performance of PSA measurements with regard to pathologic methods. Results: Covariate effect were found statistically significant with 0.733 parameter estimation of the age in ROC curves analysis with PSA data (p<0.001. According to the methods (Non-parametric (empirical, non-parametric (normal, semi-parametric (empirical, parametric (normal that estimates of the area under ROC curves which is obtained without covariate effect were found 0.708, 0.629, 0.709 and 0.628, respectively, by using PSA measurements. Area under the curve that obtained by covariate adjustment were significantly lower as compared to the traditional ROC with estimation 0.580, 0.577, 0.582 and 0.579. Conclusion: Area under the ROC curves should be estimated with adjustment according to the covariates that could affect the markers value of diagnostic tests performed in concert with matching

  7. Evidence-Based Novel Changes in Prevalence and Symptom Characteristics of Spleen Deficiency Syndrome in Persons of Varied Health Status and Different Ages: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the organs is a vital pathophysiologic characteristic in the elderly. A core TCM aging theory is known as aging caused by spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS that can be found in ancient and modern literature. The key objectives of this study were to establish a full-scale trial to evaluate the prevalence, symptom severity, frequency, and distribution of SDS in different age groups as related to health status (healthy, subhealthy, and chronic disease to elucidate the role of spleen deficiency in the aging process and deterioration of health status. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 4 hospitals in China. 1390 participants aged 20–79 were interviewed by investigators who completed questionnaires recording prevalence, severity, and frequency of symptoms as well as other relevant information. The results revealed that prevalence and symptom characteristics of SDS showed regularities with increasing age and deteriorating health status. It supports the TCM concept that spleen deficiency is an important mechanism of aging, subhealth, and chronic diseases. Early recognition of the warning signs and symptoms of SDS may lead to intervention and even prevention strategies for subhealth and chronic diseases as well as promotion of healthy aging.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district , Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Mengistu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Mengistu1 Mulugeta Shegaze2 Kifle Woldemichael3 Hailay Gesesew3,4 Yohannes Markos5 1Department of Zonal Health Office, Gamo Goffa Zone, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 4Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007 of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia.Objective: To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors.Results: The overall prevalence of

  9. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  10. To estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group (15-49 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousar, Junaid; Kawoosa, Zaffar; Hamid, Sajad; Munshi, Iftikhar Hussain; Hamid, Shahnawaz; Rashid, Arsalaan F

    2013-12-01

    The present study is a Cross-Sectional Study and was conducted in Post-graduate department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Srinagar between Feb. 2012 and Jan. 2013. The sample size of 1,041 was estimated. The study was conducted to estimate the effect of relationship of salt iodine level and prevalence of goiter among women of reproductive age group in two districts of Kashmir valley, district Srinagar and district Ganderbal, which were selected randomly. A frame of the blocks and villages in the two districts and their population was formed. From each district 10% of the blocks were selected using simple random sampling. From each block, 5% of the villages were selected using simple random sampling. A door to door survey was conducted in the selected villages and all the women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) identified and examined clinically for goiter after taking informed consent. Salt samples (one teaspoonful) from every household were taken and assessed for iodine content on spot and the iodine content of salt was assessed qualitatively by spot testing kits. The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. Almost the whole population consumes powdered salt but the storage and cooking practices diminish the iodine content of salt and results in decreased intake. Thus the need of the hour is to make people aware about proper storage and cooking practices. Women in the reproductive age group especially need to be made aware about the importance of consumption of adequately iodized salt because of the wide range of ill effects of iodine deficiency on the developing fetus and the growing child. In addition monitoring of iodine content of salt at distributor level should be done.

  11. Prevalence of allergic disorders among primary school-aged children in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: two-stage cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nahhas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the epidemiology of allergic disorders in Saudi Arabia. Such data are needed for, amongst other things, helping to plan service provision at a time when there is considerable investment taking place in national healthcare development. We sought to estimate the prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma in primary school children in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a two-stage cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren in Madinah. Children were recruited from 38 randomly selected schools. Questionnaires were sent to the parents of all 6,139 6-8 year old children in these schools. These parental-completed questionnaires incorporated questions from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, which had previously been validated for use in Arab populations. We undertook descriptive analyses, using the Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE to calculate 95% confidence intervals. The overall response rate was 85.9% (n = 5,188, 84.6% for girls and 86.2% for boys, respectively. Overall, parents reported symptoms suggestive of a history of eczema in 10.3% (95%CI 9.4, 11.4, rhinitis in 24.2% (95%CI 22.3, 26.2 and asthma in 23.6% (95%CI 21.3, 26.0 of children. Overall, 41.7% (95%CI 39.1, 44.4 of children had symptoms suggestive of at least one allergic disorder, with a substantial minority manifesting symptoms indicative of co-morbid allergic disease. Comparison of these symptom-based prevalence estimates with reports of clinician-diagnosed disease suggested that the majority of children with eczema and asthma had been diagnosed, but only a minority (17.4% of children had been diagnosed with rhinitis. International comparisons indicated that children in Madinah have amongst the highest prevalence of allergic problems in the world. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms indicative of allergic disease are very common in primary school-aged children in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, with

  12. Meta-Analysis With a Continuous Covariate That Is Differentially Categorized Across Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jamie; Fischer Walker, Christa L; Black, Robert E; Aryee, Martin J

    2016-03-01

    We propose taking advantage of methodology for missing data to estimate relationships and adjust outcomes in a meta-analysis where a continuous covariate is differentially categorized across studies. The proposed method incorporates all available data in an implementation of the expectation-maximization algorithm. We use simulations to demonstrate that the proposed method eliminates bias that would arise by ignoring a covariate and generalizes the meta-analytical approach for incorporating covariates that are not uniformly categorized. The proposed method is illustrated in an application for estimating diarrhea incidence in children aged ≤59 months.

  13. The covariate-adjusted frequency plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holling, Heinz; Böhning, Walailuck; Böhning, Dankmar; Formann, Anton K

    2016-04-01

    Count data arise in numerous fields of interest. Analysis of these data frequently require distributional assumptions. Although the graphical display of a fitted model is straightforward in the univariate scenario, this becomes more complex if covariate information needs to be included into the model. Stratification is one way to proceed, but has its limitations if the covariate has many levels or the number of covariates is large. The article suggests a marginal method which works even in the case that all possible covariate combinations are different (i.e. no covariate combination occurs more than once). For each covariate combination the fitted model value is computed and then summed over the entire data set. The technique is quite general and works with all count distributional models as well as with all forms of covariate modelling. The article provides illustrations of the method for various situations and also shows that the proposed estimator as well as the empirical count frequency are consistent with respect to the same parameter.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP PATIENTS AND ITS CO - RELATION WITH SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS AT ROHILKHAND MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, BAREILLLY, U. P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 2 billion people are suffering from iron deficiency anemia. India continues to be one of the countries to have highest prevalence of anemia NFHS 3 estimates reveals the prevalence of anemia to be 73% in children aged 5 - 11 years. Present study was und ertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group from 6 months to 14 years. Aims and objective: To study prevalence of anemia in pediatric age group patients and its co - relation with socio - demographic factors in patients presenting at p ediatrics department R.M.C.H. Bareilly. MATERIAL METHOD S : Cross sectional study was carried out from July 2013 to December 2014. A total of 215 students (115 boys and 100 girls were studied. Parents of subjects aged less than 8 years and patients aged more than 8 years attendants were interviewed using a pretes ted questionnaire. Blood samples were taken by fingers prick method. Hb estimation was done by cyan - met hemoglobin method using calorimeter. SPSS Version 10.0, proportions were calculated and chi square test was used as a test for significance. RESULTS: Ou t of total 215 subjects, 82 (38% were found anemic. Girls were affected more as comp aired to boys. Prevalence of anemia was maximum in children belonging to lower social classes (100.0% followed by upper - lower (45%, lower middle (26% and upper middle ( 22% and this prevalence of anemia in relation to social class was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001 higher in children of illiterate mothers and working mothers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: In India major factor responsible for nutritional anemia children is delayed weaning and insufficient semisolid and solid food intake.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of neurological impairment among children aged 6–9 years: from population based cross sectional study in western Kenya

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    Kawakatsu Yoshito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disability is more severe among children in low income countries. Moreover, the number of children with disabilities (CWDs in sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to increase with reduction in child mortality. Although the issue on CWDs is important in sub-Saharan Africa, there are few researches on risk factors of disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of neurological impairment (NI among children in western Kenya. Methods The present study was conducted in Mbita district (which has high HIV infectious prevalence, Kenya from April 2009 to December 2010. The study consisted of two phases. In phase 1, the Ten Question Questionnaire (TQQ was administered to all 6362 caregivers of children aged 6–9 years. In phase two, all 413 children with TQQ positive and a similar number of controls (n=420 which were randomly selected from children with TQQ negative were examined for physical and cognitive status. In addition, a structured questionnaire was also conducted to their caregivers. Results The prevalence was estimated to be 29/1000. Among the types of impairments, cognitive impairment was the most common (24/1000, followed by physical impairment (5/1000. In multivariate analysis, having more than five children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.85; 95%IC: 1.25 – 6.49; p=0.013], maternal age older than 35 years old [AOR: 2.31; 95%IC: 1.05 – 5.07; p=0.036] were significant factors associated with NI. In addition, monthly income under 3000 ksh [AOR: 2.79; 95%IC: 1.28 – 6.08; p=0.010] and no maternal tetanus shot during antenatal care [AOR: 5.17; 95%IC: 1.56 – 17.14; p=0.007] were also significantly related with having moderate/severe neurological impairment. Conclusion It was indicated that increasing coverage of antenatal care including maternal tetanus shot and education of how to take care of neonatal children to prevent neurological impairment are important.

  16. Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Diseases and Its Risk Factors in School Children Aged (6-7 and 13-14 Years in Assalouyeh City, Bushehr Province Based on III ISAAC Protocol Phase I, in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gooya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma and allergic diseases are raised as a major health  problem. The prevalence of these diseases are increasing in Iran and  all over the world. Based on this, the present study assessed to prevalence of these diseases in Assalouyeh region, Bushehr Province. Material and Methods: This study was performed on 190 school children aged 6-7 years and 223 girl student aged 13-14 years in Assalouyeh city in 2014 based on ISAAC standard questionnaires Phase I and III which examined prevalence and risk factors for these diseases. Results: The prevalence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma among  6-7 year-old students were 11.6%, 13.7% and 5.8%, respectively. While, the prevalence of these diseases among 13-14 year-old students were 14.3%, 21.5% and 15.2%, respectively. Also, there were a significant association between risk factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, pet keeping, consumption of fast and sea foods with prevalence of these diseases (P<0.05. Conclusion: Asthma and allergic diseases were high among school children in Assalouyeh and it seems that this increasing prevalenc can be associated with risk factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, pet keeping, consumption of fast and sea foods.

  17. Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...... matrix dynamics. Our empirical results show that the new mixing approach provides superior forecasts compared to multivariate volatility specifications using single sources of information....

  18. Estimation of Low-Rank Covariance Function

    OpenAIRE

    Koltchinskii, Vladimir; Lounici, Karim; Tsybakov, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating a low rank covariance function $K(t,u)$ of a Gaussian process $S(t), t\\in [0,1]$ based on $n$ i.i.d. copies of $S$ observed in a white noise. We suggest a new estimation procedure adapting simultaneously to the low rank structure and the smoothness of the covariance function. The new procedure is based on nuclear norm penalization and exhibits superior performances as compared to the sample covariance function by a polynomial factor in the sample size $n$...

  19. The prevalence and onset of age of stroke in Chinese adults%我国35岁以上居民脑卒中患病情况和发病年龄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟屹; 王文志; 赵文华; 杨晓光; 孔灵芝

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and onset of age of stroke in Chinese adults aged 35 years old and above. Methods Data from the 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey was used to analyze the prevalence of stroke by age, sex, regions, and the differences of onset of age of stroke among the alive patients. Result Standardized prevalence of stroke in Chinese adults aged 35 years old and above was 1111.5 per 100 000,1258.9 per 100 000 in male which was higher than female (959.3 per 100 000). The prevalence of stroke in urban (1544. 8 per 100 000) was higher than that in rural (758. 1 per 100 000). The standardized prevalence of stroke in the north (1479. 3 per 100 000) was significantly higher than that in the south (719. 6 per 100 000). The standardized prevalence of stroke in eastern,central and western region was 1469.0 per 100 000,1085.4 per 100 000,614.9 per 100 000,respectively. It is estimated that there were 5. 627 million patients with stroke aged 35 years old and above in China in 2002. The age at onset of stroke in the alive patients was skewed distribution. Median was 60 years old. The first incidence of stroke within 60 -age group accounted for 32. 4%. The age at onset of stroke was no significantly different between male (60 years old, χ~2 = 0. 00, P > 0. 05) and female ( 60 years old). The median of the age at onset of stroke (61 years old) in urban was higher than that in rural (58 years old,χ~2 = 17. 34,P0.05),城市人群的发病年龄中位数为61岁,晚于农村人群的58岁(χ~2=17.34,P<0.01),东部地区发病年龄中位数(61岁)晚于中部(59岁)和西部地区(57岁)(χ~2=12.92,P<0.01).结论 我国脑卒中患病存在性别及地区差异.现存脑卒中患者中,有1/2以上的患者脑卒中初次发病在60岁以前,即中青年人群.

  20. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children in Cyprus during three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013): age distribution, seasonality and association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, C; Richter, J; Koliou, M; Kalogirou, N; Georgiou, E; Christodoulou, C

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children in Cyprus over three successive seasons (2010-2013) and the association between prevalent genotypes and disease severity. RSV infections had a circulation pattern from December to March. Most RSV-positive children (83%) were aged <2 years. Genotyping of RSV isolates showed that during the first winter season of the study (2010-2011), the only RSV genotype circulating was GA2 (RSV-A), followed by genotype BA (RSV-B) in the next winter season with only few sporadic cases of GA2. During the last winter season of the study (2012-2013) the newly emerged RSV genotype ON1 (RSV-A) was virtually the only circulating genotype. Children infected with genotype ON1 suffered a significantly milder illness compared to infections with genotypes GA2 and BA with a higher percentage of BA-infected children requiring oxygen. Our findings are in contrast to the majority of published reports that suggest RSV-A causes more severe illness than RSV-B. Therefore, further investigation of the association between RSV genotypes and disease severity is required, as it might affect treatment strategies in the future.

  1. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P regions of China.

  2. New mathematical formula for differentiating thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia in thalassemia prevalent area: a study in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Iamsirirak, Pornchanok; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Kadegasem, Praguywan; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Sasanakul, Werasak; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemias are common diseases especially in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Asian regions. Both conditions show the same clinical findings of hypochromic and microcytic red blood cells. Although previous studies have devised mathematical formulae to differentiate between these two conditions, the prevalence of alpha- and beta-thalassemias among the affected populations may undermine the accuracy of these formulae. This study generated a new formula that was able to differentiate IDA and thalassemia traits and to determine the incidence rates of IDA and thalassemia traits. A total of 345 healthy Thai children with a mean age (+/- SD) of 11.3 (+/- 1.7) years were enrolled. Complete blood count, iron status, hemoglobin typing and DNA for alpha-1 thalassemia identification were investigated. Discriminant analysis was used to create a new mathematical formula containing significant variables to differentiate between IDA and thalassemia traits. The new formula of (1.5 Hb-0.05 MCV >14) had a receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92 in differentiating thalassemia traits from IDA, with sensitivity and specificity of 84.6 and 87.5%, respectively. The incidence of IDA and thalassemia traits in the study group was 12% and 32%, respectively. This formula should be useful as a screening tool to differentiate between these two conditions.

  3. Conformally covariant parametrizations for relativistic initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Erwann

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the Lichnerowicz-York method, and an alternative method of York, in order to obtain some conformally covariant systems. This type of parametrization is certainly more natural for non constant mean curvature initial data.

  4. Covariant Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    A short rewiev of covariant quantization methods based on BRST-antiBRST symmetry is given. In particular problems of correct definition of Sp(2) symmetric quantization scheme known as triplectic quantization are considered.

  5. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  6. Functional CLT for sample covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Zhidong; Zhou, Wang; 10.3150/10-BEJ250

    2010-01-01

    Using Bernstein polynomial approximations, we prove the central limit theorem for linear spectral statistics of sample covariance matrices, indexed by a set of functions with continuous fourth order derivatives on an open interval including $[(1-\\sqrt{y})^2,(1+\\sqrt{y})^2]$, the support of the Mar\\u{c}enko--Pastur law. We also derive the explicit expressions for asymptotic mean and covariance functions.

  7. Covariant Hamilton equations for field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giachetta, Giovanni [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Mangiarotti, Luigi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)]. E-mail: mangiaro@camserv.unicam.it; Sardanashvily, Gennadi [Department of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: sard@grav.phys.msu.su

    1999-09-24

    We study the relations between the equations of first-order Lagrangian field theory on fibre bundles and the covariant Hamilton equations on the finite-dimensional polysymplectic phase space of covariant Hamiltonian field theory. If a Lagrangian is hyperregular, these equations are equivalent. A degenerate Lagrangian requires a set of associated Hamiltonian forms in order to exhaust all solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations. The case of quadratic degenerate Lagrangians is studied in detail. (author)

  8. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  9. Economical Phase-Covariant Cloning of Qudits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscemi, F; Macchiavello, C; Buscemi, Francesco; Ariano, Giacomo Mauro D'; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2004-01-01

    We derive the optimal $N\\to M$ phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension $d$ with $M=kd+N$, $k$ integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an ``economical'' cloning machine, which works without ancilla. The connection between optimal phase-covariant cloning and optimal multi-phase estimation is finally established.

  10. Covariate analysis of bivariate survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The methods developed are used to analyze the effects of covariates on bivariate survival data when censoring and ties are present. The proposed method provides models for bivariate survival data that include differential covariate effects and censored observations. The proposed models are based on an extension of the univariate Buckley-James estimators which replace censored data points by their expected values, conditional on the censoring time and the covariates. For the bivariate situation, it is necessary to determine the expectation of the failure times for one component conditional on the failure or censoring time of the other component. Two different methods have been developed to estimate these expectations. In the semiparametric approach these expectations are determined from a modification of Burke's estimate of the bivariate empirical survival function. In the parametric approach censored data points are also replaced by their conditional expected values where the expected values are determined from a specified parametric distribution. The model estimation will be based on the revised data set, comprised of uncensored components and expected values for the censored components. The variance-covariance matrix for the estimated covariate parameters has also been derived for both the semiparametric and parametric methods. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey was analyzed by these methods. The two outcome variables are post-partum amenorrhea and breastfeeding; education and parity were used as the covariates. Both the covariate parameter estimates and the variance-covariance estimates for the semiparametric and parametric models will be compared. In addition, a multivariate test statistic was used in the semiparametric model to examine contrasts. The significance of the statistic was determined from a bootstrap distribution of the test statistic.

  11. Covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, V; Catelan, D; Rinaldi, L; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G; Biggeri, A

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the Campania region of southern Italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. In the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of the pasture environment while accounting for the underlying long range geographical risk pattern. Bayesian multivariate spatial statistical analysis was used. A systematic grid (10 km×10 km) sampling approach was used. Laboratory procedures were based on the FLOTAC technique to detect and count eggs of helminths. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was constructed by using environmental data layers. Data on each of these layers were then extracted for pasturing areas that were previously digitalized aerial images of the ovine farms. Bayesian multivariate statistical analyses, including improper multivariate conditional autoregressive models, were used to select covariates on a multivariate spatially structured risk surface. Out of the 121 tested farms, 109 were positive for H. contortus, 81 for D. dendriticum, 17 for C. daubneyi and 15 for F. hepatica. The statistical analysis highlighted a north-south long range spatially structured pattern. This geographical pattern is treated here as a confounder, because the main interest was in the causal role of ecological covariates at the level of each pasturing area. A high percentage of pasture and impermeable soil were strong predictors of F. hepatica risk and a high percentage of wood was a strong predictor of C. daubneyi. A high percentage of wood, rocks and arable soil with sparse trees explained the spatial distribution of D. dendriticum. Sparse vegetation, river, mixed soil and permeable soil explained the spatial

  12. Representations of Inverse Covariances by Differential Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin XU

    2005-01-01

    In the cost function of three- or four-dimensional variational data assimilation, each term is weighted by the inverse of its associated error covariance matrix and the background error covariance matrix is usually much larger than the other covariance matrices. Although the background error covariances are traditionally normalized and parameterized by simple smooth homogeneous correlation functions, the covariance matrices constructed from these correlation functions are often too large to be inverted or even manipulated. It is thus desirable to find direct representations of the inverses of background errorcorrelations. This problem is studied in this paper. In particular, it is shown that the background term can be written into ∫ dx|Dv(x)|2, that is, a squared L2 norm of a vector differential operator D, called the D-operator, applied to the field of analysis increment v(x). For autoregressive correlation functions, the Doperators are of finite orders. For Gaussian correlation functions, the D-operators are of infinite order. For practical applications, the Gaussian D-operators must be truncated to finite orders. The truncation errors are found to be small even when the Gaussian D-operators are truncated to low orders. With a truncated D-operator, the background term can be easily constructed with neither inversion nor direct calculation of the covariance matrix. D-operators are also derived for non-Gaussian correlations and transformed into non-isotropic forms.

  13. The prevalence of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors at different ages among 150 000 men and women living in Mexico City: cross-sectional analyses of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peto Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most of the global burden from chronic diseases, and especially vascular diseases, is now borne by low and middle-income countries, few large-scale epidemiological studies of chronic diseases in such countries have been performed. Methods From 1998–2004, 52 584 men and 106 962 women aged ≥35 years were visited in their homes in Mexico City. Self reported diagnoses of chronic diseases and major disease risk factors were ascertained and physical measurements taken. Age- and sex-specific prevalences and means were analysed. Results After about age 50 years, diabetes was extremely common – for example, 23.8% of men and 26.9% of women aged 65–74 reported a diagnosis. By comparison, ischaemic heart disease was reported by 4.8% of men and 3.0% of women aged 65–74, a history of stroke by 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively, and a history of cancer by 1.3% and 2.1%. Cancer history was generally more common among women than men – the excess being largest in middle-age, due to breast and cervical cancer. At older ages, the gap narrowed because of an increasing prevalence of prostate cancer. 51% of men and 25% of women aged 35–54 smoked cigarettes, while 29% of men and 41% of women aged 35–54 were obese (i.e. BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The prevalence of treated hypertension or measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg increased about 50% more steeply with age among women than men, to 66% of women and 58% of men aged 65–74. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent but daily alcohol drinking was relatively uncommon. Conclusion Diabetes, obesity and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent among adults living in Mexico City. Long-term follow-up of this and other cohorts will establish the relevance of such factors to the major causes of death and disability in Mexico.

  14. Prevalence study of overweight and obesity in middle-aged and aged community residents in Lanzhou%兰州市社区中老年人群超重和肥胖的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵楠; 杨倩; 汤旭磊; 甄东户; 王静玉; 王丽婷; 麻茜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among middle-aged and aged community residents in Lanzhou, to evaluate the correlation between overweight/obesity status and obesity-related diseases, and to analyze the risk factors of obesity.MethodsA cluster sampling study was performed in the community residents aged 40-75 years in Zhangguang Community in Lanzhou. All of them carried on the questionnaire survey, physical measurement and laboratory tests. 4 968 objects were included to statistically analyze the prevalence of overweight/obesity, the correlation between overweight/ obesity status and obesity-related diseases and the risk factors of obesity.Results In this study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 37.6% and 10.4% respectively, the males had higher rate of obesity than females (11.9%vs. 9.8%,P<0.05), the rate of overweight in males was significantly higher than females (42.7%vs. 35.7%,P<0.01). The objects in the older, with lower education levels and with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome had higher BMI and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis indicated that overweight and obesity would increase the risks of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease (OR: 1.013-9.164,P<0.05). Binary regression analysis suggested that senior age, male, irregular exercise and low education level were the risk factors of obesity.Conclusions The rates of overweight and obesity among middle-aged and aged residents were nearly 40% and 10.0% respectively. To prevent and control obesity effectively, more exercise should be advocated, and more attention should be specially paid to elderly males with low education levels.%目的:调查兰州市社区中老年人群超重和肥胖的患病情况、肥胖相关疾病的患病风险以及分析肥胖的相关危险因素。方法整群随机抽取兰州市城关区张广中心社区40~75

  15. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombet T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  16. Children's Understanding of the Principles of Covariation and Compensation in Part-Whole Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Kathryn C.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with 107 children, ages 4-7, about uncounted quantities, counted quantities, and numerical equations showed that the ability to predict changes to counted quantities increased with age. Only 7-year olds were able to use covariance and compensation in the purely numerical context of derived equations. (Author/MKR)

  17. A study of prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections & response to syndromic treatment among married women of reproductive age group in rural area of Parol Primary Health Centre under Thane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha V. Gosalia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To study prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs - symptomatic, clinical & laboratorial& response to syndromic treatment in among STI groups. Design Community based interventional study Setting Rual area-Parol Primary Health Centre(PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. Poulation Women of reproductive age groups 15 -45 years Methods Present Community based interventional study was conducted among representative group of 415 women of reproductive age groups who were selected by simple random sampling technique in Parol PHC, District Thane, Maharashtra state. All symptomatic & asymptomatic women were counseled for examination & investigations & given syndromic treatment. Follow-up done to assess impact of syndromic treatment. Main Outcome Prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs was significantly reduced. Statistical Analysis Z test Results Of the surveyed women (415, prevalence of STI symptomatically was 39%, clinically 32.3% & Laboratorial 26%. The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge (36.4% followed by Burning Micturition (24.7%, Vulval itching (17.3%, Lower abdominal pain (13% & Genital ulcer (8.6%. Clinically, 55.2% women were diagnosed as cervicitis & 44.8% as PID. Laboratorial diagnosed STIs were - vaginal candidiasis 46.3%, Bacterial vaginosis 25%, Trichmoniasis 19.4 %, Genital Herpes 7.4% & HIV 1.9%. After syndromic treatment, prevalence of STIs has statistically significantly reduced. Conclusion Syndromic Rx & health education can definitely reduce STIs.

  18. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finnerty, Fionnuala

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. METHODS: A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). RESULTS: General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can

  19. Model selection for marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data with missing observations and covariate measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau

    2015-10-01

    Missing observations and covariate measurement error commonly arise in longitudinal data. However, existing methods for model selection in marginal regression analysis of longitudinal data fail to address the potential bias resulting from these issues. To tackle this problem, we propose a new model selection criterion, the Generalized Longitudinal Information Criterion, which is based on an approximately unbiased estimator for the expected quadratic error of a considered marginal model accounting for both data missingness and covariate measurement error. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method performs quite well in the presence of missing data and covariate measurement error. On the contrary, the naive procedures without taking care of such complexity in data may perform quite poorly. The proposed method is applied to data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to assess the relationship of depression with health and social status in the elderly, accommodating measurement error in the covariate as well as missing observations.

  20. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Wegmueller, R.; Tschannen, A.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) e

  1. The prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of adult Poles by sex and age structure – an EZOP Poland study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kiejna

    2015-02-01

    Indices of prevalence obtained in the EZOP Poland study differ from the indices of prevalence of mental disorders described earlier in other countries. Lower values were found in Poland for affective disorders and some anxiety disorders. Only alcohol abuse was diagnosed more often than in other studies using similar methods except Ukraine, where this disorder was diagnosed with similar frequency.

  2. Cross sectional study of childhood obesity and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in children aged 11–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy Sinead

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school children aged 11–13. Methods and design Participants will be recruited from schools across South Wales. Schools will be selected based on catchment area, recruiting those with high ethnic minority or deprived catchment areas. Data collection will take place during the PE lessons and on school premises. Data will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist, hip and neck circumferences, skinfold thickness at 4 sites, physiological variables (blood pressure and aerobic fitness (20 metre multi stage fitness test (20 MSFT, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnire for Adolescents (PAQ-A, accelerometery and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, fibrinogen (Fg, adiponectin (high molecular weight, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Deprivation at the school level will be measured via information on the number of children receiving free school meals. Townsend deprivation scores will be calculated based on the individual childs postcode and self assigned ethnicity for each participating child will be collected. It is anticipated 800 children will be recruited. Multilevel modeling will be used to examine shared and individual factors associated with obesity, stratified by ethnic background, deprivation level and school. Discussion This study is part of a larger project which includes interviews with older children regarding health behaviours and analysis of existing cohort studies

  3. Increased Prevalence 12308 A > G mutation in Mitochondrial tRNALeu (CUN Gene Associated with earlier Age of Onset in Friedreich Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Medhi HEIDARI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Heidari MM, Khatami M, Houshmand M, Mahmoudi E, Nafissi Sh .Increased Prevalence 12308 A > G mutation in MitochondrialtRNALeu (CUN Gene Associated with earlier Age of Onset in Friedreich Ataxia. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:25-31.Objective Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an inherited recessive disorder. Mitochondrial DNA is a candidate modifying factor for FRDA.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tRNALeu (CUN 12308 A> G mutation and age of onset in Friedreich ataxia.Materials & Methods The 12308 A> G substitution in mitochondrial tRNALeu (CUN was examined in DNA samples from 30 Friedreich ataxia patients and 48 control subjects by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE and sequencing. Logistic regression was used to determine of cutoff age of onset.ResultsTwenty-two patients had the 12308 A> G mutation, and we found that its overall prevalence was significantly higher in 20 patients aged 17 years or younger than in 2 patients aged over 17 years (90% versus 10%. The 12308 A> G mutation lies in a region that has been highly conserved between species.Conclusion Our results show that the 12308 A > G mutation is associated with earlier age of onset in Friedreich ataxia. Thus, this mutation might cause the younger age of onset in FRDA.References Grabczyk E, Usdin K. The GAA*TTC triplet repeat expanded in Friedreich ataxia impedes transcription elongation by T7 RNA polymerase in a length and supercoil dependent manner. Nucleic Acids Res 2000;28(14:2815-22.Sakamoto N, Chastain PD, Parniewski P, Ohshima K, Pandolfo M, Griffith JD, et al. Sticky DNA: self association properties of long GAA.TTC repeats in R.R.Y triplex structures from Friedreich ataxia. Mol Cell1999;3(4:465-75.Lodi R, Cooper JM, Bradley JL, Manners D, Styles P, Taylor DJ, et al. Deficit of in vivo mitochondrial ATP production in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999

  4. Parametric methods for estimating covariate-dependent reference limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Arja; Kairisto, Veli; Uusipaikka, Esa

    2004-01-01

    Age-specific reference limits are required for many clinical laboratory measurements. Statistical assessment of calculated intervals must be performed to obtain reliable reference limits. When parametric, covariate-dependent limits are derived, normal distribution theory usually is applied due to its mathematical simplicity and relative ease of fitting. However, it is not always possible to transform data and achieve a normal distribution. Therefore, models other than those based on normal distribution theory are needed. Generalized linear model theory offers one such alternative. Regardless of the statistical model used, the assumptions behind the model should always be examined.

  5. Lorentz covariance of loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The kinematics of loop gravity can be given a manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation: the conventional SU(2)-spin-network Hilbert space can be mapped to a space K of SL(2,C) functions, where Lorentz covariance is manifest. K can be described in terms of a certain subset of the "projected" spin networks studied by Livine, Alexandrov and Dupuis. It is formed by SL(2,C) functions completely determined by their restriction on SU(2). These are square-integrable in the SU(2) scalar product, but not in the SL(2,C) one. Thus, SU(2)-spin-network states can be represented by Lorentz-covariant SL(2,C) functions, as two-component photons can be described in the Lorentz-covariant Gupta-Bleuler formalism. As shown by Wolfgang Wieland in a related paper, this manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation can also be directly obtained from canonical quantization. We show that the spinfoam dynamics of loop quantum gravity is locally SL(2,C)-invariant in the bulk, and yields states that are preciseley in K on the boundary. This c...

  6. Wishart distributions for decomposable covariance graph models

    CERN Document Server

    Khare, Kshitij; 10.1214/10-AOS841

    2011-01-01

    Gaussian covariance graph models encode marginal independence among the components of a multivariate random vector by means of a graph $G$. These models are distinctly different from the traditional concentration graph models (often also referred to as Gaussian graphical models or covariance selection models) since the zeros in the parameter are now reflected in the covariance matrix $\\Sigma$, as compared to the concentration matrix $\\Omega =\\Sigma^{-1}$. The parameter space of interest for covariance graph models is the cone $P_G$ of positive definite matrices with fixed zeros corresponding to the missing edges of $G$. As in Letac and Massam [Ann. Statist. 35 (2007) 1278--1323], we consider the case where $G$ is decomposable. In this paper, we construct on the cone $P_G$ a family of Wishart distributions which serve a similar purpose in the covariance graph setting as those constructed by Letac and Massam [Ann. Statist. 35 (2007) 1278--1323] and Dawid and Lauritzen [Ann. Statist. 21 (1993) 1272--1317] do in ...

  7. Cross-covariance functions for multivariate geostatistics

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-05-01

    Continuously indexed datasets with multiple variables have become ubiquitous in the geophysical, ecological, environmental and climate sciences, and pose substantial analysis challenges to scientists and statisticians. For many years, scientists developed models that aimed at capturing the spatial behavior for an individual process; only within the last few decades has it become commonplace to model multiple processes jointly. The key difficulty is in specifying the cross-covariance function, that is, the function responsible for the relationship between distinct variables. Indeed, these cross-covariance functions must be chosen to be consistent with marginal covariance functions in such a way that the second-order structure always yields a nonnegative definite covariance matrix. We review the main approaches to building cross-covariance models, including the linear model of coregionalization, convolution methods, the multivariate Matérn and nonstationary and space-time extensions of these among others. We additionally cover specialized constructions, including those designed for asymmetry, compact support and spherical domains, with a review of physics-constrained models. We illustrate select models on a bivariate regional climate model output example for temperature and pressure, along with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature observational dataset; we compare models by likelihood value as well as via cross-validation co-kriging studies. The article closes with a discussion of unsolved problems. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2015.

  8. Activities on covariance estimation in Japanese Nuclear Data Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Described are activities on covariance estimation in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. Covariances are obtained from measurements by using the least-squares methods. A simultaneous evaluation was performed to deduce covariances of fission cross sections of U and Pu isotopes. A code system, KALMAN, is used to estimate covariances of nuclear model calculations from uncertainties in model parameters. (author)

  9. Accurate covariance estimation of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing: limitations of jackknife covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Shirasaki, Masato; Miyatake, Hironao; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Hamana, Takashi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Murata, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method to simulate galaxy-galaxy weak lensing by utilizing all-sky, light-cone simulations. We populate a real catalog of source galaxies into a light-cone simulation realization, simulate the lensing effect on each galaxy, and then identify lensing halos that are considered to host galaxies or clusters of interest. We use the mock catalog to study the error covariance matrix of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and find that the super-sample covariance (SSC), which arises from density fluctuations with length scales comparable with or greater than a size of survey area, gives a dominant source of the sample variance. We then compare the full covariance with the jackknife (JK) covariance, the method that estimates the covariance from the resamples of the data itself. We show that, although the JK method gives an unbiased estimator of the covariance in the shot noise or Gaussian regime, it always over-estimates the true covariance in the sample variance regime, because the JK covariance turns out to be a...

  10. Progress on Nuclear Data Covariances: AFCI-1.2 Covariance Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblozinsky,P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.M.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Pigni,M.T.; Talou,P.; Hale,G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G

    2009-09-28

    Improved neutron cross section covariances were produced for 110 materials including 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Improved covariances were organized into AFCI-1.2 covariance library in 33-energy groups, from 10{sup -5} eV to 19.6 MeV. BNL contributed improved covariance data for the following materials: {sup 23}Na and {sup 55}Mn where more detailed evaluation was done; improvements in major structural materials {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni; improved estimates for remaining structural materials and fission products; improved covariances for 14 minor actinides, and estimates of mubar covariances for {sup 23}Na and {sup 56}Fe. LANL contributed improved covariance data for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu including prompt neutron fission spectra and completely new evaluation for {sup 240}Pu. New R-matrix evaluation for {sup 16}O including mubar covariances is under completion. BNL assembled the library and performed basic testing using improved procedures including inspection of uncertainty and correlation plots for each material. The AFCI-1.2 library was released to ANL and INL in August 2009.

  11. Structural damage detection based on covariance of covariance matrix with general white noise excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yi; Law, Siu Seong; Ku, Chiu Jen

    2017-02-01

    Covariance of the auto/cross-covariance matrix based method is studied for the damage identification of a structure with illustrations on its advantages and limitations. The original method is extended for structures under direct white noise excitations. The auto/cross-covariance function of the measured acceleration and its corresponding derivatives are formulated analytically, and the method is modified in two new strategies to enable successful identification with much fewer sensors. Numerical examples are adopted to illustrate the improved method, and the effects of sampling frequency and sampling duration are discussed. Results show that the covariance of covariance calculated from responses of higher order modes of a structure play an important role to the accurate identification of local damage in a structure.

  12. PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6 MONTHS-5 YEARS ADMITTED AT KBNTGH AND TO KNOW THE RATES OF PROPHYLACTIC IRON SUPPLEMENTATION, A ONE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujumdar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA among chilsdren aged 6 months-5 years in KBNTGH (Khaja Bandanawaz Teaching and General Hospital attached to Khaja Bandanawaz Institute of Medical Sciences. The files of 1519 patients aged between 0-5 years, who were hospitalized to KBN Hospital Pediatrics Ward were reviewed. A total of 50 patients with anaemia (Haemoglobin: 9gm% consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16.59±1.68 months were included into the study. The prevalence of IDA was 3.29% (Boys: 4.23%, girls: 2.1%. Haemoglobin and haematocrit of these patients was analysed. Hemoglobim and hematocrit of children >24 months were significantly higher than those of the patients with the age of 6–12 months. Of the 28 patients who were older than 12 months, only 44% of them had received a full course of iron supplementation for 8 months. In conclusion, although prophylactic iron supplementation lowered the prevalences of IDA, receiving rates of iron supplementation were not adequate. While IDA is still a public health problem, prophylactic approaches should be carried out more effectively.

  13. Covariant Lyapunov vectors for rigid disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Hadrien; Posch, Harald A

    2010-10-05

    We carry out extensive computer simulations to study the Lyapunov instability of a two-dimensional hard-disk system in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions. The system is large enough to allow the formation of Lyapunov modes parallel to the x-axis of the box. The Oseledec splitting into covariant subspaces of the tangent space is considered by computing the full set of covariant perturbation vectors co-moving with the flow in tangent space. These vectors are shown to be transversal, but generally not orthogonal to each other. Only the angle between covariant vectors associated with immediate adjacent Lyapunov exponents in the Lyapunov spectrum may become small, but the probability of this angle to vanish approaches zero. The stable and unstable manifolds are transverse to each other and the system is hyperbolic.

  14. Manifest Covariant Hamiltonian Theory of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating a manifest covariant Hamiltonian theory of General Relativity in the presence of source fields is addressed, by extending the so-called "DeDonder-Weyl" formalism to the treatment of classical fields in curved space-time. The theory is based on a synchronous variational principle for the Einstein equation, formulated in terms of superabundant variables. The technique permits one to determine the continuum covariant Hamiltonian structure associated with the Einstein equation. The corresponding continuum Poisson bracket representation is also determined. The theory relies on first-principles, in the sense that the conclusions are reached in the framework of a non-perturbative covariant approach, which allows one to preserve both the 4-scalar nature of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian densities as well as the gauge invariance property of the theory.

  15. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES AMONG OBESE AND NON OBESE PERSONS, IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hubbe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT : Obesity is increasing in the developed as well as developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is on the rise among the slum population. Increased incidence of vis ceral adiposity, hypertension, n on insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM and coron ary heart disease often cluster in the same individual and there have been speculations that a common mechanism may be responsible for all these pathological conditions. This risk factor constellation, which is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiova scular disease, is referred to as “Syndrome X . AIMS : To assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among obese and non obese in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : P r esent study was undertaken in a s lum in Chennai in persons above 4 0 years age group . One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, the diet pattern , the intake of non - vegetarian and oily foods , past history of hypertension and diabetes . Anthropometric data regarding height and weight was taken to assess body mass index (BMI , blood pressure was checked using mercury column sphygmomanometer and blood gluco se level b y G lucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. RESULTS : The prevalence of obesity was 13.66% and of overweight was 27.72%. The prevalence of Hy pertension among obese was 39.13%, pre obese 32.39% and non obese 24.93%. The prevalence of Dia betes among obese was 28.98%, pre obese 19.71% and non obese 15.34%. CONCLUSION : There is a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban slum dwellers. The prevalence of

  16. Notes on Cosmic Censorship Conjecture revisited: Covariantly

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Aymen I M; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the trapped region using a frame independent semi-tetrad covariant formalism for general Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. We covariantly prove some important geometrical results for the apparent horizon, and state the necessary and sufficient conditions for a singularity to be locally naked. These conditions bring out, for the first time in a quantitative and transparent manner, the importance of the Weyl curvature in deforming and delaying the trapped region during continual gravitational collapse, making the central singularity locally visible.

  17. A covariant formulation of classical spinning particle

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, J H; Kim, J K; Jin-Ho Cho; Seungjoon Hyun; Jae-Kwan Kim

    1994-01-01

    Covariantly we reformulate the description of a spinning particle in terms of the which entails all possible constraints explicitly; all constraints can be obtained just from the Lagrangian. Furthermore, in this covariant reformulation, the Lorentz element is to be considered to evolve the momentum or spin component from an arbitrary fixed frame and not just from the particle rest frame. In distinction with the usual formulation, our system is directly comparable with the pseudo-classical formulation. We get a peculiar symmetry which resembles the supersymmetry of the pseudo-classical formulation.

  18. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  19. Age- and sex-specific prevalence and ten-year risk for cardiovascular disease of all 16 risk factor combinations of the metabolic syndrome - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI of each MetS combination type. Methods We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS, a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women. Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated. Results In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL was the most frequent combination (28%, however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8% for MI (PROCAM, whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%. In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%. However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS. Conclusions We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their

  20. Prevalence of IgG Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 Virus-Like Particles in Women of Childbearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonko, I O; Ofoedu, V

    2015-01-01

    Most HPV prevalence studies have been carried out in high-resource countries with few studies focused on low-resource regions where highest HPV prevalence in the world occurs. This study reports on prevalence of IgG antibodies against HPVs among women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty-two consented women (age-range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited. Demographic/behavioral data and 5 mL blood samples were collected from each woman. Plasma of each sample was assayed for HPV-6/11/16/18 virus-like particles using a HPV IgG ELISA kit. The overall anti-HPV prevalence was 4.9% while 7.7% with itching/wound in the private part tested positive. Most (88.9%) of the seropositive women were sexually active. Group-specific seropositivity was low (0.0-10.0%). It also showed that all the 9(100.0%) who tested positive to the HPV responded "yes" to no information on the source of HPV information. Being younger, married, high educational level, religion, and lack of information on HPV were the main correlates of HPV positivity among these women. None was vaccinated and would have been naturally exposed to at least one of HPV-6/11/16/18. With 4.9% seropositivity and lack of information regarding HPV among these women, this study recommends a statewide enlightenment campaign and vaccination.

  1. Covariant Photon Quantization in the SME

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, Don

    2013-01-01

    The Gupta Bleuler quantization procedure is applied to the SME photon sector. A direct application of the method to the massless case fails due to an unavoidable incompleteness in the polarization states. A mass term can be included into the photon lagrangian to rescue the quantization procedure and maintain covariance.

  2. Covariance of noncommutative Grassmann star product

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Coherent states of many fermionic degrees of freedom labeled by Gra\\ss mann variables, we introduce the noncommutative (precisely non anticommutative) Gra\\ss mann star product. The covariance of star product under unitary transformations, particularly canonical ones, is studied. The super star product, based on supercoherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillator, is also considered.

  3. Covariant derivative expansion of the heat kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, L.L. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Granada (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    Using the technique of labeled operators, compact explicit expressions are given for all traced heat kernel coefficients containing zero, two, four and six covariant derivatives, and for diagonal coefficients with zero, two and four derivatives. The results apply to boundaryless flat space-times and arbitrary non-Abelian scalar and gauge background fields. (orig.)

  4. The Massless Spectrum of Covariant Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; van Nieuwenhuizen, P

    2002-01-01

    We obtain the correct cohomology at any ghost number for the open and closed covariant superstring, quantized by an approach which we recently developed. We define physical states by the usual condition of BRST invariance and a new condition involving a new current which is related to a grading of the underlying affine Lie algebra.

  5. Optimal covariate designs theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Premadhis; Mandal, Nripes Kumar; Sinha, Bikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book primarily addresses the optimality aspects of covariate designs. A covariate model is a combination of ANOVA and regression models. Optimal estimation of the parameters of the model using a suitable choice of designs is of great importance; as such choices allow experimenters to extract maximum information for the unknown model parameters. The main emphasis of this monograph is to start with an assumed covariate model in combination with some standard ANOVA set-ups such as CRD, RBD, BIBD, GDD, BTIBD, BPEBD, cross-over, multi-factor, split-plot and strip-plot designs, treatment control designs, etc. and discuss the nature and availability of optimal covariate designs. In some situations, optimal estimations of both ANOVA and the regression parameters are provided. Global optimality and D-optimality criteria are mainly used in selecting the design. The standard optimality results of both discrete and continuous set-ups have been adapted, and several novel combinatorial techniques have been applied for...

  6. Approximate methods for derivation of covariance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesen, S. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik; Larson, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Several approaches for the derivation of covariance information for evaluated nuclear data files (EFF2 and ENDF/B-VI) have been developed and used at IRK and ORNL respectively. Considerations, governing the choice of a distinct method depending on the quantity and quality of available data are presented, advantages/disadvantages are discussed and examples of results are given.

  7. Covariance of the selfdual vector model

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Poisson algebra between the fields involved in the vectorial selfdual action is obtained by means of the reduced action. The conserved charges associated with the invariance under the inhomogeneous Lorentz group are obtained and its action on the fields. The covariance of the theory is proved using the Schwinger-Dirac algebra. The spin of the excitations is discussed.

  8. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank def

  9. Econometric analysis of realized covariation: high frequency based covariance, regression, and correlation in financial economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses multivariate high frequency financial data using realized covariation. We provide a new asymptotic distribution theory for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis, and covariance. It will be based on a fixed interval of time (e.g., a day or week), allowing...... the number of high frequency returns during this period to go to infinity. Our analysis allows us to study how high frequency correlations, regressions, and covariances change through time. In particular we provide confidence intervals for each of these quantities....

  10. Prevalence and metabolic risk factors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a middle-aged and elderly population in Guangzhou%广州市中老年人非酒精性脂肪肝患病率及代谢相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹意; 王澄; 师雯琦; 朱影影; 陈耿东; 陈裕明

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)在中老年人群中的患病情况及其代谢相关因素.方法 采用横断面调查的方法,通过问卷调查和实验室检测对2 935名广州市中老年人进行资料收集、整理.探讨NAFLD在中老年人群中的患病情况,并采用协方差和logistic回归分析代谢因素与NAFLD患病情况之间的关系.NAFLD的诊断标准采用中华医学会肝脏病学分会脂肪肝和酒精性肝病学组的影像学诊断标准,并且按照其严重程度分为轻、中、重三个等级.结果 广州市中老年人群中NAFLD的患病率为50.6%.NAFLD患者组中WC、BMI、FPG、TG、SBP、DBP以及MS患病率均明显高于对照组,而体力活动水平和HDL-C明显降低(P<0.001).logistic回归分析显示,WC、SBP、DBP、TG、FPG和HDL-C每升高一个标准差其对应NAFLD患病的OR值(95%CI)分别为2.70 (2.45~2.98)、1.47(1.35 ~ 1.59)、1.48(1.37 ~ 1.60)、1.88 (1.66~2.12)、1.25(1.15 ~ 1.36)和0.51 (0.47~0.56).随着NAFLD严重程度不断增加,WC、BMI、TG、SBP、DBP和FPG水平均呈现上升趋势,而HDL-C呈现减少的趋势(P<0.001).结论 中老年人NAFLD患病率较高,MS及相关组分与NAFLD关系密切,其中WC增加对NAFLD患病影响最大.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and understand the relationship between NAFLD and metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly adults.Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 2 935 subjects in Guangzhou,Guangdong province.Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were conducted to collect general information and other covariates.Analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between metabolic factors and the prevalence of NAFLD.NAFLD was diagnosed based on standard criteria recommend by the Fatty Liver Disease and Alcoholic Liver Disease Branch of Chinese Hepatology Society,and the degree of

  11. Unravelling Lorentz Covariance and the Spacetime Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of an exact mapping from Galilean time and space coordinates to Minkowski spacetime coordinates, showing that Lorentz covariance and the space-time construct are consistent with the existence of a dynamical 3-space, and absolute motion. We illustrate this mapping first with the standard theory of sound, as vibrations of a medium, which itself may be undergoing fluid motion, and which is covariant under Galilean coordinate transformations. By introducing a different non-physical class of space and time coordinates it may be cast into a form that is covariant under Lorentz transformations wherein the speed of sound is now the invariant speed. If this latter formalism were taken as fundamental and complete we would be lead to the introduction of a pseudo-Riemannian spacetime description of sound, with a metric characterised by an invariant speed of sound. This analysis is an allegory for the development of 20th century physics, but where the Lorentz covariant Maxwell equations were constructed first, and the Galilean form was later constructed by Hertz, but ignored. It is shown that the Lorentz covariance of the Maxwell equations only occurs because of the use of non-physical space and time coordinates. The use of this class of coordinates has confounded 20th century physics, and resulted in the existence of a allowing dynamical 3-space being overlooked. The discovery of the dynamics of this 3-space has lead to the derivation of an extended gravity theory as a quantum effect, and confirmed by numerous experiments and observations

  12. Unravelling Lorentz Covariance and the Spacetime Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of an exact mapping from Galilean time and space coordinates to Minkowski spacetime coordinates, showing that Lorentz covariance and the space- time construct are consistent with the existence of a dynamical 3-space, and “absolute motion”. We illustrate this mapping first with the standard theory of sound, as vibra- tions of a medium, which itself may be undergoing fluid motion, and which is covari- ant under Galilean coordinate transformations. By introducing a different non-physical class of space and time coordinates it may be cast into a form that is covariant under “Lorentz transformations” wherein the speed of sound is now the “invariant speed”. If this latter formalism were taken as fundamental and complete we would be lead to the introduction of a pseudo-Riemannian “spacetime” description of sound, with a metric characterised by an “invariant speed of sound”. This analysis is an allegory for the development of 20th century physics, but where the Lorentz covariant Maxwell equa- tions were constructed first, and the Galilean form was later constructed by Hertz, but ignored. It is shown that the Lorentz covariance of the Maxwell equations only occurs because of the use of non-physical space and time coordinates. The use of this class of coordinates has confounded 20th century physics, and resulted in the existence of a “flowing” dynamical 3-space being overlooked. The discovery of the dynamics of this 3-space has lead to the derivation of an extended gravity theory as a quantum effect, and confirmed by numerous experiments and observations

  13. Prevalence of blindness and low vision and influencing factors for them in aged people of Kunming%昆明市老年人群盲和低视力患病率及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 朱明

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of blindness and low vision and correlation factors for them in aged people and more than 50 of Kunming. Methods Prevalence of blindness and low vision and correlation factors for them were studied in aged people and more than 50 of Kunming at June to August,2006. Multi-stage sampling was applied to randomly select 2 760 people. Basic information and ophthalmic examination were collected from these participants. The prevalence of blindness,severe visual impairment(SVI) and visual impairment(Ⅵ) were calculated based on pinhole visual acuity,WHO definition of visual injury(Definition A) and daily visual definition(Definition B). The correlation factors about blindness and low vision were analyzed using STATA 9. Results The response rate was 93.8% about 2 588 people. The prevalence of blindness was 3.2% with Definition A and 3.7% with Definition B, and was 2.3% with Definition A and 2.7% Definition B after age-sex adjustment, respectively. The prevalence of blindness for people aged from 50 to 59, from 60 to 69, from 70 to 79,80 and more than 80 were 0.5% ,2.3% ,6.5% and 11.0% ,respectively,the prevalence of SVI were 0.6%, 2.0%,4.5% and 10.1% ,respectively,and the prevalence of Ⅵ were 2.1% 5.7%, 14.6% and 28.2%, respectively. The prevalence of blindness for poor, middie-income people and wealthy people were 4.8%, 2.8% and 2.7%, respectively, the prevalence of SVI were 2.7%, 7.9% and 2.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of Ⅵ were 9.9%, 13.0% and 8.5% ,respectively. The prevalence of blindness for urban population and rural population were 1.6% and 4.5% ,the prevalence of SVI were 1.4% and 3.6% ,and the prevalence of Ⅵ were 6.0% and 10.4%. Statistical analysis showed that the prevalence of blindness,SVI and Ⅵ were significantly related to age,economic conditions and urban and rural distribution,not related to ethnicity or gender. Conclusion Age, economic conditions and urban and rural distribution axe the main risk factors

  14. United States national prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in black and white middle-age (45- to 64-Year) and older (≥65-Year) adults (from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prineas, Ronald J; Le, Anh; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Howard, Virginia J; Ostchega, Yechiam; Howard, George

    2012-04-15

    A United States national sample of 20,962 participants (57% women, 44% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study provided general population estimates for electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities among black and white men and women. The participants were recruited from 2003 to 2007 by random selection from a commercially available nationwide list, with oversampling of blacks and those from the stroke belt, with a cooperation rate of 49%. The measurement of risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms (centrally coded using Minnesota code criteria) showed 28% had ≥1 major ECG abnormality. The prevalence of abnormalities was greater (≥35%) for those ≥65 years old, with no differences between blacks and whites. However, among men <65 years, blacks had more major abnormalities than whites, most notably for atrial fibrillation, major Q waves, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Men generally had more ECG abnormalities than women. The most common ECG abnormalities were T-wave abnormalities. The average heart rate-corrected QT interval was longer in women than in men, similar in whites and blacks, and increased with age. However, the average heart rate was greater in women than in men and in blacks than in whites and decreased with age. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was related to the presence of hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, and age. In conclusion, black men and women in the United States have a significantly greater prevalence of ECG abnormalities than white men and women at age 45 to 64 years; however, these proportions, although larger, tended to equalize or reverse after age 65.

  15. Stochastic Lipschitz continuity for high dimensional Lasso with multiple linear covariate structures or hidden linear covariates

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Zhiyi

    2010-01-01

    Two extensions of generalized linear models are considered. In the first one, response variables depend on multiple linear combinations of covariates. In the second one, only response variables are observed while the linear covariates are missing. We derive stochastic Lipschitz continuity results for the loss functions involved in the regression problems and apply them to get bounds on estimation error for Lasso. Multivariate comparison results on Rademacher complexity are obtained as tools to establish the stochastic Lipschitz continuity results.

  16. Prevalence and Incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 10 Years With Influenza-like Illness Enrolled in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lopez, Pio; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Mascareñas de Los Santos, Abiel; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P.; Seng, Lim Fong; Hernandez-de Mezerville, Marcela; Faingezicht, Idis; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Feng, Yang; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Haars, Gerco; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W.; Taylor, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated morbidity and mortality makes vaccine development a priority. Methods. As part of an efficacy trial of pandemic influenza vaccines (NCT01051661), RSV epidemiology in healthy children aged 6 months to <10 years at first vaccination with influenza-like illness (ILI) was evaluated in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand between February 2010 and August 2011. Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year, with nasal and throat swabs analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence and incidence of RSV among ILI episodes were calculated. Results. A total of 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes with a respiratory sample available. RSV was detected for 359 ILI episodes, a prevalence of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–10.7). The highest prevalence was in children aged 12–23 or 24–35 months in all countries except the Philippines, where it was in children aged 6–11 months. The incidence of RSV-associated ILI was 7.0 (6.3–7.7) per 100 person-years (PY). Eighty-eight ILI episodes resulted in hospitalization, of which 8 were associated with RSV (prevalence 9.1% [4.0–17.1]; incidence 0.2 [0.1–0.3] per 100 PY). The incidence of RSV-associated ILI resulting in medical attendance was 6.0 (5.4–6.7) per 100 PY. RSV B subtypes were observed more frequently than A subtypes. Conclusions. Active surveillance demonstrated the considerable burden of RSV-associated illness that would not be identified through hospital-based surveillance, with a substantial part of the burden occurring in older infants and children. PMID:25673560

  17. Trends in population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among middle-aged and older adults in a rural area of Northwest China from 1982 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in average blood pressure levels and prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in a rural area of Northwest China, and to determine associated risk factors. METHODS: Four cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted between 1982 and 2010 among randomly selected adults in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Data on blood pressure, body mass index, family history of hypertension, and socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected in similar way by trained investigators in four surveys. Data of 8575 participants aged 35-64 years was analyzed. Averages and proportions were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Average blood pressure in the population has increased since 1982 from 76.9 mm Hg to 79.6 mm Hg in 2010 (diastolic and from 120.9 to 129.7 mm Hg (systolic. Prevalence of hypertension increased from 18.4% in 1982 to 30.5% in 2010, and awareness of hypertension increased from 16.8% to 38.4% in 2010. Treatment of hypertension increased from 1.0% in 1982 to 17.4% in 2010, and control of hypertension increased from 0.1% in 1982 to 3.5% in 2010. All these gradients were statistically significant (P<0.01 for trend. Population blood pressure and prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension were positively associated with increasing age, body mass index and having family history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Average blood pressure levels and the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in rural areas of Hanzhong have increased since 1982. However, awareness, treatment and control rates remain low. Public health programs and practical strategies are required to improve prevention and control of hypertension in rural Northwest China. In particular, attention should be given to the elderly and obese, and to those with a family history of hypertension, while raising awareness and treatment among younger adults.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure in Chinese Children Aged 6-13 Years:a Nationwide School-Based Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Yi; LI Wei Rong; SHEN Chong; Frank QIAN; SHI Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.

  19. Livestock-associated MRSA prevalence in veal calf production is associated with farm hygiene, use of antimicrobials, and age of the calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.E.H.; Graveland, H.; Portengen, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.

    2012-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is highly prevalent in pork and veal production chains. In this study, we used data from a cross-sectional survey on 2151 calves from 102 veal calf farms to identify potential risk factors, with the goal of reducing MRSA prev

  20. Livestock-associated MRSA prevalence in veal calf production is associated with farm hygiene, use of antimicrobials, and age of the calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.E.H.; Graveland, H.; Portengen, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heekerik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is highly prevalent in pork and veal production chains. In this study, we used data from a crosssectional survey on 2151 calves from 102 veal calf farms to identify potential risk factors, with the goal of reducing MRSA preva

  1. Baseline prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral arterial disease and hypertension in men aged 65-74 years from a population screening study (VIVA trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndal, Nikolaj Fibiger; Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2015-01-01

    treatment was initiated in 34·8 per cent of the participants. CONCLUSION: Preventive actions were started in one-third of the attenders. The long-term effect of this on morbidity and mortality is an important part of future analysis. The trial confirms that the prevalence of AAA in Denmark has decreased...

  2. Gender, Weight, and Age Effects on Prevalence of Caudal Aberrant Nasal Turbinates in Clinically Healthy English Bulldogs : A Computed Tomographic Study and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the preval

  3. Prescription Errors in Older Individuals with an Intellectual Disability: Prevalence and Risk Factors in the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Rianne J.; van der Kaaij, Annemieke D. M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing pharmacotherapy for older individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) is a complex process, possibly leading to an increased risk of prescription errors. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of older individuals with an intellectual disability with at least one prescription error and (2) to identify…

  4. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  5. Covariant holography of a tachyonic accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Madrid (Spain); University of Portsmouth, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    We apply the holographic principle to a flat dark energy dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with a tachyon scalar field with constant equation of state w = p/ρ, both for w > -1 and w < -1. By using a geometrical covariant procedure, which allows the construction of holographic hypersurfaces, we have obtained for each case the position of the preferred screen and have then compared these with those obtained by using the holographic dark energy model with the future event horizon as the infrared cutoff. In the phantom scenario, one of the two obtained holographic screens is placed on the big rip hypersurface, both for the covariant holographic formalism and the holographic phantom model. It is also analyzed whether the existence of these preferred screens allows a mathematically consistent formulation of fundamental theories based on the existence of an S-matrix at infinite distances. (orig.)

  6. Covariant holography of a tachyonic accelerating universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rozas-Fernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We apply the holographic principle to a flat dark energy dominated Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime filled with a tachyon scalar field with constant equation of state $w=p/\\rho$, both for $w>-1$ and $w<-1$. By using a geometrical covariant procedure, which allows the construction of holographic hypersurfaces, we have obtained for each case the position of the preferred screen and have then compared these with those obtained by using the holographic dark energy model with the future event horizon as the infrared cutoff. In the phantom scenario, one of the two obtained holographic screens is placed on the big rip hypersurface, both for the covariant holographic formalism and the holographic phantom model. It is also analysed whether the existence of these preferred screens allows a mathematically consistent formulation of fundamental theories based on the existence of a S matrix at infinite distances.

  7. Model selection for Poisson processes with covariates

    CERN Document Server

    Sart, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We observe $n$ inhomogeneous Poisson processes with covariates and aim at estimating their intensities. To handle this problem, we assume that the intensity of each Poisson process is of the form $s (\\cdot, x)$ where $x$ is the covariate and where $s$ is an unknown function. We propose a model selection approach where the models are used to approximate the multivariate function $s$. We show that our estimator satisfies an oracle-type inequality under very weak assumptions both on the intensities and the models. By using an Hellinger-type loss, we establish non-asymptotic risk bounds and specify them under various kind of assumptions on the target function $s$ such as being smooth or composite. Besides, we show that our estimation procedure is robust with respect to these assumptions.

  8. Errors on errors - Estimating cosmological parameter covariance

    CERN Document Server

    Joachimi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Current and forthcoming cosmological data analyses share the challenge of huge datasets alongside increasingly tight requirements on the precision and accuracy of extracted cosmological parameters. The community is becoming increasingly aware that these requirements not only apply to the central values of parameters but, equally important, also to the error bars. Due to non-linear effects in the astrophysics, the instrument, and the analysis pipeline, data covariance matrices are usually not well known a priori and need to be estimated from the data itself, or from suites of large simulations. In either case, the finite number of realisations available to determine data covariances introduces significant biases and additional variance in the errors on cosmological parameters in a standard likelihood analysis. Here, we review recent work on quantifying these biases and additional variances and discuss approaches to remedy these effects.

  9. On covariance structure in noisy, big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenroth, Randy C.; Nong, Ryan; Du Toit, Philip C.

    2013-09-01

    Herein we describe theory and algorithms for detecting covariance structures in large, noisy data sets. Our work uses ideas from matrix completion and robust principal component analysis to detect the presence of low-rank covariance matrices, even when the data is noisy, distorted by large corruptions, and only partially observed. In fact, the ability to handle partial observations combined with ideas from randomized algorithms for matrix decomposition enables us to produce asymptotically fast algorithms. Herein we will provide numerical demonstrations of the methods and their convergence properties. While such methods have applicability to many problems, including mathematical finance, crime analysis, and other large-scale sensor fusion problems, our inspiration arises from applying these methods in the context of cyber network intrusion detection.

  10. Covariant Quantization of CPT-violating Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, D; Noordmans, J P; Potting, R

    2016-01-01

    We perform the covariant canonical quantization of the CPT- and Lorentz-symmetry-violating photon sector of the minimal Standard-Model Extension, which contains a general (timelike, lightlike, or spacelike) fixed background tensor $k_{AF}^\\mu$. Well-known stability issues, arising from complex-valued energy states, are solved by introducing a small photon mass, orders of magnitude below current experimental bounds. We explicitly construct a covariant basis of polarization vectors, in which the photon field can be expanded. We proceed to derive the Feynman propagator and show that the theory is microcausal. Despite the occurrence of negative energies and vacuum-Cherenkov radiation, we do not find any runaway stability issues, because the energy remains bounded from below. An important observation is that the ordering of the roots of the dispersion relations is the same in any observer frame, which allows for a frame-independent condition that selects the correct branch of the dispersion relation. This turns ou...

  11. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  12. Symmetry and Covariance of Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Omote, Minoru; kamefuchi, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of a 5-dimensional form of space-time transformations non-relativistic quantum mechanics is reformulated in a manifestly covariant manner. The resulting covariance resembles that of the conventional relativistic quantum mechanics.

  13. Prevalência e caracterização de espécies de lactobacilos vaginais em mulheres em idade reprodutiva sem vulvovaginites Prevalence and characterization of vaginal lactobacillus species in women at reproductive age without vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Melo Brolazo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar espécies de lactobacilos isolados do conteúdo vaginal de mulheres saudáveis e assintomáticas; determinar as espécies mais prevalentes e caracterizá-las fenotipicamente. MÉTODOS: lactobacilos foram isolados em meio seletivo a partir de amostras de conteúdo vaginal de 135 mulheres, sem queixa de corrimento e com diagnóstico laboratorial negativo para infecções vaginais, acompanhadas em um ambulatório de Planejamento Familiar. Os isolados foram identificados por PCR multiplex e, quando necessário, submetidos ao sequenciamento do gene RNAr 16S. Foram também avaliados quanto à acidificação do meio de cultura, à produção de ácido láctico, de H2O2, bacteriocinas e a capacidade de adesão às células epiteliais. RESULTADOS: oitenta e três cepas de lactobacilos foram isoladas e identificadas, sendo as espécies predominantes L. crispatus (30,1%, L. jensenii (26,5%, L. gasseri (22,9% e L. vaginalis (8,4%. Apenas 20 destes isolados não produziram H2O2 em quantidades detectáveis. Das 37 linhagens selecionadas para teste de adesão a células epiteliais, 12 apresentaram adesão entre 50 a 69%, 10 apresentaram 70% ou mais, e as restantes pouca ou nenhuma adesão. Nenhum dos isolados produziu bacteriocinas. CONCLUSÕES: as espécies de lactobacilos mais prevalentes em mulheres sem vulvovaginites, isoladas em meio de cultura seletivo e identificadas por métodos moleculares, foram L. crispatus, L. jensenii e L. gasseri. Além de mais frequentes, tais linhagens também apresentaram melhor produção de H2O2 e atingiram menores valores de pH em meio de cultura.PURPOSE: to identify species of lactobacillus isolated from the vaginal contents of healthy and asymptomatic women, determining the most prevalent species and characterizing them phenotypically. METHODS: lactobacillus have been isolated in selective milieu from samples of the vaginal contents of 135 women without complaints of vaginal secretion, and with

  14. Covariant quantization of the CBS superparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, P. A.; Policastro, G.; Porrati, M.

    2001-07-01

    The quantization of the Casalbuoni-Brink-Schwarz superparticle is performed in an explicitly covariant way using the antibracket formalism. Since an infinite number of ghost fields are required, within a suitable off-shell twistor-like formalism, we are able to fix the gauge of each ghost sector without modifying the physical content of the theory. The computation reveals that the antibracket cohomology contains only the physical degrees of freedom.

  15. Unbiased risk estimation method for covariance estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lescornel, Hélène; Chabriac, Claudie

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model selection estimator of the covariance of a random process. Using the Unbiased Risk Estimation (URE) method, we build an estimator of the risk which allows to select an estimator in a collection of model. Then, we present an oracle inequality which ensures that the risk of the selected estimator is close to the risk of the oracle. Simulations show the efficiency of this methodology.

  16. Linear Covariance Analysis for a Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bhatt, Sagar; Fritz, Matthew; Woffinden, David; May, Darryl; Braden, Ellen; Hannan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A next-generation lunar lander Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system, which includes a state-of-the-art optical sensor suite, is proposed in a concept design cycle. The design goal is to allow the lander to softly land within the prescribed landing precision. The achievement of this precision landing requirement depends on proper selection of the sensor suite. In this paper, a robust sensor selection procedure is demonstrated using a Linear Covariance (LinCov) analysis tool developed by Draper.

  17. Risk evaluation with enhaced covariance matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Urbanowicz, K; Richmond, P; Holyst, Janusz A.; Richmond, Peter; Urbanowicz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We propose a route for the evaluation of risk based on a transformation of the covariance matrix. The approach uses a `potential' or `objective' function. This allows us to rescale data from diferent assets (or sources) such that each set then has similar statistical properties in terms of their probability distributions. The method is tested using historical data from both the New York and Warsaw Stock Exchanges.

  18. Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C.

    1985-01-01

    The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.

  19. Twisted Covariant Noncommutative Self-dual Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada-Jimenez, S; Obregón, O; Ramírez, C

    2008-01-01

    A twisted covariant formulation of noncommutative self-dual gravity is presented. The recent formulation introduced by J. Wess and coworkers for constructing twisted Yang-Mills fields is used. It is shown that the noncommutative torsion is solved at any order of the $\\theta$-expansion in terms of the tetrad and the extra fields of the theory. In the process the first order expansion in $\\theta$ for the Pleba\\'nski action is explicitly obtained.

  20. Economical phase-covariant cloning with multiclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wen-Hai; Ye Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple method to derive the explicit transformations of the optimal economical to M phase-covariant cloning. The fidelity of clones reaches the theoretic bound [D'Ariano G M and Macchiavello C 2003 Phys. Rcv. A 67 042306]. The derived transformations cover the previous contributions [Delgado Y,Lamata L et al,2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 150502] in which M must be odd.

  1. Adaptive Covariance Estimation with model selection

    CERN Document Server

    Biscay, Rolando; Loubes, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    We provide in this paper a fully adaptive penalized procedure to select a covariance among a collection of models observing i.i.d replications of the process at fixed observation points. For this we generalize previous results of Bigot and al. and propose to use a data driven penalty to obtain an oracle inequality for the estimator. We prove that this method is an extension to the matricial regression model of the work by Baraud.

  2. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  3. Covariant Calculus for Effective String Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dass, N. D. Hari; Matlock, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A covariant calculus for the construction of effective string theories is developed. Effective string theory, describing quantum string-like excitations in arbitrary dimension, has in the past been constructed using the principles of conformal field theory, but not in a systematic way. Using the freedom of choice of field definition, a particular field definition is made in a systematic way to allow an explicit construction of effective string theories with manifest exact conformal symmetry. ...

  4. Prevalência de alterações orais congênitas e de desenvolvimento em bebês de 0 a 6 meses = Prevalence of congenital and developmental oral abnormalities in infants aged 0 to 6 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Flávia Fernanda Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar a prevalência de alterações orais congênitas e de desenvolvimento em bebês de 0 a 6 meses de idade. Metodologia: A amostra deste estudo descritivo foi constituída por 621 bebês de 0 a 6 meses de idade atendidos no Banco de leite do Hospital Universitário Materno Infantil em São Luís, MA, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2001 a junho de 2004. O exame clínico foi realizado através de inspeção visual, com luz natural e espátula de madeira. Foram registradas as alterações orais congênitas e de desenvolvimento presentes e sua localização anatômica, bem como o sexo e a faixa etária dos bebês. Resultados: Do total de 621 bebês (310 meninos e 311 meninas, 45 (7,24 % apresentaram alguma alteração oral, com localização principalmente na maxila. O cisto de inclusão foi a alteração mais frequente (6,28 % dos bebês examinados. A faixa etária entre 0 e 3 meses de idade apresentou maior número de alterações. Conclusão: Alterações congênitas ou de desenvolvimento não são ocorrências incomuns em bebês até 6 meses de idade, embora a prevalência relatada na literatura seja bastante variável. Há necessidade de estudos adicionais sobre as causas e os fatores de risco para o surgimento dessas alterações

  5. How covariant is the galaxy luminosity function?

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the error properties of certain galaxy luminosity function (GLF) estimators. Using a cluster expansion of the density field, we show how, for both volume and flux limited samples, the GLF estimates are covariant. The covariance matrix can be decomposed into three pieces: a diagonal term arising from Poisson noise; a sample variance term arising from large-scale structure in the survey volume; an occupancy covariance term arising due to galaxies of different luminosities inhabiting the same cluster. To evaluate the theory one needs: the mass function and bias of clusters, and the conditional luminosity function (CLF). We use a semi-analytic model (SAM) galaxy catalogue from the Millennium run N-body simulation and the CLF of Yang et al. (2003) to explore these effects. The GLF estimates from the SAM and the CLF qualitatively reproduce results from the 2dFGRS. We also measure the luminosity dependence of clustering in the SAM and find reasonable agreement with 2dFGRS results for bright galaxies. ...

  6. Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-06-24

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  7. High-dimensional covariance estimation with high-dimensional data

    CERN Document Server

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Methods for estimating sparse and large covariance matrices Covariance and correlation matrices play fundamental roles in every aspect of the analysis of multivariate data collected from a variety of fields including business and economics, health care, engineering, and environmental and physical sciences. High-Dimensional Covariance Estimation provides accessible and comprehensive coverage of the classical and modern approaches for estimating covariance matrices as well as their applications to the rapidly developing areas lying at the intersection of statistics and mac

  8. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  9. Comparison of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hospital and community-based Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Hakuei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors, such as an unbalanced diet and lack of physical activity, may affect the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients among schizophrenic population in Japan. Methods We recruited inpatients (n = 759 and outpatients (n = 427 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from 7 psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. MetS prevalence was assessed using three different definitions, including the adapted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III-A. Results The overall MetS prevalences based on the ATP III-A definition were 15.8% in inpatients and 48.1% in outpatients. In a logistic regression model with age and body mass index as covariates, being a schizophrenic outpatient, compared to being a schizophrenic inpatient, was a significant independent factor (odds ratio = 3.66 for males, 2.48 for females in the development of MetS under the ATP III-A definition. The difference in MetS prevalence between inpatients and outpatients was observed for all age groups in males and for females over 40 years of age. Conclusions Outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Japan had a high prevalence of MetS compared to inpatients. MetS in schizophrenic outpatients should be carefully monitored to minimize the risks. A change of lifestyle might improve MetS in schizophrenic patients.

  10. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  11. Group B streptococcus serotype prevalence in reproductive-age women at a tertiary care military medical center relative to global serotype distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Julie; Dehart Mary J; Huang Raywin R; Tinnemore Deborah; James Wesley A; Ippolito Danielle L; Wingerd Mark A; Demons Samandra T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype (Ia, Ib, II-IX) correlates with pathogen virulence and clinical prognosis. Epidemiological studies of seroprevalence are an important metric for determining the proportion of serotypes in a given population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of individual GBS serotypes at Madigan Healthcare System (Madigan), the largest military tertiary healthcare facility in the Pacific Northwestern United States, and to compare...

  12. Covariant Quantum Gravity with Continuous Quantum Geometry I: Covariant Hamiltonian Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Pilc, Marián

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the series is devoted to the formulation of the Einstein-Cartan Theory within the covariant hamiltonian framework. In the first section the general multisymplectic approach is revised and the notion of the d-jet bundles is introduced. Since the whole Standard Model Lagrangian (including gravity) can be written as the functional of the forms, the structure of the d-jet bundles is more appropriate for the covariant hamiltonian analysis than the standard jet bundle approach. The definition of the local covariant Poisson bracket on the space of covariant observables is recalled. The main goal of the work is to show that the gauge group of the Einstein-Cartan theory is given by the semidirect product of the local Lorentz group and the group of spacetime diffeomorphisms. Vanishing of the integral generators of the gauge group is equivalent to equations of motion of the Einstein-Cartan theory and the local covariant algebra generated by Noether's currents is closed Lie algebra.

  13. Estimação de componentes de co-variância para pesos corporais do nascimento aos 365 dias de idade de bovinos Guzerá empregando-se modelos de regressão aleatória Estimates of covariance components for body weights from birth to 365 days of age in Guzera cattle, using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Cristina Pelicioni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 19.770 pesos corporais de bovinos Guzerá, do nascimento aos 365 dias de idade, pertencentes ao banco de dados da Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ foi analisado com os objetivos de comparar diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais, considerando 1, 18, 28 e 53 classes residuais e funções de variância de ordens quadrática a quíntica; e estimar funções de co-variância de diferentes ordens para os efeitos genético aditivo direto, genético materno, de ambiente permanente de animal e de mãe e parâmetros genéticos para os pesos corporais usando modelos de regressão aleatória. Os efeitos aleatórios foram modelados por regressões polinomiais em escala de Legendre com ordens variando de linear a quártica. Os modelos foram comparados pelo teste de razão de verossimilhança e pelos critérios de Informação de Akaike e de Informação Bayesiano de Schwarz. O modelo com 18 classes heterogêneas foi o que melhor se ajustou às variâncias residuais, de acordo com os testes estatísticos, porém, o modelo com função de variância de quinta ordem também mostrou-se apropriado. Os valores de herdabilidade direta estimados foram maiores que os encontrados na literatura, variando de 0,04 a 0,53, mas seguiram a mesma tendência dos estimados pelas análises unicaracterísticas. A seleção para peso em qualquer idade melhoraria o peso em todas as idades no intervalo estudado.A total of 19,770 body weight records of Guzera cattle, measured from birth to 365 days of age and supplied by the Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association, was analyzed with the following objectives of: 1 to compare different residual variances through step functions with 1, 18, 28 and 53 classes and through variance functions with orders ranging from two to five using ordinary polynomials and 2 to estimate covariance functions considering different orders for direct additive genetic effects, animal permanent environmental and maternal

  14. Ocena rozpowszechnienia dolegliwości reumatycznych wśród osób w przedziale wiekowym 18-25 lat = Assessment of the prevalence of rheumatic ailments among people aged 18-25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kitowska, Wioleta

    2016-01-01

    Kitowska Wioleta. Ocena rozpowszechnienia dolegliwości reumatycznych wśród osób w przedziale wiekowym 18-25 lat = Assessment of the prevalence of rheumatic ailments among people aged 18-25 years. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(1):17-26. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44536 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/44536 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/689921 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. ...

  15. Prevalence of anemia and deficiency of iron, folic acid, and zinc in children younger than 2 years of age who use the health services provided by the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Unzaga Marco

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas. A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural to 32.6% (urban had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values

  16. Carcinogenic HPV prevalence and age-specific type distribution in 40,382 women with normal cervical cytology, ASCUS/LSIL, HSIL, or cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Munk, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the prevaccination type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population is important for the prediction of the impact of HPV vaccination. METHODS: We collected consecutively residual specimens from liquid-based cytology samples from 40,382 women...... from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. All samples were tested for high-risk HPV using the Hybrid Capture 2 technique, and genotyping was done using LiPa (Innogenetics). Through linkage with the Pathology Data Bank, we obtained information on the cytology result...

  17. Self-Reported Cancer Prevalence among Hispanics in the US: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Penedo

    Full Text Available Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics in the U.S., yet data on cancer prevalence and risk factors in Hispanics in regard to ancestry remain scarce. This study sought to describe (a the prevalence of cancer among Hispanics from four major U.S. metropolitan areas, (b cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry, and (c identify correlates of self-reported cancer prevalence. Participants were 16,415 individuals from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American. All data were collected at a single time point during the HCHS/SOL baseline clinic visit. The overall self-reported prevalence rate of cancer for the population was 4%. The rates varied by Hispanic ancestry group, with individuals of Cuban and Puerto Rican ancestry reporting the highest cancer prevalence. For the entire population, older age (OR = 1.47, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.26-1.71 and having health insurance (OR = 1.93, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.42-2.62 were all significantly associated with greater prevalence, whereas male sex was associated with lower prevalence (OR = 0.56, p < .01, 95% CI, .40-.79. Associations between study covariates and cancer prevalence also varied by Hispanic ancestry. Findings underscore the importance of sociodemographic factors and health insurance in relation to cancer prevalence for Hispanics and highlight variations in cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry groups. Characterizing differences in cancer prevalence rates and their correlates is critical to the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies across distinct Hispanic ancestry groups.

  18. Self-Reported Cancer Prevalence among Hispanics in the US: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Yanez, Betina; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallo, Linda; Wortman, Katy; Gouskova, Natalia; Simon, Melissa; Arguelles, William; Llabre, Maria; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Brintz, Carrie; Gonzalez, Patricia; Van Horn, Linda; Rademaker, Alfred W; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2016-01-01

    Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics in the U.S., yet data on cancer prevalence and risk factors in Hispanics in regard to ancestry remain scarce. This study sought to describe (a) the prevalence of cancer among Hispanics from four major U.S. metropolitan areas, (b) cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry, and (c) identify correlates of self-reported cancer prevalence. Participants were 16,415 individuals from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American. All data were collected at a single time point during the HCHS/SOL baseline clinic visit. The overall self-reported prevalence rate of cancer for the population was 4%. The rates varied by Hispanic ancestry group, with individuals of Cuban and Puerto Rican ancestry reporting the highest cancer prevalence. For the entire population, older age (OR = 1.47, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.26-1.71) and having health insurance (OR = 1.93, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.42-2.62) were all significantly associated with greater prevalence, whereas male sex was associated with lower prevalence (OR = 0.56, p < .01, 95% CI, .40-.79). Associations between study covariates and cancer prevalence also varied by Hispanic ancestry. Findings underscore the importance of sociodemographic factors and health insurance in relation to cancer prevalence for Hispanics and highlight variations in cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry groups. Characterizing differences in cancer prevalence rates and their correlates is critical to the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies across distinct Hispanic ancestry groups.

  19. Gallilei covariant quantum mechanics in electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Wilhelm

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A formulation of the quantum mechanics of charged particles in time-dependent electromagnetic fields is presented, in which both the Schroedinger equation and wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials are Galilei covariant, it is shown that the Galilean relativity principle leads to the introduction of the electromagnetic substratum in which the matter and electromagnetic waves propagate. The electromagnetic substratum effects are quantitatively significant for quantum mechanics in reference frames, in which the substratum velocity w is in magnitude comparable with the velocity of light c. The electromagnetic substratum velocity w occurs explicitly in the wave equations for the electromagnetic potentials but not in the Schroedinger equation.

  20. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  1. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  2. [AGE FEATURES OF PREVALENCE, LOCALISATION AND CLINICAL COURSE OF SOME NODULAR-ULCER FORMS OF BASAL CELL SKIN CANCER OF FACE AND HEAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhonov, S I; Iordanishvili, A K

    2015-01-01

    During carrying out clinical trial on the base of Leningrad regional clinical hospital the incidence of basal cell skin cancer of the face and scalp has been studied in adults of different age groups, as well as peculiarities of clinical course of this disease in elderly and senile age. The most commonly encountered clinical form of basal cell cancer of the face and scalp in the Leningrad region was nodular-ulcerative, which was diagnosed in clinical practice in 38.3% of cases. The features of clinical course of superficial, nodular and destruida forms in people of middle, elderly and senile age are given. It is shown that the highest frequency of occurence of these clinical forms were in age of 61-70 years.

  3. Spatiotemporal noise covariance estimation from limited empirical magnetoencephalographic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung C [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Plis, Sergey M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ranken, Doug M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schmidt, David M [MS-D454, Applied Modern Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-11-07

    The performance of parametric magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) source localization approaches can be degraded by the use of poor background noise covariance estimates. In general, estimation of the noise covariance for spatiotemporal analysis is difficult mainly due to the limited noise information available. Furthermore, its estimation requires a large amount of storage and a one-time but very large (and sometimes intractable) calculation or its inverse. To overcome these difficulties, noise covariance models consisting of one pair or a sum of multi-pairs of Kronecker products of spatial covariance and temporal covariance have been proposed. However, these approaches cannot be applied when the noise information is very limited, i.e., the amount of noise information is less than the degrees of freedom of the noise covariance models. A common example of this is when only averaged noise data are available for a limited prestimulus region (typically at most a few hundred milliseconds duration). For such cases, a diagonal spatiotemporal noise covariance model consisting of sensor variances with no spatial or temporal correlation has been the common choice for spatiotemporal analysis. In this work, we propose a different noise covariance model which consists of diagonal spatial noise covariance and Toeplitz temporal noise covariance. It can easily be estimated from limited noise information, and no time-consuming optimization and data-processing are required. Thus, it can be used as an alternative choice when one-pair or multi-pair noise covariance models cannot be estimated due to lack of noise information. To verify its capability we used Bayesian inference dipole analysis and a number of simulated and empirical datasets. We compared this covariance model with other existing covariance models such as conventional diagonal covariance, one-pair and multi-pair noise covariance models, when noise information is sufficient to estimate them. We

  4. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (...

  5. [Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedranti, M S; Adamo, M P; Macedo, R; Zapata, M T

    2007-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in 100 serum samples from pregnant women who attended routine examination at a private institution in the city of Córdoba, and in 100 serum samples from women of gestational age, 42 of whom were pregnant, attending health centres in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis. IgG antibodies against parvovirus 819 were also determined in the serum samples from Córdoba. Using the hemmagglutination inhibition test, we found a 98% prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Córdoba and of 96% among the women in Villa Mercedes, whereas the prevalence of anti-parvovirus 819 was 66% in the serum samples from Cordoba. These results coincide with those reported for other cities in the world, and establish an interest in continuing similar studies in order to monitor the immunization plan, which in Argentina has been going on since 1997. They also suggest the importance of the determination of IgM anti-parvovirus B19 in pregnant women who are symptomatic but with a negative result for rubella.

  6. Investigation of the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in 352 aged edentulous individuals%352名无牙颌老年人颞下颌关节紊乱病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琦; 王燕一

    2012-01-01

    目的 对无牙颌老年人颞下颌关节紊乱病( temporomandibular disorders,TMD)的情况进行调查并初步探讨相关的危险因素.方法 352名北京市无牙颌老年人参加本次调查,男性198人,女性154人.根据Helkimo指数设计调查表,由专业培训人员对受试者进行颞下颌关节相关症状和体征的检查并记录.根据性别以及是否进行全口义齿修复分别统计分析.结果本组人群TMD查体阳性率为43.2%(152/352),其中阳性体征以关节弹响多见,占34.1%( 120/352);下颌运动偏斜次之,占18.2%(64/352),关节区及咀嚼肌触痛则发生较少,下颌运动痛最少.男性TMD查体阳性率为36.9%(73/198),女性为51.3%(79/154),两者差异有统计学意义(P =0.0067 <0.01);行全口义齿修复的无牙颌老人TMD查体阳性率为38.6%(91/236),未修复者TMD查体阳性率为52.6%(61/116),两者差异有统计学意义(P =0.0125 <0.05),其OR值为1.767(1.130~2.763).结论 性别因素及不良咬合均可能是影响老年无牙颌者TMD患病率的危险因素.%Objective To study the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders(TMD) in 352 aged edentulous individuals in Beijing area and to analyze the correlative risk factors.Methods Three hundred and fifty-two aged edentulous subjects were included in the study ( 198 males and 154 females).The adopted questionnaire was designed according to Helkimo index,and the subjects were examined by the same examiner who would record every result as well.Results The prevalence of TMD's clinical positive signs in the edentulous subjects was 43.2% ( 152/352 ),among which temporomandibular joint ( TMJ ) noise [34.1% (120/352)] was the highest prevalent sign while TMJ pain on movemert was the lowest.The prevalence of mandibular movement deviation [ 18.2% (64/352)] fitted in between.The prevalence of TMD's clinical positive signs of male individuals was 36.9% (73/198),and the female was 51.3% (79/154).There was a significant

  7. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in hospitalized children at Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (a cross-sectional study with implications for the Hepatitis B Control Programme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemba, K; Babona, D M; Vince, J D

    1993-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in cord blood from 50 newborn babies and in blood from 415 children admitted to the children's ward of Port Moresby General Hospital indicates that perinatal vertical transmission is likely to be important and that there is a high rate of horizontal transmission in the 1st few years of life. Thirteen per cent of infants aged 3-5 months and 29-30% of those over 2 years of age were strongly positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Open sores and poor hygiene are likely to play a significant role in the high level of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in our context. Our findings give support and urgency to the current active immunization policy against HBV, beginning as soon as possible after birth.

  8. Covariant Entropy Bound and Padmanabhan's Emergent Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, H; Darabi, F

    2016-01-01

    The covariant entropy conjecture is invariant under time reversal and consequently its origin must be statistical rather than thermodynamical. This may impose a fundamental constraint on the number of degrees of freedom in nature. Indeed, the covariant entropy bound imposes an upper entropy bound for any physical system. Considering a cosmological system, we show that Padmanabhan's emergent paradigm, which indicates that the emergence of cosmic space is due to the discrepancy between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom, leads to a lower entropy bound. The lower and upper entropy bounds may coincide on the apparent horizon for the radiation field and dark energy with the equations of state $\\omega=\\frac{1}{3}$ and $\\omega=-1$, respectively. Moreover, the maximal entropy inside the apparent horizon occurs when it is filled completely by the radiation field or dark energy. It turns out that for dark energy case (pure de Sitter space)\\ the holographic principle is satisfied in the sense that the number of deg...

  9. Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Shabbar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor growth of children in developing countries is a major public health problem associated with mortality, morbidity and developmental delay. We describe growth up to three years of age and investigate factors related to stunting (low height-for-age at three years of age in a birth cohort from an urban slum. Methods 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 200