WorldWideScience

Sample records for aged human skin

  1. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  2. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  3. Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Ying Liu; Wei Xia; Dan Lei; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans, a family of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) conjugated proteins, are important constituents of human skin connective tissue (dermis) and are essential for maintaining mechanical strength of the skin. Age-related alterations of dermal proteoglycans have not been fully elucidated. We quantified transcripts of 20 known interstitial proteoglycans in human skin and found that decorin was the most highly expressed. Decorin was predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Decorin was localiz...

  4. Role of Age-Associated Alterations of the Dermal Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment in Human Skin Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Taihao; Fisher, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Human skin is largely composed of a collagen-rich connective tissue, which provides structural and functional support. The collagen-rich connective tissue is produced, organized, and maintained by dermal fibroblasts. During aging, dermal collagen fibrils undergo progressive loss and fragmentation, leading to thin and structurally weakened skin. Age-related alterations of collagen fibrils impairs skin structure and function and creates a tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin d...

  5. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  6. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  7. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry

    2005-01-01

    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  8. CCN1 contributes to skin connective tissue aging by inducing age-associated secretory phenotype in human skin dermal fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Dermal connective tissue collagen is the major structural protein in skin. Fibroblasts within the dermis are largely responsible for collagen production and turnover. We have previously reported that dermal fibroblasts, in aged human skin in vivo, express elevated levels of CCN1, and that CCN1 negatively regulates collagen homeostasis by suppressing collagen synthesis and increasing collagen degradation (Quan et al. Am J Pathol 169:482–90, 2006, J Invest Dermatol 130:1697–706, 2010). In furth...

  9. Skin aging:

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  10. Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and histologic stigmata of aging are much more prominent in habitually sun-exposed skin than in sun-protected skin, but other possible manifestations of actinically induced aging are almost unexplored. We have examined the interrelation of chronologic and actinic aging using paired preauricular (sun-exposed) and postauricular (sun-protected) skin specimens. Keratinocyte cultures derived from sun-exposed skin consistently had a shorter in vitro lifespan but increased plating efficiency compared with cultures derived from adjacent sun-protected skin of the same individual, confirming a previous study of different paired body sites. Electron microscopic histologic sections revealed focal abnormalities of keratinocyte proliferation and alignment in vitro especially in those cultures derived from sun-exposed skin and decreased intercellular contact in stratified colonies at late passage, regardless of donor site. One-micron histologic sections of the original biopsy specimens revealed no striking site-related keratinocyte alterations, but sun-exposed specimens had fewer epidermal Langerhans cells (p less than 0.001), averaging approximately 50 percent the number in sun-protected skin, a possible exaggeration of the previously reported age-associated decrease in this cell population. These data suggest that sun exposure indeed accelerates aging by several criteria and that, regardless of mechanism, environmental factors may adversely affect the appearance and function of aging skin in ways amenable to experimental quantitation

  11. Age-associated reduction of cell spreading induces mitochondrial DNA common deletion by oxidative stress in human skin dermal fibroblasts: implication for human skin connective tissue aging

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Chunji; Cho, Moon Kyun; Perry, Daniel; Quan, Taihao

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced cell spreading is a prominent feature of aged dermal fibroblasts in human skin in vivo. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion has been reported to play a role in the human aging process, however the relationship between age-related reduced cell spreading and mtDNA common deletion has not yet been reported. Results To examine mtDNA common deletion in the dermis of aged human skin, the epidermis was removed from full-thickness human skin samples using cryostat. mtDNA comm...

  12. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  13. Oxidative stress and CCN1 protein in human skin connective tissue aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoping Qin; Patrick Robichaud; Taihao Quan

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic factor involved in human aging. Human skin is a primary target of oxidative stress from ROS generated from both extrinsic and intrinsic sources, like ultraviolet irradiation (UV) and endogenous oxidative metabolism. Oxidative stress causes the alterations of collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), the hallmark of skin connective tissue aging. Age-related alteration of dermal collagenous ECM impairs skin structural integrity and create...

  14. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  15. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes. PMID:26112367

  16. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Alexander, Lacy M.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation of BH4) would augment reflex vasodilation in aged human skin during hyperthermia. Nine healthy human subjects (76 ± 1 y...

  17. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermore, we discuss the recent literature surrounding the prevention and treatment of skin aging. Although current research is suggestive of the role of antioxidants in anti-aging skin therapies, further research is much needed to explore its role in humans.

  18. The effect of skin aging on the percutaneous penetration of chemicals through human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite much research into the mechanisms of cutaneous aging and the identification of significant age-associated biological and biophysical changes within the skin, the question how does aging affect percutaneous absorption (PA) in vivo remains unanswered. The author has made in vivo measurements of PA in young (18-40 years) and old (> 65 years) subjects. Standard radiotracer methodology was employed and PA was quantified from the urinary excretion profiles of 14C radiolabel (corrected for incomplete renal elimination). Testosterone (TST), estradiol (EST), hydrocortisone (HC), benzoic acid (BA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAFF) have been studied. Penetration of HC, BA, ASA, and CAFF were significantly lower in aged subjects whereas TST and EST absorption were not distinguishable from the young controls. Thus it appears that aging can affect PA in vivo and that relatively hydrophilic compounds may be most sensitive. Work was done to elucidate whether the observations were related to documented skin aging changes. Cutaneous microcirculation efficiency suspected to decline with increasing age, could not be correlated with the observed penetration changes. However, in vivo infrared spectroscopic studies of aged stratum corneum (SC) reveal a decreased amount of epidermal lipid. The diminished lipid content implies a diminished dissolution medium for compounds administered to the skin surface. They hypothesize that the compounds most affected by a loss of SC lipids would be those compounds whose overall solubility is lowest (compounds with lower octanol-water partition coefficients, eg., HC, BA, ASA and CAFF). Conversely, a diminished lipid content may not affect dissolution into the SC of highly lipophilic compounds (e.g., TST and EST)

  19. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  20. Retinoids Suppress Cysteine-rich Protein 61 (CCN1), a Negative Regulator of Collagen Homeostasis, in Skin Equivalent Cultures and Aged Human Skin in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Shao, Yuan; Xu, Yiru; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations of connective tissue collagen are prominent features of both chronologically aged and photoaged (aging due to sun exposure) human skin. These age-related abnormalities are mediated in part by CCN family member, CCN1 (cysteine-rich protein 61). CCN1 is elevated in the dermis of both chronologically aged and photoaged human skin in vivo, and promotes aberrant collagen homeostasis by down-regulating type I collagen, the major structural protein in skin, and promoting collagen degrada...

  1. Chronological age affects the permeation of fentanyl through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Sorensen, J A;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence of chronological age on fentanyl permeation through human skin in vitro using static diffusion cells. Elderly individuals are known to be more sensitive to opioids and obtain higher plasma concentrations following dermal application of fentanyl compared to younger...... individuals. The influence of age - as an isolated pharmacokinetic term - on the absorption of fentanyl has not been previously studied. METHOD: Human skin from 30 female donors was mounted in static diffusion cells, and samples were collected during 48 h. Donors were divided into three age groups: <30 years...... and old age groups: 5,922 and 4,050 ng, respectively). Furthermore, the lag time and absorption rate were different between the three groups, with a significantly higher rate in the young participants versus the oldest participants. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that fentanyl permeates the skin of young...

  2. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Farris

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.

  3. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Jadoon; Sabiha Karim; Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad; Muhammad Rouf Akram; Abida Kalsoom Khan; Arif Malik; Chunye Chen; Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review a...

  4. In vivo quantification of human dermal skin aging using SHG and autofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    There are visible changes during skin aging. In the extracellular matrix these changes referred to as intrinsic aging (skin areas not exposed to sunlight) and extrinsic aging can be measured using various methods, such as subjective clinical evaluation, histology and molecular analysis. In this study we developed a new parameter for the non-invasive quantitative determination of dermal skin aging utilizing a five-dimensional intravital tomography (5D-IVT). This device, also known as 5D - multi-photon laser scanning microscopy, is a powerful tool to investigate (photo)aging-associated alterations in vivo. Structural alterations in the dermis of extrinsically aged (chronically sun-exposed) and intrinsically aged (sun-protected) human skin were recorded utilizing the collagen-specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and the elastin-specific autofluorescence (AF) signal. Recording took place in young and elderly volunteers. The resulting images were processed in order to gain the elastin percentage and the collagen percentage per image. Then, the elastin - to - collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. With respect to volar forearm skin, the ELCOR significantly increased with age. In elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area was significantly augmented compared with the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on 5D-IVT we introduce the ELCOR as a new means to quantify age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix of in vivo human skin. This novel parameter is compared to the currently used "SHG to AF aging index" of the dermis (SAAID).

  5. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  6. Collagen cross-linking in sun-exposed and unexposed sites of aged human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Prisayanh, P.; Haque, Z.; Woodley, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A recently described nonreducible, acid-heat stable compound, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (HHL), is a collagen cross-link isolated from mature skin tissue. Its abundance is related to chronologic aging of skin. The present communication describes the quantity of HHL from aged human skin of the same individuals in sun-exposed (wrist) and unexposed (buttock) sites. Punch biopsies were obtained from these sites from nine people of age 60 or older. HHL contents (moles/mole of collagen) at these sites were for wrist 0.13 +/- 0.07 and for buttock 0.69 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.001). In addition, it was found that acute irradiation of the cross-linked peptides with UVA (up to 250 J/cm2) and UVB (up to 1 J/cm2) had no effect on HHL structure. The same treatment significantly degraded another nonreducible, stable collagen cross-link, pyridinoline. The results suggest that chronic sunlight exposure may be associated with an impediment to normal maturation of human dermal collagen resulting in tenuous amount of HHL. Thus, the process of photoaging in dermal collagen is different from that of chronologic aging in human skin.

  7. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat Ali Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae, is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L. crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13 with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS was taken at time 0 (baseline values or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005 ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles. Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.

  8. Approach to quantify human dermal skin aging using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Stefan; Rahn, Christian-Dennis; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Fischer, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular skin structures in human skin are impaired during intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Assessment of these dermal changes is conducted by subjective clinical evaluation and histological and molecular analysis. We aimed to develop a new parameter for the noninvasive quantitative determination of dermal skin alterations utilizing the high-resolution three-dimensional multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) technique. To quantify structural differences between chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, the respective collagen-specific second harmonic generation and the elastin-specific autofluorescence signals were recorded in young and elderly volunteers using the MPLSM technique. After image processing, the elastin-to-collagen ratio (ELCOR) was calculated. Results show that the ELCOR parameter of volar forearm skin significantly increases with age. For elderly volunteers, the ELCOR value calculated for the chronically sun-exposed temple area is significantly augmented compared to the sun-protected upper arm area. Based on the MPLSM technology, we introduce the ELCOR parameter as a new means to quantify accurately age-associated alterations in the extracellular matrix.

  9. Effects of age and diabetes mellitus on the solubility and nonenzymatic glucosylation of human skin collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Schnider, S L; Kohn, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Collagen from human skin was fractionated into neutral salt-soluble, acid-soluble, pepsin-released, and insoluble fractions. No age-related changes were observed in the proportion of collagen extracted by neutral salt. A significant age-related decrease in the proportion of acid-soluble collagen was found. A highly significant (P less than 0.001) age-related decrease in the amount of collagen released by pepsin digestion was observed, with a concomitant age-related increase in the fraction of...

  10. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  11. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  12. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  13. Instrumental evaluation of anti-aging effects of cosmetic formulations containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on aged human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Ho Jung; Schrammek-Drusios, Med Christine; Lee, Sung Nae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Seung Bin; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-01-01

    Anti-aging cosmetics are widely used for improving signs of aged skin such as skin wrinkles, decreased elasticity, low dermal density and yellow skin tone. The present study evaluated the effects of cosmetic formulations, eye cream and facial cream, containing palmitoyl peptides, Silybum marianum (S. marianum) seed oil, vitamin E and other functional ingredients on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone after 4 weeks period of application on aged human skin. Healthy volunteers (n=20) with aged skin were recruited to apply the test materials facially twice per day for 4 weeks. Skin wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone were measured instrumentally for assessing the improvement of skin aging. All the measurements were conducted prior to the application of test materials and at 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Crow's feet wrinkles were decreased 5.97% after 2 weeks of test material application and 14.07% after 4 weeks of application in comparison of pre-application. Skin elasticity was increased 6.81% after 2 weeks and 8.79% after 4 weeks. Dermal density was increased 16.74% after 2 weeks and 27.63% after 4 weeks. With the L* value indicating skin brightness and the a* value indicating erythema (redness), the results showed that brightness was increased 1.70% after 2 weeks and 2.14% after 4 weeks, and erythema was decreased 10.45% after 2 weeks and 22.39% after 4 weeks. Hence, the test materials appear to exert some degree of anti-aging effects on aged human skin. There were no abnormal skin responses from the participants during the trial period. We conclude that the facial and eye cream containing palmitoyl peptides and S. marianum seed oil, vitamin E and other ingredients have effects on the improvement of facial wrinkles, elasticity, dermal density and skin tone. PMID:27446338

  14. Skin anti-aging strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ganceviciene, Ruta; Liakou, Aikaterini I.; Theodoridis, Athanasios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall “well-being” and the perception of “health” in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in...

  15. Non-invasive in vivo techniques to differentiate photodamage and ageing in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, M B; Edwards, C; Marks, R

    1997-11-01

    It is important to differentiate skin changes due to the intrinsic ageing process from those due to chronic photodamage in the development of therapies to assist the latter condition, and in this study we have used instrumental techniques to differentiate between changes in a range of properties of skin due to ageing and those due to photodamage, especially with regard to elasticity. We measured three sites of differing sun exposure in a group of younger and in a group of older subjects. A pulsed A-scan ultrasound system was used to measure skin thickness, and a uniaxial extensometer was employed to assess elastic properties. Skin surface roughness measurements were made using silicone rubber impressions and a stylus profilometer. We demonstrated significant differences in skin roughness between young and old subjects at every site and differences between sun-exposed and sun-protected sites only in the older group. Parameters of the elastic properties of skin differed between the groups, and also between sites of most different sun exposure. The uniaxial extensometer can demonstrate a loss of the skin's elasticity predominantly by photodamage, and the roughness of the skin surface can be shown to increase mostly by chronological ageing but to decrease modestly by photodamage. This demonstrates that differences between the two processes can be quantified, and indeed they should be. PMID:9394971

  16. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. PMID:27346872

  17. A Novel Cassia fistula (L.)-Based Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Barkat Ali Khan; Naveed Akhtar; Abder Menaa; Farid Menaa

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae), is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L.) crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation) were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract) for assessment of the...

  18. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin as a tool for the age determination of human skin wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, P.; Nerlich, A; Wilske, J.; Tübel, J.; Wiest, I.; Penning, R.; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of fibronectin in routinely embedded tissue specimens from 53 skin wounds and 6 postmortem wounds. In postmortem wounds a faint but focal positive staining was exclusively found at the margin of the specimens which dit not extend into the adjacent stroma. Vital wounds were classified into 3 groups. The first comprising lesions with wound ages ranging from a few seconds to 30 min, the second comprising those with wound ages upt to 3 weeks, and the third group with ...

  20. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced skin damage. Blue-eyed, fair-skinned people show ... 80. Women gradually produce less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the ...

  1. Archaea on human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Probst; Auerbach, Anna K.; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  2. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia K. Farris; Yevgeniy Krol

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information ...

  3. Reduced DNA methylation patterning and transcriptional connectivity define human skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Felix; Rodríguez-Paredes, Manuel; Hagemann, Sabine; Manchanda, Himanshu; Kristof, Boris; Gutekunst, Julian; Raddatz, Günter; Haas, Rainer; Terstegen, Lara; Wenck, Horst; Kaderali, Lars; Winnefeld, Marc; Lyko, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic changes represent an attractive mechanism for understanding the phenotypic changes associated with human aging. Age-related changes in DNA methylation at the genome scale have been termed 'epigenetic drift', but the defining features of this phenomenon remain to be established. Human epidermis represents an excellent model for understanding age-related epigenetic changes because of its substantial cell-type homogeneity and its well-known age-related phenotype. We have now generated and analyzed the currently largest set of human epidermis methylomes (N = 108) using array-based profiling of 450 000 methylation marks in various age groups. Data analysis confirmed that age-related methylation differences are locally restricted and characterized by relatively small effect sizes. Nevertheless, methylation data could be used to predict the chronological age of sample donors with high accuracy. We also identified discontinuous methylation changes as a novel feature of the aging methylome. Finally, our analysis uncovered an age-related erosion of DNA methylation patterns that is characterized by a reduced dynamic range and increased heterogeneity of global methylation patterns. These changes in methylation variability were accompanied by a reduced connectivity of transcriptional networks. Our findings thus define the loss of epigenetic regulatory fidelity as a key feature of the aging epigenome. PMID:27004597

  4. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Rejuvenation Soft-tissue Fillers Combination: Soft-tissue Fillers and Neuromodulators Neuromodulators – wrinkle-relaxing injections of botulinum toxin commercially known as Botox, Dysport ...

  5. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Morphology, Growth, Oxidative Stress Response and Functionality of Human Skin Fibroblasts during Aging In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter; Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Hayflick system of cellular aging and replicative senescence in vitro has been used widely in both basic and applied research in biogerontology. The state of replicative senescence is generally considered to be irreversible, but is modifiable by genetic and environmental manipulations. Some...... recent observations indicate that replicative lifespan, senescence and functionality of cells in vitro can be significantly affected by the quality of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Following up on those reports, here we show that using the ECM prepared from early passage young cells, partial...... rejuvenation of serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts was possible in pre-senescent middle-aged cells, but not in fully senescent late passage cells. ECM from young cells improved the appearance, viability, stress tolerance and wound healing ability of skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, young ECM...

  6. Ketorolac alters blood flow during normothermia but not during hyperthermia in middle-aged human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Holowatz, Lacy A.; Jennings, John D.; Lang, James A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    In young healthy humans full expression of reflex cutaneous vasodilation is dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms. Chronic low-dose aspirin therapy attenuates reflex cutaneous vasodilation potentially through both platelet and vascular COX-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized the contribution of COX-dependent vasodilators to reflex cutaneous vasodilation during localized acute COX inhibition would be attenuated in healthy middle-aged humans d...

  7. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developing heat stroke increases. Growths such as skin tags , warts , rough patches (keratoses), and other blemishes are ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  8. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  9. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  10. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  11. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  12. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Younger skin Causes of aging skin Creating anti-aging plan Fillers giving patients better, longer-lasting results Maximizing anti-aging products Selecting anti-aging products Sun damage Wrinkle ...

  13. Low-level laser therapy: Effects on human face aged skin and cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezghani Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and excessive exposure to UV radiation leads to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UV irradiation is essential. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a light source in the red to near-infrared range that has been accepted in a variety of medical applications. In this study, we explored the effect of LLLT in human face aged skin and the cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiation. We found that LLLT significantly reduced visible wrinkles and the loss of firmness of facial skin in aging subjects. Additionally, treatment of cultured HeLa cells with LLLT prior to or post UVA or UVB exposure significantly protected cells from UV-mediated cell death. All results showed the beneficial effects of LLLT on relieving signs of skin aging and its prevention and protection of the cell viability against UV-induced damage.

  14. Low-level laser therapy: Effects on human face aged skin and cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mezghani Sana; Hammami Amira; Amri Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Chronic and excessive exposure to UV radiation leads to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Adequate protection of the skin against the deleterious effects of UV irradiation is essential. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a light source in the red to near-infrared range that has been accepted in a variety of medical applications. In this study, we explored the effect of LLLT in human face aged skin and the cell viability of HeLa cells exposed to UV radiatio...

  15. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Koop Urte; Jaspers Sören; Sauermann Kirsten; Wenck Horst

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in vivo. Methods The age dependency of the papillary index was determined by CLSM on 3 different age groups. Additionally, we determined the effect of a topical cream containing 3% vitamin C against the vehicle alo...

  16. Age-associated decreases in human DNA repair capacity: Implications for the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hadshiew, Ina M.; Eller, Mark S; Gilchrest, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Multiple pathways are involved in accurate synthesis and distribution of DNA during replication, repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. An increased error rate, abovethe spontaneous mutation baseline, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and aging. Moreover, cytogenetic abnormalities are increased in Down’s, Edwards’, Patau’s, and Klinefelter’s syndromes with increasing maternal age, and in Marfan’s and Apert’s syndromes with paternal age. In response to DNA damage, multiple overlappin...

  17. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  18. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Urte

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in vivo. Methods The age dependency of the papillary index was determined by CLSM on 3 different age groups. Additionally, we determined the effect of a topical cream containing 3% vitamin C against the vehicle alone using daily applications for four months on the volar forearm of 33 women. Results There were significant decreases in the papillary index showing a clear dependency on age. Topical vitamin C resulted in a significant increase of the density of dermal papillae from 4 weeks onward compared to its vehicle. Reproducibility was determined in repeated studies. Conclusions Vitamin C has the potential to enhance the density of dermal papillae, perhaps through the mechanism of angiogenesis. Topical vitamin C may have therapeutical effects for partial corrections of the regressive structural changes associated with the aging process.

  19. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  20. Local tetrahydrobiopterin administration augments reflex cutaneous vasodilation through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms in aged human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Bruning, Rebecca S.; Smith, Caroline J.; Kenney, W. Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A.

    2011-01-01

    Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is required for full expression of reflex cutaneous vasodilation that is attenuated in aged skin. Both the essential cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and adequate substrate concentrations are necessary for the functional synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) through NOS, both of which are reduced in aged vasculature through increased oxidant stress and upregulated arginase, respectively. We hypothesized that acute local BH4 administration or argi...

  1. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was...

  2. Sexual hormones in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C; Chen, W-C; Thornton, M J; Qin, K; Rosenfield, R

    2007-02-01

    The skin locally synthesizes significant amounts of sexual hormones with intracrine or paracrine actions. The local level of each sexual steroid depends upon the expression of each of the androgen- and estrogen-synthesizing enzymes in each cell type, with sebaceous glands and sweat glands being the major contributors. Sebocytes express very little of the key enzyme, cytochrome P450c17, necessary for synthesis of the androgenic prohormones dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, however, these prohormones can be converted by sebocytes and sweat glands, and probably also by dermal papilla cells, into more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Five major enzymes are involved in the activation and deactivation of androgens in skin. Androgens affect several functions of human skin, such as sebaceous gland growth and differentiation, hair growth, epidermal barrier homeostasis and wound healing. Their effects are mediated by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor. Changes of isoenzyme and/or androgen receptor levels may have important implications in the development of hyperandrogenism and the associated skin diseases such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, estrogens have been implicated in skin aging, pigmentation, hair growth, sebum production and skin cancer. Estrogens exert their actions through intracellular receptors or via cell surface receptors, which activate specific second messenger signaling pathways. Recent studies suggest specific site-related distribution of ERalpha and ERbeta in human skin. In contrast, progestins play no role in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. However, they play a major role in the treatment of hirsutism and acne vulgaris, where they are prescribed as components of estrogen-progestin combination pills and as anti-androgens. These combinations enhance gonadotropin suppression of ovarian androgen production. Estrogen-progestin treatment can reduce the need for shaving

  3. Antioxidants in skin ageing - Future of dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Shamika M Salavkar; Rashmi A Tamanekar; Athawale, Rajani B

    2011-01-01

    The formation of free radicals is a widely accepted pivotal mechanism leading to skin ageing. Skin ageing is a complex, progressive, time-dependent deterioration caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors or environmental factors. Skin is equipped with an elaborate antioxidant system that protects it from oxidative damage due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the natural antioxidant pool can be compromised or overwhelmed by oxidative stress of excess UV exposure, as well as cigarett...

  4. Antioxidants in skin ageing - Future of dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamika M Salavkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of free radicals is a widely accepted pivotal mechanism leading to skin ageing. Skin ageing is a complex, progressive, time-dependent deterioration caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors or environmental factors. Skin is equipped with an elaborate antioxidant system that protects it from oxidative damage due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the natural antioxidant pool can be compromised or overwhelmed by oxidative stress of excess UV exposure, as well as cigarette smoke and other airborne pollutants. Topical antioxidants have been demonstrated to protect the skin from free radical damage and its regular application can actually reverse pervious photodamage. Topical antioxidants are available in over-the-counter skin care products that are aimed at preventing the clinical signs of photoageing. The present review summarises scientific literature regarding efficacy of topical antioxidants and significance of novel delivery systems for topical antioxidant delivery for combating skin ageing.

  5. Skin aging: are adipocytes the next target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L; Scherer, Philipp E

    2016-07-01

    Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) is increasingly appreciated as a special fat depot. The adipocytes in this depot exert a variety of unique effects on their surrounding cells and can undergo massive phenotypic changes. Significant modulation of dWAT content can be observed both in intrinsically and extrinsically aged skin. Specifically, skin that has been chronically photo-damaged displays a reduction of the dWAT volume, caused by the replacement of adipocytes by fibrotic structures. This is likely to be caused by the recently uncovered process described as "adipocyte-myofibroblast transition" (AMT). In addition, contributions of dermal adipocytes to the skin aging processes are also indirectly supported by spatial correlations between the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring and the appearance of signs of skin aging in different ethnic groups. These observations could elevate dermal adipocytes to prime targets in strategies aimed at counteracting skin aging. PMID:27434510

  6. How to Create an Anti-Aging Skin Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... library Find a dermatologist How to create an anti-aging skin care plan Skin care in your 40s ... Years of research supports each of these recommendations. Anti-aging skin care tips Protect your skin from the ...

  7. Relating friction on the human skin to the hydration and temperature of the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    The human skin is constantly in interaction with materials and products. Therefore, skin friction is relevant to all people. In the literature, the frictional properties of the skin have been linked to a large variety of variables, like age, gender and hydration. The present study compares the data

  8. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  9. Potential role of natural compounds against skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, R; Loizzo, M R; Bonesi, M; Menichini, F

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon of human life. Advancing age brings changes to all components of the integumentary system with consequent signs on the skin. Skin aging is mainly due to intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic aging (photo-aging). Photo-aging is a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet radiations. Despite variable economic conditions, the skin care market based on natural products continues to see strong growth. In this context, the research of naturally occurring anti-aging agents is greatly expanding and in recent years numerous plant-derived products have been investigated. This review article focuses on highlighting recent advances in current knowledge on anti-aging natural products grouped and presented according to their family origin. Plants from 35 families were reviewed. A variety of phytomolecules, derived in particular from polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols classes, demonstrated a promising activity. Among them carnosic acid, curculigoside, curcumin, glycyrrhizic acid, mangiferin, mirkoin, asiaticoside, rosmarinic acid, tectorigenin, tyrosol etc., able to inhibit tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase, to scavenge free radicals from skin cells, to prevent trans-epidermal water loss, and to contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, were largely investigated and herein discussed. Extracts and pure compounds from Fabaceae, Asperaceae and Zingiberaceae families have shown particular interest and appear most promising in the development of anti-aging products. PMID:25723509

  10. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007......) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term of the...

  11. Skin Firming, Skin Smoothing, Skin Blemishes Elimination and Anti-aging Effects of Increased Protein Intake in the Form of Voandzeia hypogeal Seed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effect of excess calorie intake on the human body showed that it resulted in accumulation of excess body fat; the darkening of the skin colour and the development of a bumpy skin. Problem statement: The present study investigated the effects of increased protein intake on the human skin and on body fat. The skin firming, skin smoothing and skin colour lightening effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract has already been established. The anti-obesity, body calming and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract have also been established. Approach: The effects of increased protein intake (in the form of eating of 100 gm Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal two times daily, was tested on the skin, anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract. The study was done for 10 days. Results: The results of the study showed that Voandzeia subterranean (hypogea cooked potentiated the skin tightening, skin smoothing, skin colour lightening and the anti-obesity/anti-aging effects of VA. Leaf extract. These results show that increased Voandezia hypogeal seed paste meal [increased protein intake has skin tightening/clearing/lightening/smoothing and anti-obesity/anti-aging effects]. They also show that cooked Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal has a potentiating effect on the skin and body effects of VA leaf extract. Conclusion: From the findings of this study the author to concludes that increased protein intake potentiated the skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract. The study also concludes that Voandzeia hypogeal seed meal has skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening (clearing; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects.

  12. Asymmetric facial skin viscoelasticity during climacteric aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,1 Ulysse Gaspard,2 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont11Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumBackground: Climacteric skin aging affects certain biophysical characteristics of facial skin. The purpose of the present study was to assess the symmetric involvement of the cheeks in this stage of the aging process.Methods: Skin viscoelasticity was compared on both cheeks in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with indoor occupational activities somewhat limiting the influence of chronic sun exposure. Eighty-four healthy women comprising 36 premenopausal women and 48 early post-menopausal women off hormone replacement therapy were enrolled in two groups. The tensile characteristics of both cheeks were tested and compared in each group. A computerized suction device equipped with a 2 mm diameter hollow probe was used to derive viscoelasticity parameters during a five-cycle procedure of 2 seconds each. Skin unfolding, intrinsic distensibility, biological elasticity, and creep extension were measured.Results: Both biological elasticity and creep extension were asymmetric on the cheeks of the post-menopausal women. In contrast, these differences were more discrete in the premenopausal women.Conclusion: Facial skin viscoelasticity appeared to be asymmetric following menopause. The possibility of asymmetry should be taken into account in future studies of the effects of hormone replacement therapy and any antiaging procedure on the face in menopausal women.Keywords: climacteric aging, biomechanics, photoaging, skin unfolding, biological elasticity, skin tensile properties

  13. Skin ageing: natural weapons and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binic, Ivana; Lazarevic, Viktor; Ljubenovic, Milanka; Mojsa, Jelena; Sokolovic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The fact that the skin is the most visible organ makes us aware of the ageing process every minute. The use of plant extracts and herbs has its origins in ancient times. Chronological and photo-ageing can be easily distinguished clinically, but they share important molecular features. We tried to gather the most interesting evidence based on facts about plants and plant extracts used in antiaging products. Our main idea was to emphasize action mechanisms of these plant/herbal products, that is, their "strategies" in fighting skin ageing. Some of the plant extracts have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin. There are some plants that can affect skin elasticity and tightness. Certainly, there is a place for herbal principles in antiaging cosmetics. On the other hand, there is a constant need for more evaluation and more clinical studies in vivo with emphasis on the ingredient concentration of the plant/herbal products, its formulation, safety, and duration of the antiaging effect. PMID:23431351

  14. Comparison between human fetal and adult skin

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, N.A.; Schouten, K.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Healing of early-gestation fetal wounds results in scarless healing. Since the capacity for regeneration is probably inherent to the fetal skin itself, knowledge of the fetal skin composition may contribute to the understanding of fetal wound healing. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profiles of different epidermal and dermal components in the human fetal and adult skin. In the human fetal skin (ranging from 13 to 22 weeks’ gestation) and adult skin biopsies, the expression...

  15. Penetration of Chlorhexidine into Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Karpanen, T. J.; Worthington, T.; Conway, Barbara R; Hilton, A. C.; Elliott, T. S. J.; Lambert, P A

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 µm following serial sec...

  16. Free Radicals and Extrinsic Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Poljšak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is constantly directly exposed to the air, solar radiation, environmental pollutants, or other mechanical and chemical insults, which are capable of inducing the generation of free radicals as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS of our own metabolism. Extrinsic skin damage develops due to several factors: ionizing radiation, severe physical and psychological stress, alcohol intake, poor nutrition, overeating, environmental pollution, and exposure to UV radiation (UVR. It is estimated that among all these environmental factors, UVR contributes up to 80%. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin develops oxidative stress, when their formation exceeds the antioxidant defence ability of the target cell. The primary mechanism by which UVR initiates molecular responses in human skin is via photochemical generation of ROS mainly formation of superoxide anion (O2−•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, hydroxyl radical (OH•, and singlet oxygen (1O2. The only protection of our skin is in its endogenous protection (melanin and enzymatic antioxidants and antioxidants we consume from the food (vitamin A, C, E, etc.. The most important strategy to reduce the risk of sun UVR damage is to avoid the sun exposure and the use of sunscreens. The next step is the use of exogenous antioxidants orally or by topical application and interventions in preventing oxidative stress and in enhanced DNA repair.

  17. Effect of estrogens on skin aging and the potential role of SERMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Stevenson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Susan Stevenson1, Julie Thornton21Burns & Plastic Surgery Research Unit, 2Cutaneous Research, Medical Biosciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UKAbstract: In humans, structural and functional changes attributable to aging are more visibly evident in the skin than in any other organ. Estrogens have significant effects on skin physiology and modulate epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts and melanocytes, in addition to skin appendages including the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Importantly, skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews the effects of estrogens on skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging that occur in human skin. The relevance of estrogen replacement therapy (HRT in postmenopausal women and the potential value of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs as a therapy for diminishing skin aging are also highlighted.Keywords: estrogen receptors, skin, menopause, SERMs, HRT

  18. Microscopic analysis of epidermal melanocytes in human abdominal skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Microscopic analysis of epidermal melanocytes in human abdominal skin with respect to age and sex. Results: The melanocytes count per unit area of skin was significantly higher in the younger than older age groups. No significant difference was noticed between males and females epidermal melanocytes counts. Conclusion: Distribution of epidermal melanocytes was inversely proportional to the advancing age. However, there was no significant gender differences in the distribution of epidermal melanocytes. (author)

  19. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  20. Life on Human Surfaces: Skin Metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Alban Mathieu; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Patrick Robe; Renaud Nalin; Pascal Simonet

    2013-01-01

    The human skin microbiome could provide another example, after the gut, of the strong positive or negative impact that human colonizing bacteria can have on health. Deciphering functional diversity and dynamics within human skin microbial communities is critical for understanding their involvement and for developing the appropriate substances for improving or correcting their action. We present a direct PCR-free high throughput sequencing approach to unravel the human skin microbiota specific...

  1. Skin Conditions in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Bernárdez Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: patients with human immunodeficiency virus frequently develop skin conditions that affect their quality of life and modify their prognosis. Objective: to describe the most common skin conditions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: a case-series study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. It included all patients diagnosed until February 2008 attending the internal medicine consultation for their follow-up. Forty-seven deceased patients, 12 patients not living in the province and 2 inmates were excluded from the study. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, skin color, self-reported skin conditions and diagnosed skin diseases. Results: Thirty-eight percent of patients were aged 25 to 34 years. Fifty-seven were white-skinned and 75% were male. Approximately half of the patients had AIDS and were under antiretroviral therapy. The skin infection of viral origin most commonly found was herpes simplex (30.0%; of fungal origin, onychomycosis (44 %; and of bacterial origin, folliculitis (43 %. Among papulosquamous disorders, seborrheic dermatitis (74 % predominated and among other skin disorders, lipodystrophy (23.6 %. Xerosis and pruritus shared equal percentage (16.3 %. Conclusions: viral and fungal skin infections predominated. An important number of these skin conditions were diagnosed during the study, particularly in AIDS patients.

  2. Effects of diffuse and specular reflections on the perceived age of facial skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-05-01

    Age perception is a better biomarker of skin aging than chronological age. However, the optical cues that determine the perception of human skin age are difficult to assess given the complex interactions between light and the multi layered structure of the skin. The aim of the present study is to clarify the independent contribution of both diffuse and specular reflection components to the skin age perception. First, according to our results, subjects were able to estimate the age of skin only by using the diffuse reflection component. Moreover, we showed that inclusion of the specular reflection component added on average 5 years to their age estimation. Second, by artificially manipulating the specular component, we concluded that the luminance distribution affects the perceived age of the skin.

  3. Xenobiotic metabolism in human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Merk, H.F.; Lockley, D.J.; Pendlington, R.U.; Pease, C.K.

    2007-01-01

    In this review, we discuss and compare studies of xenobiotic metabolism in both human skin and 3D human skin reconstructs. In comparison to the liver, the skin is a less studied organ in terms of characterising metabolic capability. While the skin forms the major protective barrier to environmental

  4. Lecithin organogel: A unique micellar system for the delivery of bioactive agents in the treatment of skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Raut; Santosh Singh Bhadoriya; Vaibhav Uplanchiwar; Vijay Mishra; Avinash Gahane; Sunil Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is an unavoidable aspect of human life. Premature skin aging can result from poor care, environmental pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation exposure. Wrinkles, lines, spots, uneven skin tone, and pigmentation are often indicators of skin aging. One cannot avoid aging but cosmetics and pharmaceutical approaches can minimize and delay the damage. Topical applications of biocompatible and biodegradable vehicles have been explored for delivering anti-aging compounds. Lecithin organogel...

  5. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Age dependence of promethium through rat skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper: - the time dependence of permeation of 147Pm3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied; - the age dependence of promethium through the skin was proved; - the optimum biological model of human skin was selected, and - the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 147Pm3+ the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed. Concluding it can be said, that: -it was proved, that the 5-day-old rats (5DR) represents the optimum animal model to the human skin; - in the case of 8DR to 11DR the dominant route of 147Pm3+ penetration is along the follicles; - the permeation resistance of the skin depends on the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions of promethium through the skin without hairs (3DR to 6DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was showed that the additional diffusion along hair's follicles pronounced with animal skin can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in used animal models. (authors)

  6. [Skin aging: Molecular understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrantonaki, E; Vogel, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Zouboulis, C C

    2015-10-01

    In an ever-aging society, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accompanying skin aging has become essential. Most age-related morphological skin changes are triggered by a combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, hormones) and extrinsic ones (e.g., ultarviolet/infrared light exposure, smoking, pollution). In this article, new insights on the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis of skin aging are summarised, addressing the extent to which the aforementioned factorsmay influence the progress of skin aging and identifying the consequences on the morphology and physiology of skin. PMID:26385893

  7. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  8. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper. PMID:25997282

  9. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychol...

  10. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....

  11. A Fusion Approach for Efficient Human Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei Ren; Chan, Chee Seng; Yogarajah, Pratheepan; Condell, Joan

    2014-01-01

    A reliable human skin detection method that is adaptable to different human skin colours and illu- mination conditions is essential for better human skin segmentation. Even though different human skin colour detection solutions have been successfully applied, they are prone to false skin detection and are not able to cope with the variety of human skin colours across different ethnic. Moreover, existing methods require high computational cost. In this paper, we propose a novel human skin de- ...

  12. Alterations of Dermal Connective Tissue Collagen in Diabetes: Molecular Basis of Aged-Appearing Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Angela J.; Robichaud, Patrick; Balimunkwe, Rebecca Mutesi; Fisher, Gary J.; Hammerberg, Craig; Yan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the collagen, the major structural protein in skin, contribute significantly to human skin connective tissue aging. As aged-appearing skin is more common in diabetes, here we investigated the molecular basis of aged-appearing skin in diabetes. Among all known human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), diabetic skin shows elevated levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) coupled real-time PCR indicated that elevated MMPs in diabetic skin were primarily expressed in the dermis. Furthermore, diabetic skin shows increased lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and higher cross-linked collagens. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further indicated that collagen fibrils were fragmented/disorganized, and key mechanical properties of traction force and tensile strength were increased in diabetic skin, compared to intact/well-organized collagen fibrils in non-diabetic skin. In in vitro tissue culture system, multiple MMPs including MMP-1 and MM-2 were induced by high glucose (25 mM) exposure to isolated primary human skin dermal fibroblasts, the major cells responsible for collagen homeostasis in skin. The elevation of MMPs and LOX over the years is thought to result in the accumulation of fragmented and cross-linked collagen, and thus impairs dermal collagen structural integrity and mechanical properties in diabetes. Our data partially explain why old-looking skin is more common in diabetic patients. PMID:27104752

  13. Modern Approach to Topical Treatment of Aging Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Mirić, Lina; Čarija, Antoanela; Karlica, Dobrila; Marasović, Dujomir

    2010-01-01

    The main processes involved in skin aging are intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from them, so called stochastic aging connotes cell damage caused by metabolic processes, free radicals and cosmic irradiation. The clinical expression of intrinsic aging include smooth, dry, and thinned skin with accentuated expression lines. It is inevitable and time dependent. Extrinsically aged skin shows signs of photodamage which include appearance of wrinkles, pigmented lesions, actinic keratoses and patchy hy...

  14. Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Roth, Michael; Karakiulakis, George

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a multifactorial process consisting of two distinct and independent mechanisms: intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Youthful skin retains its turgor, resilience and pliability, among others, due to its high content of water. Daily external injury, in addition to the normal process of aging, causes loss of moisture. The key molecule involved in skin moisture is hyaluronic acid (HA) that has unique capacity in retaining water. There are multiple sites for the control of HA synthesis, d...

  15. Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages. PMID:27142012

  16. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.;

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...

  17. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    OpenAIRE

    Prikhnenko S

    2015-01-01

    Sergey Prikhnenko Private Practice, Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract: Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing ...

  18. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear to...... exist in the frequency of which several skin diseases occur among blacks and whites. A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors....

  19. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be...

  20. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  1. The Thermal Effects of Therapeutic Lasers with 810 and 904nm Wavelengths on Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Jon; Demmink, Jan Hendrik; Johnson, Mark I; Iversen, Vegard Vereide; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of therapeutic infrared class 3B laser irradiation on skin temperature in healthy participants of differing skin color, age, and gender. Background: Little is known about the potential thermal effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) irradiation on human skin. Methods: Skin temperature was measured in 40 healthy volunteers with a thermographic camera at laser irradiated and control (non-irradiated) areas on the skin. Six irradiation doses (2–1...

  2. Effect of estrogens on skin aging and the potential role of SERMs

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Stevenson; Julie Thornton

    2007-01-01

    Susan Stevenson1, Julie Thornton21Burns & Plastic Surgery Research Unit, 2Cutaneous Research, Medical Biosciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UKAbstract: In humans, structural and functional changes attributable to aging are more visibly evident in the skin than in any other organ. Estrogens have significant effects on skin physiology and modulate epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts and melanocytes, in addition to skin appendages including the h...

  3. The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Treiber, Nicolai; Maity, Pallab; Singh, Karmveer; Ferchiu, Florentina; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of aging and lifespan. The skin represents an excellent and accessible model organ to study aging that is characterized by atrophy, wrinkle formation, reduced tensile strength and impaired wound healing. Oxidative stress as a consequence of an imbalance in prooxidants and antioxidants with increased ROS concentrations has been demonstrated in the aged skin in vitro...

  4. [Skin aging and evidence-based topical strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerl, C

    2016-02-01

    Anti-aging in dermatology primarily focuses on the prevention of skin aging with UV protection (clothing and sunsceens), free radical scavengers (synthetic or botanic), and cell-protecting agents such as vitamin B3. For the correction of signs of early skin aging, retinoic acid derivatives in dermatological prescriptions are the best studied substances. Topical hormonal prescriptions are also an option if UV damage has not been the leading culprit for aging. Chemical peeling leads to a marked increase in collagen formation, the deaper the better. Ingredients in cream preparations can reduce superficial skin folds (polyphenols, amino acid peptides). Modulators of regular pigmentation are important for anti-aging preparations. Growth factors (plant extracts, recombinant growth factors) are not thoroughly studied regarding the cost-benefit and risk ratio. Complex precedures such as photodynamic therapy have an impact on the appearance of aged skin. PMID:26683808

  5. Climate change and human skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leun, Jan C; Piacentini, Rubén D; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2008-06-01

    As part of an inventory of potential interactions between effects of ozone depletion and climate change, a possible effect of ambient temperature on sun-induced skin cancers was suggested. Mouse experiments had shown that increased room temperature enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced carcinogenesis; the effective UV dose was increased by 3-7% per degrees C. The present investigation was aimed at studying a possible temperature effect on human skin cancer. Existing data on the incidence of human skin cancer were analyzed, as available from two special surveys of non-melanoma skin cancer in the United States. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the ten regions surveyed not only correlated significantly with the ambient UV dose but also with the average daily maximum temperature in summer. For squamous cell carcinoma the incidence was higher by 5.5% (SE 1.6%) per degrees C and for basal cell carcinoma by 2.9% (SE 1.4%) per degrees C. These values correspond to an increase of the effective UV dose by about 2% per degrees C. Although the precise nature of this correlation with temperature requires further studies, it can be concluded that the temperature rises coming with climate change can indeed amplify the induction of non-melanoma skin cancers by UV radiation in human populations. PMID:18528559

  6. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  7. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hieu Liem; Naoki Morimoto; Atsushi Mahara; Chizuru Jinno; Koji Shima; Shuichi Ogino; Michiharu Sakamoto; Natsuko Kakudo; Masukazu Inoie; Kenji Kusumoto; Toshia Fujisato; Shigehiko Suzuki; Tetsuji Yamaoka

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed...

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and skin aging: the identification of population genotypic groups holds potential for personalized treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Naval,1 Vicente Alonso,1,2 Miquel Angel Herranz11Genocosmetics Lab, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermatology Unit, Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre, Valencia, SpainIntroduction: Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies.Methods and results: We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature.Conclusion: This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person's perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual's genetic signature, thus opening the door

  9. Solar Radiation Damage to Human Skin Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchetta, Luciene, (Thesis)

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this study was to assess solar radiation-induced changes in cellular function, mitochondrial function and mitochondrial DNA to further investigate the role of these energy-dedicated and metabolically essential organelles in the response to the main environmental stressor associated with skin cancer initiation. An in vitro approach was chosen employing the human malignant melanoma (A375) and human amelanotic melanoma (C32) cells and the human spontaneously immortalized...

  10. Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

    2016-05-01

    Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. To explore these factors' contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Analyzing these samples using a multi-kingdom, reference-based approach, we found that despite the skin's exposure to the external environment, its bacterial, fungal, and viral communities were largely stable over time. Site, individuality, and phylogeny were all determinants of stability. Foot sites exhibited the most variability; individuals differed in stability; and transience was a particular characteristic of eukaryotic viruses, which showed little site-specificity in colonization. Strain and single-nucleotide variant-level analysis showed that individuals maintain, rather than reacquire, prevalent microbes from the environment. Longitudinal stability of skin microbial communities generates hypotheses about colonization resistance and empowers clinical studies exploring alterations observed in disease states. PMID:27153496

  11. Contamination of human skin by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insight into the mechanisms of contamination is a necessary prerequisite for efficient and meaningful decontamination. The incorporation of anorganic ions into human skin has been studied with aqueous solutions of radionuclides. Within 30 min of wetting about 1 μl fluid per cm2 skin area penetrates into the capillary spaces of the horny layer, promoted by surface-active properties of the sebaceous lipids. Adsorption onto horny layer constituents is especially important for polyvalent cations. In general it is dependent on pH and on the ionic charge. For all substances in aqueous solution the structure of the horny layer causes a nearly exponential decay of concentration with depth of penetration (about 100:1 across the horny layer at 1 mg keratin/cm2 skin area). This is the reason for the very low penetration rates. The results may be used to establish some rules for skin decontamiantion. (orig.)

  12. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hema Sharma Datta; Rangesh Paramesh

    2010-01-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening...

  13. Topical retinoids in the treatment of aging of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsambas, A D; Katoulis, A C

    1999-01-01

    Aging of the skin is a complex phenomenon resulting from the interaction of several intrinsic and extrinsic factors [1]. Due to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces and its psychological impact, especially to women, aging of the skin has become an issue of great social significance and concern. Intrinsic aging is an inevitable, genetically programmed process, the underlying mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. No prevention or effective treatment is currently available [1]. Among extrinsic influences (wind, heat, cigarette smoke, chemicals, etc.), ultraviolet radiation appears to be the single most important factor associated with aging of the skin [2]. Photoaging refers to gross and microscopic cutaneous changes induced by cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). These changes are superimposed on the background of intrinsic aging [2]. Increased recreational sun exposure, including excessive sunbathing, the depletion of stratospheric ozone, the use of UVR in the treatment of various skin diseases, are some of the causes that have led to increased prevalence of photoaging during the last decades. The clinical importance of photoaging lies mostly on the potential for the development of precancerous lesions or skin cancer [3]. In contrast to intrinsic aging, photodamage can be prevented by sun avoidance and proper sun protection [2]. Furthermore, overwhelming clinical and histological evidence indicate that skin changes of photoaging can be reversed by the use of topical retinoids [4]. PMID:10599385

  14. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Gertrude-E; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-04-01

    All organisms, from simple invertebrates to complex human beings, exist in different colors and patterns, which arise from the unique distribution of pigments throughout the body. Pigmentation is highly heritable, being regulated by genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors that modulate the amount, type, and distribution of melanins in the skin, hair, and eyes. In addition to its roles in camouflage, heat regulation, and cosmetic variation, melanin protects against UV radiation and thus is an important defense system in human skin against harmful factors. Being the largest organ of the body that is always under the influence of internal and external factors, the skin often reacts to those agents by modifying the constitutive pigmentation pattern. The focus of this review is to provide an updated overview of important physiological and biological factors that increase pigmentation and the mechanisms by which they do so. We consider endocrine factors that induce temporary (e.g., during pregnancy) or permanent (e.g., during aging) changes in skin color, environmental factors (e.g., UV), certain drugs, and chemical compounds, etc. Understanding the mechanisms by which different factors and compounds induce melanogenesis is of great interest pharmaceutically (as therapy for pigmentary diseases) and cosmeceutically (e.g., to design tanning products with potential to reduce skin cancer risk). PMID:17242160

  15. Human Extensive Head Skin Myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soleimani Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nChrysomya bezziana Villeneuve is the most important fly, which produces myiasis, exists as an obligate ectoparasite in the ani­mals, and afflicts human. Poor hygiene and working in contaminated areas particularly during warm seasons provide a situa­tion to infest by this parasite. Infestation in human and livestock are often observed in wounds, normal body orifices such as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. The manifestations include pruritus, pain, inflammation, redness, eosinophilia, and secon­dary bacterial infections and rarely death. A 5-year-old boy with severe headache and agitation symptoms was fol­lowed up. After physical examination and endoscopy, larvae of third instar fly were obtained from his scalp. Our precise identifica­tion indicated that the flies were the C. bezziana. This is the second report of the human scalp myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iran. This study confirmed that the old world screwworm fly was distributed in the southern of Iran and proba­bly could be one of the most important agents of myiasis in this area.

  16. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sharma Datta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying, Varnya (brighten skin-glow, Sandhaniya (cell regeneration, Vranaropana (healing, Tvachya (nurturing, Shothahara (anti-inflammatory, Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging. Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla and Centella asiatica (Gotukola are extensively used.

  17. Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2010-04-01

    The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

  18. Aldehyde oxidase activity in fresh human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevski, Nenad; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Swart, Piet; Walles, Markus; Camenisch, Gian; Schiller, Hilmar; Kretz, Olivier; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine

    2014-12-01

    Human aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdoflavoenzyme that commonly oxidizes azaheterocycles in therapeutic drugs. Although high metabolic clearance by AO resulted in several drug failures, existing in vitro-in vivo correlations are often poor and the extrahepatic role of AO practically unknown. This study investigated enzymatic activity of AO in fresh human skin, the largest organ of the body, frequently exposed to therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. Fresh, full-thickness human skin was obtained from 13 individual donors and assayed with two specific AO substrates: carbazeran and zoniporide. Human skin explants from all donors metabolized carbazeran to 4-hydroxycarbazeran and zoniporide to 2-oxo-zoniporide. Average rates of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylations were 1.301 and 0.164 pmol⋅mg skin(-1)⋅h(-1), resulting in 13 and 2% substrate turnover, respectively, after 24 hours of incubation with 10 μM substrate. Hydroxylation activities for the two substrates were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.769), with interindividual variability ranging from 3-fold (zoniporide) to 6-fold (carbazeran). Inclusion of hydralazine, an irreversible inhibitor of AO, resulted in concentration-dependent decrease of hydroxylation activities, exceeding 90% inhibition of carbazeran 4-hydroxylation at 100 μM inhibitor. Reaction rates were linear up to 4 hours and well described by Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Comparison of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylation with rates of triclosan glucuronidation and sulfation and p-toluidine N-acetylation showed that cutaneous AO activity is comparable to tested phase II metabolic reactions, indicating a significant role of AO in cutaneous drug metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of AO enzymatic activity in human skin. PMID:25249692

  19. Ultrasonographic assessment of skin structure according to age

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Crisan; Monica Lupsor; Andreea Boca; Maria Crisan; Radu Badea

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive tool that offers characteristic markers, quantifying the cutaneous changes of the physiological senescence process. Aims: The aim was to assess the changes in skin thickness, dermal density and echogenicity, as part of the ageing process, with different age intervals. Methods : The study was performed on 160 patients, aged 40.4 ± 21.2, divided into four age categories:

  20. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhnenko S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergey Prikhnenko Private Practice, Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract: Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. Keywords: mesotherapy, skin aging, skin quality

  1. Estudo das alterações relacionadas com a idade na pele humana, utilizando métodos de histo-morfometria e autofluorescência Study of age-related changes in human skin using histomorphometric and autofluorescence approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Oriá

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O processo de envelhecimento tecidual é evidente nas modificações visíveis na pele, resultando em importantes implicações psicológicas para o indivíduo e crescente interesse científico. OBJETIVOS: O presente trabalho objetivou analisar as alterações da pele normal com o envelhecimento mediante estratégias de histomorfometria e autofluorescência. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de pele do abdômen de 18 cadáveres, incluindo cinco indivíduos jovens (menos de 20 anos, sete indivíduos com idade intermediária (20-60 anos e seis indivíduos idosos (mais de 60 anos. Foram feitos cortes histológicos em parafina seguidos de coloração pela Hematoxilina-Eosina (H&E e pelo tricrômio de Van Gieson-elastina. Avaliaram-se a espessura da epiderme e derme, e a superfície de contato epidermo-dérmica. Investigaram-se ainda as modificações qualitativas do aparelho colágeno-elástico, considerando sua disposição espacial na derme. Espécimes corados em H&E também foram utilizados para autofluorescência. RESULTADOS: A espessura da epiderme e derme do grupo idoso foi significativamente diminuída (pBACKGROUND: Age-related changes are easily recognized by examining the skin and lead to important psychological implications, motivating increased scientific interest. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze, by histomorphometric and autofluorescence approaches, the aged-related alterations in normal human skin. METHODS: Normal abdominal skin samples were taken from eighteen cadavers, including five young subjects (below 20 years old, seven subjects with intermediate age (20-60 years old and six elderly subjects (over 60 years old. Paraffin-embedded sections were prepared and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E and Van Gieson-elastin trichrome. Afterwards, the H&E specimens were also used for autofluorescence technique. RESULTS: The thickness of elderly epidermis and dermis was reduced compared to middle-aged and young age

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014). ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  3. Skin corrosion and irritation test of sunscreen nanoparticles using reconstructed 3D human skin model

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Hyejin; Choi, Jinhee; Oh, Seung Min; Park, Jeonggue; Park, Kwangsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Effects of nanoparticles including zinc oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles, and their mixtures on skin corrosion and irritation were investigated by using in vitro 3D human skin models (KeraSkin TM ) and the results were compared to those of an in vivo animal test. Methods Skin models were incubated with nanoparticles for a definite time period and cell viability was measured by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Skin corrosion ...

  4. Skin friction: a novel approach to measuring in vivo human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Veijgen, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    The human skin plays an important role in people’s lives. It is in constant interaction with the environment, clothing and consumer products. This thesis discusses one of the parameters in the interaction between the human skin in vivo and other materials: skin friction. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is an introduction to skin friction and to current knowledge on skin friction. The second part presents the RevoltST, the tribometer that was specially developed for skin...

  5. Transcriptional Analysis of T Cells Resident in Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Li; Moshe Olshansky; Carbone, Francis R.; Ma, Joel Z.

    2016-01-01

    Human skin contains various populations of memory T cells in permanent residence and in transit. Arguably, the best characterized of the skin subsets are the CD8(+) permanently resident memory T cells (TRM) expressing the integrin subunit, CD103. In order to investigate the remaining skin T cells, we isolated skin-tropic (CLA(+)) helper T cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8(+) CD103(-) T cells from skin and blood for RNA microarray analysis to compare the transcriptional profiles of these grou...

  6. Assessment of human skin decontamination from radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable and practicable means for assessing skin decontamination and percutaneous adsorption of radioactive skin contaminants is developed by comparing the streams of beta-particles and gamma-quanta characterizing the penetration and distribution of radioactive skin contaminants. The principal requirements which a preparation for human skin decontaminants should meet are: effectiveness of the preparation, minimal percutaneous absorption, broad activity spectrum on compounds and radionuclides, preservation of integrity of the treated skin and a simple method of use of the decontaminant. (author)

  7. Human Split-Thickness Skin Allograft: Skin Substitute in the Treatment of Burn

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M.; Nozary Heshmati, B.; Tavakoli, S. A. H.; Ayaz, M.; F. Azmoudeh Ardalan; M. Momeni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human skin allograft has been used as wound coverage for a long time; it is one of the most successful and widely used dressings for burn wounds in the world. Objective: To prepare a freeze-dried human split-thickness skin allograft and evaluate its cytotoxicity, the structure and physical properties after processing methods and clinical efficacy in burn patients. Methods: After ensuring tissue safety, we lyophilized human cadaveric partial thickness skin and exposed it to gamma r...

  8. Expression of naked DNA in human, pig, and mouse skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hengge, U R; Walker, P. S.; Vogel, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion and expression of genes in the epidermis may have a variety of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of skin diseases. Here we show that when both human skin organ cultures and human skin grafts on immunocompromised mice are injected with naked DNA, the DNA is taken-up and genes are expressed in the epidermis in a manner similar to both pig skin injected in vivo and injected pig skin organ cultures. In contrast, DNA injected into mouse skin is expressed not just in the epide...

  9. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Epidermal Stem Cell Damage Mediated Skin Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Uraiwan Panich; Gunya Sittithumcharee; Natwarath Rathviboon; Siwanon Jirawatnotai

    2016-01-01

    Skin is the largest human organ. Skin continually reconstructs itself to ensure its viability, integrity, and ability to provide protection for the body. Some areas of skin are continuously exposed to a variety of environmental stressors that can inflict direct and indirect damage to skin cell DNA. Skin homeostasis is maintained by mesenchymal stem cells in inner layer dermis and epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in the outer layer epidermis. Reduction of skin stem cell number and function has been...

  10. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation - NCTF(®) (New Cellular Treatment Factor) - includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  11. Beneficial modulation from a high-purity caviar-derived homogenate on chronological skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Francesco; Polimeni, Ascanio; Solimene, Umberto; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Minelli, Emilio; Jain, Shalini; Rastmanesh, Reza; Sedriep, Sonia; Soresi, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    This study tested the activity of LD-1227, which contains a caviar-derived homogenate added with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10))-selenium component (CaviarLieri(®), Lab-Dom, Switzerland), in aged human skin and its potential role on skin mitochondria function. Human dermal fibroblasts were obtained from healthy donors over 70 years old and treated with LD-1227 for 72 hr. As compared to baseline, LD-1227 caused a robust (>67%) collagen type I synthesis (pbeneficially affect mitochondrial function. PMID:22533426

  12. Ultraviolet radiation in skin ageing and carcinogenesis: the role of retinoids for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarinen, A; Peltonen, J; Kallioinen, M

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms of UV-induced ageing and carcinogenesis of the skin have been elucidated in animals and humans, and both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to have deleterious effects on the skin. Thus the use of solaria which deliver mostly UVA radiation is not safe. There is also an increased risk of ageing when using therapeutic UV sources. UV radiation is beneficial in many cases of skin disorders such as psoriasis, atopic eczema, acne and pruritus. Nevertheless by careful patient selection and follow-up the risks of UV can be minimised when treating patients with artificial UV radiation. During recent years there has been intensive research into the development of agents which prevent harmful effects of radiation. The retinoids are particularly interesting as they enhance skin repair after UV damage, have an anticarcinogenic effect and are effective for treating precancerous lesions such as solar keratosis and as adjuvant therapy for skin cancers. Topical retinoids are already used for the treatment of actinic skin damage, and systemic retinoids are also used in certain groups of patients who have an increased risk of contracting skin cancers such as xeroderma pigmentosum. PMID:1756019

  13. Genetic polymorphisms and skin aging: the identification of population genotypic groups holds potential for personalized treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Naval J; Alonso V; Herranz MA

    2014-01-01

    Jordi Naval,1 Vicente Alonso,1,2 Miquel Angel Herranz11Genocosmetics Lab, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermatology Unit, Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre, Valencia, SpainIntroduction: Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging vari...

  14. Comparison of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in ex vivo human skin and reconstructed human skin models from SkinEthic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Budimir, Natali; Hussler, Georges; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Skin function is not limited to a physical barrier. According to its total surface area, it is also considered as an extra-hepatic metabolizing organ. In vitro engineered human skins have been developed to replace limited ex vivo normal human skin samples (NHS). Thus, assessing and comparing skin models from SkinEthic [Episkin™, RHE™ and the full thickness model (FTM)] with NHS in terms of metabolic capability are essential. The apparent activities of main cutaneous isoforms of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYP1A1/1B1, 2B6/2C18/2E1, 3A5/3A7), esterase, glutathione-S-[(GST), A, M, P, T], N-acetyl-(NAT1), uridinyl-diphosphate glucuronyl-(UDPGT 1A family) and sulfo-(SULT1A1) transferases were determined using probe substrates. Mean activities indicative of CYP1A1/1B1 (expressed as pmol/mg protein/6 h) in RHE™ (2.8) and FTM (2.6) were very similar to NHS (3.0) while Episkin™ showed a higher activity (9.1). Activities of CYP3A5/3A7 in FTM (3.3) and Episkin™ (3.6) were similar to NHS (3.8) while activity in RHE™ (13.3) was higher. CYP2B6/2C18/2E1 activity was below LOQ (0.5) in all skin models and NHS. Comparable intrinsic metabolic clearances were measured between NHS and skin models for esterase, UDPGT, GST and NAT1 activities. SULT1A1 activity toward probe substrates was not detected in skin models and observed at the limit of detection in NHS. Weak cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, high esterase and transferase activities suggested that NHS and skin models exhibited limited functionalization and much greater detoxification (hydrolytic and conjugating) capacities. These results demonstrate that skin models are similar to NHS in terms of metabolic functionality toward xenobiotics investigated and useful tools to assess both the local efficiency and safety of cosmetics. PMID:24658324

  15. Phenotypic variability in human skin mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babina, Magda; Guhl, Sven; Artuc, Metin; Trivedi, Neil N; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are unique constituents of the human body. While inter-individual differences may influence the ways by which MCs operate in their skin habitat, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner so far. We therefore set out to quantify skin MC variability in a large cohort of subjects. Pathophysiologically relevant key features were quantified and correlated: transcripts of c-kit, FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, FcεRIγ, histidine decarboxylase, tryptase, and chymase; surface expression of c-Kit, FcεRIα; activity of tryptase, and chymase; histamine content and release triggered by FcεRI and Ca(2+) ionophore. While there was substantial variability among subjects, it strongly depended on the feature under study (coefficient of variation 33-386%). Surface expression of FcεRI was positively associated with FcεRIα mRNA content, histamine content with HDC mRNA, and chymase activity with chymase mRNA. Also, MC signature genes were co-regulated in distinct patterns. Intriguingly, histamine levels were positively linked to tryptase and chymase activity, whereas tryptase and chymase activity appeared to be uncorrelated. FcεRI triggered histamine release was highly variable and was unrelated to FcεRI expression but unexpectedly tightly correlated with histamine release elicited by Ca(2+) ionophore. This most comprehensive and systematic work of its kind provides not only detailed insights into inter-individual variability in MCs, but also uncovers unexpected patterns of co-regulation among signature attributes of the lineage. Differences in MCs among humans may well underlie clinical responses in settings of allergic reactions and complex skin disorders alike. PMID:26706922

  16. Sugar Sag: Glycation and the Role of Diet in Aging Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H P; Katta, R

    2015-11-01

    First described in the context of diabetes, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed through a type of non-enzymatic reaction called glycation. Increased accumulation of AGEs in human tissue has now been associated with end stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and, recently, skin aging. Characteristic findings of aging skin, including decreased resistance to mechanical stress, impaired wound healing, and distorted dermal vasculature, can be in part attributable to glycation. Multiple factors mediate cutaneous senescence, and these factors are generally characterized as endogenous (e.g., telomere shortening) or exogenous (e.g., ultraviolet radiation exposure). Interestingly, AGEs exert their pathophysiological effects from both endogenous and exogenous routes. The former entails the consumption of sugar in the diet, which then covalently binds an electron from a donor molecule to form an AGE. The latter process mostly refers to the formation of AGEs through cooking. Recent studies have revealed that certain methods of food preparation (i.e., grilling, frying, and roasting) produce much higher levels of AGEs than water-based cooking methods such as boiling and steaming. Moreover, several dietary compounds have emerged as promising candidates for the inhibition of glycation-mediated aging. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the critical role of glycation in skin aging and highlight preliminary studies on dietary strategies that may be able to combat this process. PMID:27224842

  17. Elderly skin and its rejuvenation: products and procedures for the aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; da Silva Carneiro, Sueli Coelho

    2007-03-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a substantial increase in the population of people over 60 years of age. Most of them maintain a good general health and physical activity and fitness. For these individuals there is a good number of dermatologic procedures, medications, and cosmetics that can be prescribed to improve the aspect of skin aging, providing an improvement in their self-esteem and quality of life as a result of their better look. We will discuss the mechanisms of skin aging, and the procedures and substances used to minimize its deleterious effects, such as sunscreens, estrogens, chemical peels, toxin botulinum, fillers and surgical procedures, among others. The use of makeup and the adverse reactions to cosmetics will also be mentioned. PMID:17348995

  18. Morphine Metabolism in Human Skin Microsomes

    OpenAIRE

    Heilmann, S.; Küchler, Sarah; Schäfer-Korting, Monika

    2012-01-01

    For patients with severe skin wounds, topically applied morphine is an option to induce efficient analgesia due to the presence of opioid receptors in the skin. However, for topical administration it is important to know whether the substance is biotransformed in the skin as this can eventually reduce the concentration of the active agent considerably. We use skin microsomes to elucidate the impact of skin metabolism on the activity of topically applied morphine. We are able to demonstrate th...

  19. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  20. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Herwig; Kersen, Silke; Weimer, Michaela; Mertsching, Heike

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal in...

  1. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  2. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, F

    1997-08-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that stratospheric ozone has declined worldwide over the past 20 years. The trend estimates are markedly dependent on the geographical location and are highly seasonal. Winter trends are much more negative than those for summer and autumn. Projections based on current assumptions of chlorine release suggest that this decline will continue into the next century. On the basis of the decrease in ozone over the mid-latitudes, an increase in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) of 4%-9% is expected, depending on the season and geographical location. However, the UVR penetration to the Earth's surface is greatly affected by clouds, aerosols and tropospheric ozone, and current increases, if any, have not been as large as this. Direct evidence for the induction of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to UVR has been derived from animal experiments in mice and rats. Numerous epidemiological data confirm that this relationship also holds for human skin. The increase in NMSC incidence in the past two decades is not likely to be due to the decrease in ozone, given the long latency (two to three decades) associated with UVR effects on skin. A knowledge of the action spectrum for NMSC development suggests that a 1% depletion in stratospheric ozone may be expected to increase NMSC, at equilibrium, by about 2.0% The evidence on the role of UVR exposure in the development of malignant melanoma (MM) is less certain. It has been estimated that a 1% reduction in ozone may cause an increase in MM of 0.6%. PMID:9301039

  3. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E.; Stamatas, Georgios N.; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  4. Skin Firming, Skin Smoothing, Skin Blemishes Elimination and Anti-aging Effects of Increased Protein Intake in the Form of Voandzeia hypogeal Seed Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effect of excess calorie intake on the human body showed that it resulted in accumulation of excess body fat; the darkening of the skin colour and the development of a bumpy skin. Problem statement: The present study investigated the effects of increased protein intake on the human skin and on body fat. The skin firming, skin smoothing and skin colour lightening effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract has already been established. The anti-obesity, body calming and anti-agi...

  5. Pattern of skin diseases in paediatric age group and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 patients from first day of life to 17 years of age were analysed for pattern of skin disorders. School going children formed majority (41.3% of cases followed by preschool children (32%. Infections formed the commonest disorder (31 % followed by eczemas (24%, papulosquamous disorders (12%, infestation (8.6% and urticaria (5.3% while vitiligo, acne vulgaris, alopecia areata and genodermatoses were seen in 2.7% cases each.

  6. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  7. In vitro and human testing strategies for skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Osborne, R; Perkins, M A

    2000-01-01

    Prior to the manufacture, transport, and marketing of chemicals or products, it is critical to assess their potential for skin toxicity (corrosion or irritation), thereby protecting the worker and consumer from adverse skin effects due to intended or accidental skin exposure. Traditionally, animal testing procedures have provided the data needed to assess the more severe forms of skin toxicity, and current regulations may require animal test data before permission can be obtained to manufacture, transport, or market chemicals or the products that contain them. In recent years, the use of animals to assess skin safety has been opposed by some as inhumane and unnecessary. The conflicting needs of the industrial toxicologist to (1) protect human safety, (2) comply with regulations, and (3) reduce animal testing have led to major efforts to develop alternative, yet predictive, test methods. A variety of in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been developed and several have successfully passed initial international validation. These have included skin or epidermal equivalent assays that have been shown to distinguish corrosive from noncorrosive chemicals. These skin/epidermal equivalent assays have also been modified and used to assess skin irritation potential relative to existing human exposure test data. The data show a good correlation between in vitro assay data and different types of human skin irritation data for both chemicals and consumer products. The effort to eliminate animal tests has also led to the development of a novel human patch test for assessment of acute skin irritation potential. A case study shows the benefits of in vitro and human skin irritation tests compared to the animal tests they seek to replace, and strategies now exist to adequately assess human skin irritation potential without the need to rely on animal test methods. PMID:11083109

  8. Porcine skin as human body phantom at 60 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Petrillo, Luca; Mavridis, Theodoros; De Doncker, Philippe; Sarrazin, Julien; Benlarbi-Delai, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at 60 GHz to demonstrate that porcine skin can be used at 60 GHz as a phantom for the human body. Norton formulations above a flat human body are verified using porcine skin.

  9. N-acetyltransferase in human skin and keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tanja; Bonifas, Jutta; Wiegman, Marjon; Pas, Hendrikus; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background: N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) mediated Nacetylation in human skin and keratinocytes is an important detoxification pathway for aromatic amines including the strong sensitizer para-phenylenediamine (PPD), an important component of oxidative hair dyes. Objectives: Human skin and keratinocyt

  10. Microbiome dynamics of human epidermis following skin barrier disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Boekhorst, te J.; Bogaard, van den E.H.; Koning, de H.D.; Kerkhof, van de P.M.; Saulnier, D.M.; Swam, van I.I.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Kleerebezem, M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Timmerman, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled metagenomic analyses of many human body sites. Several studies have catalogued the composition of bacterial communities of the surface of human skin, mostly under static conditions in healthy volunteers. Skin injury will disturb th

  11. Release of Propolis Phenolic Acids from Semisolid Formulations and Their Penetration into the Human Skin In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Modestas Žilius; Kristina Ramanauskienė; Vitalis Briedis

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the stud...

  12. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data.

    OpenAIRE

    Labouta, Hagar I; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, ski...

  13. Histamine suppresses epidermal keratinocyte differentiation and impairs skin barrier function in a human skin model

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwandtner, M; Mildner, M.; Mlitz, V; Gruber, F.; Eckhart, L; Werfel, T.; Gutzmer, R; Elias, P.M.; Tschachler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Defects in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier are important features of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic dermatitis. Mast cells and their main mediator histamine are abundant in inflamed skin and thus may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary keratinocytes were cultured under differentiation-promoting conditions in the presence and absence of histamine, histamine receptor agonists and antagonists. The expression of differentiation-associated gen...

  14. Friction of Human Skin against Different Fabrics for Medical Use

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Vilhena; Amílcar Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the tribology of human skin is essential to improve and optimize surfaces and materials in contact with the skin. Besides that, friction between the human skin and textiles is a critical factor in the formation of skin injuries, which are caused if the loads and shear forces are high enough and/or over long periods of time. This factor is of particular importance in bedridden patients, since they are not moving about or are confined to wheelchairs. Decubitus ulcers are one of the...

  15. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE. The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin.

  16. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  17. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations)

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Halbina; Ewa Trznadel-Grodzka; Helena Rotsztejn

    2014-01-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to micro...

  18. Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Pouliot, Roxane; Auger, Michèle; Laroche, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis that affects around 3% of the world's population. The etiology of this autoimmune pathology is not completely understood. The barrier function of psoriatic skin is known to be strongly altered, but the structural modifications at the origin of this dysfunction are not clear. To develop strategies to reduce symptoms of psoriasis or adequate substitutes for modeling, a deep understanding of the organization of psoriatic skin at a molecular level is required. Infrared and Raman microspectroscopies have been used to obtain direct molecular-level information on psoriatic and healthy human skin biopsies. From the intensities and positions of specific vibrational bands, the lipid and protein distribution and the lipid order have been mapped in the different layers of the skin. Results showed a similar distribution of lipids and collagen for normal and psoriatic human skin. However, psoriatic skin is characterized by heterogeneity in lipid/protein composition at the micrometer scale, a reduction in the definition of skin layer boundaries and a decrease in lipid chain order in the stratum corneum as compared to normal skin. A global decrease of the structural organization is exhibited in psoriatic skin that is compatible with an alteration of its barrier properties.

  19. Digital Dermatoscopy Method for Human Skin Roughness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprijanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a digital dermatoscopy method to measure the human skin roughness. By using this method we eliminate the use of silicon replica. Digital dermatoscopy consists of handheld digital microscope, image processing and information extraction of skin roughness level. To reduce the noise due to the variation of reflection factor on the skin we use median filter. Hence, by Fourier transform the skin texture is imaged in terms of 2D frequency-spatial distribution. Skin roughness is determined from its entropy, where the roughness level is proportional to the entropy. Three types of experiment have been performed by evaluating: (i the skin replicas; (ii young and elderly skin; and (iii seven volunteers treated by anti wrinkle cosmetic in three weeks period. We find that for the first and second experiment that our system did manage to quantify the roughness, while on the third experiment, six of seven volunteers, the roughness are succeeded to identify.

  20. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Halbina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to microscopic column skin zones in order to achieve skin photo-remodeling.

  1. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  2. Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Y; Edwards, C; Pearse, A; Matsumoto, K; Kawai, M; Marks, R

    2001-12-01

    Dermal collagen fiber bundles (DCFB) are the major constructional element in the dermis. Although degenerative alterations of DCFB have been reported in chronologically aged skin, changes in photodamaged skin have not been fully investigated. We report ultrastructural alterations of DCFB, and their relation to skin elasticity using photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin. The degree to which DCFB were intact and closely packed was evaluated and scored blindly. Exposed skin (outer forearm) exhibited marked ultrastructural degeneration. In UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin, the intact ultrastructural appearance of DCFB was gradually lost with increasing UV dosage; however, marked alterations in DCFB ultrastructure were absent in either human inner upper arm (unexposed) skin or nonirradiated age-matched control mouse skin. Skin mechanical properties were measured using a Cutometer SEM 474 suction extensometer, recording Ue* immediate deformation, Uv* viscous deformation, Uf* final deformation, and Ur* immediate contraction, all normalized for skin thickness. Uf*, Ue*, Uv*, and Ur/Uf were significantly decreased in exposed compared with unexposed skin. Significant positive correlations between degenerative alterations of DCFB and the decrease in Uf*, Ue*, and Uv* were seen. Changes of "% area of wrinkles" in UV-irradiated mouse skin was significantly correlated with degenerative changes of DCFB. Based on these results, we confirm observations made by others that chronic photodamage may have more severe effects on degeneration of DCFB than that of chronologic aging alone. Furthermore, degeneration of DCFB as detected ultrastructurally may, by its effect on skin elasticity, result in an increase in the appearance of wrinkles. PMID:11886509

  3. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 μg/cm2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm-2 (range -2 (range 0.43-11.6) were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the nanoparticles solution was applied on intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62 ± 0.2 ng cm-2 with a lag time <1 h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system

  4. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of rat, mouse, pig, guinea pig, man, and in human skin models

    OpenAIRE

    Oesch, F; Fabian, E.; Guth, K.; Landsiedel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the ...

  5. Utilization of reconstructed cultured human skin models as an alternative skin for permeation studies of chemical compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Satoshi; 藤堂, 浩明; 杉江, 謙一; 藤本, 英哲; 中田, 圭一; 徳留, 嘉寛; 橋本, フミ惠; 杉林, 堅次

    2010-01-01

    Two reconstructed human skin models, EpiskinSM and EpiDermTM, have been approved as alternative membranes for skin corrosive/irritation experiments due to their close correlation with animal skin. Such reconstructed human skin models were evaluated as alternative membranes for skin permeation experiments. Seven drugs with different lipophilicities and almost the same molecular weight were used as test penetrants. Relationships were investigated between permeability coefficients (P values) of ...

  6. THERAPEUTIC OF SKIN AGING WITH CARBON DIOXIDE LASER SKIN RESURFACING AND COMBINATION WITH AIR COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKA Maya Damayanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 So far, a lot of people who want their face skin always looks young though age continued to grow. It cannot be denied that aging will occur in everyone although some faster or later occur. Various ways were developed by scientists to fix this issue. Laser Skin Resurfacing (LSR technique to tighten facial skin is a procedure that is popular among the public and the practice of medicine. CO2 LSR technique is still a gold standard was used. Pain during surgery can be reduced when this technique was combined with air cooling. In addition, the adverse effects of post-operative might be tolerated.   /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Antimicrobial peptides in human skin disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kenshi, Yamasaki; Richard, L. Gallo

    2007-01-01

    The skin continuously encounters microbial pathogens. To defend against this, cells of the epidermis and dermis have evolved several innate strategies to prevent infection. Antimicrobial peptides are one of the primary mechanisms used by the skin in the early stages of immune defense. In general, antimicrobial peptides have broad antibacterial activity against gram-positive and negative bacteria and also show antifungal and antiviral activity. The antimicrobial activity of most peptides occur...

  8. Ultrasonographic assessment of skin structure according to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Crisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive tool that offers characteristic markers, quantifying the cutaneous changes of the physiological senescence process. Aims: The aim was to assess the changes in skin thickness, dermal density and echogenicity, as part of the ageing process, with different age intervals. Methods : The study was performed on 160 patients, aged 40.4 ± 21.2, divided into four age categories: <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan device were taken from three sites: dorsal forearm (DF, medial arm (MA, zygomatic area (ZA. We assessed the thickness of epidermis and dermis (mm, number of low, medium, high echogenicity pixels, the ratio between the echogenicity of the upper and lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi, and SLEB (subepidermal low echogenicity band. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.00. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: On all examined sites, it was found that the dermal thickness increases in the 21 to 40 year interval (P<0.0001. After the 21 to 40 year interval, the number of low echogenic pixels increases significantly, especially on photoexposed sites. High-echogenic pixels follow the same pattern on all examined sites: they increase in the 21 to 40 year interval and decrease in the 3rd and 4th age category. The LEPs/LEPi ratio increases significantly with age, at all sites (P<0.05, due to an increase of hypoechogenic pixels in the upper dermis. Conclusions: High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive "histological" tool that can assess the cutaneous structure and age-related changes. It offers imagistic markers, comparable to the histological parameters and also characteristic ultrasonographic markers. Histology remains the gold standard for the investigation of the integumentary system.

  9. FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA: Anti-Aging, Skin-Lightening Products May Contain Mercury How you can eliminate the health risk to ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some skin products contain mercury and pose a threat to your health, the ...

  10. Genetic Determinants of Skin Color, Aging, and Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Jacobs (Leonie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractChapter 1 gives a general introduction to this thesis. In Chapter 2 we validated perceived skin color as skin color measurement. In Chapter 3 we investigated whether digitally quantified skin color was a suitable measure to discover new skin color genes. In Chapter 4 we investi

  11. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. PMID:26251951

  12. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    RNA expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  13. Structural and functional changes of face and neck skin in women of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2008-01-01

    To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups and their relationships in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 100 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region, temple region of head and anterior neck region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels and derm...

  14. The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin homeostasis, cellular bioenergetics, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblong, John E

    2014-11-01

    Human skin is exposed to daily environmental insults, particularly solar radiation, that triggers a range of molecular responses. These perturbations to the normal homeostatic state can lead to cellular dysfunction and, ultimately, impacts tissue integrity and accelerates skin aging (photoaging). One of the responses is increased oxidative stress which has been shown to disrupt cellular bioenergetics. This can be detected by depletion of the nucleotide energy metabolites NAD+ and ATP as both an acute transient decrease and, over time, a more permanent chronic reduction due in part to cumulative damage of mitochondria. NAD+ and its primary precursor nicotinamide have been known for some time to impact skin homeostasis based on linkages to dietary requirements, treatment of various inflammatory conditions, photoaging, and prevention of cancer. Cellular NAD+ pools are known to be lower in aged skin and treatment with nicotinamide is hypothesized to restore these levels, thereby mitigating cellular bioenergetics dysfunction. In dermal fibroblasts, nicotinamide is able to protect against oxidative stress to glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation as well as increase mitochondrial efficiency via sirtuin-dependent selective mitophagy. Recent research has found that NAD+ cellular pools are more dynamic than previously thought, oscillating in tandem with free nicotinamide, and serves as a regulatory point and feedback loop in cellular metabolism regulation, maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, and circadian rhythmicity. Since UV-induced oxidative stress in skin can disrupt these processes, continued molecular understanding of the role of NAD+ and nicotinamide in skin biology is important to identify interventions that would help maintain its normal homeostatic functions and efficient cellular bioenergetics. PMID:24794404

  15. Towards drug quantification in human skin with confocal Raman microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, Lutz; Selzer, Dominik; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schaefer, Ulrich F.; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the penetration behaviour of drugs into human skin is a prerequisite for the rational development and evaluation of effective dermal drug delivery. The general procedure for the acquisition of quantitative drug penetration profiles in human skin is performed by sequential segmentation and extraction. Unfortunately, this technique is destructive, laborious and lacks spatial resolution. Confocal Raman microscopy bares the potential of a chemically selective, label free and nondest...

  16. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  17. Biohydrogels for the In Vitro Re-construction and In Situ Regeneration of Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkina, Liudmila; Kostyuk, Vladimir; Guerra, Liliana

    Natural and synthetic biohydrogels are of great interest for the development of innovative medicinal and cosmetic products feasible for the treatment of numerous skin diseases and age-related changes in skin structure and function. Here, the characteristics of bio-resorbable hydrogels as scaffolds for the in vitro re-construction of temporary skin substitutes or full skin equivalents for further transplantation are reviewed. Another fast developing area of regenerative medicine is the in situ regeneration of human skin. The approach is mainly applicable to activate and facilitate the skin regeneration process and angiogenesis in chronic wounds with impaired healing. In this case, extracellular matrix resembling polymers are used to stimulate cell growth, adhesion, and movement. Better results could be achieved by activation of biocompatible hydrogels either with proteins (growth factors, adhesion molecules or/and cytokines) or with allogenic skin cells producing and releasing these molecules. Hydrogels are widely applied as carriers of low molecular weight substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing, and wound healing action. Incorporation of these substances into hydrogels enhances their penetration through the skin barrier and prevents their destruction by oxidation. Potential roles of hydrogel-based products for modern dermatology and cosmetology are also discussed.

  18. Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Baek, Jihoon; Jung, Kwangsun; Lee, Jiyoung; Huh, Sungran; Kim, Saebom; Koh, Jaesook; Park, Deokhoon

    2007-05-30

    Type I collagen is the primary component of the skin dermis. Both the quantity and quality of extracellular collagen are primarily related to skin ageing. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Camellia japonica oil (CJ oil) may be introduced as an anit-wrinkle agent. As a first step to this end, human COL1A2 promoter luciferase assay was performed in human dermal fibroblast cells. CJ oil was determined to activate human COL1A2 promoter in a concentration-dependent manner. In consistency with this result, while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity was inhibited by CJ oil, human type I procollagen synthesis was also induced by CJ oil. These results suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be involved in the skin ageing. For the evaluation of CJ oil's safety and efficiency on human skin, human skin primary irritation test and trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) were performed. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured before treatment then, 1h and 2h after treatment; the forearm site was selected to measure TEWL. Also, a human skin primary irritation test was performed on the normal skin (upper back) in 30 volunteers to see if a certain material included in CJ oil has irritation or sensitization potential. In these assays, CJ oil reduced trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and did not induce any adverse reactions. Therefore, based on these results, we suggest the possibility that CJ oil may be considered as possible wrinkle-reducing candidates for topical application. PMID:17386986

  19. Quality system and audit of human skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allograft skin has long been recognised as an important resource in the management of bum wounds. The important issue in skin banking is fust to guarantee safety of human cadaveric donor skin. Second, the quality of the allografts should be assured. The Euro Skin Bank, established in 1976, is located in The Netherlands. Not only in The Netherlands, but in many other (European) countries no specific regulation exists for tissue banking. With respect to skin banking in The Netherlands the Euro Skin Bank requested the government what regulations should be applied on their activities. It was stated in 1994 that human allografl skin should be regarded as a phan-naceutical drug, a magistral preparation. The Euro Skin Bank should therefore be subjected to the guidelines given for the Good Laboraton, Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices to process allogmft skin. Nevertheless, it was in the opinion of the Euro Skin Bank that regulating human tissue as a pharmaceutical drug was not sufficient e.g. no specific regulations for serologic testing of the tissue donor is given, which should be one of the most important issues in tissue banking. Recently the government has published new legislation for tissue banks in The Netherlands: on July I st, 1998, a new legislation was enforced concerning organ and tissue donation and on November I st, 1998, quality requirements for organ and tissue banks are published. The European Community discussed the possibility to bring all animal and human tissues under the Medical Device Directive (MDD). Soon it was proposed not to incorporate viable hw-nan tissue into the MDD. Last year all human tissue was excluded from the MDD. Lack of European regulations has been resulted in national laws, e.g. in The Netherlands, Germany and France. Possibly there might be a more significant role for the European Association of Tissue Banks in the near future for European legislation on tissue banking. In order to have a standard quality system wmch is

  20. DNA damage and repair in human skin in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the molecular and cellular origins of sunlight-induced skin cancers in man requires knowledge of the damages inflicted on human skin during sunlight exposure, as well as the ability of cells in skin to repair or circumvent such damage. Although repair has been studied extensively in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells - including human cells in culture - there are important differences between repair by human skin cells in culture and human skin in situ: quantitative differences in rates of repair, as well as qualitative differences, including the presence or absence of repair mechanisms. Quantitation of DNA damage and repair in human skin required the development of new approaches for measuring damage at low levels in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA. The method allows for analysis of multiple samples and the resulting data should be related to behavior of the DNA molecules by analytic expressions. Furthermore, it should be possible to assay a variety of lesions using the same methodology. The development of new analysis methods, new technology, and new biochemical probes for the study of DNA damage and repair are described. 28 refs., 4 figs

  1. From DNA repair to proteome protection: new molecular insights for preventing non-melanoma skin cancers and skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Spencer, James M; Braun, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms and continue to represent an important public health issue with greater than one million cases diagnosed each year. The primary factor contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of NMSC is unprotected skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ie, UVA (wavelength: 315-400 nm) and UVB rays (wavelength: 280-315 nm) with additional albeit less damaging factors of infrared radiation (wavelength: ~750 nm-1 mm) and environmental pollutants. Skin carcinogenesis by DNA damage is the current predominant paradigm of UV toxicity, which may be caused by direct damaging effects of energy deposited by photons or indirect oxidative action of short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed from water that reacts with biomacromolecules. UV rays are capable to induce direct both DNA damages, mainly consisting in the formation of helix-distorting photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), as well as oxidative damage to DNA bases, including the formation of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Growing evidence also suggests that the efficiency of DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation is crucially dependent on the levels of oxidative protein damage, including but not limited to DNA repair proteins. Besides DNA lesions, UV-induced oxidative stress can indeed result in carbonylation of proteins, a major form of irreversible protein damage that inactivates their biological function. Interestingly, microorganisms characterized by extreme resistance to UV rays have an intrinsic capacity to protect their proteome, rather than genome, from radiation-induced damage, suggesting that protein carbonylation (PC) may serve as a reliable and innovative biomarker of UV photodamage. This review discusses the main DNA and protein markers of UV-induced damage (eg, CPDs, 8OHdG, and PC) and their relationship and importance to the current understanding of skin carcinogenesis. The identification of key DNA

  2. How to Select Anti-Aging Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  3. The effects of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate on hydration and elasticity of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Eimpunth, Sasima; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2011-01-01

    Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30-45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS) completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P = 0.47). Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P = 0.01). Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P < 0.01, and MPS, P < 0.01). However, no significant

  4. The Effects of Mucopolysaccharide Polysulphate on Hydration and Elasticity of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsima Wanitphakdeedecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS has been used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for over 50 years. Its chemical structure permits considerable hydrogen bonding with adjacent water molecules, which effectively leads to hydration of the surrounding tissue. In addition, it stimulates endogenous hyaluronate synthesis, resulting in an increase in water-binding capacity and viscoelasticity of the skin. Objective. To study the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on hydration and elasticity of human skin. Methods. The first part of this study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study which included 60 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825. The volunteers were treated with either 0.1% MPS or vehicle control. All subjects were asked to apply 1 g of cream to their face twice daily for a total period of 4 weeks. Skin hydration and elasticity were measured at baseline and week 4 with Corneometer CM 825 and cutometer MPA 580, respectively, at forehead and both cheeks. The second part of this study focused on the efficacy of 0.1% MPS on skin hydration after single application. 20 female volunteers aged 30–45 years with dry skin, defined by Corneometer CM 825, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of 0.1% MPS cream on entirely randomly selected forearm. Skin hydration at the middle of both forearms was measured at baseline, immediately after application, and every 1 hour after application for a period of 10 hours. Results. 57 subjects (28 in vehicle control group, 29 in MPS completed treatment protocol. The baseline skin hydration of both groups was not significantly different (P=0.47. Hower, there was a statistically significant difference in skin hydration at 4 weeks between MPS and placebo group (P=0.01. Skin elasticity was significantly improved at week 4 in both groups (vehicle-control, P<0.01, and MPS, P<0.01. However, no

  5. Cloud-based Monte Carlo modelling of BSSRDF for the rendering of human skin appearance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Rushmeier, Holly E.; Meglinski, Igor; Bykov, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo based approach for the modelling of Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF) for accurate rendering of human skin appearance. The variations of both skin tissues structure and the major chromophores are taken into account correspondingly to the different ethnic and age groups. The computational solution utilizes HTML5, accelerated by the graphics processing units (GPUs), and therefore is convenient for the practical use at the most of modern computer-based devices and operating systems. The results of imitation of human skin reflectance spectra, corresponding skin colours and examples of 3D faces rendering are presented and compared with the results of phantom studies.

  6. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the...... microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  7. A methodology for extracting the electrical properties of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology to determine dielectrical properties of human skin is presented and analyzed. In short, it is based on a mathematical model that considers the local transport of charge in the various layers of the skin, which is coupled with impedance measurements of both stripped and intact skin, an automated code generator, and an optimization algorithm. New resistivity and permittivity values for the stratum corneum soaked with physiological saline solution for 1 min and the viable skin beneath are obtained and expressed as easily accessible functions. The methodology can be extended to account for different electrode designs as well as more physical phenomena that are relevant to electrical impedance measurements of skin and their interpretation. (paper)

  8. ELASTIC LIPOSOME: DRUG DELIVERY ACROSS HUMAN SKIN

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhan Harsh; Kumari Annu; Bhaskar Rahul; Jha Vandana

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is hardly an old technology, since 1800’s and the technology is no longer just adhesive patches. Due to recent advances in technology and the ability to apply the drug to the site of action without rupturing the skin membrane, transdermal route is becoming a widely accepted route of drug administration. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chem...

  9. [VISIBLE LIGHT AND HUMAN SKIN (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibadze, A; Chikvaidze, E; Katsitadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Tskhvediani, N; Chikviladze, A

    2015-09-01

    Biological effect of a visible light depends on extend of its property to penetrate into the tissues: the greater is a wavelength the more is an effect of a radiation. An impact of a visible light on the skin is evident by wave and quantum effects. Quanta of a visible radiation carry more energy than infrared radiation, although an influence of such radiation on the skin is produced by the light spectrum on the boarder of the ultraviolet and the infrared rays and is manifested by thermal and chemical effects. It is determined that large doses of a visible light (405-436 nm) can cause skin erythema. At this time, the ratio of generation of free radicals in the skin during an exposure to the ultraviolet and the visible light range from 67-33% respectively. Visible rays of 400-500 nm length of wave cause an increase of the concentration of oxygen's active form and mutation of DNA and proteins in the skin. The urticaria in 4-18% of young people induced by photodermatosis is described. As a result of a direct exposure to sunlight photosensitive eczema is more common in elderly. Special place holds a hereditary disease - porphyria, caused by a visible light. In recent years, dermatologists widely use phototherapy. The method uses polychromatic, non-coherent (wavelength of 515-1200 nm) pulsating beam. During phototherapy/light treatment a patient is being exposed to sunlight or bright artificial light. Sources of visible light are lasers, LEDs and fluorescent lamps which have the full range of a visible light. Phototherapy is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris, seasonal affective disorders, depression, psoriasis, eczema and neurodermities. LED of the red and near infrared range also is characterized by the therapeutic effect. They have an ability to influence cromatophores and enhance ATP synthesis in mitochondria. To speed up the healing of wounds and stimulate hair growth light sources of a weak intensity are used. The light of blue-green spectrum is widely used for

  10. A role for human mitochondrial complex II in the production of reactive oxygen species in human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a major generator of cellular oxidative stress, thought to be an underlying cause of the carcinogenic and ageing process in many tissues including skin. Previous studies of the relative contributions of the respiratory chain (RC complexes I, II and III towards production of reactive oxygen species (ROS have focussed on rat tissues and certainly not on human skin which is surprising as this tissue is regularly exposed to UVA in sunlight, a potent generator of cellular oxidative stress. In a novel approach we have used an array of established specific metabolic inhibitors and DHR123 fluorescence to study the relative roles of the mitochondrial RC complexes in cellular ROS production in 2 types of human skin cells. These include additional enhancement of ROS production by exposure to physiological levels of UVA. The effects within epidermal and dermal derived skin cells are compared to other tissue cell types as well as those harbouring a compromised mitochondrial status (Rho-zero A549. The results show that the complex II inhibitor, TTFA, was the only RC inhibitor to significantly increase UVA-induced ROS production in both skin cell types (P<0.05 suggesting that the role of human skin complex II in terms of influencing ROS production is more important than previously thought particularly in comparison to liver cells. Interestingly, two-fold greater maximal activity of complex II enzyme was observed in both skin cell types compared to liver (P<0.001. The activities of RC enzymes appear to decrease with increasing age and telomere length is correlated with ageing. Our study showed that the level of maximal complex II activity was higher in the MRC5/hTERT (human lung fibroblasts transfected with telomerase cells than the corresponding wild type cells (P=0.0012 which can be considered (in terms of telomerase activity as models of younger and older cells respectively.

  11. Friction of Human Skin against Different Fabrics for Medical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Vilhena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tribology of human skin is essential to improve and optimize surfaces and materials in contact with the skin. Besides that, friction between the human skin and textiles is a critical factor in the formation of skin injuries, which are caused if the loads and shear forces are high enough and/or over long periods of time. This factor is of particular importance in bedridden patients, since they are not moving about or are confined to wheelchairs. Decubitus ulcers are one of the most frequently-reported iatrogenic injuries in developed countries. The risk of developing decubitus ulcers can be predicted by using the “Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk” that was developed in 1987 and contains six areas of risk (cognitive-perceptual, immobility, inactivity, moisture, nutrition, friction/shear, although there are limitations to the use of such tools. The coefficient of friction of textiles against skin is mainly influenced by: the nature of the textile, skin moisture content and ambient humidity. This study will investigate how skin friction (different anatomical regions varies, rubbing against different types of contacting materials (i.e., fabrics for medical use under different contact conditions and their relationship in the formation and prevention of decubitus ulcers.

  12. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of human skin and hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, A.; Riemann, I.; Anhut, T.; Kaatz, M.; Elsner, P.; König, K.

    2006-02-01

    Multiphoton imaging has developed into an important technique for in-vivo research in life sciences. With the laser System DermaInspect (JenLab, Germany) laser radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser is used to generate multiphotonabsorption deep in the human skin in vivo. The resulting autofluorescence radiation arises from endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, flavines, collagen, elastin, porphyrins und melanin. Second harmonic generation (SHG) was used to detect collagen structures in the dermal layer. Femtosecond laser multiphoton imaging offers the possibility of high resolution optical tomography of human skin as well as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with picosecond time resolution. In this work a photon detector with ultrashort rise time of less than 30ps was applied to FLIM measurements of human skin and hair with different pigmentation. Fluorescence lifetime images of different human hair types will be discussed.

  13. Expression of human solute carrier family transporters in skin: possible contributor to drug-induced skin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoichi Fujiwara; Saya Takenaka; Mitsuhiro Hashimoto; Tomoya Narawa; Tomoo Itoh

    2014-01-01

    Solute carrier (SLC) transporters play important roles in absorption and disposition of drugs in cells; however, the expression pattern of human SLC transporters in the skin has not been determined. In the present study, the expression patterns of 28 human SLC transporters were determined in the human skin. Most of the SLC transporter family members were either highly or moderately expressed in the liver, while their expression was limited in the skin and small intestine. Treatment of human k...

  14. Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Biniek, Krysta; Levi, Kemal; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for vitamin D production but also leads to skin photoaging, damage, and malignancies. Photoaging and skin cancer have been extensively studied, but the effects of UV on the critical mechanical barrier function of the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), are not understood. The SC is the first line of defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets with...

  15. Effects of Dimethylaminoethanol and Compound Amino Acid on D-Galactose Induced Skin Aging Model of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Su Liu; Zhenyu Chen; Xia Cai; Ying Sun; Cailing Zhao; Fangjun Liu; Dalie Liu

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement...

  16. Reflectance spectrometry of normal and bruised human skins: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stochastic photon transport model in multilayer skin tissue combined with reflectance spectroscopy measurements is used to study normal and bruised skins. The model is shown to provide a very good approximation to both normal and bruised real skin tissues by comparing experimental and simulated reflectance spectra. The sensitivity analysis of the skin reflectance spectrum to variations of skin layer thicknesses, blood oxygenation parameter and concentrations of main chromophores is performed to optimize model parameters. The reflectance spectrum of a developed bruise in a healthy adult is simulated, and the concentrations of bilirubin, blood volume fraction and blood oxygenation parameter are determined for different times as the bruise progresses. It is shown that bilirubin and blood volume fraction reach their peak values at 80 and 55 h after contusion, respectively, and the oxygenation parameter is lower than its normal value during 80 h after contusion occurred. The obtained time correlations of chromophore concentrations in developing contusions are shown to be consistent with previous studies. The developed model uses a detailed seven-layer skin approximation for contusion and allows one to obtain more biologically relevant results than those obtained with previous models using one- to three-layer skin approximations. A combination of modeling with spectroscopy measurements provides a new tool for detailed biomedical studies of human skin tissue and for age determination of contusions. (paper)

  17. Novel approach to assess the emissivity of the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J; Calixto-Carrera, Sergio; Villaseñor-Mora, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    To study the radiation emitted by the human skin, the emissivity of its surface must be known. We present a new approach to measure the emissivity of the human skin in vivo. Our method is based on the calculation of the difference of two infrared images: one acquired before projecting a CO(2) laser beam on the surface of the skin and the other after such projection. The difference image contains the radiation reflected by the skin, which is used to calculate the emissivity, making use of Kirchhoff's law and the Helmholtz reciprocity relation. With our method, noncontact measurements are achieved, and the determination of the skin temperature is not needed, which has been an inconvenience for other methods. We show that it is possible to make determinations of the emissivity at specific wavelengths. Last, our results confirm that the human skin obeys Lambert's law of diffuse reflection and that it behaves almost like a blackbody at a wavelength of 10.6 microm. PMID:19405736

  18. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  19. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Olivia; Qualls, Clifford; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Balaban, Dahlia Y; Fisher, Joe A; Duffin, Jim; Appenzeller, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen) or skin normoxia (with air). The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor. PMID:23056597

  20. Content of Androgen Receptor in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblast From Different Ages of Chinese Normal Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建; 何立敏; 张金山; 杨震; 周云

    1995-01-01

    A ratpid, simple, reliable method is described for assaying androgen receptor (AR) in dispersed, whole, cultured human genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) with a synthetic androgen, 3H-methyltrienolone (3H-R1881). Receptors for androgen in GSF exhiblt high affinity (Kd=3.0±0.1 nmol/L), low binding capacity and androgen specificity. The content of AR in cultured GSF from 40 normal men varying in age from 1.5—60 years u:as also investigated by this assay. Scatchard analysis and slngle plot revealed the presence of 4.500-8500 binding sites per cell, mean number of AR in GSF of these men is 6288±1082 binding sites/cell. No significant difference was observed in the content of AR in different age groups. This result showed that the content of AR in these ceils did not change with age.

  1. Human skin permeation of emerging mycotoxins (beauvericin and enniatins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Veryser, Lieselotte; Roche, Nathalie; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; Delesalle, Catherine; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-05-01

    Currently, dermal exposure data of cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins are completely absent. There is a lack of understanding about the local skin and systemic kinetics and effects, despite their widespread skin contact and intrinsic hazard. Therefore, we provide a quantitative characterisation of their dermal kinetics. The emerging mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) and beauvericin (BEA) were used as model compounds and their transdermal kinetics were quantitatively evaluated, using intact and damaged human skin in an in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-MS analytics. We demonstrated that all investigated mycotoxins are able to penetrate through the skin. ENN B showed the highest permeation (kp,v=9.44 × 10(-6) cm/h), whereas BEA showed the lowest (kp,v=2.35 × 10(-6) cm/h) and the other ENNs ranging in between. Combining these values with experimentally determined solubility data, Jmax values ranging from 0.02 to 0.35 μg/(cm(2) h) for intact skin and from 0.07 to 1.11 μg/(cm(2) h) for damaged skin were obtained. These were used to determine the daily dermal exposure (DDE) in a worst-case scenario. On the other hand, DDE's for a typical occupational scenario were calculated based on real-life mycotoxin concentrations for the industrial exposure of food-related workers. In the latter case, for contact with intact human skin, DDE's up to 0.0870 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN A were calculated, whereas for impaired skin barrier this can even rise up to 0.3209 ng/(kg BW × day) for ENN B1. This knowledge is needed for the risk assessment after skin exposure of contaminated food, feed, indoor surfaces and airborne particles with mycotoxins. PMID:25757886

  2. ELASTIC LIPOSOME: DRUG DELIVERY ACROSS HUMAN SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardhan Harsh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery is hardly an old technology, since 1800’s and the technology is no longer just adhesive patches. Due to recent advances in technology and the ability to apply the drug to the site of action without rupturing the skin membrane, transdermal route is becoming a widely accepted route of drug administration. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, micro needles, and vesicular system. Among these strategies elastic liposomes appear promising. Elastic liposomes possess an infrastructure consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties together and as a result can accommodate drug molecules with wide range of solubility. It is an ultra deformable vesicle, elastic in nature which can squeeze itself through a pore which is many times smaller than its size owing to its elasticity. They can deform and pass through narrow constriction (from 5 to 10 times less than their own diameter without measurable loss. This high deformability gives better penetration of intact vesicles. This system is much more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. The article speaks specifically on various phenomenon associated with the properties of these vesicles and their transport mechanisms. It also throws light on the effectiveness of conventional and deformable vesicles as drug delivery systems as well as their possible mode of action as transdermal drug carriers.

  3. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, τ). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  4. Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2005-04-01

    Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.

  5. Composition of human skin microbiota affects attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels O Verhulst

    Full Text Available The African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto continues to play an important role in malaria transmission, which is aggravated by its high degree of anthropophily, making it among the foremost vectors of this disease. In the current study we set out to unravel the strong association between this mosquito species and human beings, as it is determined by odorant cues derived from the human skin. Microbial communities on the skin play key roles in the production of human body odour. We demonstrate that the composition of the skin microbiota affects the degree of attractiveness of human beings to this mosquito species. Bacterial plate counts and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that individuals that are highly attractive to An. gambiae s.s. have a significantly higher abundance, but lower diversity of bacteria on their skin than individuals that are poorly attractive. Bacterial genera that are correlated with the relative degree of attractiveness to mosquitoes were identified. The discovery of the connection between skin microbial populations and attractiveness to mosquitoes may lead to the development of new mosquito attractants and personalized methods for protection against vectors of malaria and other infectious diseases.

  6. Polysaccharide Extracted from Laminaria japonica Delays Intrinsic Skin Aging in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longyuan; Tan, Jia; Yang, Xiaomei; Tan, Haitao; Xu, Xiaozhen; You, Manhang; Qin, Wu; Huang, Liangzhao; Li, Siqi; Mo, Manqiu; Wei, Huifen; Li, Jing; Tan, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of topically applied Laminaria polysaccharide (LP) on skin aging. We applied ointment containing LP (10, 25, and 50 μg/g) or vitamin E (10 μg/g) to the dorsal skin of aging mice for 12 months and young control mice for 4 weeks. Electron microscopy analysis of skin samples revealed that LP increased dermal thickness and skin collagen content. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease- (TIMP-) 1 expression was upregulated while that of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 1 was downregulated in skin tissue of LP-treated as compared to untreated aging mice. Additionally, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 was higher in aging skin than in young skin, while LP treatment suppressed phospho-JNK expression. LP application also enhanced the expression of antioxidative enzymes in skin tissue, causing a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels relative to those in untreated aging mice. These results indicate that LP inhibits MMP-1 expression by preventing oxidative stress and JNK phosphorylation, thereby delaying skin collagen breakdown during aging. PMID:27143987

  7. In vitro model for decontamination of human skin: formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Barbadillo, S; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2007-04-01

    Decontamination of a chemical from skin is often an emergency measure. This study utilized an in vitro model to compare the decontamination capacity of three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline). Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 0.25 microg on 3 cm(2) per skin) with radio-labeled [(14)C]-formaldehyde. After a defined exposure time (1, 3, and 30 min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped with tape discs twice. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amounts of formaldehyde. Additionally, an evaporation test at different exposure times (1min, 3min, 15min, 30min, and 60min, respectively) was conducted to monitor formaldehyde % evaporation. There were no statistical differences among these groups except isotonic saline, at 3min post-exposure (in wash solutions), showed a significantly difference (pisotonic saline may be effective in removing formaldehyde from skin. However, results from this model need validation in vivo. The model may provide a facile and robust method of accelerating knowledge of decontamination mechanism and lead to enhanced efficacy. PMID:17123683

  8. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  9. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  11. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinote, I. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Fleming, R. [Imunohaemotherapy Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Filipe, P. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J.N. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Verissimo, A. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Napoleao, P. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.pt

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  12. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy

  13. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  14. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chain length of [3H]hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of [3H]glucosamine was investigated. [3H]Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts

  15. Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bzhalava, Davit; Mühr, Laila Sara Arroyo; Lagheden, Camilla; Ekström, Johanna; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most viruses in human skin are known to be human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Previous sequencing of skin samples has identified 273 different cutaneous HPV types, including 47 previously unknown types. In the present study, we wished to extend prior studies using deeper sequencing. This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses. The complete sequence was obtained for one...

  16. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on human skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of the human body. In the cases of extensive wounds, allograft skin provides an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol (above 85%), the skin can be stored in the Skin Banks. The glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduces the quarantine period for transplantation in patients and its safety is considered excellent. The objectives of this work were to establish procedures using two sources of ionizing radiation for sterilization of human skin allograft, and to evaluate the skin after gamma and electron beam irradiation. The analysis of stress-strain intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Skin samples were submitted to doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy in an irradiator of 60Co and in an electron beam accelerator. Morphology and ultra-structure studies were also accomplished. The samples irradiated with a dose of 25 kGy seemed to maintain the bio mechanic characteristics. The gamma irradiated samples with a dose of 50 kGy and submitted to an electron beam at doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy presented significant differences in the values of the elasticity modulus, in relation to the control. The analysis of the ultramicrographies revealed modifications in the structure and alterations in the pattern of collagen fibrils periodicity of the irradiated samples. (author)

  17. Age-Associated Skin Conditions and Diseases: Current Perspectives and Future Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan; Sterry, Wolfram; Hodin, Michael W; Griffiths, Tamara W; Watson, Rachel E B; Hay, Roderick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2016-04-01

    The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS), a global, not-for-profit organization representing 157 dermatological societies worldwide, has identified the consequences of skin aging as one of the most important grand challenges in global skin health. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation, wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. Environmental (e.g., pollution) and lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, sunbed use) negatively affect skin health. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging. Preventive skin care includes primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Continuous sun protection from early childhood onward is most important, to avoid extrinsic skin damage and skin cancer. Exposure to irritants, allergens, or other molecules damaging the skin must be avoided or reduced to a minimum. Public health approaches are needed to implement preventive and basic skin care worldwide to reach high numbers of dermatological patients and care receivers. Education of primary caregivers and implementation of community dermatology are successful strategies in resource-poor countries. Besides specialist physicians, nurses and other health care professionals play important roles in preventing and managing age-related skin conditions in developing as well as in developed countries. Healthy skin across the life course leads to better mental and emotional health, positive impact on social engagement, and healthier, more active, and productive lives. PMID:26994263

  18. The Age Factor in the Cosmetic Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cartigliani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed on the face of a female population aged between 18 and 70 years of age. Values were subdivided in age groups for each considered parameter and were statistically compared. As expected, skin roughness increased and R2 elasticity parameter decreased with ageing, while hydration values resulted to be higher in older women. Apparently, this unaccountable result is probably due to the fact that elderly women living in urban areas tend to take appropriate care of their skin, thus improving skin hydration effectively. Interestingly, as for skin hydration, the analysis showed that women aged 61–70 were the most susceptible to improvement induced by several types of cosmetic treatments. However, when considering the skin roughness values, women over 50 years old seemed to react better to cosmetic treatment. As for skin elasticity, the highest improvement values were found with women between 31 and 50 years of age.

  19. Skin Delivery of Kojic Acid-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gonçalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs, can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W, cetostearyl isononanoate (oil—O and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W, B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W, to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery.

  20. Skin delivery of kojic acid-loaded nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, M L; Corrêa, M A; Chorilli, M

    2013-01-01

    The aging process causes a number of changes in the skin, including oxidative stress and dyschromia. The kojic acid (KA) is iron chelator employed in treatment of skin aging, and inhibits tyrosinase, promotes depigmentation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems (LCSs), can modulate drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug activity. This study is aimed at structurally developing and characterizing a kojic acid-loaded LCS, consists of water (W), cetostearyl isononanoate (oil-O) and PPG-5-CETETH-20 (surfactant-S) and evaluating its in vitro skin permeation and retention. Three regions of the diagram were selected for characterization: A (35% O, 50% S, 15% W), B (30% O, 50% S, 20% W) and C (20% O, 50% S, 30% W), to which 2% KA was added. The formulations were subjected to polarized light microscopy, which indicated the presence of a hexagonal mesophase. Texture and bioadhesion assay showed that formulation B is suitable for topical application. According to the results from the in vitro permeation and retention of KA, the formulations developed can modulate the permeation of KA in the skin. The in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that KA-unloaded LCS and KA-loaded LCS didn't present cytotoxicity. PPG-5-CETETH-20-based systems may be a promising platform for KA skin delivery. PMID:24369010

  1. Topographic diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H; Segre, Julia A

    2013-06-20

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the microbial landscape of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases, including athlete's foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms and provides a home for diverse commensal microbiota. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also have major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with those that are available for bacteria. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes. Here we sequenced and analysed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core-body and arm sites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia, with only species-level classifications revealing fungal-community composition differences between sites. By contrast, three foot sites--plantar heel, toenail and toe web--showed high fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that physiologic attributes and topography of skin differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of the contribution of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities to the maintainenace of human health and to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

  2. Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation

  3. Ectodysplasin A Pathway Contributes to Human and Murine Skin Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Clare L; Huttner, Kenneth M; Kirby, Neil; Schneider, Pascal; Hardman, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The highly conserved ectodysplasin A (EDA)/EDA receptor signaling pathway is critical during development for the formation of skin appendages. Mutations in genes encoding components of the EDA pathway disrupt normal appendage development, leading to the human disorder hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Spontaneous mutations in the murine Eda (Tabby) phenocopy human X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Little is known about the role of EDA signaling in adult skin homeostasis or repair. Because wound healing largely mimics the morphogenic events that occur during development, we propose a role for EDA signaling in adult wound repair. Here we report a pronounced delay in healing in Tabby mice, demonstrating a functional role for EDA signaling in adult skin. Moreover, pharmacological activation of the EDA pathway in both Tabby and wild-type mice significantly accelerates healing, influencing multiple processes including re-epithelialization and granulation tissue matrix deposition. Finally, we show that the healing promoting effects of EDA receptor activation are conserved in human skin repair. Thus, targeted manipulation of the EDA/EDA receptor pathway has clear therapeutic potential for the future treatment of human pathological wound healing. PMID:26829034

  4. Cellular mechanisms of skin repair in humans and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittié, Laure

    2016-06-01

    The increased incidence of non-healing skin wounds in developed societies has prompted tremendous research efforts on the complex process known as "wound healing". Unfortunately, the weak relevance of modern wound healing research to human health continues to be a matter of concern. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the cellular mechanisms that mediate wound closure in the skin of humans and laboratory animals. The author highlights the anatomical singularities of human skin vs. the skin of other mammals commonly used for wound healing research (i.e. as mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs), and discusses the roles of stem cells, myofibroblasts, and the matrix environment in the repair process. The majority of this review focuses on reepithelialization and wound closure. Other aspects of wound healing (e.g. inflammation, fibrous healing) are referred to when relevant to the main topic. This review aims at providing the reader with a clear understanding of the similarities and differences that have been reported over the past 100 years between the healing of human wounds and that of other mammals. PMID:27170326

  5. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  6. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  7. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt. PMID:27545210

  8. Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Neyret, Aymeric; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Choumet, Valérie; Briant, Laurence; Desprès, Philippe; Amara, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells ar...

  9. Human Skin Hypoxia Modulates Cerebrovascular and Autonomic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Pucci; Clifford Qualls; Anne Battisti-Charbonney; Balaban, Dahlia Y.; Fisher, Joe A.; Jim Duffin; Otto Appenzeller

    2012-01-01

    Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the exp...

  10. Efficacy of Microneedling Plus Human Stem Cell Conditioned Medium for Skin Rejuvenation: A Randomized, Controlled, Blinded Split-Face Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Eo Gin; Kang, Sangjin; Sung, Jong-Hyuk; Chung, Hyung-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of growth factors in skin rejuvenation is emerging as a novel anti-aging treatment. While the role of growth factors in wound healing is well established, their use in skin rejuvenation has only recently been to be studied and no controlled trials have been performed. Objective We evaluated the anti-aging effects of secretory factors of endothelial precursor cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-EPC) in Asian skin. Methods A total of 25 women were inclu...

  11. Radio-sterilization and processing of frozen human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory of Radio-sterilized Biological Tissues Processing (LPTR) belonging to the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency have played a paramount role in our country, concerning the biological tissue processing, which can be radio-sterilized as human skin, pig skin, amniotic membrane, human bone and bovine bone. The frozen radio.-sterilized human skin processing began in 2001, by means of putting into practice the knowledge acquired in training courses through the IAEA and the experience transferred by experts who visited our laboratory. The human skin processing of dead donor can be divided into 6 stages: a) Profuse washing with physiological sterilized serum in to remove the microorganisms, chemical and pharmacological compounds; b) immersion in glycerol solution at 10% to better keep the stored tissues; c) packing, to avoid post manipulation of the sterilized tissue; d) microbiological controls which allow and guarantee a sterility assurance level of 106; e) radio-sterilization, technique that consists of exposing the grafts to electromagnetic gamma waves which eliminate the microorganisms of the tissue, f) and finally, dispatching and liberation of the frozen sterilized human skin for its clinical use in different centers that take care of burned people. The LPTR receives feedback from surgeons who have used these tissues in order to improve the processing stages based in an integral quality system ISO 9001.2000. The State Health System in our country counts on limited and scarce resources to implement synthetic substitutes that is why It is considered necessary to spread the use of these noble tissues which have sterility assurance and they are processed at low price

  12. The Skin Deformation of a 3D Virtual Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Zhou; Zheng-Xu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a skin deformation algorithm for creating 3D characters or virtual human models. The algorithm can be applied to rigid deformation, joint dependent localized deformation, skeleton driven deformation, cross contour deformation, and free-form deformation (FFD). These deformations are computed and demonstrated with examples and the algorithm is applied to overcome the difficulties in mechanically simulating the motion of the human body by club-shape models. The techniques described in this article enables the reconstruction of dynamic human models that can be used in defining and representing the geometrical and kinematical characteristics of human motion.

  13. Rupture of Human Skin Membrane under Impact of Parabolodial Projectile: Bullet wound Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mukhtar Ali

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the effect of the impact of a paraboloidal projectile on human shin membrane. The tip of the projectile (i.e., the bullet tip has been considered to be paraboloidal and is made of lead or steel. The threshold velocity i.e., the velocity when the skin membrane is about to rupture has been calculated for human beings of various age groups. The threshold velocity for a paraboloidal projectile of certain dimensions has been found, for all age groups, to be less than that of a spherical projectile under similar conditions.

  14. Rupture of Human Skin Membrane under Impact of Parabolodial Projectile: Bullet wound Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mukhtar Ali; Vijay Paul Singh; GH. Nabi Parrey

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to study the effect of the impact of a paraboloidal projectile on human shin membrane. The tip of the projectile (i.e., the bullet tip) has been considered to be paraboloidal and is made of lead or steel. The threshold velocity i.e., the velocity when the skin membrane is about to rupture has been calculated for human beings of various age groups. The threshold velocity for a paraboloidal projectile of certain dimensions has been found, for all age groups, to be les...

  15. Vascular effects of leukotriene D4 in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1987-01-01

    Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) increased the blood flow rate in human skin, equipotent to histamine in the dose range of 3.1-200 pmol. The vasodilatation lasted for up to 60 min, and no late reactions occurred. Indomethacin did not affect the LTD4-induced blood flow rate. H1 and H2 antagonists reduced the...... as a mediator of the axon reflex, and show that LTD4 causes a direct vasodilatory effect that is not mediated via histamine or cyclooxygenase products. The laser-Doppler flowmeter was applied for dynamic studies of the vasopressor response in the skin during a Valsalva maneuver, and the relative...

  16. Raman spectroscopy of Chinese human skin in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzeng Li; Rong Chen; Haishan Zeng; Zhiwei Huang; Shangyuan Feng; Shusen Xie

    2007-01-01

    A novel and compact near-infrared (NIR) Raman system is developed using 785-nm diode laser, volumephase technology (VPT) holographic system, and NIR intensified charge-coupled device (CCD). Signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and resolution are improved compared with ordinary acquisition method by a specially designed optical fiber detector and the spectrograph image aberration correction with a parabolic-line fiber array. In 1-5 s, Raman spectra of different parts of Chinese human skin are acquired. Autofluorescence is subtracted from the raw spectrum by polynomial fitting and skin Raman spectrum is then smoothed for further analysis.

  17. The effect of nedocromil on weal reactions in human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, F; Shuster, S

    1987-01-01

    1. Nedocromil 2% iontophoresed into human skin had no effect on wealing produced by intradermal histamine, 48/80 or house dust mite antigen. 2. Iontophoresis of 0.002-2% nedocromil itself resulted in dose-related wealing. 3. This wealing was reduced by 62 +/- 8% s.e. mean by the H1-receptor antagonist terfenadine which decreased histamine wealing by 68 +/- 2% s.e. mean. 4. Nedocromil may therefore act as a weak agonist on a skin mast cell receptor concerned with histamine release.

  18. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-you

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary...

  19. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  20. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

  1. Studies of the in vivo radiosensitivity of human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To examine the radiosensitivity of skin cells obtained directly from the irradiated skin of patients undergoing fractionated radiation treatment prior to surgery for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to determine if there was a relationship with the development of wound healing complications associated with the surgery post-radiotherapy. Methods: Micronucleus (MN) formation was measured in cells (primarily dermal fibroblasts) obtained from human skin at their first division after being removed from STS patients during post-radiotherapy surgery (2-9 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy). At the time of radiotherapy (planned tumor dose - 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions) measurements were made of surface skin dose at predetermined marked sites. Skin from these sites was obtained at surgery and cell suspensions were prepared directly for the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. Cultured strains of the fibroblasts were also established from skin nominally outside the edge of the radiation beam and DNA damage (MN formation) was examined following irradiation in vitro for comparison with the results from the in situ irradiations. Results: Extensive DNA damage (MN) was detectable in fibroblasts from human skin at extended periods after irradiation (2-9 weeks after the end of the 5-week fractionated radiotherapy). Analysis of skin receiving a range of doses demonstrated that the level of damage observed was dose dependent. There was no clear correlation between the level of damage observed after irradiation in situ and irradiation of cell strains in culture. Similarly, there was no correlation between the extent of MN formation following in situ irradiation and the propensity for the patient to develop wound healing complications post-surgery. Conclusions: Despite the presence of DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts weeks after the end of the radiation treatment, there was no relationship between this damage and wound healing complications following

  2. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro- a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Claudia; Brenner, Christiane; Habicht, Jüri; Wallich, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The promise of mesotherapy is maintenance and/or recovery of a youthful skin with a firm, bright and moisturized texture. Currently applied medications employ microinjections of hyaluronic acid, vitamins, minerals and amino acids into the superficial layer of the skin. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying mesotherapy are still elusive. Here we analysed the effect of five distinct medication formulas on pivotal parameters involved in skin ageing, that is collagen expression, cell proliferation and morphological changes using normal human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Whereas in the presence of hyaluronic acid, NCTF135(®) and NCTF135HA(®) , cell proliferation was comparable to control cultures; however, with higher expression of collagen type-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, addition of Soluvit(®) N and Meso-BK led to apoptosis and/or necrosis of human fibroblasts. The data indicate that bioactive reagents currently applied for skin rejuvenation elicit strikingly divergent physiological processes in human skin fibroblast in vitro. PMID:22151394

  3. Near infrared laser penetration and absorption in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasouri, Babak; Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoglu, Halil

    2014-02-01

    For understanding the mechanisms of low level laser/light therapy (LLLT), accurate knowledge of light interaction with tissue is necessary. In this paper, we present a three dimensional, multi-layer Monte Carlo simulation tool for studying light penetration and absorption in human skin. The skin is modeled as a three-layer participating medium, namely epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous, where its geometrical and optical properties are obtained from the literature. Both refraction and reflection are taken into account at the boundaries according to Snell's law and Fresnel relations. A forward Monte Carlo method was implemented and validated for accurately simulating light penetration and absorption in absorbing and anisotropically scattering media. Local profiles of light penetration and volumetric absorption densities were simulated for uniform as well as Gaussian profile beams with different spreads at 155 mW average power over the spectral range from 1000 nm to 1900 nm. The results show the effects of beam profiles and wavelength on the local fluence within each skin layer. Particularly, the results identify different wavelength bands for targeted deposition of power in different skin layers. Finally, we show that light penetration scales well with the transport optical thickness of skin. We expect that this tool along with the results presented will aid researchers resolve issues related to dose and targeted delivery of energy in tissues for LLLT.

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy for endogenous porphyrins in human facial skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, I.; Tseng, S. H.; Cula, G. O.; Bargo, P. R.; Kollias, N.

    2009-02-01

    The activity of certain bacteria in skin is known to correlate to the presence of porphyrins. In particular the presence of coproporphyrin produced by P.acnes inside plugged pores has been correlated to acne vulgaris. Another porphyrin encountered in skin is protoporphyrin IX, which is produced by the body in the pathway for production of heme. In the present work, a fluorescence spectroscopy system was developed to measure the characteristic spectrum and quantify the two types of porphyrins commonly present in human facial skin. The system is comprised of a Xe lamp both for fluorescence excitation and broadband light source for diffuse reflectance measurements. A computer-controlled filter wheel enables acquisition of sequential spectra, first excited by blue light at 405 nm then followed by the broadband light source, at the same location. The diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to correct the fluorescence spectrum due to the presence of skin chromophores, such as blood and melanin. The resulting fluorescence spectra were employed for the quantification of porphyrin concentration in a population of healthy subjects. The results show great variability on the concentration of these porphyrins and further studies are being conducted to correlate them with skin conditions such as inflammation and acne vulgaris.

  5. Protective Action of Resveratrol in Human Skin: Possible Involvement of Specific Receptor Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Bastianetto; Yvan Dumont; Albert Duranton; Freya Vercauteren; Lionel Breton; Rémi Quirion

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol with purported protecting action on various disorders associated with aging. It has been suggested that resveratrol could exert its protective action by acting on specific plasma membrane polyphenol binding sites (Han Y.S., et al. (2006) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318:238-245). The purpose of this study was to investigate, in human skin, the possible existence of specific binding sites that mediate the protective action of resveratrol. METHODS A...

  6. EFFECT OF AGE ON THE BIOMECHANICAL AND MICROCIRCULATORY PROPERTIES OF THE SKIN IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS AND DURING VENOUS ULCERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mattar, Essam H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: With aging there is alteration of elastic properties of the skin and skin-blood flow. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare age-related changes in selected biomechanical parameters of the skin (skin hardness, skin extensibility, relaxation time constant, τ) and subcutaneous microcirculatory quality (SMQ) in individuals with and without venous diseases. Materials and Methods: Two groups were studied: the first group was of asymptomatic healthy individuals and the second gro...

  7. Noncontacting diffuse VIS-NIR spectroscopy of human skin for evaluation of skin type and time-dependent microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wolf-Dieter; Fassler, Dieter; Zimmermann, Gabi; Liebold, Kristin; Wollina, Uwe

    2000-11-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of the VIS-NIR range allow the objective determination of pigmentation, blood microcirculation and water content of human skin. Non- contacting in vivo measurements of the human skin of 50 volunteers reflect the clinical skin type well. Our correlation analysis yields that the red/infrared spectral range can be used for a determination of skin type. The observed strong spectral variations within the same group of skin type are likely based on the high biological variability of human skin and subjective clinically observed skin type. Therefore it can be useful to measure the full spectral range and to calculate a non-observed skin score with multivariate spectral methods. By multivariate analysis a correct classification of remittance spectra can be obtained. Time- depending spectral variations of dermal microcirculation can be measured at defined locations of the body, for instance the dynamics of oxygenation or blood volume in the skin of the fingertip. The cardial, pulmonal and vasomotoric waves of the micro- and macrocirculation are clearly visible at different wavelengths. The spectroscopic informations are important as an objective measure for the skin type evaluation, the penetration behavior of pharmaca, laser surgery, and therapy.

  8. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lídia Palma,1 Liliana Tavares Marques,1 Julia Bujan,2,3 Luís Monteiro Rodrigues1,4 1CBIOS – Research Center for Health Science and Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; 2Department of Medicine and Medical Specialities, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3CIBER-BBN, Madrid, España, Spain; 4Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract: It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38, and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11. Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0, 15 (T1, and 30 (T2 in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg. This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. Keywords: dietary water, water consume, skin hydration, TEWL, skin biomechanics

  9. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized i...

  10. Effects of dimethylaminoethanol and compound amino acid on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Chen, Zhenyu; Cai, Xia; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Cailing; Liu, Fangjun; Liu, Dalie

    2014-01-01

    A lasting dream of human beings is to reverse or postpone aging. In this study, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and compound amino acid (AA) in Mesotherapy were investigated for their potential antiaging effects on D-galactose induced aging skin. At 18 days after D-gal induction, each rat was treated with intradermal microinjection of saline, AA, 0.1% DMAE, 0.2% DMAE, 0.1% DMAE + AA, or 0.2% DMAE + AA, respectively. At 42 days after treatment, the skin wound was harvested and assayed. Measurement of epidermal and dermal thickness in 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups appeared significantly thicker than aging control rats. No differences were found in tissue water content among groups. Hydroxyproline in 0.1% DMAE + AA, 0.2% DMAE + AA, and sham control groups was much higher than all other groups. Collagen type I, type III, and MMP-1 expression was highly upregulated in both 0.1% DMAE + AA and 0.2% DMAE + AA groups compared with aging control. In contrast, TIMP-1 expression levels of various aging groups were significantly reduced when compared to sham control. Coinjection of DMAE and AA into target tissue has marked antiaging effects on D-galactose induced skin aging model of rat. PMID:25133239

  11. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Takagaki, K.; Kubo, K.; Morikawa, A.; Tamura, S.; Endo, M. (Hirosaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-10-15

    The chain length of ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine was investigated. ({sup 3}H)Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

  12. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J [Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Gonchukov, S A [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation); Koenig, K [JenLab GmbH, Schillerstr. 1, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  13. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  14. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I, dihydrotanshinone (DHT, tanshinone IIA (T-II-A and cryptotanshinone (CT] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1 with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm2 UVB; 1.53 J/cm2 UVA. The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities was significantly attenuated in DHT

  15. Cell-to-cell communication within intact human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, D.; Saurat, J. H.; Meda, P.

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized cell-to-cell communication (coupling) within intact human skin by microinjecting single keratinocytes with a gap junction-permeant tracer (Lucifer Yellow). 25-50 keratinocytes from different layers of the epidermis were seen to be coupled after most injections (n = 31). A few noncommunicating cells were also microinjected (n = 3) or observed within large territories of coupled keratinocytes. Microinjections of dermal fibroblasts demonstrated an extensive coupling (greate...

  16. Studies on nerve terminations in human mucosa and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliges, Marita

    1997-01-01

    - In spite of their accessibility and important sensory function,the nervous tissue components of human oral and vaginal mucosa and skin have beensubject to very few, if any, systematic investigations. Studies on the innervationof oral tissues have mainly focused on the dental pulp, the periodontium and thegingiva, probably because of specific clinical interest, thus largely neglectingthe mucosa. Genital studies comprise only in a few cases the vagina and when thevagina is i...

  17. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugard, P H; M. Walker; Mawdsley, S J; Scott, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous "receptor" phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by...

  18. Forehead versus forearm skin vascular responses at presyncope in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Daniel; Matthew Brothers, R.; Ganio, Matthew S; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2014-01-01

    Facial pallor is commonly observed at presyncope in humans, suggestive of reductions in facial skin blood flow (SkBF). Yet, cutaneous vasoconstriction is usually minimal at presyncope when measured at the forearm. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in forehead SkBF at presyncope are greater than in the forearm. Forehead and forearm SkBF (laser-Doppler) and blood pressure (Finometer or radial artery catheterization) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope i...

  19. Gut bacteria producing phenols disturb keratinocyte differentiation in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, Ryoka; Kawakami, Koji; Chiba, Katsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our previous study suggested that phenols (phenol and p-cresol) produced by gut bacteria affect the skin in hairless mice. In the present study we aimed to determine if the same phenomenon is applicable to humans. Methods: First, we analyzed the correlation between serum phenol levels and corneocyte size in 50 healthy female volunteers. Second, we administered a prebiotic beverage (containing galacto-oligosaccharides and polydextrose) to 19 healthy female volunteers and examined th...

  20. The effects of human skin fibroblast monolayers on human sperm motility and mouse zygote development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, A M; Punt-Van der Zalm, A P; Bastiaans, B A; Janssen, B A; Goverde, H J; Rolland, R

    1992-07-01

    A new system for co-culture in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF), using human skin fibroblasts, is described and tested pre-clinically. The first test involved the development of 1-cell mouse embryos which exhibit the 2-cell developmental block in vitro. Passage through this block (pb1-ratio) was determined by the ratio of compacted morula stages on day 4 of incubation. For nine human skin cell lines tested (fetal, neonatal and adult), the pb1-ratio was approximately 0.45 (0.07 in culture medium alone; P less than 0.0005). At the compacted morula stage, a second developmental block was observed. The ratio of passing this block (pb2-ratio) was 0.70 +/- 0.09 on skin fibroblasts obtained from fetal or neonatal tissue. On fibroblasts from adult patients the pb2-ratio was 0.30 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.0005). The second test examined the influence of skin fibroblasts from fetal or neonatal tissue on human sperm motility. After 24 h of incubation, all skin cell lines had a positive influence (P less than 0.01) on the percentage motility compared to culture medium alone. The curvilinear velocity was not significantly increased. From the results we conclude that (i) human skin fibroblasts (especially from fetal tissue) have a positive influence on the development of mouse embryos in vitro, (ii) there is a positive influence of human skin fibroblasts on the percentage motility of human spermatozoa, and (iii) a clinical trial of co-culture with human skin fibroblasts can be justified. PMID:1500485

  1. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those. PMID:25555260

  2. Dynamic viscoelastic models of human skin using optical elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel technique for measuring in vivo human skin viscoelastic properties using optical elastography has been developed. The technique uses geometrically focused surface (GFS) waves that allow for wide bandwidth measurements of the wave field. An analytical solution for the case of a radiating annular disk surface source was fit to experimentally measured GFS waves, enabling an estimate of the frequency-dependent surface wavenumber, which can then be related to the dynamic shear modulus. Several viscoelastic models were then fit to the dynamic shear modulus dispersion curve. Viscoelastic models were evaluated based on their overall quality of fit and variability amongst healthy volunteers. An Ecoflex phantom was used to validate the procedure and results by comparison to similar studies using the same type of phantom. For skin results, it was found that the ‘α’ parameters from the fractional models had the least variability, with coefficients of variability of 0.15, and 0.16. The best fitting models were the standard linear solid, and the fractional Voigt, with a mean fit correlation coefficient, R2, of 0.93, 0.89, respectively. This study has demonstrated the efficacy of this new method, and with larger studies the viscoelastic skin models could be used to identify various skin diseases and their response to treatment. (paper)

  3. Biomechanical Properties of In Vivo Human Skin From Dynamic Optical Coherence Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xing; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography is used to determine in vivo skin biomechanical properties based on mechanical surface wave propagation. Quantitative Young’s moduli are measured on human skin from different sites, orientations, and frequencies. Skin thicknesses, including measurements from different layers, are also measured simultaneously. Experimental results show significant differences among measurements from different skin sites, between directions parallel and orthogonal to Lange...

  4. Freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, Lutz; Vidlářová, Lucie; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F.; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    In vitro testing of drugs with excised human skin is a valuable prerequisite for clinical studies. However, the analysis of excised human skin presents several obstacles. Ongoing drug diffusion, microbial growth and changes in hydration state influence the results of drug penetration studies. In this work, we evaluate freeze-drying as a preserving preparation method for skin samples to overcome these obstacles. We analyse excised human skin before and after freeze-drying and compare these res...

  5. Determination of the Action Spectrum of UVR-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jennifer A; Lloyd, James J; Diffey, Brian L; Matts, Paul J; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses of human skin to UVR including cancer and aging are largely wavelength-dependent, as shown by the action spectra of UVR-induced erythema and nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage. A molecular dosimeter of UVR exposure is therefore required. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive biomarker of UVR exposure in human skin, its wavelength dependency is unknown. The current study solves this problem by determining the action spectrum of UVR-induced mtDNA damage in human skin. Human neonatal dermal fibroblasts and primary human adult keratinocyte cells were irradiated with increasing doses of UVR. Dose-response curves of mtDNA damage were produced for each of the UVR sources and cell types, and an action spectrum for each cell type was determined by mathematical induction. Similarities between these mtDNA damage action spectra and previously determined nDNA damage were observed, with the most detrimental effects occurring over the shorter UVR wavelengths. Notably, a statistically significant (P300 nm, possibly indicating a wider picture of depth dependence in sensitivity. This finding has implications for disease/photodamage mechanisms and interventions. PMID:26030182

  6. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  7. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Na; Fang, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ...

  8. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanič, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Marraccini, Paolo; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia. A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified. Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified. Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  10. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid;

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  11. Morphology of temporal region skin in women of different age categories with an additional pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups with an additional internal pathology in this work intraoperative biopsy material of skin of 104 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of temporal region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels, serial sections was investigated with the help of morphometry. It was determined, that involution dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvessels bed. There is growth of relative microvessels volume in reticular layer of derma in women of older age groups. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure of a skin that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of operative interventions for correction of face skin involutive changes.

  12. In vivo human-skin electrical conduction and pain sensations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegelin, M. R. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Div. di Fisica Medica. Dipt. di Fisiopatologia; Paoli, G.; Zoppi, M. [Florence, Univ. (Italy). Istituto della I Clinica Medica

    1997-06-01

    In vivo human skin is stimulated by direct current the intensity of which ranges from 1 {mu}A to 1 mA. They have detected the voltage/current plot and the temporal trend of potential difference between two electrodes placed in a suitable cutaneous region of stimulation, in a group of healthy subjects. They have elaborated a non-linear functional equivalent model to describe the system behaviour. The electrical stimulation can induce painful sensation, over a critical value of the current intensity, and they believe that this sensation is due to thermal dissipation into the inner layers of the skin. In fact, subjects begin to feel pain when the electric power dissipated in the stimulated region for unit time is within the range of 235-260 mcal/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s, that corresponds to the thermal threshold required to evoke pain.

  13. Botulinum toxin type A reduces histamine-induced itch and vasomotor responses in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazerani, Parisa; Pedersen, N. S.; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr;

    2009-01-01

    temperature measurements (F(1,26) = 27.6, P < 0.001) clearly showed the suppressive effect of BoNT/A on vasomotor reactions, with the maximal effect on days 3 and 7. CONCLUSIONS: BoNT/A reduced the itch intensity, blood flow and neurogenic inflammation in response to the histamine prick test in human skin...... subcutaneous administration of BoNT/A on experimentally histamine-induced itch in human skin. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 14 healthy men (mean +/- SD age 26.3 +/- 2.6 years) received BoNT/A (Botox; Allergan, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.; 5 U) and isotonic saline on the volar surface of...

  14. Ontogeny of expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptors in human fetal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; FU Xiao-bing; GE Shi-li; SUN Tong-zhu; SHENG Zhi-yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the expression characteristics of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and its receptors, flg ( FGFR1 ) and bek ( FGFR2), in fetal skin at different gestational ages underlying the relevance of these 3 proteins to skin development and the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic transition from scarless to scarforming healing.Methods: Eighteen specimens of fetal skin biopsies of human embryo were obtained from spontaneous abortions at different gestational ages of 13-32 weeks. Gene expression of bFGF, bek and flg was examined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The dynamic expression and distribution of these 3 proteins were detected with streptavidin peroxidase ( SP )immunohistochemical staining method.Results: In the early gestational fetal skin, genes of bFGF and flg were strongly expressed and more protein contents of these 2 proteins were found as compared with the genes at late gestation fetal skin (2.446 ± 0.116 and 2.066 ± 0. 152 versus 2.157 ± 0. 101 and 1.818 ± 0.086,respectively, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the levels of gene expression and protein content of bek were not differently expressed in the early gestational fetal skin versus the late ones. Protein particles of bFGF were mainly distributed in the epidermal cells and some fibroblasts. Bek was mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of epidermal cells while flg protein was principally located in the epidermal cells, endothelial cells and some fibroblasts.Conclusions: The endogenous bFGF and their receptors might be involved in the cutaneous development at fetal stage. The differently expressing levels of bFGF and flg during gestation may be related to scarless or scarforming repair during gestation.

  15. Elderly and sun-affected skin. Distinguishing between changes caused by aging and changes caused by habitual exposure to sun.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and distinguish between skin changes produced by aging and changes produced by habitual exposure to sun. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched from 1969 to 1999 for articles on dermatoheliosis and sun-damaged skin. Surprisingly few were found comparing the difference between elderly skin and sun-damaged skin. A few articles focused on certain small aspects of sun-damaged skin. Many excellent articles described particular changes (e.g., actinic keratosis), but f...

  16. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of...

  17. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airwa...

  18. In vivo friction study of human skin: Influence of moisturizers on different anatomical sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, A; Silva, C. L.; Pais, A. A. C. C.; Sousa, J. J. S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the human haptic system, the mechanical characterization of skin contact is an important task. As the skin constitutes itself a surface, it is convenient to describe the problem using a contacting surface analysis, especially concerning the friction which occurs when the skin interacts with other surfaces. Several published works have shown that the analysis of the friction response of the skin can provide an indirect way to assess the skin condition.

  19. Real Time Detection and Tracking of Human Face using Skin Color Segmentation and Region Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Real time faces detection and face tracking is one of the challenging problems in application like computer human interaction, video surveillance, biometrics etc. In this paper we are presenting an algorithm for real time face detection and tracking using skin color segmentation and region properties. First segmentation of skin regions from an image is done by using different color models. Skin regions are separated from the image by using thresholding. Then to decide whether these regions contain human face or not we used face features. Our procedure is based on skin color segmentation and human face features (knowledge-based approach. We have used RGB, YCbCr, and HSV color models for skin color segmentation. These color models with thresholds, help to remove non skin like pixel from an image. Each segmented skin regions are tested to know whether region is human face or not, by using human face features based on knowledge of geometrical properties of human face.

  20. Data Mining Based Skin Pixel Detection Applied On Human Images: A Study Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Gagandeep Kaur; Seema Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Skin segmentation is the process of the identifying the skin pixels in a image in a particular color model and dividing the images into skin and non-skin pixels. It is the process of find the particular skin of the image or video in a color model. Finding the regions of the images in human images to say these pixel regions are part of the image or videos is typically a preprocessing step in skin detection in computer vision, face detection or multi-view face detection. Skin pixel detection mo...

  1. Electrical characteristics of female and male human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalauzi A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS is a popular method for characterizing the electrical properties of biological tissues. In this study, BIS measurement data of female and male human skin were analyzed and compared. The electrical characteristics of tissue were followed according to four-parameters of the Cole-Cole model: low frequency resistance R0; high frequency resistance R∞; relaxation time t and parameter a. Individual electrical characteristics of human skin were determined for 30 women and 30 men. The distribution and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA of the Cole-Cole parameters R0, R∞, t, a within the human population indicated their different dependence on gender. Parameter a, which is higher in the female subjects (a =0.83±0.03 than in the male subjects (a=0.7±0.05, is strongly dependent on gender (p=0. Parameter R∞ also significantly depends on gender (p=0.002, while t and R0 seem to be slightly related to gender (p>0.05. [Acknowledgments - This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (41006.

  2. Structural and functional changes of face and neck skin in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups and their relationships in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 100 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region, temple region of head and anterior neck region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels and dermal fibroblasts, thickness of epidermis, serial sections was investigated with the help of morphometry. The range of skin hydratation was investigated with the help of Doppler and ultrasound techniques. It was determined, that involution dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvesseles bed, that was observed in greatest part in cheek region of face. There is growth of relative microvesseles volume in reticular layer of derma in women of older age groups. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. Essential structural and functional changes observed in skin of cheek region in women of 33-40 years and in temple region of head and anterior neck region in women of 41-50 years. It accompanied with thinning of epidermis and emergence of keratinocytes with defective tinctorial properties and also grade reduction in quantitative density of fibroblasts and limitation of their functional activity. There is essential correlation between quantitative parameters of microcirculation and marks of age dynamic of epidermis condition and range of skin hydratation.

  3. Investigation of the Efficacy of Transdermal Penetration Enhancers Through the Use of Human Skin and a Skin Mimic Artificial Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Boglárka; Vizserálek, Gábor; Berkó, Szilvia; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Kelemen, András; Sinkó, Bálint; Takács-Novák, Krisztina; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of promising penetration enhancers through the use of 2 different skin test systems. Hydrogel-based transdermal formulations were developed with ibuprofen as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Transcutol and sucrose esters were used as biocompatible penetration enhancers. The permeability measurements were performed with ex vivo Franz diffusion cell methods and a newly developed Skin Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assays (PAMPA) model. Franz diffusion measurement is commonly used as a research tool in studies of diffusion through synthetic membranes in vitro or penetration through ex vivo human skin, whereas Skin PAMPA involves recently published artificial membrane-based technology for the fast prediction of skin penetration. It is a 96-well plate-based model with optimized artificial membrane structure containing free fatty acid, cholesterol, and synthetic ceramide analog compounds to mimic the stratum corneum barrier function. Transdermal preparations containing 2.64% of different sucrose esters and/or Transcutol and a constant (5%) of ibuprofen were investigated to determine the effects of these penetration enhancers. The study demonstrated the good correlation of the permeability data obtained through use of human skin membrane and the in vitro Skin PAMPA system. The Skin PAMPA artificial membrane serves as quick and relatively deep tool in the early stages of transdermal delivery systems, through which the enhancing efficacy of excipients can be screened so as to facilitate the choice of effective penetration components. PMID:26886318

  4. In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using

  5. Steroid synthesis by primary human keratinocytes; implications for skin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Primary keratinocytes express the steroid enzymes required for cortisol synthesis. → Normal primary human keratinocytes can synthesise cortisol. → Steroidogenic regulators, StAR and MLN64, are expressed in normal epidermis. → StAR expression is down regulated in eczema and psoriatic epidermis. -- Abstract: Cortisol-based therapy is one of the most potent anti-inflammatory treatments available for skin conditions including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have investigated the steroidogenic capabilities of keratinocytes, though none have demonstrated that these skin cells, which form up to 90% of the epidermis are able to synthesise cortisol. Here we demonstrate that primary human keratinocytes (PHK) express all the elements required for cortisol steroidogenesis and metabolise pregnenolone through each intermediate steroid to cortisol. We show that normal epidermis and cultured PHK express each of the enzymes (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3βHSD1, CYP21 and CYP11B1) that are required for cortisol synthesis. These enzymes were shown to be metabolically active for cortisol synthesis since radiometric conversion assays traced the metabolism of [7-3H]-pregnenolone through each steroid intermediate to [7-3H]-cortisol in cultured PHK. Trilostane (a 3βHSD1 inhibitor) and ketoconazole (a CYP17A1 inhibitor) blocked the metabolism of both pregnenolone and progesterone. Finally, we show that normal skin expresses two cholesterol transporters, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), regarded as the rate-determining protein for steroid synthesis, and metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) whose function has been linked to cholesterol transport in steroidogenesis. The expression of StAR and MLN64 was aberrant in two skin disorders, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, that are commonly treated with cortisol, suggesting dysregulation of epidermal steroid synthesis in these patients. Collectively these data show that PHK are capable of extra

  6. Steroid synthesis by primary human keratinocytes; implications for skin disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Rosalind F., E-mail: r.f.hannen@qmul.ac.uk [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Michael, Anthony E. [Centre for Developmental and Endocrine Signalling, Academic Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Clinical Developmental Sciences, 3rd Floor, Lanesborough Wing, St. George' s, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, Tooting, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Jaulim, Adil [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Bhogal, Ranjit [Life Science, Unilever R and D Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Burrin, Jacky M. [Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Philpott, Michael P. [Centre for Cutaneous Research, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Primary keratinocytes express the steroid enzymes required for cortisol synthesis. {yields} Normal primary human keratinocytes can synthesise cortisol. {yields} Steroidogenic regulators, StAR and MLN64, are expressed in normal epidermis. {yields} StAR expression is down regulated in eczema and psoriatic epidermis. -- Abstract: Cortisol-based therapy is one of the most potent anti-inflammatory treatments available for skin conditions including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have investigated the steroidogenic capabilities of keratinocytes, though none have demonstrated that these skin cells, which form up to 90% of the epidermis are able to synthesise cortisol. Here we demonstrate that primary human keratinocytes (PHK) express all the elements required for cortisol steroidogenesis and metabolise pregnenolone through each intermediate steroid to cortisol. We show that normal epidermis and cultured PHK express each of the enzymes (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3{beta}HSD1, CYP21 and CYP11B1) that are required for cortisol synthesis. These enzymes were shown to be metabolically active for cortisol synthesis since radiometric conversion assays traced the metabolism of [7-{sup 3}H]-pregnenolone through each steroid intermediate to [7-{sup 3}H]-cortisol in cultured PHK. Trilostane (a 3{beta}HSD1 inhibitor) and ketoconazole (a CYP17A1 inhibitor) blocked the metabolism of both pregnenolone and progesterone. Finally, we show that normal skin expresses two cholesterol transporters, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), regarded as the rate-determining protein for steroid synthesis, and metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) whose function has been linked to cholesterol transport in steroidogenesis. The expression of StAR and MLN64 was aberrant in two skin disorders, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, that are commonly treated with cortisol, suggesting dysregulation of epidermal steroid synthesis in these patients. Collectively these data

  7. Detection of hypercholesterolemia using hyperspectral imaging of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high blood levels of cholesterol and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Xanthelasma is a subcutaneous lesion appearing in the skin around the eyes. Xanthelasma is related to hypercholesterolemia. Identifying micro-xanthelasma can thereforeprovide a mean for early detection of hypercholesterolemia and prevent onset and progress of disease. The goal of this study was to investigate spectral and spatial characteristics of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. Optical techniques like hyperspectral imaging (HSI) might be a suitable tool for such characterization as it simultaneously provides high resolution spatial and spectral information. In this study a 3D Monte Carlo model of lipid inclusions in human skin was developed to create hyperspectral images in the spectral range 400-1090 nm. Four lesions with diameters 0.12-1.0 mm were simulated for three different skin types. The simulations were analyzed using three algorithms: the Tissue Indices (TI), the two layer Diffusion Approximation (DA), and the Minimum Noise Fraction transform (MNF). The simulated lesions were detected by all methods, but the best performance was obtained by the MNF algorithm. The results were verified using data from 11 volunteers with known cholesterol levels. The face of the volunteers was imaged by a LCTF system (400- 720 nm), and the images were analyzed using the previously mentioned algorithms. The identified features were then compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. Significant correlation was obtained for the MNF algorithm only. This study demonstrates that HSI can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

  8. The Age Factor in the Cosmetic Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Cartigliani; Adriana Bonfigli; Sara Brancato; Luigi Rigano

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed ...

  9. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) t...

  10. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in aging human sympathetic ganglia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, R.E.; Chae, H. Y.; Parvin, C. A.; Roth, K A

    1990-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in aging animals and man. The pathologic changes that produce autonomic dysfunction in human aging are largely unknown; however, in experimental animal models specific pathologic changes have been found in selected sympathetic ganglia. To address whether similar neuropathologic changes occur in aging humans, the authors have examined paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia from a series of 56 adult autopsied nondiabetic pa...

  11. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B Vosika

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1 Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2 Cole equation, and 3 Constant Phase Element (CPE. These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects.

  12. Fractional calculus model of electrical impedance applied to human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosika, Zoran B; Lazovic, Goran M; Misevic, Gradimir N; Simic-Krstic, Jovana B

    2013-01-01

    Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model introduces new generalizations of: 1) Weyl fractional derivative operator, 2) Cole equation, and 3) Constant Phase Element (CPE). These generalizations were described by the novel equation which presented parameter [Formula: see text] related to remnant memory and corrected four essential parameters [Formula: see text] We further generalized single generalized element by introducing specific partial sum of Maclaurin series determined by parameters [Formula: see text] We defined individual primary model elements and their serial combination models by the appropriate equations and electrical schemes. Cole equation is a special case of our generalized class of models for[Formula: see text] Previous bioimpedance data analyses of living systems using basic Cole and serial Cole models show significant imprecisions. Our new class of models considerably improves the quality of fitting, evaluated by mean square errors, for bioimpedance data obtained from human skin. Our models with new parameters presented in specific partial sum of Maclaurin series also extend representation, understanding and description of complex systems electrical properties in terms of remnant memory effects. PMID:23577065

  13. Wavelength Dependence for DNA Photodamage in Human Skin In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action spectra for DNA photodamage were determined in different human epidermal layers in situ. Skin was irradiated with varying doses of monochromatic UVR (280-360 nm). Sections from punch biopsies taken immediately after exposure were stained with a monoclonal antibody against thymine dimers and quantified by image analysis. Dimers were measured at two basal layer regions, the mid and the upper epidermis. Dose-response curves were used to generate four action spectra, all of which had maxima at 300 nm. These spectra were independent of epidermal layer between 300 and 360 nm, indicating comparable epidermal transmission at these wavelengths. However, there was a marked effect of epidermal layer between 280-300 nm, showing relatively poor transmission of 280 and 290 nm to the basal layer. These data indicate that solar UVB (γ295-320 nm) damages basal cells more than predicted from transmission data obtained from human epidermis ex vivo. (author)

  14. Wavelength Dependence for DNA Photodamage in Human Skin In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.R.; Chadwick, C.A.; Harrison, G.I.; Nikaido, O.; Ramsden, J.; Potten, C.S

    2000-07-01

    Action spectra for DNA photodamage were determined in different human epidermal layers in situ. Skin was irradiated with varying doses of monochromatic UVR (280-360 nm). Sections from punch biopsies taken immediately after exposure were stained with a monoclonal antibody against thymine dimers and quantified by image analysis. Dimers were measured at two basal layer regions, the mid and the upper epidermis. Dose-response curves were used to generate four action spectra, all of which had maxima at 300 nm. These spectra were independent of epidermal layer between 300 and 360 nm, indicating comparable epidermal transmission at these wavelengths. However, there was a marked effect of epidermal layer between 280-300 nm, showing relatively poor transmission of 280 and 290 nm to the basal layer. These data indicate that solar UVB ({gamma}295-320 nm) damages basal cells more than predicted from transmission data obtained from human epidermis ex vivo. (author)

  15. Laser system for optical biopsy and in-vivo study of the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin in vivo. The autofluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissue. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitaligo. In our experimental investigation of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin in vivo a nitrogen laser with excitation wavelength 337 nm was used. Two fluorescence bands were observed at 440 and 490 nm, these were attributed to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen. The intensity of the NADH emission band was markedly reduced in the skin with vitaligo compared with the normal skin, which could indicate different redox conditions in skin with vitaligo. The autofluorescence spectrum of human skin depends on the main internal absorbers, which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by melanin content on the shape of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. The goal of this work is optimization of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin.

  16. Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin

  17. Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Kawamura, Ayumu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Takata, Sadaki; Ogawa, Katsuki

    2005-06-01

    In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin.

  18. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, β-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  19. Effect of botanicals on inflammation and skin aging: analyzing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Amanda; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Baron, Elma D

    2014-01-01

    The skin and its immune system manifest a decline in physiologic function as it undergoes aging. External insults such as ultraviolet light exposure cause inflammation, which may enhance skin aging even further leading to cancer and signs of photoaging. There is a potential role for botanicals as an adjunct modality in the prevention of skin aging. Numerous over-the-counter anti-aging products are commercially available, many of which boast unverified claims to reduce stress, inflammation and correct signs of aging. In this article we reviewed the scientific literature for data on frequently published "anti-inflammaging" additives such as vitamins A, C and E and green tea. We also analyzed the evidence available on five promising ingredients commonly found in anti-aging products, namely, argan oil, rosemary, pomegranate, Coenzyme Q10, and Coffeeberry. Though there may be an increasing amount of scientific data on a few of these novel botanicals, in general, there remains a lack of clinical data to support the anti-aging claims made. PMID:24863255

  20. In vivo extensometer for measurement of the biomechanical properties of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A skin extensometer has been developed to provide in vivo quasistatic elastic measurements of human skin. The instrument incorporates two double‐cantilevered beams to produce uniaxial loads on the skin. The device provides clinical information that aids the surgeon in the design of incisions and excisions

  1. Real-time trace gas sensing of ethylene, propanal and acetaldehyde from human skin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, B.W.M.; Steeghs, M.M.L.; Swam, K. van; Cristescu, S.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trace gases emitted by human skin in vivo are monitored non-invasively and in real time using laser-based photoacoustic detection and proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry. A small quartz cuvette is placed on the skin to create a headspace from which a carrier gas transports the skin emissions

  2. In vivo study of the human skin by the method of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this study are to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced auto-fluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin and optimize of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of laser-induced fluorescence to discriminate disease from normal surrounding tissue. The most fluorescence studies have used exogenous fluorophores of this discrimination. The laser-induced auto-fluorescence which is used for diagnosis of tissues in the human body avoids administration of any drugs. In this study a technique for optical biopsy of in vivo human skin is presented. The auto-fluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissues. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitiligo. Two main endogenous fluorophores in the human skin account for most of the cellular auto-fluorescence for excitation wavelength 337 nm reduced from of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and collagen. The auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin depend on main internal absorbers which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by blood and melanin content on the shape of the auto-fluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. (authors)

  3. Appreciating the image of God in all humanity: Towards a pastoral response to skin lightening as image enhancement to exit dark skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Tenai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of skin lightening is prevalent amongst dark-skinned people globally. Various current studies that map this practice and that seek motivations behind the practice are examined. It is observed that through shrewd marketing, dark-skinned people are offered a promise of a better quality of life, obtained by a lighter skin, through the use of skin lighteners. In spite of the severe health risks involved, the promise is ostensibly irresistible to some dark-skinned persons. A pastoral response is offered that affirms the full personhood and complete humanity of dark-skinned people as fully human and whole in their dark skins.Keywords: Skin lightening, Dark skin, Image of God

  4. Enhanced skin permeation of naltrexone by pulsed electromagnetic fields in human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gayathri; Edwards, Jeffrey; Chen, Yan; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the skin permeation of naltrexone (NTX) under the influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). The permeation of NTX across human epidermis and a silicone membrane in vitro was monitored during and after application of the PEMF and compared to passive application. Enhancement ratios of NTX human epidermis permeation by PEMF over passive diffusion, calculated based on the AUC of cumulative NTX permeation to the receptor compartment verses time for 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and over the entire experiment (0-8 h) were 6.52, 5.25, and 5.66, respectively. Observation of the curve indicated an initial enhancement of NTX permeation compared to passive delivery whilst the PEMF was active (0-4 h). This was followed by a secondary phase after termination of PEMF energy (4-8 h) in which there was a steady increase in NTX permeation. No significant enhancement of NTX penetration across silicone membrane occurred with PEMF application in comparison to passively applied NTX. In a preliminary experiment PEMF enhanced the penetration of 10 nm gold nanoparticles through the stratum corneum as visualized by multiphoton microscopy. This suggests that the channels through which the nanoparticles move must be larger than the 10 nm diameter of these rigid particles. PMID:20014281

  5. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems, little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6,…

  6. Transplantation of human skin microbiota in models of atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Ian A.; Williams, Kelli W; Reckhow, Jensen D; Jammeh, Momodou L; Pincus, Nathan B; Sastalla, Inka; Saleem, Danial; Stone, Kelly D; Datta, Sandip K

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by reduced barrier function, reduced innate immune activation, and susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus. Host susceptibility factors are suggested by monogenic disorders associated with AD-like phenotypes and can be medically modulated. S. aureus contributes to AD pathogenesis and can be mitigated by antibiotics and bleach baths. Recent work has revealed that the skin microbiome differs significantly between healthy controls and patients with AD, including decreased Gram-negative bacteria in AD. However, little is known about the potential therapeutic benefit of microbiome modulation. To evaluate whether parameters of AD pathogenesis are altered after exposure to different culturable Gram-negative bacteria (CGN) collected from human skin, CGN were collected from healthy controls and patients with AD. Then, effects on cellular and culture-based models of immune, epithelial, and bacterial function were evaluated. Representative strains were evaluated in the MC903 mouse model of AD. We found that CGN taken from healthy volunteers but not from patients with AD were associated with enhanced barrier function, innate immunity activation, and control of S. aureus. Treatment with CGN from healthy controls improved outcomes in a mouse model of AD. These findings suggest that a live-biotherapeutic approach may hold promise for treatment of patients with AD.

  7. Advanced UV Absorbers for the Protection of Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüglin, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the damaging effects of UV radiation to human skin triggered the market introduction of new cosmetic UV absorbers. This article summarizes the outcome of a multi-year research program, in which the author contributed to the development of different new UV filters. First of all, the molecular design and the basic properties of bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT) will be presented. This oil-soluble filter, which today is widely used in both beach products and skin care products, exhibits inherent photostability and strong broad-spectrum UV-A+B absorbance. Based on the concept of micronized organic UV absorbers, the UV-B filter tris biphenyl triazine (TBPT) will be introduced. At present TBPT exhibits the highest efficacy of all cosmetic UV absorbers in the market (measured by area under the UV spectrum). Finally, the concept of liposomogenic UV absorbers will be featured. This approach was developed to create water-resistant UV filters, as liposomogenic structures are thought to integrate into the lipids of the horny layer. Due to prohibitively high costs, this technology did not result in a commercial product so far. PMID:27561611

  8. Collagen synthesis in human musculoskeletal tissues and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, J A; Cuthbertson, D J R; Smith, K;

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a direct method for the measurement of human musculoskeletal collagen synthesis on the basis of the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled proline or leucine into protein and have used it to measure the rate of synthesis of collagen in tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin. In...... postabsorptive, healthy young men (28 +/- 6 yr) synthetic rates for tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin collagen were 0.046 +/- 0.005, 0.040 +/- 0.006, 0.016 +/- 0.002, and 0.037 +/- 0.003%/h, respectively (means +/- SD). In postabsorptive, healthy elderly men (70 +/- 6 yr) the rate of skeletal muscle collagen...... synthesis is greater than in the young (0.023 +/- 0.002%/h, P <0.05 vs. young). The rates of synthesis of tendon and ligament collagen are similar to those of mixed skeletal muscle protein in the postabsorptive state, whereas the rate for muscle collagen synthesis is much lower in both young and elderly men...

  9. Permeation of chromium salts through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Fullerton, A; Avnstorp, C;

    1992-01-01

    of the dichromate solution. Chromium skin levels increased with increasing concentrations of applied chromium salts up to 0.034 M Cr. The amount of chromium in recipient phase and skin layers increased with increasing pH when the applied solution contained potassium dichromate. This was ascribed to a decreased skin...... barrier function of the skin. The amount of chromium found in all skin layers after application of chromium chloride decreased with increasing pH due to lower solubility of the salt. The % of chromium found in the recipient phase as chromium(VI) increased with increasing total chromium concentration...... indicating a limited reduction ability of the skin in vitro....

  10. Explanation of specification of decontamination for radionuclides contaminated human wound and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the collection of clinical practice experience and response to sudden nuclear terrorism, national occupational health standard-Specification of Decontamination for Radionuclides Contaminated Human Wound and Skin was revised after extensive literature review. This standard further defined the principles and requirements of emergency decontamination for radionuclides contaminated human wound and skin. Procedures and methods of wound and skin decontamination were also demonstrated in this specification. It is mainly used for diagnosis and treatment of wound and skin radionuclides contamination induced by nuclear accident and nuclear terrorism events. In order to diagnose correctly and treat wound and skin contamination promptly, this specification was interpreted in this article. (authors)

  11. The Protective Role of Melanin Against UV Damage in Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Michaela; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    Human skin is repeatedly exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that influences the function and survival of many cell types and is regarded as the main causative factor in the induction of skin cancer. It has been traditionally believed that skin pigmentation is the most important photoprotective factor, since melanin, besides functioning as a broadband UV absorbent, has antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. Besides, many epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence for skin...

  12. Ultraviolet Radiation, Aging and the Skin: Prevention of Damage by Topical cAMP Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  13. In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy study of the vitamin A derivative perfusion through human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laurita; Téllez Soto, Claudio A.; Favero, Priscila P.; Martin, Airton A.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy is a powerful non-invasive technique able to analyse the skin constituents. This technique was applied to transdermal perfusion studies of the vitamin A derivative in human skin. The composition of the stratum corneum (lipid bilayer) is decisive for the affinity and transport of the vitamin through skin. The vitamin A is significantly absorbed by human skin when applied with water in oil emulsion or hydro-alcoholic gel. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the behaviour of vitamin A derivative into human skin without the presence of enhancers. The results showed that the intensity band of the derivative (around 1600 cm-1), which represents the -C=O vibrational mode, was detected in different stratum corneum depths (up to 20 μm). This Raman peak of vitamin A derivative has non-coincident band with the Raman spectra of the skin epidermis, demonstrating that compound penetrated in forearm skin.

  14. Using signaling pathway activation analysis to identify prospective drugs that may slow down or reverse the effects of skin aging and photo-aging

    OpenAIRE

    Polina Mamoshina; Alex Aliper; Artem Artemov; Evgenia Schastnaya; Anton Buzdin; Alexey Moskalev; Alex Zhavoronkov

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process, which is still poorly understood on the molecular level and cause and effect relationships between the many factors. However, most experts agree that solar radiation is the one of the major factors in skin aging. Recent studies demonstrate that modern sunscreen compounds do not provide complete protection and most of the UV-filters shows cytotoxic ability and may have serious side effects. To explore signaling and metabolic pathway regulation during skin-a...

  15. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating an Oral Anti-aging Skin Care Supplement for Treating Photodamaged Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Monya L.; Hino, Peter D.; Moigne, Anne Le; Dispensa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate an anti-aging skin care supplement on the appearance of photodamaged skin. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Following a one-month washout period, subjects received two anti-aging skin care formula tablets (total daily dose: marine complex 210mg, vitamin C 54mg, zinc 4mg) or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Subjects were restricted from products/procedures that may affect the condition/appearance of skin, including direct facial sun or tanning bed exposure. Participants utilized a standardized facial cleanser and SPF15 moisturizer. Setting: Single study center (Texas, United States; June-November 2007). Participants: Healthy women aged 35 to 60 years (mean, 50 years), Fitzpatrick skin type I-IV, modified Glogau type II—III. Measurements: Subjects were assessed at Weeks 6, 12, and 16 on clinical grading (0-10 VAS), bioinstrumentation, digital photography, and self-assessments. Analysis of variance with treatment in the model was used for between-group comparisons (alpha P≤0.05). Results: Eighty-two anti-aging skin care formula subjects and 70 placebo subjects completed the study. Significant differences in change from baseline to Week 16 scores were observed for clinical grading of overall facial appearance (0.26; P<0.0001), radiant complexion (0.59; P<0.0001), periocular wrinkles (0.08; P<0.05), visual (0.56; P<0.0001) and tactile (0.48; P<0.0001) roughness, and mottled hyperpigmentation (0.15; P<0.001) favoring the subjects in the anti-aging skin care supplement group. Ultrasound skin density (Week 16) was significantly reduced for placebo versus anti-aging skin care supplement group (-1.4% vs. 0%; P<0.01). Other outcomes were not significant. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms possibly related to the anti-aging skin care supplement (n=1) and placebo (n=2) were observed. Conclusion: Women with photodamaged skin receiving anti-aging skin care supplement showed significant improvements in the appearance of facial

  16. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging. PMID:25726322

  17. Antiaging, photoprotective, and brightening activity in biorevitalization: a new solution for aging skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti Derming, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, Italy Background: Age-related changes in the dermis can be considered the result of intrinsic factors and the consequence of environmental damage, mainly due to ultraviolet (UV radiation from the sun (responsible for skin photoaging. The great versatility of the mesotherapy "biorevitalization" lies in the synergy between different biological effects of the active injected substances, which treats the skin in a more complete way. Several studies about biorevitalization efficacy showed good results. To date, however, objective results supported by instrumental evaluation are very sparse. Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an injectable solution (32 mg of hyaluronic acid plus an antiaging antioxidant complex consisting of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids in the treatment of skin aging and photoaging. Methods: A total of 64 female volunteers (37–60 years underwent four sessions of biorevitalization at 3-week intervals, involving multiple injections in the face (external corner of the eye and cheek, neck, décolletage, and back of the hands. The esthetic result was assessed at baseline and after 6, 9, and 12 weeks, and was established through the use of clinical and instrumental evaluations, supported by photographic documentation. Additionally, a phototest was performed to assess the effect of biorevitalization treatment on UVB-induced erythema. Results: Instrumental assessment showed, as early as after the second biorevitalizing treatment, the antiaging efficacy of the tested product; there was a clinical and statistically significant improvement of profilometric parameters, skin brightness, pigmentation, and deep skin hydration. The study product induced a statistically significant decrease of the visual score of the UVB-induced erythema compared with baseline, which was statistically different from placebo

  18. Structural and functional characteristics of skin in women of different age categories with an additional pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of temporal area skin in women of different age groups with an additional internal pathology in this work intraoperative biopsy material of skin of 104 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face skin correction, was investigated. It was de-termined, that involutive dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvessels bed. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hyper-tonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure and hardware criteria of skin condition that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of frontlift

  19. Comparative Study of Statistical Skin Detection Algorithms for Sub-Continental Human Images

    CERN Document Server

    Tabassum, Mirza Rehenuma; Kamal, Md Mostafa; Muctadir, Hossain Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shakir, Asif Khan; Imran, Asif; Islamm, Saiful; Rabbani, Md Golam; Khaled, Shah Mostafa; Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina; 10.3923/itj.2010.811.817

    2010-01-01

    Object detection has been a focus of research in human-computer interaction. Skin area detection has been a key to different recognitions like face recognition, human motion detection, pornographic and nude image prediction, etc. Most of the research done in the fields of skin detection has been trained and tested on human images of African, Mongolian and Anglo-Saxon ethnic origins. Although there are several intensity invariant approaches to skin detection, the skin color of Indian sub-continentals have not been focused separately. The approach of this research is to make a comparative study between three image segmentation approaches using Indian sub-continental human images, to optimize the detection criteria, and to find some efficient parameters to detect the skin area from these images. The experiments observed that HSV color model based approach to Indian sub-continental skin detection is more suitable with considerable success rate of 91.1% true positives and 88.1% true negatives.

  20. [Morphological characteristics of temporal area skin in patients with an additional pathology on age aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdokhlib I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improvement of the technical aspects of surgery in aesthetic surgery led to an increase in the number of transactions and significant increase contingent of women who are turning to specialized clinics. But it also significantly increased the proportion of patients with a variety of concomitant diseases requiring new approaches to operational technologies and special attention in the postoperative period. In this group of patients is high risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications significantly limits the range of indications. So to prevent these complications is an important question when planning operations in aesthetic surgery of the face. Objective. Determine structural and functional changes of temporal area skin in women of different age groups with an additional internal pathology. Methods. Intraoperative biopsy material of skin of 104 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face skin correction, was investigated. Results and conclusion. It was determined, that involutive dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvessels bed. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure criteria of skin condition that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group of high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of frontlift. Citation: Tverdokhlib IV, Makarchuk OI. [Morphological characteristics of temporal area skin in patients

  1. Ex vivo protocol for testing virus survival on human skin: experiments with herpesvirus 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. L.; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A

    1996-01-01

    We report an ex vivo method, which uses pieces of human skin excised during routine plastic surgery, for testing survival of hazardous pathogens. Using this procedure, we compared the survival of human herpesvirus 2 on human skin and on metal disks. At the physiological skin temperature of 32 degrees C, the half-life of the virus on skin was 1.44 h while on metal disks it was 0.36 h. Even at ambient temperature (22 degrees C), the virus lost infectivity faster (half-life = 0.96 h) on metal di...

  2. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  3. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  5. Comparison of protocols for measuring cosmetic ingredient distribution in human and pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstel, D; Jacques-Jamin, C; Schepky, A; Cubberley, R; Eilstein, J; Grégoire, S; Hewitt, N; Klaric, M; Rothe, H; Duplan, H

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmetics Europe Skin Bioavailability and Metabolism Task Force aims to improve the measurement and prediction of the bioavailability of topically-exposed compounds for risk assessment. Key parameters of the experimental design of the skin penetration studies were compared. Penetration studies with frozen human and pig skin were conducted in two laboratories, according to the SCCS and OECD 428 guidelines. The disposition in skin was measured 24h after finite topical doses of caffeine, resorcinol and 7-ethoxycoumarin. The bioavailability distribution in skin layers of cold and radiolabelled chemicals were comparable. Furthermore, the distribution of each chemical was comparable in human and pig skin. The protocol was reproducible across the two laboratories. There were small differences in the amount of chemical detected in the skin layers, which were attributed to differences in washing procedures and anatomical sites of the skin used. In conclusion, these studies support the use of pig skin as an alternative source of skin should the availability of human skin become a limiting factor. If radiolabelled chemicals are not available, cold chemicals can be used, provided that the influence of chemical stability, reactivity or metabolism on the experimental design and the relevance of the data obtained is considered. PMID:27039122

  6. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  7. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  8. Large field of view multiphoton microscopy of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Mikami, Hideharu; Hou, Jue; Potma, Eric O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-03-01

    Clinical examination crucially relies on the ability to quickly examine large tissue areas and rapidly zoom in to regions of interest. Skin lesions often show irregularity in color and appearance in general, especially when they start to progress towards malignancy. Large field of view (FOV) and automatic translation of the imaging area are critical in the assessment of the entire lesion. Imaging of limited FOVs of the lesion can easily result in false negative diagnosis. We present a multiphoton microscope based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation that images FOVs of about 0.8 mm2 (without stitching adjacent FOVs) at speeds of 10 frames/second (800 x 800 pixels) with lateral and axial resolutions of 0.5 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively. The main novelty of this instrument is the design of the scan head, which includes a fast galvanometric scanner, relay optics, a beam expander and a high NA objective lens. We optimized the system based on the Olympus 25x, 1.05NA water immersion lens, that features a long working distance of 1 mm. Proper tailoring of the beam expander, which consists of the scan and tube lens elements, enables scaling of the FOV. The design criteria include a flat wavefront of the beam, minimum field curvature, and suppressed spherical aberrations. All aberrations in focus are below the Marechal criterion of 0.07λ rms for diffraction-limited performance. We demonstrate the practical utility of this microscope by ex-vivo imaging of wide FOVs in normal human skin.

  9. Appearance analysis of human skin with cosmetic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Rie; Tominaga, Shoji; Hikima, Rie

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method of analyzing the appearance of cosmetic foundation applied to the human face. In particular, we focus on the "oily-shine" appearance, which is caused by sebum. A multi-band camera system with six spectral channels is used for the analysis of the oily-shine appearance. As a basic analysis, we examine the optical features of oily-shine by using two artificial skins looking like make-up skin with oily-shine and without oily-shine. We show that oily-shine can be defined as the standard dichromatic reflection model. On the basis of the above findings, we propose a method for detecting oily-shine area. This method involves (1) the extraction candidate areas, and (2) the evaluation of appearance with oily-shine. First, we capture the CIE XYZ tri-stimulus image of an original make-up face by using the multi-band camera and after a few hours later, capture the same face as a test facial image. Second, the candidate areas with oily-shine are extracted by applying the Laplacian operator to luminance Y component of the test facial image. Third, the principal component analysis is performed on the set of luminance and chromaticity (Y, x, y) of each candidate area. Light reflection of oil-shine is regarded as the specular component of the dichromatic reflection. Finally, we determine the existence of oily-shine by comparing specular clusters between the original image and the test image. The proposed method is tested in experiments with subjective assessment for various real make-up facial images.

  10. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte R Boon

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans.BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years, using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations.Proximal and distal (hand/feet skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001. Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010 and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030 and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010, while core body temperature did not.Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects.NTR 2473.

  11. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shibuya

    Full Text Available Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1 loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd and platinum (Pt nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage.

  12. Possible role for metallothionein in the cellular defense mechanism against UVB irradiation in neonatal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of metallothionein (MT) in protecting skin cells against UVB irradiation was investigated. Fibroblast strains from normal adult (HS-K) and neonatal (NB1RGB) human skins as well as keratinocyte strains from human skin (SV40-HSK) and newborn Balb/c mouse skin (Pam 212) were exposed to UVB irradiation. (Author)

  13. Recent advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, Thilo; Pljakic, Azem; Schmitz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging method that uses infrared light and interferometric techniques. The method has become increasingly popular in skin research as well as daily dermatology practice. In the present brief review, we focused on recent (2009–2014) OCT studies on the human skin, which included a reasonable sample size and statistics. Twenty-five papers were selected and briefly described OCT of epidermal thickness, skin appendages, wound healing, extracellular matrix and skin fibrosis, vascular malformations, and skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and malignant melanoma. PMID:26185462

  14. Protective action of resveratrol in human skin: possible involvement of specific receptor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bastianetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol with purported protecting action on various disorders associated with aging. It has been suggested that resveratrol could exert its protective action by acting on specific plasma membrane polyphenol binding sites (Han Y.S., et al. (2006 J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318:238-245. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in human skin, the possible existence of specific binding sites that mediate the protective action of resveratrol. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using human skin tissue, we report here the presence of specific [(3H]-resveratrol binding sites (K(D  =  180 nM that are mainly located in the epidermis. Exposure of HaCaT cells to the nitric oxide free radical donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 0.3-3 mM resulted in cell death which was reduced by resveratrol (EC(50  =  14.7 µM, and to a much lesser extent by the resveratrol analogue piceatannol (EC(50  =  95 µM and epigallocatechin gallate (EC(50  =  200 µM, a green-tea derived polyphenol. The protective action of resveratrol likely relates to its anti-apoptotic effect since at the same range of concentration it was able to reduce both the number of apoptotic cells as well as mitochondrial apoptotic events triggered by SNP. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that resveratrol, by acting on specific polyphenol binding sites in epidermis, may be useful to prevent skin disorders associated with aging.

  15. Active ingredients against human epidermal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencini, Márcio; Brohem, Carla A; Dieamant, Gustavo C; Zanchin, Nilson I T; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-05-01

    The decisive role of the epidermis in maintaining body homeostasis prompted studies to evaluate the changes in epidermal structure and functionality over the lifetime. This development, along with the identification of molecular mechanisms of epidermal signaling, maintenance, and differentiation, points to a need for new therapeutic alternatives to treat and prevent skin aging. In addition to recovering age- and sun-compromised functions, proper treatment of the epidermis has important esthetic implications. This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: (1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; (2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; (3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and (4) antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C, for example, improve solar radiation protection and epidermal antioxidant activity. The main objective is to provide a functional classification of active ingredients as regulatory elements of epidermal homeostasis, with potential cosmetic and/or dermatological applications. PMID:24675046

  16. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune;

    2016-01-01

    a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards...... processes I fit a three component mortality model against the observed force of mortality. The model describes the data with high accuracy, suggesting that the phenomenon of ontogenescense in humans is fully explained by the three hypotheses....

  17. Development and evaluation of an emulsion containing lycopene for combating acceleration of skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caramori Cefali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a carotenoid and potent antioxidant is found in large quantities in tomatoes. Lycopene combats diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and different types of cancer, including prostate cancer. However, its topical use in emulsion form for the combat of skin aging is under-explored. The aim of the present study was to develop an emulsion containing lycopene extracted from salad tomatoes and evaluate its cytotoxicity, stability, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and phytocosmetic permeation. The developed cosmetic comprised an oil phase made up of shea derivatives and was evaluated in terms of its physiochemical stability, spreadability, thermal analysis, rheological behavior, microbiological quality, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, cutaneous permeation and retention. The results demonstrate that this phytocosmetic is stable, exhibits satisfactory rheological behavior for a topical formula and is a promising product for combating skin aging.

  18. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Suresh I.S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells ...

  19. Anti-Aging Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Skin Aging Induced by D-Galactose

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shengchang; Dong, Ziqing; Peng, Zhangsong; Lu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glycation products accumulate during aging of slowly renewing tissue, including skin, and are suggested as an important mechanism underlying the skin aging process. Adipose-derived cells are widely used in the clinic to treat ischemic diseases and enhance wound healing. Interestingly, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are also effective in anti-aging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the anti-...

  20. Evaluation of Skin Anti-aging Potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Apraj, Vinita D.; Pandita, Nancy S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  1. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita D Apraj; Nancy S Pandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Q...

  2. Accumulation of Maillard reaction products in skin collagen in diabetes and aging.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, D G; Dunn, J A; Thorpe, S R; Bailie, K E; Lyons, T. J.; McCance, D. R.; Baynes, J W

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of glycation and oxidation reactions to the modification of insoluble collagen in aging and diabetes, Maillard reaction products were measured in skin collagen from 39 type 1 diabetic patients and 52 nondiabetic control subjects. Compounds studied included fructoselysine (FL), the initial glycation product, and the glycoxidation products, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and pentosidine, formed during later Maillard reactions. Collagen-linked fluorescence...

  3. Antiaging, photoprotective, and brightening activity in biorevitalization: a new solution for aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna A; Tenconi B; De Ponti I

    2015-01-01

    Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti Derming, Clinical Research and Bioengineering Institute, Monza, Italy Background: Age-related changes in the dermis can be considered the result of intrinsic factors and the consequence of environmental damage, mainly due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun (responsible for skin photoaging). The great versatility of the mesotherapy "biorevitalization" lies in the synergy between different biological effects of the a...

  4. Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles Attenuate Aging-Like Skin Atrophy via Antioxidant Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In t...

  5. Investigating the relationship between changes in collagen fiber orientation during skin aging and collagen/water interactions by polarized-FTIR microimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklouh-Molinier, Christophe; Happillon, Teddy; Bouland, Nicole; Fichel, Caroline; Diébold, Marie-Danièle; Angiboust, Jean-François; Manfait, Michel; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; Piot, Olivier

    2015-09-21

    Upon chronological aging, human skin undergoes structural and molecular modifications, especially at the level of type I collagen. This macromolecule is one of the main dermal structural proteins and presents several age-related alterations. It exhibits a triple helical structure and assembles itself to form fibrils and fibers. In addition, water plays an important role in stabilizing the collagen triple helix by forming hydrogen-bonds between collagen residues. However, the influence of water on changes of dermal collagen fiber orientation with age has not been yet understood. Polarized-Fourier Transform Infrared (P-FTIR) imaging is an interesting biophotonic approach to determine in situ the orientation of type I collagen fibers, as we have recently shown by comparing skin samples of different ages. In this work, P-FTIR spectral imaging was performed on skin samples from two age groups (35- and 38-year-old on the one hand, 60- and 66-year-old on the other hand), and our analyses were focused on the effect of H2O/D2O substitution. Spectral data were processed with fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering in order to distinguish different orientations of collagen fibers. We demonstrated that the orientation was altered with aging, and that D2O treatment, affecting primarily highly bound water molecules, is more marked for the youngest skin samples. Collagen-bound water-related spectral markers were also highlighted. Our results suggest a weakening of water/collagen interactions with age. This non-destructive and label-free methodology allows us to understand better the importance of bound water in collagen fiber orientation alterations occurring with skin aging. Obtaining such structural information could find benefits in dermatology as well as in cosmetics. PMID:26120602

  6. Differential Features between Chronic Skin Inflammatory Diseases Revealed in Skin-Humanized Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Marta; Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; Illera, Nuria; Galvez, Victoria; Navarro, Manuel; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Jorcano, Jose Luis; Larcher, Fernando; del Rio, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are chronic and relapsing inflammatory diseases of the skin affecting a large number of patients worldwide. Psoriasis is characterized by a T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 immunological response, whereas acute atopic dermatitis lesions exhibit T helper type 2-dominant inflammation. Current single gene and signaling pathways-based models of inflammatory skin diseases are incomplete. Previous work allowed us to model psoriasis in skin-humanized mice through proper combinations of inflammatory cell components and disruption of barrier function. Herein, we describe and characterize an animal model for atopic dermatitis using similar bioengineered-based approaches, by intradermal injection of human T helper type 2 lymphocytes in regenerated human skin after partial removal of stratum corneum. In this work, we have extensively compared this model with the previous and an improved version of the psoriasis model, in which T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 lymphocytes replace exogenous cytokines. Comparative expression analyses revealed marked differences in specific epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers and immune-related molecules, including antimicrobial peptides. Likewise, the composition of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate presented important differences. The availability of accurate and reliable animal models for these diseases will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and provide valuable tools for drug development and testing. PMID:26763433

  7. Histamine is not released in acute thermal injury in human skin in vivo: a microdialysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars J; Pedersen, Juri L; Skov, Per S;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal models have shown histamine to be released from the skin during the acute phase of a burn injury. The role of histamine during the early phase of thermal injuries in humans remains unclear. PURPOSE: The objectives of this trial were to study histamine release in human skin during...... the acute phase of a standardized thermal injury in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine concentrations in human skin were measured by skin microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibers were inserted into the dermis in the lower leg in male healthy volunteers. A standardized superficial thermal...... (baseline 11.6 +/- 1.8 nM vs. post-burn values of 14.8 +/- 1.8 nM, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: Histamine is not released in human skin during the acute phase of a thermal injury....

  8. Impact of AQP3 inducer treatment on cultured human keratinocytes, ex vivo human skin and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N; Gondran, C; Menon, G; Mur, L; Oberto, G; Guerif, Y; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2011-10-01

    One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the organism against environmental threats, such as thermal stress. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) facilitates water and glycerol transport across cell membranes and therefore regulates osmotic balance in different situations of stress. This mechanism seems to be particularly important for the resistance of different organisms to cold stress. Consequently, we were interested in investigating the effect of cold and osmotic stress on AQP3 expression in normal human keratinocytes. We developed a new active ingredient to stimulate aquaporins in skin and demonstrated the partial restoration of AQP3 expression in keratinocytes transfected with AQP3 siRNA. Moreover, we examined the effect of cold stress on cell morphology and the impact of a pre-treatment with the active ingredient. Our results indicated that induction of AQP3 helped maintain a correct organization of the actin cytoskeleton, preserving cell morphology and preventing cells from rounding. Immunofluorescent staining revealed cytoplasmic localization of AQP3 and its translocation to the cell membrane following osmotic stress. Histological ex vivo studies of skin under different conditions, such as cold environment and tape-stripping, indicated that increase in AQP3 expression appears to be involved in skin protection and showed that the pattern of AQP3 expression was more enhanced in the active ingredient-treated samples. In vivo confocal microscopy by Vivascope showed a generally healthier appearance of the skin in the treated areas. These results attest to the potential value of the active ingredient in optimizing environmental stress resistance and protecting the skin from stratum corneum damage. PMID:21401652

  9. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  10. Release of Propolis Phenolic Acids from Semisolid Formulations and Their Penetration into the Human Skin In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Žilius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects are attributed to phenolic compounds present in propolis, and when delivered to the skin surface and following penetration into epidermis and dermis, they can contribute to skin protection from damaging action of free radicals that are formed under UV and premature skin aging. This study was designed to determine the penetration of phenolic acids and vanillin into the human skin in vitro from experimentally designed vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated the ability of propolis phenolic acids (vanillic, coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids and vanillin to penetrate into skin epidermis and dermis. The rate of penetration and distribution is affected both by physicochemical characteristics of active substances and physical structure and chemical composition of semisolid vehicle. Vanillin and vanillic acid demonstrated relatively high penetration through epidermis into dermis where these compounds were concentrated, coumaric and ferulic acids were uniformly distributed between epidermis and dermis, and caffeic acid slowly penetrated into epidermis and was not determined in dermis. Further studies are deemed relevant for the development of semisolid topically applied systems designed for efficient delivery of propolis antioxidants into the skin.

  11. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  12. Multivariate Models for Prediction of Human Skin Sensitization Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single alternative method...

  13. Multivariate Models for Prediction of Skin Sensitization Hazard in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s highest priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single alternative me...

  14. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm......In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human...... liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that...

  15. Features of human skin in HSV color space and new recognition parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Features of human skin in HSV color space are widely applied in the area of image retrieval based on content. H is selected as the basic recognition parameter because its value has a narrow range for the skin color and can keep stable while the illumination intensity or the curvature of skin surface is changing. Rules of parameters with the change of illumination in HSV color space are studied. It is firstly found that the mean of saturation and value (S+V)/2 can keep stable when the illumination intensity is changed or the skin surface is inflected, and (S+V)/2 changes with skin color, but the tendency of change is contrary to that of H. Therefore, (S+V)/H can be used as a new recognition parameter which can enhance HSV ability to recognize human skin.

  16. Ultrasonic stimulation of mouse skin reverses the healing delays in diabetes and aging by activation of Rac1

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, James A.; Williamson, Rosalind C.; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher AM; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound...

  17. Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinboro AO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adeolu Oladayo Akinboro,1 David Ayodele Mejiuni,2 Olaniyi Onayemi,3 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele,4 Adeniran Samuel Atiba,5 Gbenga Micheal Bamimore6 1Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 2Bullsbrook Medical Practice, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Dermatology and Venereology, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University and OAUTHC, Ile – Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, and Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 6Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Methods: In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39, CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87, and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35 were significantly lower (P 0.05. Conclusion: serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma

  18. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Borbíró, I.; Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2011-10-01

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: “Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles” European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  19. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: 'Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles' European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  20. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into human skin affected by atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikszai, Z., E-mail: szikszai@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Bodnar, E. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary); Borbiro, I. [Abiol Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Angyal, A.; Csedreki, L.; Furu, E.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hunyadi, J. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Skin penetration is one of the potential routes for nanoparticles to gain access into the human body. Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the particle size smaller than 200 nm makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. The present study continues the work carried out in the frame of the NANODERM: 'Quality of skin as a barrier to ultrafine particles' European project and complements our previous investigations on human skin with compromised barrier function. Atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious skin disease. It is very common in children but may occur at any age. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but is likely due to a combination of impaired barrier function together with a malfunction in the body's immune system. In this study, skin samples were obtained from two patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Our results indicate that the ultrafine zinc oxide particles, in a hydrophobic basis gel with an application time of 2 days or 2 weeks, have penetrated deeply into the stratum corneum in these patients. On the other hand, penetration into the stratum spinosum was not observed even in the case of the longer application time.

  1. Effect of age on the biomechanical and microcirculatory properties of the skin in healthy individuals and during venous ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam H Mattar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With aging there is alteration of elastic properties of the skin and skin-blood flow. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare age-related changes in selected biomechanical parameters of the skin (skin hardness, skin extensibility, relaxation time constant, τ and subcutaneous microcirculatory quality (SMQ in individuals with and without venous diseases. Materials and Methods: Two groups were studied: the first group was of asymptomatic healthy individuals and the second group included patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and venous ulceration, without edema. Both groups were subdivided to three age categories (21-40, 41-60 and 61-90 years old. Skin hardness was measured by durometer, extensibility and τ were measured using extensometer and SQM was assessed via postural vasoconstrictive response (LDF. Results: Results showed that skin hardness, extensibility, and τ-values were increased, whereas LDF was decreased in the older groups as compared with younger groups. These changes are attributed to alterations in the skin structure and reduced capillaries density networks. Similar behavior was found in the biomechanical and microcirculatory changes in patients with venous ulceration and CVI, but these changes were more increased further in older patients with venous ulceration as compared with older patients with CVI and that can be attribute to more intense response against tissue injury. Conclusions: Since aging elevated skin hardness and extensibility, but lowered vasoconstrictive response in individuals, with and without, venous diseases, we conclude that aging process is likely to cause an accumulation of damaged skin tissues and that could induce an apparent antigen-driven response that altered skin structure and the subsequent biomechanical properties obtained in this study.

  2. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells. RESULTS: Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  3. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  4. UV wavelength-dependent DNA damage and human non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun has been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to skin cancer, a spectrum of diseases of rising incidence in many human populations. Both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are associated with sunlight exposure. In this review, we discuss the UV wavelength-dependent formation of the major UV-induced DNA damage products, their repair and mutagenicity and their potential involvement in sunlight-associated skin cancers. We emphasize the major ...

  5. Noninvasive glucose detection in human skin using wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xinxin; Mandelis, Andreas; Zinman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive glucose monitoring will greatly improve diabetes management. We applied Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) to noninvasive glucose measurements in human skin in vitro in the mid-infrared range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum diffused into a human skin sample (1 mm thickness from abdomen) in the physiological range (21-400 mg/dl) demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements. It was found tha...

  6. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control glycosylation level of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice, reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers as well as restrain formation of advanced glycation end products, which are similar to the effects of AG inhibitors of advanced glycation end products. Thus, ASCs can prevent glycosylation-induced skin aging as well as recover functions of skin. PMID:26916459

  7. Skin micro-relief study of human superficial radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF): preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the late changes in skin following therapeutic irradiation have included observations of pigmentation, atrophy, fibrosis or telangiectasia. However, the main characteristic of the skin surface is the existence of a relief, well known in the planta-palmar zones. The skin relief presents many particular characteristics and varies under the influence of numerous parameters such as humidity, temperature, mechanical restrictions, chemical agents, aging, drugs, diseases, and radiations. The aim of this study was to propose an analytical method to quantify RIF skin surface with the replica technique. (authors)

  8. In vitro study of ethosome penetration in human skin and hypertrophic scar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Danru; He, Rong; Chen, Huijin; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel transdermal delivery carrier, ethosomes containing 5-fluorouracil. The delivery of drugs from ethosomes in human hypertrophic scar (HS) and the mechanisms of action of ethosomes in human HS were investigated. Percutaneous ethosome permeation was evaluated in vitro in human HS and skin using a Franz's cell. The amount of 5-fluorouracil that permeated HS and skin after 24 hours was most abundant in ethosomes via HS (E-Scar), followed by hydroethanolic solution via HS (H-Scar), ethosomes via skin (E-Skin), and hydroethanolic solution via skin (H-Skin). The penetration of ethosomes in HS and skin was analyzed by ethosomes fluorescently labeled with rhodamine 6GO using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity after application for 24 hours was highest in E-Scar, followed by E-Skin, H-Scar, and H-Skin, which indicates the penetration of ethosomes in HS was greatest. In conclusion, we consider that ethosomes are a highly efficient carrier in HS. PMID:22033085

  9. Factors influencing the degree of erythematous skin reactions in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response relationships have been studied using an ordinal visual scale and reflectance spectrophotometry data from 123 treatment sites on 110 patients treated with 10 dose fractions over 12-14 days. Dose rates varied between 3 and 240 Gy/h and total doses of between 25 and 41 Gy were given using teletherapy apparatus. We found qualitative scoring of erythematous skin reactions to be subject to considerable inter- and intra-observer variation. Reflectance spectrophotometry provided more reproducible information, some of which was undetectable by naked eye. Baseline erythema readings were significantly higher in male patients and at anatomical sites of previous heavy UV exposure. In addition, a pronounced decline in erythema readings during the second week of therapy and 'reciprocal vicinity' (abscopal) effects adjacent to the field, undetected by the eye, were observed in a subset of patients. Meaningful dose-response relationships could be derived only from reflectance data with peak change from the pretreatment baseline measure providing the best discrimination. Peak erythema measures following treatment were found to depend on the age and gender of the patient as well as the treatment site and its baseline erythema measurement. This was independent of the total dose administered or the instantaneous dose rate at which it was delivered. The rate of erythema development was also dose rate dependent but only weakly dependent on the biological dose intensity (Gy equiv./day) of the treatment course. The data raise the question of whether irradiation-induced erythema is exclusively a secondary phenomenon occurring as a result of basal cell killing. The short repair half time value of 0.06 h obtained by direct analysis is perplexing and may reflect a dose rate-dependent physiological vasodilatory response to irradiation and/or a multi-component cellular repair process

  10. Negative expectations facilitate mechanical hyperalgesia after high-frequency electrical stimulation of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Geene, N.; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Oosterman, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of human skin induces not only an increased pain sensitivity in the conditioning area but also an increased pain sensitivity to mechanical punctate stimuli in the non-conditioned surrounding skin area. The aim of the present study was to invest

  11. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T Meier

    Full Text Available There remains a critical need for new therapeutics that promote wound healing in patients suffering from chronic skin wounds. This is, in part, due to a shortage of simple, physiologically and clinically relevant test systems for investigating candidate agents. The skin of amphibians possesses a remarkable regenerative capacity, which remains insufficiently explored for clinical purposes. Combining comparative biology with a translational medicine approach, we report the development and application of a simple ex vivo frog (Xenopus tropicalis skin organ culture system that permits exploration of the effects of amphibian skin-derived agents on re-epithelialisation in both frog and human skin. Using this amphibian model, we identify thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH as a novel stimulant of epidermal regeneration. Moving to a complementary human ex vivo wounded skin assay, we demonstrate that the effects of TRH are conserved across the amphibian-mammalian divide: TRH stimulates wound closure and formation of neo-epidermis in organ-cultured human skin, accompanied by increased keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing-associated differentiation (cytokeratin 6 expression. Thus, TRH represents a novel, clinically relevant neuroendocrine wound repair promoter that deserves further exploration. These complementary frog and human skin ex vivo assays encourage a comparative biology approach in future wound healing research so as to facilitate the rapid identification and preclinical testing of novel, evolutionarily conserved, and clinically relevant wound healing promoters.

  12. Comparison of Decontamination Methods for Human Skin Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A; Joyner, Denar D; Guymon, Charles H; Ward, Catherine L; Rathbone, Christopher R; Jones, John A; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Skin grafts intended for autologous transplant may be dropped on the operating room floor during handling. The authors examined optimal procedures for decontaminating tissue intended for burn surgery. Porcine skin (5 × 5 cm sections) harvested from expired animals using standard procedures was inoculated with either 10(6) CFU/ml Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Decontaminating strategies were compared: 10% povidone iodine, 0.04% chlorhexidine, or 50 U/ml bacitracin for injection, and mechanical agitation using normal saline or sterile water; each agent was applied for 60 seconds. Each skin section was blended and plated on agar for bacterial enumeration using the spread plate method. Tissue viability was evaluated in parallel using a cell viability reagent, along with a control (heat at 200 °C for 5 min). Bacterial counts were log transformed; one-way ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer HSD analysis were performed. Concentration of organisms porcine skin. PMID:25383978

  13. Accumulation of sunscreen in human skin after daily applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Akerström, Ulf; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF.......Sunscreen applied to the skin provides a considerable sun protection factor (SPF) even after 8 h. Sunscreen use for consecutive days may therefore result in an accumulation of the product. This study investigated the consequences of accumulation for SPF....

  14. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas

    I present a lifetable by gestational age from week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. The lifetable shows the pre-natal, peri-natal and post-natal mortality levels for US fetus/infants conceived in the year 2009. The observed age pattern of the force of mortality is ...... mortality are correct. Additionally, I conclude that the phenomenon of "ontogenesis" -- the decreasing force of mortality from birth until onset of maturity observed in many species -- is, for modern humans, explained by adaptation and mortality selection alone....

  15. Reconstruction of segmented human voxel phantoms for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution medical images along with methods that simulate the interaction of radiation with matter, as the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, have been widely used in medical physics procedures. These images provide the construction of realistic anatomical models, which after being coupled to these codes, may drive to better assessments of dose distributions on the patient. These anatomical models constructed from medical images are known as voxel phantoms (voxel - volume element of an image). Present day regular images are unsuitable to correctly perform skin dose distribution evaluations. This inability is due to improper skin discrimination in most of the current medical images, once its thickness stands below the resolution of the pixels that form the image. This paper proposes the voxel phantom reconstruction by subdividing and segmenting the elements that form the phantom. It is done in order to better discriminate the skin by assigning it more adequate thickness and actual location, allowing a better dosimetric evaluation of the skin. This task is an important issue in many radiotherapy procedures. Particular interest lays in Total Skin Irradiation (TSI) with electron beams, where skin dose evaluation stands as the treatment key point of the whole body irradiation. This radiotherapy procedure is under implementation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-USP). (author)

  16. Flexible Nanosomes (SECosomes) Enable Efficient siRNA Delivery in Cultured Primary Skin Cells and in the Viable Epidermis of Ex Vivo Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, Barbara; Van Gele, Mireille; Braat, Sien; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington; Roberts, Michael S.; Sanders, Niek N.; Lambert, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which nanoscale-engineered systems cross intact human skin and can exert pharmacological effects in viable epidermis is controversial. This research seeks to develop a new lipid-based nanosome that enables the effective delivery of siRNA into human skin. The major finding is that an ul

  17. Transmission of phototherapy through human skin: dosimetry adjustment for effects of skin color, body composition, wavelength, and light coupling to skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Van Zuylen, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To examine factors that affect penetration of phototherapy. Methods: Age, sex, height, and weight were recorded; skin color, skinfold thickness, and light transmission through a skinfold were measured over biceps and triceps muscles, and at the anterior waistline. Light was generated using two 23-diode LED arrays at 840 nm and 660 nm with surface area of 7 cm2. Photon irradiation was measured using an Optical Power Meter consisting of a 1x1-cm2 light detector placed in the centre of the illuminated 7 cm2 spot. Transmission was measured using three skin-diode coupling conditions. Results: Penetration of LED irradiation increased when diodes were coupled to skin with pressure. Red light attenuated more rapidly than infrared light and the attenuation of red light increased as skin color darkened. Penetration of red and infrared light decreased as the amount of subcutaneous fat increased. There were gender effects on penetration of infrared light at normal and low BMI values. Conclusions: When using divergent light sources for phototherapy, radiant exposure should take into account individual physical characteristics, irradiation wavelength and diode configuration of the laser therapy system.

  18. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  19. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  20. Dermal Substitutes Support the Growth of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Potential Tool for Skin Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Machado, Rafaela Grecco; Visoni, Silvia Beatriz Coutinho; Pereima, Maurício José; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    New strategies for skin regeneration are needed in order to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because of their prolonged self-renewal capacity, multipotentiality, and ability to release active molecules important for tissue repair. In this paper, we show that human skin-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SD-MSCs) display similar characteristics to the multipotent MSCs. We also evaluate their growth in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system with dermal substitutes (Integra and Pelnac). When cultured in monolayers, SD-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers, such as CD105, Fibronectin, and α-SMA; and neural markers, such as Nestin and βIII-Tubulin; at transcriptional and/or protein level. Integra and Pelnac equally supported the adhesion, spread and growth of human SD-MSCs in 3D culture, maintaining the MSC characteristics and the expression of multilineage markers. Therefore, dermal substitutes support the growth of mesenchymal stromal cells from human skin, promising an effective tool for tissue engineering and regenerative technology. PMID:24586857

  1. Simulation study of melanoma detection in human skin tissues by laser-generated surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Lu, Zimo; Li, Tingting; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2014-07-01

    Air pollution has been correlated to an increasing number of cases of human skin diseases in recent years. However, the investigation of human skin tissues has received only limited attention, to the point that there are not yet satisfactory modern detection technologies to accurately, noninvasively, and rapidly diagnose human skin at epidermis and dermis levels. In order to detect and analyze severe skin diseases such as melanoma, a finite element method (FEM) simulation study of the application of the laser-generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) technique is developed. A three-layer human skin model is built, where LSAW's are generated and propagated, and their effects in the skin medium with melanoma are analyzed. Frequency domain analysis is used as a main tool to investigate such issues as minimum detectable size of melanoma, filtering spectra from noise and from computational irregularities, as well as on how the FEM model meshing size and computational capabilities influence the accuracy of the results. Based on the aforementioned aspects, the analysis of the signals under the scrutiny of the phase velocity dispersion curve is verified to be a reliable, a sensitive, and a promising approach for detecting and characterizing melanoma in human skin.

  2. Melanin Transfer in Human 3D Skin Equivalents Generated Exclusively from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Gledhill

    Full Text Available The current utility of 3D skin equivalents is limited by the fact that existing models fail to recapitulate the cellular complexity of human skin. They often contain few cell types and no appendages, in part because many cells found in the skin are difficult to isolate from intact tissue and cannot be expanded in culture. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs present an avenue by which we can overcome this issue due to their ability to be differentiated into multiple cell types in the body and their unlimited growth potential. We previously reported generation of the first human 3D skin equivalents from iPSC-derived fibroblasts and iPSC-derived keratinocytes, demonstrating that iPSCs can provide a foundation for modeling a complex human organ such as skin. Here, we have increased the complexity of this model by including additional iPSC-derived melanocytes. Epidermal melanocytes, which are largely responsible for skin pigmentation, represent the second most numerous cell type found in normal human epidermis and as such represent a logical next addition. We report efficient melanin production from iPSC-derived melanocytes and transfer within an entirely iPSC-derived epidermal-melanin unit and generation of the first functional human 3D skin equivalents made from iPSC-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanocytes.

  3. Chondroitin-6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan: a new component of human skin dermoepidermal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is present in adult, neonatal, and/or fetal skin, and if present, its ultrastructural localization. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on human adult, neonatal, and fetal skin. To detect the antigen, specimens were pretreated with chondroitinase ABC; absence of enzyme...... treatment served as negative control. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was detectable in linear homogeneous array along the dermoepidermal junction and within vascular (and when present, adnexal) basement membranes in both adult and neonatal skin. In fetal skin, basement membrane staining was noted as early...... as 54 gestational days. Indirect immunoelectron microscopy and NaCl-split skin studies were performed to ultrastructurally localize the antigen; immune deposits were detectable within the lamina densa in chondroitinase-treated skin. These findings demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is...

  4. Recent advances in clinical application of optical coherence tomography of human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambichler T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thilo Gambichler, Azem Pljakic, Lutz SchmitzDepartment of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, GermanyAbstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an emerging noninvasive imaging method that uses infrared light and interferometric techniques. The method has become increasingly popular in skin research as well as daily dermatology practice. In the present brief review, we focused on recent (2009–2014 OCT studies on the human skin, which included a reasonable sample size and statistics. Twenty-five papers were selected and briefly described OCT of epidermal thickness, skin appendages, wound healing, extracellular matrix and skin fibrosis, vascular malformations, and skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratoses, and malignant melanoma.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, dermatology, skin imaging, interferometry, histology

  5. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  6. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith;

    2008-01-01

    The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the present...... study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning...... calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non...

  7. Bacterial Inactivation of Wound Infection in a Human Skin Model by Liquid-Phase Discharge Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Paul Y.; Kim, Yoon-Sun; Koo, Il Gyo; Jung, Jae Chul; Kim, Gon Jun; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigate disinfection of a reconstructed human skin model contaminated with biofilm-formative Staphylococcus aureus employing plasma discharge in liquid. Principal Findings We observed statistically significant 3.83-log10 (p

  8. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Novel Human Skin-Associated Genes Encoding Membrane and Secreted Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Martinez, Cynthia; Schrumpf, Holger; Gasis, Marcia; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Krutmann, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Through bioinformatics analyses of a human gene expression database representing 105 different tissues and cell types, we identified 687 skin-associated genes that are selectively and highly expressed in human skin. Over 50 of these represent uncharacterized genes not previously associated with skin and include a subset that encode novel secreted and plasma membrane proteins. The high levels of skin-associated expression for eight of these novel therapeutic target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin and skin-derived cell lines. Four of these are expressed specifically by epidermal keratinocytes; two that encode G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR87 and GPR115), and two that encode secreted proteins (WFDC5 and SERPINB7). Further analyses using cytokine-activated and terminally differentiated human primary keratinocytes or a panel of common inflammatory, autoimmune or malignant skin diseases revealed distinct patterns of regulation as well as disease associations that point to important roles in cutaneous homeostasis and disease. Some of these novel uncharacterized skin genes may represent potential biomarkers or drug targets for the development of future diagnostics or therapeutics. PMID:23840300

  9. Systematic identification and characterization of novel human skin-associated genes encoding membrane and secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arne Gerber

    Full Text Available Through bioinformatics analyses of a human gene expression database representing 105 different tissues and cell types, we identified 687 skin-associated genes that are selectively and highly expressed in human skin. Over 50 of these represent uncharacterized genes not previously associated with skin and include a subset that encode novel secreted and plasma membrane proteins. The high levels of skin-associated expression for eight of these novel therapeutic target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin and skin-derived cell lines. Four of these are expressed specifically by epidermal keratinocytes; two that encode G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR87 and GPR115, and two that encode secreted proteins (WFDC5 and SERPINB7. Further analyses using cytokine-activated and terminally differentiated human primary keratinocytes or a panel of common inflammatory, autoimmune or malignant skin diseases revealed distinct patterns of regulation as well as disease associations that point to important roles in cutaneous homeostasis and disease. Some of these novel uncharacterized skin genes may represent potential biomarkers or drug targets for the development of future diagnostics or therapeutics.

  10. The moisturizing effects of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitagawa, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, such as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced by different yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma and have been attracting much attention as new cosmetic ingredients owing to their unique liquid-crystal-forming and moisturizing properties. In this study, the effects of different MEL derivatives on the skin were evaluated in detail using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model and an in vivo human study. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were evaluated on the basis of cell viability. Most MEL derivatives efficiently recovered the viability of the cells and showed high recovery rates (over 80%) comparable with that of natural ceramide. It is interesting that the recovery rate with MEL-A prepared from olive oil was significantly higher than that of MEL-A prepared from soybean oil. The water retention properties of MEL-B were further investigated on human forearm skin in a preliminary study. Compared with the control, the aqueous solution of MEL-B (5 wt%) was estimated to considerably increase the stratum corneum water content in the skin. Moreover, perspiration on the skin surface was clearly suppressed by treatment with the MEL-B solution. These results suggest that MELs are likely to exhibit a high moisturizing action, by assisting the barrier function of the skin. Accordingly, the yeast glycolipids have a strong potential as a new ingredient for skin care products. PMID:22790172

  11. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  12. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in natural species. In particular, and from a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a Python regius snake. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional re...

  13. Novel Inhibitory Effect of N-(2-Hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine on Melanin Production in a Human Skin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Ho Bin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-pigmentation causes skin darkness and medical disorders, such as post-inflammatory melanoderma and melasma. Therefore, the development of anti-melanogenic agents is important for treating these conditions and for cosmetic production. In our previous paper, we demonstrated that the anti-diabetic drug voglibose, a valiolamine derivative, is a potent anti-melanogenic agent. In addition, we proposed an alternative screening strategy to identify valiolamine derivatives with high skin permeability that act as anti-melanogenic agents when applied topically. In this study, we synthesized several valiolamine derivatives with enhanced lipophilicity and examined their inhibitory effects in a human skin model. N-(2-hydroxycyclohexylvaliolamine (HV possesses a stronger inhibitory effect on melanin production than voglibose in a human skin model, suggesting that HV is a more potent anti-melanogenic agent for the skin.

  14. A Square Wave Based Electrical Method for Human Skin Moisture Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolin Zhou; Yonggui Dong

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content measurement of human skin is a significant way to assess skin conditions and diagnose diseases that influence skin function. The necessity of evaluating the efficacy of a cosmetic product makes it important to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurement. A pair of interdigitated gold electrodes was fabricated on the printed circuit board (PCB) substrate and utilized directly in contact with the measured skin. A square-wave voltage at a single frequency was applied to the electrodes and the corresponding response current was measured to get the equivalent impedance of human skin. Since it's easy to generate and control a square-wave signal by digital electric circuits, this method is suitable to be used in the portable application. The experimental results indicate that good repeatability and satisfied accuracy can be obtained by this method.

  15. Cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topical lidocaine formulation in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolsted, K; Benfeldt, E; Kissmeyer, A-M;

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the metabolising capacity of the human skin in relation to topically applied drugs and formulations. We chose lidocaine as a model compound since the metabolic pathways are well known from studies concerning hepatic metabolism following systemic drug administration. However......, the enzymes involved are also expressed in the skin. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the extent of the cutaneous in vivo metabolism of topically applied lidocaine in human volunteers. A dose of 5 mg/cm(2) of Xylocaine(R) (5% lidocaine) ointment was applied onto the buttock skin...... of the volunteers. After 2 h, residual formulation was removed, and two 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from each volunteer. The quantity of lidocaine extracted from the skin samples (epidermis + dermis) was 109 +/- 43 ng/mm(2) skin. One metabolite (monoethylglycine xylidide, MEGX) was detected in...

  16. Mechanical properties of an artificial vascularized human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passot, A.; Cabodevila, G.

    2011-05-01

    In order to make blood sample tests an artificial skin similar to that of the baby's heel is modeled and realized. The most superficial bloodstream and the two main layers of the skin -epidermis and dermis- have to be recreated. Studies and capillaroscopies of the baby's heel give characteristics of these layers and the bloodstream. The skin is viscohyperelastic, but the choice of materials that will be used is based on the Young's modulus. The epidermis layer is based on a stronger less adhesive silicon rubber Elastosil. The dermis layer is composed of a mixture based on a very soft sticky silicon rubber Silgel and Sylgard. The mixture of Silgel with 5% Sylgard has an elastic modulus of 48 kPa which is similar to that of the dermis. The artificial skin is an assembly of several layers including a layer of Sylgard that is structured by a mold representing the capillary network and adapted to manufacturing processes in a clean room. Each layer is deposited by spin coating and is combined with the other through adhesion. Mechanical tests such as tension are performed to verify the mechanical properties of the artificial skin.

  17. Prolonged viability of human organotypic skin explant in culture method (hOSEC)*

    OpenAIRE

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone; Guedes, Flávia Araújo; Leite, Marcel Nani; Passos, Williane Rodrigues; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Das, Pranab Kummar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of co...

  18. Shifts in human skin and nares microbiota of healthy children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Julia; Conlan, Sean; Polley, Eric C.; Segre, Julia A.; Kong, Heidi H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterization of the topographical and temporal diversity of the microbial collective (microbiome) hosted by healthy human skin established a reference for studying disease-causing microbiomes. Physiologic changes occur in the skin as humans mature from infancy to adulthood. Thus, characterizations of adult microbiomes might have limitations when considering pediatric disorders such as atopic dermatitis (AD) or issues such as sites of microbial carriage. The objective of this st...

  19. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  20. Human Skin as Arrays of Helical Antennas in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Agranat, Aharon J.

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography showed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. A computer simulation study of these structures in millimeter and submillimeter wave bands show that the human skin functions as an array of low-Q helical antennas. Experimental evidence is presented that the spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure.

  1. Prediction of rickettsial skin eschars in humans using an experimental guinea pig model

    OpenAIRE

    La Scola, B; Bechah, Y.; Lepidi, H; Raoult, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Until now, when a new Rickettsia species was isolated in a tick, it was not possible to predict whether it was a human pathogen or if it would cause a skin eschar at the infection site. Guinea pigs are injected intradermally with 25 different Rickettsia species or subspecies: 16 induced an eschar, 5 induced inflammatory lesions and 4 have no effect. We observed that the occurrence of skin eschars in this model was significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with observations of skin eschars in humans...

  2. Percutaneous penetration and genotoxicity of 4,4'-methylenedianiline through rat and human skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA) is a primary aromatic amine used in the plastics industry and is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as an animal carcinogen and possible human carcinogen. In order to estimate human exposure it is useful to determine percutaneous penetration. Previous studies have suggested that both rat and human skin were permeable to MDA, with greater penetration being seen through human skin. In this study no significant difference was seen between the percutaneous penetration of MDA through human or rat skin for three different treatment levels: 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg per skin membrane (0.32 cm2). The apparent dermal flux was calculated as 0.7±0.3 and 10.1±2.0 μ/cm2/h for the 0.01 and 0.1 mg treatments, respectively. The permeability constant Kp was estimated at 1.8x10-3±0.5 cm/h and the lag time at 3.5±0.5 h. MDA absorbed into the skin was found to be bioavailable. Experiments also showed that after application of 0.1 mg MDA, 4% penetrated through latex and nitrile gloves, respectively. The potential genotoxicity of MDA in human skin was assessed by DNA 32P-postlabelling; levels of DNA adducts were detected, following the treatment and penetration of 1 mg MDA

  3. Repair of DNA damage in light sensitive human skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, I.; Varga, L.; Tam' asi P., Gundy, S.

    1978-12-01

    Repair of uv-light induced DNA damage and changes in the semiconservative DNA synthesis were studied by in vitro autoradiography in the skin of patients with lightdermatoses (polymorphous light eruption, porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria) and xeroderma pigmentosum as well as in that of healthy controls. In polymorphous light eruption the semiconservative DNA replication rate was more intensive in the area of the skin lesions and in the repeated phototest site, the excision repair synthesis appeared to be unaltered. In cutaneous prophyrias a decreased rate of the repair incorporation could be detected. Xeroderma pigmentosum was characterized by a strongly reduced repair synthesis.

  4. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia; Zeichner, Joshua; Berson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2 (P The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):863-868. PMID:27391637

  5. In vitro micro-physiological immune-competent model of the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Ting, Fiona Chia Wan

    2016-05-21

    Skin allergy, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis, are common occupational and environmental health problems affecting the quality of life of a significant proportion of the world population. Since all new ingredients to be incorporated into a product are potential skin allergens, it is essential that these ingredients be first tested for their allergenic potential. However, despite the considerable effort using animal models to understand the underlying mechanism of skin sensitization, to date, the molecular and cellular responses due to skin contact with sensitizers are still not fully understood. To replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of reconstructed organotypic in vitro models of human skin. Here we describe a miniaturized immune competent in vitro model of human skin based on 3D co-culture of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) as a model of the epidermis barrier and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line (U937) as a model of human dendritic cells. The biological model was fitted in a microfluidic-based cell culture system that provides a dynamic cellular environment that mimics the in vivo environment of skin. The dynamic perfusion of culture media significantly improved the tight junction formation as evidenced by measuring higher values of TEER compared to static culture. This setting also maintained the high viability of cells over extended periods of time up to 17 days. The perfusion-based culture also allows growth of the cells at the air-liquid interface by exposing the apical side of the cells to air while providing the cell nutrients through a basolateral fluidic compartment. The microsystem has been evaluated to investigate the effect of the chemical and physical (UV irradiation) stimulation on the skin barrier (i.e. the TJ integrity). Three-tiered culture differential stimulation allowed the investigation of the

  6. UV-induced inhibition of adipokine production in subcutaneous fat aggravates dermal matrix degradation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure to the human skin reduces triglycerides contents and lipid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat. Because adiponectin and leptin are the most abundant adipokines from the SC fat, we aim to investigate how they interact with UV exposure and skin aging. The expressions of adiponectin and leptin were significantly decreased in SC fat of sun-exposed forearm skin, in comparison with that of sun-protected buttock skin of the same elderly individuals, indicating that chronic UV exposure decreases both adipokines. Acute UV irradiation also decreased the expressions of adiponectin and leptin in SC fat. The expressions of adiponectin receptor 1/2 and leptin receptor were significantly decreased in the dermis as well as in SC fat. Moreover, while exogenous adiponectin and leptin administration prevented UV- and TNF-α induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression, they also increased UV- and TNF-α induced reduction of type 1 procollagen production. Silencing of adiponectin, leptin or their receptors led to an increased MMP-1 and a decreased type 1 procollagen expression, which was reversed by treatment with recombinant human adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, UV exposure decreases the expression of adiponectin and leptin, leading to the exacerbation of photoaging by stimulating MMP-1 expression and inhibiting procollagen synthesis. PMID:27161953

  7. Evaluation of Effect of Oleuropein on Skin Wound Healing in Aged Male Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mehraein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Olive oil and olive leaf extract are used for treatment of skin diseases and wounds in Iran. The main component of olive leaf extract is Oleuropein. This research is focused on the effects of Oleuropein on skin wound healing in aged male Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Oleuropein was provided by Razi Herbal Medicine Institute, Lorestan, Iran. Twenty four male Balb/c mice, 16 months of age, were divided equally into control and experimental groups. Under ether anesthesia, the hairs on the back of neck of all groups were shaved and a 1 cm long full-thickness incision was made. The incision was then left un-sutured. The experimental group received intradermal injections with a daily single dose of 50 mg/kg Oleuropein for a total period of 7 days. The control group received only distilled water. On days 3 and 7 after making the incision and injections, mice were sacrificed, and the skin around incision area was dissected and stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Van Gieson’s methods for tissue analysis. In addition, western blot analysis was carried out to evaluate the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein expression. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. The t test was applied to assess the significance of changes between control and experimental groups. Results: Oleuropein not only reduced cell infiltration in the wound site on days 3 and 7 post incision, but also a significant increase in collagen fiber deposition and more advanced re- epithelialization were observed (p<0.05 in the experimental group as compared to the control group. The difference of hair follicles was not significant between the two groups at the same period of time. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed an increased in VEGF protein level from samples collected on days 3 and 7 post-incision of experimental group as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion

  8. Human lens colouration, age and cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The human lens biosynthesises UV filter compounds which effectively remove light in the 300-400nm band. These chemicals are present either as an aid to visual acuity, or to filter out damaging UV radiation. The primate UV filters are 3-hydroxykynurenine analogues derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. We have recently demonstrated that these endogenous UV filters are not innocuous, but are in fact capable of binding to proteins, including the crystalline proteins which make up the bulk of the lens. Thus, over time, the levels of protein - bound UV filters increase and this results in the human lens becoming progressively more yellow as we age. This colouration affects our colour vision and it may also be responsible for the brown colour of lenses which is the hallmark of age-related nuclear cataract. An understanding of the intrinsic instability of the endogenous UV filters, combined with changes in the internal transport of these and other small molecular weight compounds including antioxidants, such as glutathione, is allowing us to gain an insight into the processes responsible for the development of age-related cataract: the major cause of world blindness

  9. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.;

    2007-01-01

    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis......CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease...... xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4(+), but not...

  10. Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bong-Jeun; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Son, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae Soon; Kim, So-Yeun; Kim, Yeoung-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin was investigated for further industrial application. The green tea polyphenol was separated and irradiated at 40 kGy by y-ray. For an anti-wrinkle effect, the collagenase inhibition effect was higher in the irradiated sample (65.3%) than that of the non-irradiated control (56.8%) at 200 ppm of the concentration (p green tea polyphenol did not change and even increased its anti-wrinkle, skin-whitening and anticancer effects on the human skin. The results indicated that irradiated green tea polyphenol can be used as a natural ingredient with excellent physiological functions for the human skin through cosmetic or food composition. PMID:16173528

  11. Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin is facilitated by hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navin Chandrakanth; Sanchez, Washington Y; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S; Barnard, Ross T

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium is an important micronutrient essential for various biological processes and its deficiency has been linked to several inflammatory disorders in humans. Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious. Our primary aim in this study was to estimate the extent of magnesium ion permeation through human skin and the role of hair follicles in facilitating the permeation. Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. We also found that hair follicles make a significant contribution to magnesium penetration. PMID:27624531

  12. GX-50抗皮肤衰老的研究%Anti-skin aging effect of GX-50

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯雪峰; 宋小飞; 王朝霞; 戴靖波; 唐茂萍; 陈晓辉; 宋肖静; 高萍; 乔中东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of GX-50 against skin aging. Methods GX-50 was applied on the back of mice aged 20 months, and the effect of GX-50 on mouse skin was observed with HE staining and immunohistochemistry. Human skin fibroblasts were primarily cultured, senescent cell model was established by H2O2 induction, and blank control group, DMSO group, GX-50 group, H2O2 group, and GX-50 + H2O2 group (pretreatment with GX-50 + H2O2 treatment) were divided. The anti-aging effect of GX-50 on primary human skin fibroblasts was examined by SA-p-Gal staining, as well as determination of secreted malondialdehyde ( MDA) concentration and intracellular reactive oxygen species ( ROS) content. The irritation characteristics of GX-50 were detected by Draize eye test. Results The histological observation revealed that the GX-50 treated skin exhibited better appearance and higher collagen content. P-galactosidase in human skin fibroblasts was reduced by GX-50. Compared with blank control group, the secretion of MDA was down-regulated by 30.45% and the fluorescence value of ROS was down-regulated by 8.03% in GX-50 group (P < 0. 05) . Compared with H2O2 group, the secretion of MDA was down-regulated by 61.46% and the fluorescence value of ROS was down-regulated by 8. 36% in GX-50 + H2O2 group (P <0. 05) . Draize eye test showed the irritation score of GX-50 was 0. Conclusion GX-50 has protective and anti-aging effect on skin, and may serve as a potential cosmetic additive against skin aging.%目的 研究GX-50抗皮肤衰老的作用.方法 通过在20月高龄小鼠背部涂抹GX-50,采用HE染色和免疫组织化学法对GX-50抗皮肤衰老的作用进行组织学观察.原代培养人皮肤成纤维细胞,采用H2O2诱导建立皮肤细胞衰老模型,分为空白对照组、DMSO组、GX-50组、H2O2组和GX-50预处理后H2O2处理组(GX-50+H2O2组);采用β-半乳糖苷酶染色实验以及测定细胞分泌物丙二醛(MDA)和细胞

  13. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate mi...

  14. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the increase of the carotenoid antioxidant concentration in human skin after a 1-week diet with ecological eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2009-03-01

    Skin aging is mainly caused by the destructive action of free radicals, produced by the UV light of the sun. The human skin has developed a protection system against these highly reactive molecules in the form of the antioxidative potential. Carotenoids are one of the main components of the antioxidants of the human skin. From former studies, it is known that skin aging is reduced in individuals with high levels of carotenoids. Because most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism, they must be up taken by nutrition. Using noninvasive Raman spectroscopic measurements it is demonstrated that not only fruits and vegetables but also eggs contain high concentrations of antioxidants including carotenoids, which are even doubled in the case of ecological eggs. After a 1-week diet with ecological eggs performed by six volunteers, it is found that the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers increased by approx. 20%. Our study does not intend to recommend exorbitant egg consumption, as eggs also contain harmful cholesterol. But in the case of egg consumption, ecological eggs from hens kept on pasture should be preferred to also receive a benefit for the skin.

  15. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations. PMID:20384898

  16. Innervation territories of single sympathetic C fibers in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, M; Schmidt, R; Bickel, A; Torebjörk, H E; Handwerker, H O

    1998-04-01

    Microneurography techniques were used to record action potentials from unmyelinated nerve fibers (C fibers) in the cutaneous fascicles of the peroneal nerve in healthy volunteers. C units were identified by their long latency responses to electrical stimulation of their terminals in the skin. Their responsiveness to mechanical or heat stimuli applied to the skin or to sympathetic reflex provocation tests was determined by transient slowing of conduction velocity following activation (marking technique). In a sample of 381 C units, 59 were unresponsive to mechanical and thermal stimulation of their endings, but responded to sympathetic reflex provocation tests, e.g., arousal or deep inspiration. They were classified as sympathetic efferent units. On average, conduction velocities of sympathetic units were lower (0.78 +/- 0.12 m/s, mean +/- SD) than those of mechano-heat (CMH) or mechanoresponsive (CM) afferent C units (0.91 +/- 0.14 m/s). Endings of most of the sympathetic units were located in the skin of toes or in the foot dorsum. Innervation territories of 16 sympathetic units were mapped by means of conditioning transcutaneous electrical stimuli. Twelve units had one continuous skin territory, whereas two units had two and two other units had three and five separate territories, respectively. The mean innervated area was 128 mm2 (range: 24-350 mm2). Innervation territories of sympathetic units were of approximately the same size in different skin regions on the lower leg, foot, or toes. Based on responses to whole body cooling and warming, two units were tentatively classified as vasoconstrictor and sudomotor units, respectively. Eleven units were tested for responsiveness to iontophoresis of acetylcholine in their innervation territories. In five of them, activity was induced that was not due to central reflex activity but instead due to antidromic activation from the peripheral terminals. Iontophoresis of saline or histamine was ineffective. These findings

  17. Fermentation of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, as skin probiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muya Shu

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference creates an ecological competition between commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Through fermentation of milk with gut-friendly bacteria, yogurt is an excellent aid to balance the bacteriological ecosystem in the human intestine. Here, we demonstrate that fermentation of glycerol with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes, a skin commensal bacterium, can function as a skin probiotic for in vitro and in vivo growth suppression of USA300, the most prevalent community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA. We also promote the notion that inappropriate use of antibiotics may eliminate the skin commensals, making it more difficult to fight pathogen infection. This study warrants further investigation to better understand the role of fermentation of skin commensals in infectious disease and the importance of the human skin microbiome in skin health.

  18. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Astrid A; Usta, Mustafa; Krul, Cyrille A M

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air-liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. PMID:22507867

  19. Pathomorphology of face and neck skin in women of different age categories with an additional internal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups with an additional internal pathology in this work intraoperative biopsy material of skin of 105 women at the age from 20 to 75 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels, serial sections was investigated with the help of morphometry. It was determined, that involution dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvessels bed. There is growth of relative microvessels volume in reticular layer of derma in women of older age groups. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. It is typical at the patients with nicotinic dependence, ischemic heart disease, hypertonic disease, a diabetes, and also adiposity of a different degree essential infringement of microvessels bed structure of a skin that gives the basis for allocation of the given contingent of patients as group high intraoperative and postoperative risk at carrying out of operative interventions for correction of face skin involutive changes.

  20. Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Roland Bazin,2 Sabine Laquieze,3 Virginie Rubert,1 Elisa Simonpietri,4 Bertrand Piot1 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2RB Consult, Bievres, France; 3Private Dermatology Consultancy Practice, Montpellier, France; 4BIOTHERM International, Levallois-Perret, France Objectives: Aging signs can be classified into four main categories: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman

  1. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Behnaz, Alex; Zhang, Yihui; Yu, Ki Jun; Cheng, Huanyu; Shi, Mingxing; Bian, Zuguang; Liu, Zhuangjian; Kim, Yun-Soung; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Park, Jae Suk; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Rogers, John A.

    2013-10-01

    Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.

  2. Absorption of human skin and its detecting platform in the process of laser cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Lin; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Yang

    2000-10-01

    Because of the melanin, hemoglobin and water molecules, etc. contained, light absorption of human skin tissue changes with wavelength of light. This is the principle used in laser cosmetology for treating pigment diseases and vascular lesion diseases as well as skin decoration such as body tattooing, eyebrow tattooing, etc. The parameters of treatment used in laser cosmetology principally come from the research of the skin tissue optical characteristics of whites, and it is not suitable for the Oriental. The absorption spectrum of yellow race alive skin has been researched. The detecting platform for use in the measuring of vivi-tissue absorption spectrum has been developed which using opto-electronic nondestructive testing and virtual instrument techniques. The degree of pathological changes of skin can be detected by this platform also, thus the shortcoming of dosage selection in laser clinical treatments which have been decided only by naked eye observation and past experience of doctors can be solved.

  3. Nanotribological characterization of human hair and skin using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy hair and skin is highly desired. Characterization of their morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties) is essential to enhance understanding of hair and skin and to advance the science. Literature on the tribological characterization of hair and skin is scarce to date. The paper presents nanotribological data and analysis on hair (Caucasian, Asian, and African hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and treated conditions) and synthetic hair and skin, as well as roughness data of human skin replica. Roughness statistics are presented to characterize the vertical and spatial surface parameters. Average coefficient of friction values were determined for each ethnicity and hair type, and are discussed. The directionality dependence of friction is also discussed. Magnitude and spatial distribution of adhesive force are used to estimate thickness and distribution of the conditioner film

  4. GENETICS OF HUMAN AGE RELATED DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, I; Thukral, N; Hasija, Y

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological phenomenon. The incidence of age related disorders (ARDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases increase rapidly with aging. ARDs are becoming a key social and economic trouble for the world's elderly population (above 60 years), which is expected to reach 2 billion by 2050. Advancement in understanding of genetic associations, particularly through genome wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed a substantial contribution of genes to human aging and ARDs. In this review, we have focused on the recent understanding of the extent to which genetic predisposition may influence the aging process. Further analysis of the genetic association studies through pathway analysis several genes associated with multiple ARDs have been highlighted such as apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cadherin 13 (CDH13), CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 (CDKAL-1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), indicating that these genes could play a pivotal role in ARD causation. These genes were found to be significantly enriched in Jak-STAT signalling pathway, asthma and allograft rejection. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin (INS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), estrogen receptor1 (ESR1), transforming growth factor, beta 1(TGFB1) and calmodulin 1 (CALM1) were found to be highly interconnected in network analysis. We believe that extensive research on the presence of common genetic variants among various ARDs may facilitate scientists to understand the biology behind ARDs causation. PMID:26856084

  5. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

  6. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C;

    1993-01-01

    and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface......The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used. The...... cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...

  7. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zelenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0 with a constant (LC, or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging.

  8. Essential role of RAB27A in determining constitutive human skin color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Yoshida-Amano

    Full Text Available Human skin color is predominantly determined by melanin produced in melanosomes within melanocytes and subsequently distributed to keratinocytes. There are many studies that have proposed mechanisms underlying ethnic skin color variations, whereas the processes involved from melanin synthesis in melanocytes to the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes are common among humans. Apart from the activities in the melanogenic rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosinase, in melanocytes and the amounts and distribution patterns of melanosomes in keratinocytes, the abilities of the actin-associated factors in charge of melanosome transport within melanocytes also regulate pigmentation. Mutations in genes encoding melanosome transport-related molecules, such as MYO5A, RAB27A and SLAC-2A, have been reported to cause a human pigmentary disease known as Griscelli syndrome, which is associated with diluted skin and hair color. Thus we hypothesized that process might play a role in modulating skin color variations. To address that hypothesis, the correlations of expression of RAB27A and its specific effector, SLAC2-A, to melanogenic ability were evaluated in comparison with tyrosinase, using human melanocytes derived from 19 individuals of varying skin types. Following the finding of the highest correlation in RAB27A expression to the melanogenic ability, darkly-pigmented melanocytes with significantly higher RAB27A expression were found to transfer significantly more melanosomes to keratinocytes than lightly-pigmented melanocytes in co-culture and in human skin substitutes (HSSs in vivo, resulting in darker skin color in concert with the difference observed in African-descent and Caucasian skins. Additionally, RAB27A knockdown by a lentivirus-derived shRNA in melanocytes concomitantly demonstrated a significantly reduced number of transferred melanosomes to keratinocytes in co-culture and a significantly diminished epidermal melanin content skin color intensity (

  9. Permeation of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles through intact and damaged human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate percutaneous penetration of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (PtNPs: 5.8 ± 0.9 nm, RhNPs: 5.3 ± 1.9 nm) through human skin. Salts compounds of these metals are sensitizers and some also carcinogenic agents. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged skin. PtNPs and RhNPs, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, were synthesized by reduction of Na2PtCl6 and RhCl3·3H2O respectively. Suspensions with a concentration of 2.0 g/L of PtNPs and RhNPs were dispersed separately in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and applied as donor phases to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Measurements of the content of the metals in the receiving solution and in the skin were performed subsequently. Rhodium skin permeation was demonstrated through damaged skin, with a permeation flux of 0.04 ± 0.04 μg cm−2 h−1 and a lag time of 7.9 ± 1.1 h, while no traces of platinum were found in receiving solutions. Platinum and rhodium skin-analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metals in damaged skin. Rh and Pt applied as NPs can penetrate the skin barrier and Rh can be found in receiving solutions. These experiments pointed out the need for skin contamination prevention, since even a minor injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase penetration

  10. Permeation of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles through intact and damaged human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Marcella [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy); Crosera, Matteo; Bianco, Carlotta; Adami, Gianpiero; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo [University of Trieste, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Italy); Jaganjac, Morana [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Oxidative Stress, Department of Molecular Medicine (Croatia); Bovenzi, Massimo; Filon, Francesca Larese, E-mail: larese@units.it [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate percutaneous penetration of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (PtNPs: 5.8 ± 0.9 nm, RhNPs: 5.3 ± 1.9 nm) through human skin. Salts compounds of these metals are sensitizers and some also carcinogenic agents. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged skin. PtNPs and RhNPs, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, were synthesized by reduction of Na{sub 2}PtC{sub l6} and RhCl{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O respectively. Suspensions with a concentration of 2.0 g/L of PtNPs and RhNPs were dispersed separately in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and applied as donor phases to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Measurements of the content of the metals in the receiving solution and in the skin were performed subsequently. Rhodium skin permeation was demonstrated through damaged skin, with a permeation flux of 0.04 ± 0.04 μg cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} and a lag time of 7.9 ± 1.1 h, while no traces of platinum were found in receiving solutions. Platinum and rhodium skin-analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metals in damaged skin. Rh and Pt applied as NPs can penetrate the skin barrier and Rh can be found in receiving solutions. These experiments pointed out the need for skin contamination prevention, since even a minor injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase penetration.

  11. Percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of PCBs: In vitro studies with human skin and in vivo studies in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the entry of polychlorinated biphenyls through the skin into the body and subsequent disposition aids estimation of potential for human health hazard. [14C]Aroclor 1242 and [14C]Aroclor 1254 were separately administered intravenously and topically to rhesus monkeys. Following iv administration, 30-d excretion was 39.4 +/- 5.9% urine and 16.1 +/- 0.8% feces (total 55.5 +/- 5.1%) for Aroclor 1242, and 7.0 +/- 2.2% urine and 19.7 +/- 5.8% feces (total 26.7 +/- 7.5%) for Aroclor 1254. Mineral oil and trichlorobenzene are common PCB cosolvents in transformers. Skin absorption of Aroclor 1242 was 20.4 +/- 8.5% formulated in mineral oil and 18.0 +/- 3.8% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). Absorption of Aroclor 1254 was 20.8 +/- 8.3% in mineral oil and 14.6 +/- 3.6% in trichlorobenzene (p greater than .05). PCBs are thus absorbed through skin, and excretion from the body is slow. Vehicle (trichlorobenzene or mineral oil) did not affect percutaneous absorption. In vitro skin absorption in human cadaver skin did not correlate with in vivo findings. This was due to lack of PCB partition from skin into the water receptor fluid, even with addition of 6% Oleth 20 (Volpo 20) solubilizer. Skin decontamination of PCBs showed soap and water to be as effective as or better than the solvent ethanol, mineral oil, and trichlorobenzene in removing PCBs from skin. There is a dynamic time lapse for PCBs between initial skin contact and skin absorption (irreversible removal). Thus initially most PCBs could be removed from skin, but this ability decreased with time to the point where at 24 h only about 25% of the initial PCB skin dose could be recovered with skin washing

  12. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. In this review we take the nutritional supplement Pycnogenol®, which is based on an extract prepared from French marine pine bark extract, as an example to illustrate this development. Accordingly, the existing data provide compelling evidence that Pycnogenol® intake does not only provide photoprotection, but may be used to (i) reduce hyperpigmentation of human skin and (ii) improve skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis. PMID:26492562

  13. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study

    OpenAIRE

    BERTUCCELLI, GIUSEPPE; Zerbinati, Nicola; Marcellino, Massimiliano; NANDA KUMAR, NAVALPUR SHANMUGAM; He, Fang; TSEPAKOLENKO, VLADIMIR; Cervi, Joseph; LORENZETTI, ALDO; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40–65 years, all of whom show...

  14. Influence of two different IR radiators on the antioxidative potential of the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the fast in vivo detection of the concentration of carotenoid antioxidant substances such as beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin and for the measurement of their degradation dynamics, subsequent to infrared (IR) irradiation emitted by two different IR radiators applied at the same power density. One of the radiators was equipped with a water filter in front of the radiation source (WIRA) and the other was a usual broadband system without a water filter (standard IR radiator – SIR). It was found that the SIR exerted a higher influence on the degradation of carotenoids in the skin than the WIRA. Furthermore, all twelve volunteers who participated in the study felt that the irradiation with the SIR was disagreeably warmer on the skin surface compared to the WIRA, in spite of the same power density values for both radiators on the skin surface. The average degradation magnitude of the carotenoids in the skin of all volunteers after an IR irradiation was determined at 23% for WIRA and 33% for the SIR. A correlation (R2 ∼ 0.6) was found between the individual level of carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers and the magnitude of degradation of the carotenoids for both IR radiators. Taking the previous investigations into consideration, which clearly showed production of free radicals in the skin subsequent to IR irradiation, it can be concluded that during the application of WIRA irradiation on the skin, fewer radicals are produced in comparison to the SIR

  15. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Dreier

    Full Text Available In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers.

  16. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers. PMID:26751684

  17. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Human Skin Using a Commercial Fiber Optic Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a reliable and easy to implement technique in human tissue characterization. In this work we evaluate the performance of the commercial USB4000 miniature fiber optic spectrometer in the in-vivo measurement of the diffuse reflectance spectra of different healthy skin sites and lesions in a population of 54 volunteers. Results show, that this spectrometer reproduces well the typical signatures of skin spectra over the 400-1000 nm region. Remarkable spectral differences exist between lesions and normal surrounding skin. A diffusion-based model was used to simulate reflectance spectra collected by the optical probe of the system

  18. Imaging the electric field associated with mouse and human skin wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Ramlatchan, Samdeo; Sanger, Richard; Smith, Peter J.S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive instrument called the bioelectric field imager (BFI) for mapping the electric field between the epidermis and the stratum corneum near wounds in both mouse and human skin. Rather than touching the skin, the BFI vibrates a small metal probe with a displacement of 180 μm in air above the skin to detect the surface potential of the epidermis through capacitative coupling. Here we describe our first application of the BFI measuring the electric field between the st...

  19. Effects of industrial detergents on the barrier function of human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2000-01-01

    nickel was examined in an in-vitro model using human skin. Twenty-four of the most widely used detergents were studied. After a two-hour exposure to an aqueous detergent solution, penetration of labeled model compounds was followed for 66 hours. Interindividual variation was substantial, but 12 of the......Detergents are involved in the causation of contact dermatitis and in promoting percutaneous absorption of toxic chemicals, but limited information is available to allow an assessment of their relative effects on the skin barrier function. The effect of detergents on skin permeability to water and...

  20. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil;

    2007-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal and...... nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found to be...

  1. OCT-based label-free in vivo lymphangiography within human skin and areola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Qin, Wan; Qi, Xiaoli; Kalkan, Goknur; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limitations of current imaging techniques, visualization of lymphatic capillaries within tissue in vivo has been challenging. Here, we present a label-free high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) based lymphangiography (OLAG) within human skin in vivo. OLAG enables rapid (~seconds) mapping of lymphatic networks, along with blood vessel networks, over 8 mm x 8 mm of human skin and 5 mm x 5 mm of human areola. Moreover, lymphatic system’s response to inflammation within human skin is monitored throughout an acne lesion development over 7 days. The demonstrated results promise OLAG as a revolutionary tool in the clinical research and treatment of patients with pathologic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.

  2. OCT-based label-free in vivo lymphangiography within human skin and areola

    OpenAIRE

    Utku Baran; Wan Qin; Xiaoli Qi; Goknur Kalkan; Ruikang K. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limitations of current imaging techniques, visualization of lymphatic capillaries within tissue in vivo has been challenging. Here, we present a label-free high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) based lymphangiography (OLAG) within human skin in vivo. OLAG enables rapid (~seconds) mapping of lymphatic networks, along with blood vessel networks, over 8 mm x 8 mm of human skin and 5 mm x 5 mm of human areola. Moreover, lymphatic system’s response to inflammation within hu...

  3. RNA isolation for transcriptomics of human and mouse small skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breit Timo M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of RNA from skin biopsies presents a challenge, due to the tough nature of skin tissue and a high presence of RNases. As we lacked the dedicated equipment, i.e. homogenizer or bead-beater, needed for the available RNA from skin isolation methods, we adapted and tested our zebrafish single-embryo RNA-isolation protocol for RNA isolation from skin punch biopsies. Findings We tested our new RNA-isolation protocol in two experiments: a large-scale study with 97 human skin samples, and a small study with 16 mouse skin samples. Human skin was sampled with 4.0 mm biopsy punches and for the mouse skin different punch diameter sizes were tested; 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. The average RNA yield in human samples was 1.5 μg with an average RNA quality RIN value of 8.1. For the mouse biopsies, the average RNA yield was 2.4 μg with an average RIN value of 7.5. For 96% of the human biopsies and 100% of the mouse biopsies we obtained enough high-quality RNA. The RNA samples were successfully tested in a transcriptomics analysis using the Affymetrix and Roche NimbleGen platforms. Conclusions Using our new RNA-isolation protocol, we were able to consistently isolate high-quality RNA, which is apt for further transcriptomics analysis. Furthermore, this method is already useable on biopsy material obtained with a punch diameter as small as 1.5 mm.

  4. Electrical impedance related to experimental induced changes of human skin and oral mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicander, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    There is a need for an objective and non-invasive method for assessing reactions in the human skin and oral mucosa, particularly for weak reactions. During the past few decades, several methods of measuring irritant responses have indeed been developed for the skin and to some extent also for the oral mucosa. The focus of this thesis is upon a new measurement system based on electrical impedance, which reflects structural and chemical changes in living tissues. The system is...

  5. A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Huon V.; Jourdan F.; Ratovoson D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the long-term objectives of this study is to be able to act quickly on body burns, to avoid propagating lesions due to heat diffusion. An experimental and numerical study is presented to better understand the thermomechanical behavior of the skin and its direct environment when exposed to strong thermal variations. The experimental step, suggested in this article, consists in placing a cooled cylindrical steel bar on the skin of a human forearm and measuring the temperature change...

  6. Effects of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin on Revascularization of Full Thickness Skin Grafts in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Emami, Abol Hasan; Ghiasi, Sina; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza; MOHAMMADI, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autologous skin graft is frequently used in the field of plastic, and reconstructive surgery. The engraftment is dependent upon revascularization and angiogenesis, which can be regulated by different factors. In addition to its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin is shown to positively affect the wound healing process. Objectives: We studied effects of human erythropoietin on revascularization of full thickness skin grafts in rat. Materials and Methods: Forty adult Albino male r...

  7. The development of a 3D immunocompetent model of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first line of defence, skin is regularly exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical insults. Therefore, determining the skin sensitization potential of new chemicals is of paramount importance from the safety assessment and regulatory point of view. Given the questionable biological relevance of animal models to human as well as ethical and regulatory pressure to limit or stop the use of animal models for safety testing, there is a need for developing simple yet physiologically relevant models of human skin. Herein, we describe the construction of a novel immunocompetent 3D human skin model comprising of dendritic cells co-cultured with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This model culture system is simple to assemble with readily-available components and importantly, can be separated into its constitutive individual layers to allow further insight into cell–cell interactions and detailed studies of the mechanisms of skin sensitization. In this study, using non-degradable microfibre scaffolds and a cell-laden gel, we have engineered a multilayer 3D immunocompetent model comprised of keratinocytes and fibroblasts that are interspersed with dendritic cells. We have characterized this model using a combination of confocal microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy and have shown differentiation of the epidermal layer and formation of an epidermal barrier. Crucially the immune cells in the model are able to migrate and remain responsive to stimulation with skin sensitizers even at low concentrations. We therefore suggest this new biologically relevant skin model will prove valuable in investigating the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis and other skin pathologies in human. Once fully optimized, this model can also be used as a platform for testing the allergenic potential of new chemicals and drug leads. (paper)

  8. p53 Alterations in Human Skin : A Molecular Study Based on Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ling

    2001-01-01

    Mutation of the p53 gene appears to be an early event in skin cancer development. The present study is based on morphology and represents a cellular and genetic investigation of p53 alterations in normal human skin and basal cell cancer. Using double immunofluorescent labelling, we have demonstrated an increase in thymine dimers and p53 protein expression in the same keratinocytes following ultraviolet radiation. Large inter-individual differences in the kinetics of thymine dimer repair and ...

  9. Transdermal iontophoresis of the dopamine agonist 5-OH-DPAT in human skin in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, AK; Li, L; Dijkstra, D; Wikstrom, H; Danhof, M; Bouwstra, JA

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of transdermal iontophoretic delivery of a potent dopamine agonist 5-OH-DPAT was studied in vitro in side by side diffusion cells across human stratum corneum (HSC) and dermatomed human skin (DHS) according to the following protocol: 6 h of passive diffusion, 9 h of iontophoresis and

  10. Design and fabrication of a sensor integrated MEMS/NANO-skin system for human physiological response measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hongjie; Lin, Yingzi

    2010-04-01

    Human state in human-machine systems highly affects the system performance, and should be monitored. Physiological cues are more suitable for monitoring the human state in human-machine system. This study was focused on developing a new sensing system, i.e. NANO-Skin, to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition. The first part was to analyze the relation between human state and physiological cues. Generally, heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, operating force, blood alcohol concentration, sweat rate, and electromyography have close relation with human state, and can be measured from human skin. The second part was to compare common sensors, MEMS sensors, and NANO sensors. It was found that MEMS sensors and NANO sensors can offer unique contributions to the development of NANO-Skin. The third part was to discuss the design and manufacture of NANO-Skin. The NANO-Skin involves five components, the flexible substrate, sensors, special integrated circuit, interconnection between sensors and special integrated circuit, and protection layer. Experiments were performed to verify the measurement accuracy of NANO-Skin. It is feasible to use NANO-Skins to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition.

  11. AGE WISE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN HUMAN LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribeni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC results in between 2.5 lakhs to 1million deaths globally per annum. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. AIMS: Keeping this concept in view, a study was conducted in the Guwahati Zone of Northeast India, to compare the histomorphological features of the human liver in different age groups. SETTING AND DESIGN: Apparently healthy livers were obtained from 21 subjects on whom medicolegal post-mortems had been performed. Their ages varied from newborn to 90 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups. 7 specimens were taken from each group. (1 Pediatric (2 Adult (3 Old age. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In all the above age groups, immediately after removal of the livers, they were washed in normal saline, dried with blotting paper and weighed in an electronic weighing machine. Sections of liver were fixed, processed, cut and stained with Harris Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. RESULTS: The liver loses weight from 50 years onwards. There appears to be racial and environmental differences in the change in liver weight in old age. Autopsy studies show a diminution of nearly 46% in liver weight between the 3rd and 10th decades of life. The liver decreases in size with age. The hepatocytes are radially disposed in the liver lobule. They are piled up, forming a layer one cell thick (except in young children in a fashion similar to the bricks of a wall. These plates are directed from the periphery of the lobule to its centre and anastomose freely forming a complex labyrinthine and sponge-like structure. CONCLUSIONS: From the findings in the present study it can be concluded that: 1. Nowadays, the measurement of liver volume has gained practical use in relation to liver transplantation. 2. We have compared the histomorphology of adult liver with a child. The findings in both the groups are very similar. This feature is important, since in

  12. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles. PMID:25739908

  13. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  14. Phase II metabolism in human skin: skin explants show full coverage for glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, catechol methylation, and glutathione conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevski, Nenad; Swart, Piet; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Camenisch, Gian; Kretz, Olivier; Schiller, Hilmar; Walles, Markus; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Itin, Peter; Ashton-Chess, Joanna; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Although skin is the largest organ of the human body, cutaneous drug metabolism is often overlooked, and existing experimental models are insufficiently validated. This proof-of-concept study investigated phase II biotransformation of 11 test substrates in fresh full-thickness human skin explants, a model containing all skin cell types. Results show that skin explants have significant capacity for glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, catechol methylation, and glutathione conjugation. Novel skin metabolites were identified, including acyl glucuronides of indomethacin and diclofenac, glucuronides of 17β-estradiol, N-acetylprocainamide, and methoxy derivatives of 4-nitrocatechol and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene. Measured activities for 10 μM substrate incubations spanned a 1000-fold: from the highest 4.758 pmol·mg skin(-1)·h(-1) for p-toluidine N-acetylation to the lowest 0.006 pmol·mg skin(-1)·h(-1) for 17β-estradiol 17-glucuronidation. Interindividual variability was 1.4- to 13.0-fold, the highest being 4-methylumbelliferone and diclofenac glucuronidation. Reaction rates were generally linear up to 4 hours, although 24-hour incubations enabled detection of metabolites in trace amounts. All reactions were unaffected by the inclusion of cosubstrates, and freezing of the fresh skin led to loss of glucuronidation activity. The predicted whole-skin intrinsic metabolic clearances were significantly lower compared with corresponding whole-liver intrinsic clearances, suggesting a relatively limited contribution of the skin to the body's total systemic phase II enzyme-mediated metabolic clearance. Nevertheless, the fresh full-thickness skin explants represent a suitable model to study cutaneous phase II metabolism not only in drug elimination but also in toxicity, as formation of acyl glucuronides and sulfate conjugates could play a role in skin adverse reactions. PMID:25339109

  15. Prolonged viability of human organotypic skin explant in culture method (hOSEC)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone; Guedes, Flávia Araújo; Leite, Marcel Nani; Passos, Williane Rodrigues; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Das, Pranab Kummar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of cosmetics and demonstrate its viability through cutaneous keratinocytes' proliferative capacity up to 75 days in culture. METHODS: The skin explants obtained from surgeries were cultured in CO2-humid incubator. After 1, 7, 30 and 75 days in culture, skin fragments were harvested for analysis with histomorphological exam (HE staining) on all days of follow-up and immunohistochemistry for Ck5/6, Ck10 and Ki-67 only on the 75th day. RESULTS: On the 7th day, the epidermis was perfect in the dermoepidermal junction, showing the viability of the model. On the 30th day, the epidermis was thicker, with fewer layers on the stratum corneum, although the cutaneous structure was unaltered. On the 75th day, the skin became thinner but the dermoepidermal junctions were preserved and epidermal proliferation was maintained. After the 75th day on culture, the skin was similar to normal skin, expressing keratinocytes with Ck5/6 on supra-basal layers; Ck10 on differentiated layers; and viability could be assessed by the positivity of basal cells by Ki-67. CONCLUSION: The hOSEC model seems a good alternative to animal testing; it can be used as a preclinical test analogous to clinical human skin test with similar effectiveness and viability proven by immunohistological analyses. PMID:26131864

  16. CD44v6 expression in human skin keratinocytes as a possible mechanism for carcinogenesis associated with chronic arsenic exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, S.; Guo, S.; Guo, F; Yang, Q.; XIAO, X.; Murata, M.; Ohnishi, S.; Kawanishi, S; Ma, N

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a well-known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various types of human skin lesions, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, we repeatedly exposed the human spontaneously immortalized skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line to an environmentally relevant level of arsenic (0.05 ppm) in vitrofor 18 weeks. Following sodium arsenite administration, cell cycle, colo...

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Delivery System Containing Phytophospholipid Complex for Skin Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Monica; Mallya, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Citrus auranticum and Glycyrrhiza glabra are rich in anti-oxidant polyphenols helpful in prevention of skin aging. Polyphenols have high polarity and lower skin penetration resulting in lower cutaneous delivery. The present work is attempted to develop a novel polyherbal phospholipid complex cream to improve cutaneous delivery of polyphenols for sustained anti-oxidant action. Phytochemical and in vitro anti-oxidant evaluation was done on methanolic extracts of orange peel and liquorice powder. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and anti-oxidant assays were done on different ratios of orange peel and liquorice extract. Ratio 1:2 gave highest total phenolic content (TPC) (530.00 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g(-1) extract), total flavonoid content (TFC) (246.25 ± 1.03 mg rutin equivalent (RUE) g(-1) extract), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (87.99 ± 0.64%), and H2O2 scavenging activity (72.47 ± 0.86%) and hence was used for formulation. Solvent evaporation method using methanol with 1:1 extract to phospholipid ratio was found to have entrapment efficiency of 93.22 ± 0.26%. Evaluation parameters like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed formation of complex. The complex was formulated as oil-in-water cream and evaluated for various parameters. The optimized cream containing 1% complex was non-irritant and was found to be stable for 3-month period under conditions of stability study. Ex vivo diffusion studies showed that extract phospholipid complex cream had better retention of polyphenols in the skin when compared to conventional extract cream giving prolonged and stronger topical action. The cream had an anti-elastase activity of 28.02 ± 0.95% at concentration of 3000 μg ml(-1) (w/v). Thus, the developed safe and stable polyherbal phytophospholipid complex cream exhibited

  18. Variation in barrier impairment and inflammation of human skin as determined by sodium lauryl sulphate penetration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jongh; I. Jakasa; M.M. Verberk; S. Kezic

    2006-01-01

    Background Skin irritability after a brief exposure to the model skin irritant, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), is known to vary considerably between individuals. A difference in the skin barrier to SLS may contribute to this variation. To date, no human in vivo data have been available on SLS penetra

  19. Phototherapy in anti-aging and its photobiologic basics: a new approach to skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A

    2006-03-01

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging of the face are constantly ongoing, and eventually result in the typical "aged" face, with visible lines and wrinkles at rest, a variety of dyschromia and a tired, dull and lax epidermis over poorly organized elastotic dermal architecture characterized by many interfibrillary spaces. Both ablative and nonablative resurfacing have been reported as solutions, the former providing excellent results, but a long patient downtime, and the latter giving little or no downtime, but less-than-ideal results. In ablative resurfacing, the epidermis is removed and replaced with a "new" epidermis, whereas in the nonablative approach the epidermis is spared through some form of cooling. In both approaches, however, the goal is to create controlled amounts of thermal damage in the dermis to stimulate the wound healing process, thus generating a tighter, better organized, "younger" dermal matrix. A better approach might be to apply prevention, rather than the cure, and to treat subjects in their very early 20s, before even fine lines have begun to appear. This "photoanti-aging" approach could be achieved with the use of very low incident levels of photon energy to stimulate the skin cells, both epidermal and dermal, at cell-specific wavelengths based on the photobiological findings of the literature over the past two decades or so, in order to increase their resistance to the effects of chronological and photoaging. Lasers and IPL systems could be used, but are extremely expensive and therapist-intensive. A new generation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has appeared as the result of a spin-off from the US NASA Space Medicine Program, which are much more powerful than the previous generation with quasimonochromatic outputs. These LEDs can offer target specificity to achieve photobiomodulated enhanced action potentials of the skin cells, in particular mast cells, macrophages, endotheliocytes, and fibroblasts, plus increases in local blood and lymphatic

  20. Influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on the step phenomenon observed in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H G; Hilgner, W

    1979-03-31

    Comprehensive analysis of the mechanical properties of rat skin revealed the "step phenomenon". This particular observation was made after constant strain rate (analysis of stress strain curves) as well as after constant load (creep experiments). Relative low extensions or low loads were necessary to provoke the steps. In most cases two, sometimes three steps were observed. The step phenomenon was found mainly in skin strips punched out perpendicularly to the body axis. Probably some bonds in the fibrous network are broken giving way to additional elongation whereafter stronger links take over the stress. Since earlier studies demonstrated a pronounced influence of age and of desmotropic drugs on mechanical properties at ultimate load, e.g., tensile strength, ultimate modulus of elasticity, and ultimate strain, also the step phenomenon was studied under these conditions. In stress-strain experiments most of the steps were found at the ages of 2 and 4 months. Total stress loss and total work loss due to the steps were the highest at the age of 4 months. If, however, these values were calculated as percentage of ultimate values, the highest figures were found in young animals. Elongation gain due to the steps also showed a maximum at time of maturation, e.g., 4 months. Similar findings were achieved in creep experiments at medium load (200 g). After treatment with prednisolone acetate more steps and after treatment with D-penicillamine fewer steps were observed. In stress-strain experiments total stress loss and total work loss due to steps were more than twice as high than controls after prednisolone treatment and only one half after D-penicillamine. If calculated as percentage of ultimate stress or percentage of work input, these changes disappeared because of similar changes at ultimate load. However, elongation gain due to steps, which was not significantly influenced by prednisolone acetate but significantly decreased by D-penicillamine, showed the same changes

  1. The vasorelaxant effect of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide and amylin in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasbak, Philip; Eskesen, Karen; Lind, Peter Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    In this study we aimed to assess in vivo, the vasodilator effects of adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and amylin in human skin vasculature and compare the responses to the effects mediated by the endogenous neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and...... substance P and to examine the mRNA expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL-R) and receptor-activity modifying proteins, RAMP1, RAMP 2 and RAMP3 in human subcutaneous arteries. Changes in skin blood flow of the forearm were measured using a Laser Doppler Imager after intradermal injection of the...... injection of CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin induces long lasting dilatation of human skin vasculature by activation of CGRP1 receptors. PAMP induces transient vasodilatation. PAMP but not CGRP, adrenomedullin and amylin causes itch sensation and local erythema. The transient effect on vasodilatation as...

  2. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. (topical review)

  3. Quantifying the mechanical properties of human skin to optimise future microneedle device design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, R B; Coulman, S A; Birchall, J C; Evans, S L

    2012-01-01

    Microneedle devices are a promising minimally invasive means of delivering drugs/vaccines across or into the skin. However, there is currently a diversity of microneedle designs and application methods that have, primarily, been intuitively developed by the research community. To enable the rational design of optimised microneedle devices, a greater understanding of human skin biomechanics under small deformations is required. This study aims to develop a representative stratified model of human skin, informed by in vivo data. A multilayer finite element model incorporating the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis was established. This was correlated with a series of in-vivo indentation measurements, and the Ogden material coefficients were optimised using a material parameter extraction algorithm. The finite element simulation was subsequently used to model microneedle application to human skin before penetration and was validated by comparing these predictions with the in-vivo measurements. Our model has provided an excellent tool to predict micron-scale human skin deformation in vivo and is currently being used to inform optimised microneedle designs. PMID:21749225

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population.

  5. Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. PMID:14971768

  6. Results from in vitro and ex vivo skin aging models assessing the antiglycation and anti-elastase MMP-12 potential of glycylglycine oleamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Bogdanowicz, Marie-José Haure, Isabelle Ceruti, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi Department of Pharmacology, Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Toulouse, France Background: Glycation is an aging reaction of naturally occurring sugars with dermal proteins. Type I collagen and elastin are most affected by glycation during intrinsic chronological aging. Aim: To study the in vitro and ex vivo assays in human skin cells and explants and the antiaging effects of glycylglycine oleamide (GGO. Materials and methods: The antiglycation effect of GGO was assessed in a noncellular in vitro study on collagen and, ex vivo, by immunohistochemical staining on human skin explants (elastin network glycation. The ability of GGO to contract fibroblasts was assessed in a functional assay, and its anti-elastase (MMP-12 activity was compared to that of oleic acid alone, glycylglycine (GG alone, and oleic acid associated with GG. Results: In vitro, GGO reduced the glycation of type I collagen. Ex vivo, GGO restored the expression of fibrillin-1 inhibited by glycation. Furthermore, GGO induced a tissue retraction of almost 30%. Moreover, the MMP-12 activity was inhibited by up to 60%. Conclusion: Under the present in vitro and ex vivo conditions, GGO prevents glycation of the major structural proteins of the dermis, helping to reduce the risk of rigidification. By maintaining the elastic function of the skin, GGO may be a promising sparring partner for other topical antiaging agents. Keywords: extracellular matrix, glycylglycine oleamide, glycation, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-12, skin aging

  7. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin. PMID:26151288

  8. Human facial skin detection in thermal video to effectively measure electrodermal activity (EDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Leonard, Kevin R.; Nelson, Jill K.

    2011-06-01

    In the past, autonomic nervous system response has often been determined through measuring Electrodermal Activity (EDA), sometimes referred to as Skin Conductance (SC). Recent work has shown that high resolution thermal cameras can passively and remotely obtain an analog to EDA by assessing the activation of facial eccrine skin pores. This paper investigates a method to distinguish facial skin from non-skin portions on the face to generate a skin-only Dynamic Mask (DM), validates the DM results, and demonstrates DM performance by removing false pore counts. Moreover, this paper shows results from these techniques using data from 20+ subjects across two different experiments. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with primary screening questions for which some had jeopardy. In the second experiment, subjects experienced standard emotion-eliciting stimuli. The results from using this technique will be shown in relation to data and human perception (ground truth). This paper introduces an automatic end-to-end skin detection approach based on texture feature vectors. In doing so, the paper contributes not only a new capability of tracking facial skin in thermal imagery, but also enhances our capability to provide non-contact, remote, passive, and real-time methods for determining autonomic nervous system responses for medical and security applications.

  9. The role of calcium in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  10. Proteomic analysis of the human skin proteome after in vivo treatment with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Parkinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skin has a variety of functions that are incompletely understood at the molecular level. As the most accessible tissue in the body it often reveals the first signs of inflammation or infection and also represents a potentially valuable source of biomarkers for several diseases. In this study we surveyed the skin proteome qualitatively using gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS and quantitatively using an isobaric tagging strategy (iTRAQ to characterise the response of human skin following exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. RESULTS: A total of 653 skin proteins were assigned, 159 of which were identified using GeLC-MS/MS and 616 using iTRAQ, representing the most comprehensive proteomic study in human skin tissue. Statistical analysis of the available iTRAQ data did not reveal any significant differences in the measured skin proteome after 4 hours exposure to the model irritant SDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first step in defining the critical response to an irritant at the level of the proteome and provides a valuable resource for further studies at the later stages of irritant exposure.

  11. Prostanoids are not involved in postocclusive reactive hyperaemia in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Marcin; Gaillard-Bigot, Florence; Roustit, Matthieu; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several mediators contribute to postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) in the skin, including sensory nerves and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the specific involvement of prostanoids in human skin PORH. We tested the effect of the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenases (COX) by 4 mm ketoprofen, infused through microdialysis fibers inserted into the healthy volunteers forearm skin, following 5 min brachial artery occlusion. Skin microvascular blood flux was recorded using two-dimensional Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging. Maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVCmax ) was obtained following the perfusion of 29 mm sodium nitroprusside. A systematic review of the effects of COX inhibitors on skin peak PORH was also performed. We observed no significant difference between ketoprofen and placebo for the PORH peak (78 ± 8 and 71 ± 19% CVCmax , respectively) and area under the curve (2951 ± 721 and 2490 ± 936% CVCmax .s). A meta-analysis showed a substantial heterogeneity between studies, with overall a neutral effect of COX inhibition on peak PORH. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibition does not alter skin PORH, suggesting no involvement of prostanoids in cutaneous postocclusive vasodilatation in healthy humans. PMID:26194355

  12. Optimization of PIXE-sensitivity for detection of Ti in thin human skin sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern sunscreens contain particles like TiO2 having sizes of 25-70 nm and acting as a reflecting substance. For cosmetic reasons the particle size is minimized. Questions have been raised to what degree these nano particles penetrate the skin barrier, and how they do affect the human. The EU funded project 'Quality of skin as a barrier to ultra-fine particles' - NANODERM has started with the purpose to evaluate the possible risks of TiO2 penetration into vital skin layers. The purpose of the work presented here was to find the optimal conditions for micro-PIXE analysis of Ti in thin skin sections. In the skin region where Ti is expected to be found, the naturally occurring major elements phosphorus, chlorine, sulphur and potassium have steep gradients and thus influence the X-ray background in a non-predictable manner. Based on experimental studies of Ti-exposed human skin sections using proton energies ranging from 1.8-2.55 MeV, the corresponding PIXE detection limits for Ti were calculated. The energy that was found to be the most favourable, 1.9 MeV, was then selected for future studies

  13. Ability of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex to repair photoaged skin by stimulation of biomarkers in human extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCook JP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John P McCook,1 Thomas J Stephens,2 Lily I Jiang,2 Robert M Law,3 Vincent Gotz4 1Discovery Partners LLC, Frisco, 2Thomas J. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richardson, 3ProPath, Dallas, TX, 4MDRejuvena, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To examine the effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex on the expression of biomarkers of photoaged dermal extracellular matrix indicative of skin repair.Patients and methods: Following a previously published 12-day clinical assessment model, skin biopsy samples from the forearms of four healthy females with signs of photoaged skin were obtained and samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for key biomarkers of aging skin after each subject was treated with a test material consisting of a gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex 0.05%, a positive control of tretinoin cream 0.025%, and an untreated negative control.Results: There was a statistically significantly greater amount of fibrillin/amyloid P and epidermal mucins found for skin treated with the test material containing 0.05% sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and the reference control tretinoin 0.025% cream compared to the negative control (untreated site. Expression of procollagen 1 and dermal mucin also showed a greater presence in the samples treated with the test material and the reference control compared to the negative control, though the differences were not statistically significant. No adverse events were observed or reported by the subjects during the course of the study.Conclusion: The results of this human biopsy study suggest that both retinoids and sodium copper chlorophyllin complex have beneficial effects on biomarkers of photoaged skin. Products containing both sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and retinols may provide a dual approach to reversing age-related decreases in hyaluronic acid (HA in the skin: inhibition of the breakdown of HA via sodium copper chlorophyllin complex by inhibition

  14. Interstitial lactate levels in human skin at rest and during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    1999-01-01

    In vitro data have suggested that the skin is a significant lactate source. The purpose of the present study was to measure lactate and glucose concentrations in intact human skin in vivo using the microdialysis technique. Microdialysis fibres of 216 microns were inserted intradermally and perfused...... at a rate of 3 microliters min-1. In the first experimental protocol, dialysis fibres were calibrated by the method of no net flux in eight subjects. Skin lactate concentrations of 2.48 +/- 0.17 mmol l-1 were significantly greater than lactate concentrations of 0.84 +/- 0.15 mmol l-1 in venous plasma...... (P < 0.01). Glucose concentrations in skin and venous plasma were similar (5.49 +/- 0.18 vs. 5.26 +/- 0.24 mmol l-1). In the second experimental protocol, changes in lactate and glucose levels were studied in 10 subjects after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After the OGTT, plasma glucose and...

  15. Formation of a protection film on the human skin by microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser scanning microscopy and tape stripping, in combination with optical methods, were used to analyze the distribution and penetration of a barrier cream into the horny layer (stratum corneum) of the human skin under in vivo conditions. The barrier cream contained microparticles of 10 – 100 μm loaded with antioxidant substances. The cream was designed for protection of the skin surface against the destructive action of free radicals, produced by systemically applied chemotherapeutic agents reaching the skin surface via the sweat. Both methods were able to demonstrate that the barrier cream was distributed homogeneously on the skin surface forming a protection film. A penetration into deeper parts of the stratum corneum (SC) was not observed

  16. Generation of 3D Skin Equivalents Fully Reconstituted from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Munenari; Umegaki-Arao, Noriko; Guo, Zongyou; Liu, Liang; Higgins, Claire A.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (PS-iPSCs) provides significant advantages for cell- and gene-based therapy. Establishment of iPSC-based therapy for skin diseases requires efficient methodology for differentiating iPSCs into both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, the major cellular components of the skin, as well as the reconstruction of skin structures using these iPSC-derived skin components. We previously reported generation of keratinocytes from human iPS...

  17. Experimental characterization and damage model of the human skin response to dynamic loadings

    OpenAIRE

    JACQUEMOUD,C; Coret, M; BRUYERE-GARNIER,K; Brunet, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize and to model the damage of planar and fibrous soft tissues at high strain rate. As first step, we choose to study the human skin. A dynamic tensile test up to failure is performed on 10x30mm human skin samples. The test is based on the drop test principle and allows loading of samples at a strain rate close to 40 s-1. Classical measurement techniques give global strains whereas a full local strain field is measured on the sample surface by an Imag...

  18. Modelling of human and animal data from skin contact exposures to tritium gas contaminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potential problem in tritium gas handling facilities is the contamination of skin following contact with metal surfaces previously exposed to tritium gas. Experimental work has demonstrated that the urine of humans exposed to such surfaces contained high concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO). Recent experiments with hairless rats demonstrated similar excretion patterns of OBT and HTO in urine; furthermore, they demonstrated that OBT is retained within the skin and can act as a source of tritium to the rest of the body. A dosimetric model based on human and animal observations is proposed and discussed in this paper

  19. The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin integrity in human volunteers. I. Methodology and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camel, E; O'Connell, M; Sage, B; Gross, M; Maibach, H

    1996-08-01

    This study, conducted in 36 human volunteers, was an evaluation of the effects of saline iontophoresis on skin temperature, irritation, and barrier function. The major objectives were to assess the effects of low-level ionic currents, to validate the proposed methodology of assessment, and to establish reproducibility in repeated saline iontophoresis applications. This was the first of a multistage study designed to assess the safety of 24-hr saline iontophoresis episodes at selected currents and current densities. Since an iontophoresis patch challenges the skin barrier both by occluding the skin surface and by passing ionic current through the skin, the experimental protocol was designed to permit measurement of the contribution of each of these processes to the overall response. In this first stage we investigated the effect of 10 min of current delivery, at 0.1 mA/cm2 on a 1-cm2 area patch and 0.2 mA/cm2 on a 6.5-cm2 area patch compared to unpowered control patches. Twelve subjects were tested under each condition on two separate occasions to examine reproducibility of the response variable measurements. A further 12 subjects were tested once under the 0.2 mA/cm2, 6.5-cm2 condition. Skin irritation was evaluated via repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance, skin temperature, skin color, and a visual scoring system, before the iontophoresis episode and after patch removal. No damage to skin barrier function in terms of skin-water loss or skin-water content was detected. Slight, subclinical, short-lasting erythema was observed for both conditions. Assessment of correlation coefficients showed highly statistically significant indications of reproducibility for all five response variables measured. The experimental design, in combination with a repeated measures analysis, provided clear separation of the occlusion and ionic current components of the iontophoretic patch challenge. Further, the repeated measures analysis gave a highly sensitive

  20. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contri RV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP] and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product] and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product] irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. Keywords: chitosan, nanocapsules, capsaicinoids, skin irritation, skin permeation

  1. Stable Skin-specific Overexpression of Human CTLA4-Ig in Transgenic Mice through Seven Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Yong NI; Hong WEI; Feng-Chao WANG; Liang-Peng GE; Xiang GAO

    2006-01-01

    Skin graft rejection is a typical cellular immune response, mainly mediated by T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4-immunoglobin (CTLA4-Ig) extends graft survival by blocking the T cell co-stimulation pathway and inhibiting T cell activation. To investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in prolonging skin graft survival, human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) was engineered to overexpress in mouse skin by transgenesis using the K14 promoter. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay indicated that the expression of CTLA4-Ig remained skin-specific and relatively constant compared to the internal control protein, AKT, through seven generations. The presence and concentration of the hCTLA4-Ig protein in transgenic mouse sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results indicated that the serum CTLA4-Ig concentration also remained constant through generations. Survival of transgenic mouse skins grafted onto rat wounds was remarkably prolonged compared to that of wild-type skins from the same mouse strain, and remained comparable among all seven generations. This suggested that the bioactive hCTLA4-Ig protein was stably expressed in transgenical mice through at least seven generations, which was consistent with the stable skin-specific CTLA4-Ig expression.The results demonstrated that the transgenic expression of hCTLA4-Ig in skin driven by the K14 promoter remained constant through generations, and a transgenic line can be established to provide transgenic skin with extended survival reproducibly.

  2. Ethosomes for skin delivery of ammonium glycyrrhizinate: in vitro percutaneous permeation through human skin and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Lucania, Giuseppe; Mardente, Domenico; Alhaique, Franco; Fresta, Massimo

    2005-08-18

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of various ethosomal suspensions made up of water, phospholipids and ethanol at various concentrations for their potential application in dermal administration of ammonium glycyrrhizinate, a useful drug for the treatment of various inflammatory-based skin diseases. Physicochemical characterization of ethosomes was carried out by photon correlation spectroscopy and freeze fracture electron microscopy. The percutaneous permeation of ammonium glycyrrhizinate/ethosomes was evaluated in vitro through human stratum corneum and epidermis membranes by using Franz's cells and compared with the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Reflectance spectrophotometry was used as a non-invasive technique to evaluate the carrier toxicity, the drug permeation and the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate in a model of skin erythema in vivo on human volunteers. Ethosomal suspensions had mean sizes ranging from 350 nm to 100 nm as a function of ethanol and lecithin quantities, i.e., high amounts of ethanol and a low lecithin concentration provided ethosome suspensions with a mean size of approximately 100 nm and a narrow size distribution. In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out by using an ethosome formulation made up of ethanol 45% (v/v) and lecithin 2% (w/v). The ethosome suspension showed a very good skin tolerability in human volunteers, also when applied for a long period (48 h). Ethosomes elicited an increase of the in vitro percutaneous permeation of both methylnicotinate and ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Ethosomes were able to significantly enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of ammonium glycyrrhizinate compared to the ethanolic or aqueous solutions of this drug. Some in vivo experiments also showed the ability of ethosome to ensure a skin accumulation and a sustained release of the ammonium glycyrrhizinate. PMID:15935505

  3. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human skin: the relationship with epidermal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoebner, P E; Carayon, P; Penarier, G; Fréchin, N; Barnéon, G; Casellas, P; Cano, J P; Meynadier, J; Meunier, L

    1999-06-01

    The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands. PBR is part of a heteromeric receptor complex involved in the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores and in the early events of apoptosis. PBR may function as an oxygen-dependent signal generator; recent data indicate that these receptors may preserve the mitochondria of haematopoietic cell lines from damage caused by oxygen radicals. To identify PBRs in human skin, we used a specific monoclonal antibody directed against the C-terminus fragment of the human receptor. PBR immunoreactivity was found in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, hair follicles and dermal vascular endothelial cells. Interestingly, confocal microscopic examination of skin sections revealed that PBR expression was strongly upregulated in the superficial differentiated layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructurally, PBRs were distributed throughout the cytoplasm but were selectively expressed on the mitochondrial membranes of epidermal cells. The elevated level of PBRs in the spinous layer was not associated with an increased number of mitochondria nor with an increased amount of mRNA as assessed by in situ hybridization on microautoradiographed skin sections. The present work provides, for the first time, evidence of PBR immunoreactivity in human skin. This mitochondrial receptor may modulate apoptosis in the epidermis; its increased expression in differentiated epidermal layers may represent a novel mechanism of natural skin protection against free radical damage generated by ultraviolet exposure. PMID:10354064

  4. A rapid and noninvasive method to detect dried saliva stains from human skin using fluorescent spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Deep Singh Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Saliva is one of the vital fluids secreted in human beings. Significant amount of saliva is deposited on the skin during biting, sucking or licking, and can act as an important source in forensic evidence. An enzyme, α amylase, gives a characteristic emission spectrum at 345-355 nm when excited at 282 nm and this can be identified by using fluorescent spectroscopy and can help in forensic identification. This study describes a rapid method to detect dried saliva on the human skin by fluorescent spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 volunteers, who deposited their own saliva on skin of their ventral forearm by licking and water on the contralateral arm as control. This study was carried out at Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai. Study design: Ten volunteers deposited their own saliva on skin of their ventral forearm by licking. A control sample of water was deposited at the contralateral arm. Each sample was excited at 282 nm and emission spectrum was recorded. Results: The emission spectra of 10 swab samples taken from dried saliva were characterized at the primary peak of 345 to 355 nm whereas the emission spectrum of water as a control was recorded at 362 nm. Conclusion: The presence of emission spectrum at 345-355 nm with excitation at 282 nm proves to be a strong indicator of saliva deposited on human skin.

  5. CopA3 Peptide Prevents Ultraviolet-Induced Inhibition of Type-I Procollagen and Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3 was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  6. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Healthy Skin Specimens Collected from Rural Anyang, China, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiuju; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Fangfang; He, Zhonghu; Liu, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chanyuan; Abliz, Amir; Shen, Na; Hang, Dong; Xu, Zhongyao; Wang, Qiyan; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Skin infections with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) have been linked to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer, in which mucosal HPV may also play a crucial role. However, systematic investigations of the distribution and associated factors of HPV infection in healthy skin of the general population are scarce. HPV DNA from palmar exfoliated cells of 2,087 individuals was detected by FAP6085/64 and SPF1/GP6+ primers followed by sequencing. A total of 338 papillomavirus types were detected, with HPV-3, HPV-57, and HPV-49 being the most dominant types. The overall prevalence for HPV DNA on skin was 79.92% and for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HPV were 27.07%, 38.76%, and 29.56%, respectively. Having multiple lifetime sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio 1.60), being a migrant worker (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, reference: farmers), and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were associated with alpha-HPV DNA presence. Advancing age increased the detection risk of beta-HPV (Ptrend = 0.001). Higher education (Ptrend = 0.017) and frequent bathing (Ptrend = 0.001) were positively related to gamma-HPV positivity. This study demonstrates that alpha-HPV commonly exists on healthy skin of the general population in rural China, and alpha- and gamma-HPV infections are related to certain behaviors, different from beta-HPV infection. These findings are crucial to better understanding the biology of HPV infection and may be suggestive of the potential transmission of these viruses. PMID:26916390

  7. Measurement of the force–displacement response of in vivo human skin under a rich set of deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Flynn, Cormac

    2011-06-01

    The non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties of human skin vary according to location on the body, age, and individual. The measurement of skin\\'s mechanical properties is important in several fields including medicine, cosmetics, and forensics. In this study, a novel force-sensitive micro-robot applied a rich set of three-dimensional deformations to the skin surface of different areas of the arms of 20 volunteers. The force-displacement response of each area in different directions was measured. All tested areas exhibited a non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic force-displacement response. There was a wide quantitative variation in the stiffness of the response. For the right anterior forearm, the ratio of the maximum probe reaction force to maximum probe displacement ranged from 0.44Nmm-1 to 1.45Nmm-1. All volunteers exhibited similar qualitative anisotropic characteristics. For the anterior right forearm, the stiffest force-displacement response was when the probe displaced along the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The response of the anterior left forearm was stiffest in a direction 20° to the longitudinal axis of the forearm. The posterior upper arm was stiffest in a direction 90° to the longitudinal axis of the arm. The averaged posterior upper arm response was less stiff than the averaged anterior forearm response. The maximum probe force at 1.3mm probe displacement was 0.69N for the posterior upper arm and 1.1N for the right anterior forearm. The average energy loss during the loading-unloading cycle ranged from 11.9% to 34.2%. This data will be very useful for studying the non-linear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behaviour of skin and also for generating material parameters for appropriate constitutive models. © 2011 IPEM.

  8. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  9. Confocal Raman study of aging process in diabetes mellitus human voluntaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Liliane; Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; dos Santos, Laurita; Ali, Syed Mohammed; Fávero, Priscila Pereira; Martin, Airton A.

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of AGEs [Advanced Glycation End - products] occurs slowly during the human aging process. However, its formation is accelerated in the presence of diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we perform a noninvasive analysis of glycation effect on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy. This technique uses a laser of 785 nm as excitation source and, by the inelastic scattering of light, it is possible to obtain information about the biochemical composition of the skin. Our aim in this work was to characterize the aging process resulting from the glycation process in a group of 10 Health Elderly Women (HEW) and 10 Diabetic Elderly Women (DEW). The Raman data were collected from the dermis at a depth of 70-130 microns. Through the theory of functional density (DFT) the bands positions of hydroxyproline, proline and AGEs (pentosidine and glucosepane) were calculated by using Gaussian 0.9 software. A molecular interpretation of changes in type I collagen was performed by the changes in the vibrational modes of the proline (P) and hydroxyproline (HP). The data analysis shows that the aging effects caused by glycation of proteins degrades type I collagen differently and leads to accelerated aging process.

  10. Permeability of commercial solvents through living human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursin, C; Hansen, C M; Van Dyk, J W;

    1995-01-01

    rate. For other solvents this was not necessary, so the un-normalized data were used. High [3H]water permeation rate also was used as a criterion for "defective" skin samples that gave erroneous permeability rates, especially for solvents having slow permeability. The linearity of the steady state data...... was characterized by calculation of the "percent error of the slope." The following permeability rates (g/m2h) of single solvents were measured: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 176; N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 171; dimethyl acetamide, 107; methyl ethyl ketone, 53; methylene chloride, 24; [3H]water, 14.......8; ethanol, 11.3; butyl acetate, 1.6; gamma-butyrolactone, 1.1; toluene, 0.8; propylene carbonate, 0.7; and sulfolane, 0.2. The effect of [3H]water saturation on the shape of the presteady state portion of the permeation curve was determined and found to be very dependent on the solvent. The permeability of...

  11. Direct visualization of lipid domains in human skin stratum corneum's lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Norlen, Lars; Bagatolli, Luis

    2007-01-01

    iii), whether pH has a direct effect on the lipid matrix phase behavior. In this work the lateral structure of membranes composed of lipids extracted from human skin stratum corneum was studied in a broad temperature range (10 degrees C-90 degrees C) using different techniques such as differential...... scanning calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and two-photon excitation and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. Here we show that hydrated bilayers of human skin stratum corneum lipids express a giant sponge-like morphology with dimensions corresponding to the global three......The main function of skin is to serve as a physical barrier between the body and the environment. This barrier capacity is in turn a function of the physical state and structural organization of the stratum corneum extracellular lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is essentially composed of very long...

  12. Microdialysis of the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Kristensen, J K; Bülow, J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a microdialysis technique for measurement of substances in the interstitial water space in intact human skin. Glucose was selected to validate the method. The cutaneous glucose concentration was measured by microdialysis and compared to...... that the microdialysis technique accurately and precisely can reflect biochemical events in the interstitial water space in human skin in vivo....... that in venous blood. Single dialysis fibers (length 20 mm, 2,000 Da molecular weight cutoff) were glued to nylon tubings and inserted in forearm skin by means of a fine needle. Dialysis fibers were inserted in duplicate. Seven subjects were investigated after an overnight fast. Intradermal position of...

  13. Study of the diffusion of some emulsions in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously used pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PPAS) to quantify sunscreen diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile. These results were obtained by the analysis of the photoacoustic maximum response signal Pmax decrease, the time delay tmax and the Fourier transform representation of the photoacoustic signal. In this study we present the results obtained for diffusion of four typical emulsions used in sunscreen compositions that show, for the first time, a particular behaviour for one of these emulsions due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result provides a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS, to evaluate in situ the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin

  14. Study of the diffusion of some emulsions in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahjomri, F.; Benamar, N.; Chatri, E.; Leblanc, R. M.

    2003-08-01

    We previously used pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PPAS) to quantify sunscreen diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile. These results were obtained by the analysis of the photoacoustic maximum response signal Pmax decrease, the time delay tmax and the Fourier transform representation of the photoacoustic signal. In this study we present the results obtained for diffusion of four typical emulsions used in sunscreen compositions that show, for the first time, a particular behaviour for one of these emulsions due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result provides a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS, to evaluate in situ the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin.

  15. UV irradiance on the human skin: Effects of orientation and sky obstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Peter; Hess, Michael; Bretl, Sebastian; Seefeldner, Meinhard

    2009-03-01

    Modification factors (MF) are presented that allow the transfer of the UV index (UVI) into actual values of the UV irradiance on the human skin. The UVI is the general information on solar UV irradiance and valid for a horizontal surface under a sky without obstructions. The human skin, however, may be tilted and present in an environment whereby the sun or sky is obstructed, such as within a street canyon, or under a sunshade or trees. These MFs are nearly independent of atmospheric conditions and thus can be used to determine the UV irradiances that are vital for sun burn, skin cancer, and vitamin D production, from the readily available actual UVI, which vary with the atmospheric conditions.

  16. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Dormont, L; Bessiere, J. M.; McKey, D.; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the stu...

  17. Development of Decision Making in School-Aged Children and Adolescents: Evidence from Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2007-01-01

    Age differences in decision making indicate that children fail to anticipate outcomes of their decisions. Using heart rate and skin conductance analyses, we tested whether developmental changes in decision making are associated with (a) a failure to process outcomes of decisions, or (b) a failure to anticipate future outcomes of decisions.…

  18. Chitin-hyaluronan nanoparticles: a multifunctional carrier to deliver anti-aging active ingredients through the skin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morganti, P.; Palombo, M.; Tishchenko, Galina; Yudin, V. E.; Guarneri, F.; Cardillo, M.; Del Ciotto, P.; Carezzi, F.; Morganti, G.; Fabrizi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2014), s. 140-158. ISSN 2079-9284 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315233 - N-CHITOPACK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitin nanofibrils * skin aging emulsions * innovative beauty masks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  20. Spectrophotometric Method for Differentiation of Human Skin Melanoma. I. Optical Diffuse Reflection Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, V. G.; Ivanov, A. P.; Kvaternyuk, S. M.; Barun, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed an experimental setup, based on two integrating spheres, that lets us measure the optical diffuse reflectance spectra (diffuse reflection coefficient vs. wavelength) of human skin quickly under clinical conditions in vivo. For the wavelength interval 520-1100 nm, we give the values of the diffuse reflection coefficient for healthy tissue, skin with a benign nevus, and skin with a malignant melanoma for a large group of test subjects. We experimentally established a number of wavelengths in the red-near IR region of the spectrum which can be used for early differential diagnosis of nevi and melanoma in patient cancer screening. According to the Kramer-Welch test, the probability of the diffuse reflection coefficient for skin with melanoma and a nevus having different distributions is >0.94, and at many wavelengths it is >0.999. By solving the inverse problem, we estimated the changes in a number of structural and biophysical parameters of the tissue on going from healthy skin to nevus and melanoma. The results obtained can provide a basis for developing a clinical approach to identifying the risk of malignant transformation of the skin before surgery and histological analysis of the tissue.