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Sample records for aged garlic extract

  1. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

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    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  2. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

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    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans.

  3. Purified Aged Garlic Extract Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation in Balb/c Mice

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    Zare Ahad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicinal herb with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer and anticoagulant. Our previous studies have shown some immunoregulatory effects for aged garlic extract, suggesting a key role for 14-kD glycoprotein of garlic in shifting the cytokine pattern to T helper-1. In present study, we investigated the effect of 1, 2, and 3 times intraperitoneal injections of aged garlic extract on an established allergic airway inflammation in murine model (BALB/c mice. The garlic extract, isolated by biochemical method, includes proteins precipitation by ammonium sulfate. After injection of the aged garlic extract, IFN-g, anti allergen specific IgE and IgG1 were measured in lavage and serum by ELISA and histological assessment was performed on the lung tissues. The results indicated that three-time intra peritoneal injections of the aged garlic extract caused a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels which included eosinophil percentage in lavage, peribronchial lung eosinophils, IgG1 level in lavage and serum, mucous producing goblet cells grade and peribronchial and perivascular inflammation. Our findings in the present research suggested that aged garlic extract has the potential of attenuation of inflammatory features of allergic airway inflammation in murine model.

  4. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

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    T M Shiju

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  5. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives in aged garlic extract show antioxidant properties.

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    Ichikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Jiro; Ide, Nagatoshi; Sasaoka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2006-03-01

    This study used the hydroden peroxide scavenging assay to investigate antioxidant chemical constituents derived and separated from aged garlic extract, a unique garlic extract produced by soaking sliced garlic in an aqueous ethanol solution for >10 mo. Four types of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline derivatives (THbetaCs); 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid (MTCdiC), from both diastereoisomers, were isolated and identified by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All these compounds indicate strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and inhibit 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride-induced lipid peroxidation. Particularly, (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC had the most potent hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, more than ascorbic acid. The (1R, 3S)- and (1S, 3S)-MTCdiC at 50-100 micromol/L and 10-100 micromol/L inhibited LPS-induced nitrite production. Interestingly, THbetaCs were not detected in raw garlic and other processed garlic preparations, but they were generated and increased during the natural aging garlic extraction process. These data suggest that THbetaCs, which are formed during the natural aging process, are potent antioxidants in aged garlic extract and thus may be useful for the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  6. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy.

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    Macan, Henry; Uykimpang, Rolando; Alconcel, Marcionila; Takasu, Junichiro; Razon, Rafael; Amagase, Harunobu; Niihara, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been known to have antiplatelet properties. Because of the lack of major clinical data regarding the safety of concomitant use of garlic supplements and anticoagulants, we decided to evaluate the safety of using garlic extract along with oral anticoagulation therapy. During this project we tested aged garlic extract (AGE), a commercial garlic preparation, with warfarin (Coumadin). Sixty-six (66) patients were screened for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Fifty-two (52) patients were randomized for the project. Forty-eight patients (30 men and 18 women, with a mean age of 56+/-10 years) completed the study. Eighteen patients (14 before randomization, 4 after randomization) were dropped from the study. The study medication (AGE or placebo) was administered at a dose of 5 mL twice a day for 12 wk. Potential bleeding and thromboembolic episodes were monitored. There was no evidence of increased hemorrhage in either the placebo or the AGE group. Adverse events included headache, fatigue, colds, and dizziness. However, no significant difference was found in the incidence of these minor adverse events between the groups. Thus, the adverse events are unlikely to be attributable to AGE. The results suggest that AGE is relatively safe and poses no serious hemorrhagic risk for closely monitored patients on warfarin oral anticoagulation therapy. Although the risk-benefit ratio of AGE use needs to be considered carefully when warfarin therapy is necessary, its positive effects may be beneficial to people with a high-risk background or who are taking cardiovascular medications.

  7. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

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    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of aged garlic extract against implanted fibrosarcoma tumor in mice

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    Fatemeh Fallah-Rostami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic is known as a medicinal herb with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer and even anticoagulant. Aim: Current study was designed to evaluate antitumor effects of aged garlic extract (AGE on fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day zero into right flank of 40 BALB/c mice aged eight weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in two separate groups: 1 st received AGE (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 2 nd group as control received phosphate buffered saline, (PBS. Treatments were done three times per week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flow cytometry. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of gamma-interferon, (IFN-γ and Interleukin-4, (IL-4 cytokines were measured. Results: The mice received AGE had significantly longer survival time compared to control mice. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in AGE treated mice. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE group. Conclusions: Administration of AGE resulted in improved immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. AGE showed significant effects on inhibition of tumor growth and longevity of survival times.

  9. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats

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    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE on cardiovascular functioning (CF in metabolic syndrome (MS remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS, MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning plus saline solution (MS + SS, control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01. Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05. Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05. Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001. Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation and AGE improved it (p = 0.001. Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001. Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01. In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  10. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

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    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  11. Comparison of antioxidant activity of hydroethanolic fresh and aged garlic extracts and their effects on cerebral ischemia.

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    Cervantes, Maria Isabel; de Oca Balderas, Pavel Montes; de Jesús Gutiérrez-Baños, José; Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Espinoza-Rojo, Mónica; Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Rubio-Osornio, Moisés; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Calzada, Fernando; Aguilera, Penélope

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant properties and protective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and of 20% hydroethanolic fresh extracts from garlic clove (GCE) and skin (GSE) on cerebral ischemia were evaluated by administering extracts at the beginning of reperfusion in a rat model of stroke. All three extracts scavenged superoxide anion, peroxynitrite anion, and peroxyl radicals, but with different efficiencies; furthermore, GCE and GSE scavenged hydroxyl radicals and GSE scavenged singlet oxygen. These extracts significantly prevented reduction of neuronal nuclear antigen in the infarcted area, although no improvement in neurological function was observed. Importantly, GCE and GSE contained S-allylcystein, a compound associated with AGE's neuroprotective effect against damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Extracts decreased mRNA expression of NR1- and NR2B-NMDA-receptor subunits and prevented ischemia-induced reduction in mitochondrial potential and in ATP synthesis. These results indicate that antioxidants present in garlic extracts may regulate ROS concentrations during ischemia, favour pro-survival pathways, and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

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    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR.

  13. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

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    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account.

  14. Aged Garlic Extract Attenuates Neuronal Injury in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

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    Cemil, Berker; Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gokce, Aysun; Aksoy, Nurkan; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Erdogan, Bulent; Kosem, Bahadir

    2016-06-01

    Garlic has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is claimed to promote human health through antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the possible beneficial effect of AGE neurologically, pathologically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically in a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham (no I/R), I/R, and AGE (I/R+AGE); each group consisted of eight animals. Animals were evaluated neurologically with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological and ultrastructural examinations. Oxidative products (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), inflammatory cytokines (tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. The AGE group had significantly higher BBB scores than the I/R group. Pathologically, AGE group revealed reduced degree of ischemia and spinal cord edema. Ultrastructural results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the AGE group. Oxidative product levels of the I/R group were significantly higher than both the other groups, and antioxidant enzyme levels of AGE group were significantly higher than the I/R group. There was also significant difference between the sham and AGE groups in terms of total antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, AGE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity than the I/R group. This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of AGE on the neurological, pathological, ultrastructural, and biochemical status of rats with I/R-induced spinal cord injury.

  15. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

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    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-03-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats

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    Nutchareeporn Nillert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight, orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42 into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats.

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cognitive Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation Induced by β-Amyloid in Rats

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    Nillert, Nutchareeporn; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is pathological evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that likely starts as a host defense response to the damaging effects of the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The activation of microglia may promote the neurodegenerative process through the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which may lead to neuronal damage and eventual death. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to have multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of AGE on Aβ (1-42)-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Adult male Wistar rats were given AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW, body weight), orally administered, daily for 56 days. They were then injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1-42) into the lateral ventricles; bilaterally. Seven days later, their recognition memory was evaluated using a novel object recognition (NOR) test. Then the rats were sacrificed to investigate the alteration of microglia cells, IL-1β and TNFα in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The results indicated that AGE at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW significantly improved short-term recognition memory in cognitively impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly minimized the inflammatory response by reducing the activation of microglia and IL-1β to the levels found in the control, which is similar to the results found in Celebrex-treated rats. In conclusion, AGE may be useful for improving the short-term recognition memory and relieve the neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats. PMID:28054940

  18. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male albino rats.

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    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Ahmed, Rehab S A

    2017-03-01

    Malathion and carbaryl are the most widely used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, respectively, especially in developing countries; they pose a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of an odorless (free from allicin) Kyolic aged garlic extract (AGE, containing 0.1% S-allylcysteine; 200 mg/kg body weight) on the toxicity induced by 0.1 LD50 of malathion (89.5 mg/kg body weight) and/or carbaryl (33.9 mg/kg body weight) in male Wistar rats. Doses were orally administered to animals for four consecutive weeks. The present study showed that AGE completely modulated most adverse effects induced by malathion and/or carbaryl in rats including the normocytic normochromic anemia, immunosuppression, and the delay in the skin-burning healing process through normalizing the count of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets), hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, blood glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase activity, weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, serum γ-globulin concentration, and the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to the control values, and accelerating the inflammatory and proliferative phases of burn-healing. In addition, AGE completely modulated the decrease in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the increase in clotting time in malathion alone and carbaryl alone treated rats. Moreover, AGE induced a significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum GSH concentration (above the normal value) and accelerating burn-healing process in healthy rats. In conclusion, AGE was effective in modulating most adverse effects induced in rats by malathion and carbaryl, and hence may be useful as a dietary adjunct for alleviating the toxicity in highly vulnerable people to insecticides intoxication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 789-798, 2017.

  19. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

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    Daynea Wallock-Richards

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS. Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v. The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  20. Garlic revisited: antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex.

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    Wallock-Richards, Daynea; Doherty, Catherine J; Doherty, Lynsey; Clarke, David J; Place, Marc; Govan, John R W; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of garlic and other plant alliums are primarily based on allicin, a thiosulphinate present in crushed garlic bulbs. We set out to determine if pure allicin and aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) exhibit antimicrobial properties against the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), the major bacterial phytopathogen for alliums and an intrinsically multiresistant and life-threatening human pathogen. We prepared an AGE from commercial garlic bulbs and used HPLC to quantify the amount of allicin therein using an aqueous allicin standard (AAS). Initially we determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the AGE against 38 Bcc isolates; these MICs ranged from 0.5 to 3% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of pure allicin (AAS) was confirmed by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays against a smaller panel of five Bcc isolates; these included three representative strains of the most clinically important species, B. cenocepacia. Time kill assays, in the presence of ten times MIC, showed that the bactericidal activity of AGE and AAS against B. cenocepacia C6433 correlated with the concentration of allicin. We also used protein mass spectrometry analysis to begin to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of allicin with a recombinant form of a thiol-dependent peroxiredoxin (BCP, Prx) from B. cenocepacia. This revealed that AAS and AGE modifies an essential BCP catalytic cysteine residue and suggests a role for allicin as a general electrophilic reagent that targets protein thiols. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence that allicin and allicin-containing garlic extracts possess inhibitory and bactericidal activities against the Bcc. Present therapeutic options against these life-threatening pathogens are limited; thus, allicin-containing compounds merit investigation as adjuncts to existing antibiotics.

  1. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

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    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  2. Aged garlic extract and its components protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid β—protein—in—duced neuronal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ItoY; KosuY

    2002-01-01

    Aged garlic extract and its components such as S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and sllixin have been shown to possess various biological effects including neurotrophic activity.We characterized the neuronal death induced by amyloid β-protein (Aβ),4-hydroxynoenal (HNE),tunicamycin(TM),and trophic factor-deprivation (TFD),and ivestigated whether these garlic compounds could prevent this in cultured PC12 cells and rat hippocampal neurons.Treatment with SAC protected these cells against Aβ- and TM-induced neuronal death.SAC also attenuated the processing of procaspase-12 induced by Aβ25-35 or TM.In contrast,allixin and its analogue,DHP,afforded no protection against Aβ-induced cell death.SAC afforded no protection against HNE- and TFD-induced cell death,which has been shown to be mediated by caspase-3 dependent pathway.These results suggest that SAC protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by ER dysfunction.

  3. The Protective Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Inflammations in Male Albino Rats

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    Gehan Moustafa Badr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE on indomethacin-(IN- induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n=8 control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

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    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  5. Protective effect of aged garlic extract against the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin on blood cells parameters and hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats

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    Ashraf Y. Nasr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CP is one of the most active cytotoxic drugs. However, it has several side effects that are associated with increased oxidative stress. Aged garlic extract (AGE is a natural product containing different compounds with antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of AGE on CP-induced hepatotoxicity. Four equally male rat groups: control, AGE-treated (250 mg/kg once for 21 days, CP-treated (7.5 mg/kg, once intraperitoneal, combined AGE and CP-treated were used. Blood samples were collected to investigate blood picture and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, bilirubin (TSB and albumin. The liver of each rat was excised, cleaned, weighed, rinsed in ice-cold saline and homogenized for assessment malondialdehyde (MDA level, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and level of reduced glutathione (GSH. Histological examination was also carried out. AGE-pretreated rats revealed significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT & TSB and increase serum albumin level induced by CP administration. Furthermore, AGE significantly ameliorated CP-induced increase in MDA level and decrease in GSH level, CAT and SOD activities in liver tissue homogenates. Additionally, histopathological and blood picture examinations revealed markedly ameliorated CP-induced toxicity on blood cells parameters and liver structure. Our results prove that AGE has antioxidant and protective effects against CP-induced oxidative stress and changes in parameters of blood cells and liver structure in rats. Thus, it could be used as a dietary supplementation to reduce toxic side effects of anticancer drugs.

  6. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells.

  7. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

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    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  8. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

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    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  9. Oxidative insults to neurons and synapse are prevented by aged garlic extract and S-allyl-L-cysteine treatment in the neuronal culture and APP-Tg mouse model.

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    Ray, Balmiki; Chauhan, Neelima B; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. In AD patients, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are common features observed in the CNS. Aβ deposition results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the hyperphosphorylation of tau that are associated with neuronal damage. Cholinesterase inhibitors and a partial NMDA receptor antagonist (memantine) have been identified as potential treatment options for AD. However, clinical studies have found that these drugs fail to prevent the disease progression. From ancient times, garlic (Allium sativum) has been used to treat several diseases. By 'aging' of garlic, some adverse reactions of garlic can be eliminated. Recent findings suggest that 'aged garlic extract' (AGE) may be a therapeutic agent for AD because of its antioxidant and Aβ lowering properties. To date, the molecular properties of AGE have been sparsely studied in vitro or in vivo. The present study tested specific biochemical and molecular effects of AGE in neuronal and AD rodent models. Furthermore, we identified S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) as one of the most active chemicals responsible for the AGE-mediated effect(s). We observed significant neuroprotective and neurorescue properties of AGE and one of its ingredients, SAC, from ROS (H(2)O(2))-mediated insults to neuronal cells. Treatment of AGE and SAC were found to protect neuronal cells when they were independently co-treated with ROS. Furthermore, a novel neuropreservation effect of AGE was detected in that pre-treatment with AGE alone protected ∼ 80% neuronal cells from ROS-mediated damage. AGE was also found to preserve pre-synaptic protein synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) from ROS-mediated insult. For example, treatment with 2% AGE containing diet and SAC (20 mg/kg of diet) independently increased (∼70%) levels of SNAP25 and synaptophysin in Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein-transgenic mice

  10. Allium Sativum (Garlic Extract as Nontoxic Corrosion Inhibitor

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    K. Rajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by mass-loss method. The formulation consisting of 2 mL of garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn2+ offers 70% inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls the anodic reaction predominantly. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-allicin complex and Zn(OH2.

  11. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  12. The protective effects of black garlic extract for blood and intestinal mucosa to irradiation

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    Jung, Do Young; KIm, Joon Sun; Choi, Hyeong Seok [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Hyeok; Park, Won Suk; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The radiation has been utilized in a number of fields, even though the use of plenty cause a variety of side effects. This study was confirmed for radiation protective effects of aged garlic to contribute to the prevention of disasters that are radiation exposure. We studied the Complete Blood cell Count(CBC) and the small intestine after feeding aged garlic extract into Sprague Dawley Rat which irradiated X-ray beam 7 and 13 Gy. Garlic extract was administered to the results in the experimental group showed a notable difference in the CBC of platelets (p<0.05), red blood cells (p<0.05) and early damaged white blood cells (p<0.05). In addition, it was confirmed that experimental group's small intestine crypt is more survival than irradiation group significantly. And experimental group has small intestine villi length almost similar to the normal group. result of the aged garlic study will be able to be of great benefit for the radiation relevant emergency management.

  13. Garlic in dermatology

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    Nader Pazyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far.

  14. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

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    Gregory Von White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature, where Allium sativum (garlic extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the postsynthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray chemical analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that allicin and other carbohydrates in the garlic extract are the primary nanoparticle stabilizing moieties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomedical applications, owing to (1 enhanced stability in biological media, (2 resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, (3 ease and scalability of synthesis, and (4 lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, confirming that silver nanoparticles synthesized with garlic extract are potential candidates for future experimentation and implementation in the biomedical field.

  15. Physical stability, antioxidative properties, and photoprotective effects of a functionalized formulation containing black garlic extract.

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    Kim, Seon Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Kang, Duk Ho; Chang, Un Jae; Hong, Yang-Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-12-05

    When garlic is fermented, certain aspects of its bioactivity are changed. Black garlic is a type of fermented garlic used as a food ingredient in Asian cuisine. Black garlic's popularity has spread around the world as it has become a sought-after ingredient used in high-end cuisine. The formulations containing 10% black garlic extract or 10% normal garlic extract showed stable pH, color, precipitation, and organoleptic features, although these characteristics changed slightly. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the black garlic formulation were significantly (pgarlic formulation. Mice treated with the black garlic formulation (119.63 μM/g) had significant (pgarlic formulation treated mice (vehicle: 3.46 mM/g vs. black garlic: 5.60mM/g). The formulation containing 10% black garlic extract retained physical stability and had high anti-radical efficiencies. Furthermore, it is possible to suggest that this formulation may be effective in protecting skin from UVB photodamage.

  16. Garlic extract exhibits antiamyloidogenic activity on amyloid-beta fibrillogenesis: relevance to Alzheimer's disease.

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    Gupta, Veer Bala; Indi, S S; Rao, K S J

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by the deposition of amyloid plaques. Fibrillar Abeta is the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brain of AD patients. The prevention of Abeta aggregation or dissolution of fibrillar Abeta has clinical significance. The present communication examined in vitro the antiamyloidogenic properties of garlic extract. The effects of aqueous garlic extract (both fresh and boiled) on Abeta aggregation and defibrillation were studied by thioflavin-T based fluorescence assay, transmission electron microscopy and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The aqueous fresh garlic extract not only inhibited Abeta fibril formation in a concentration and time dependent manner but was also able to defibrillate Abeta preformed fibrils. The maximum defibrillization was observed after 2-3 days of incubation. The boiled aqueous garlic extract also retained its antiamyloidogenic activity. This indicated that antiamyloidogenic activity of garlic extract is non-enzymatic, i.e. proteases present in garlic did not degrade Abeta in solution. However, the fibril degrading ability of boiled garlic extract was significantly lost. The findings suggest that consumption of garlic may lead to inhibition of Abeta aggregation in human brain.

  17. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  18. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui-Gasmi, Sonia; Mokni, Meherzia; Limam, Nadia; N'guessan, Prudence; Carrier, Alice; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Aouani, Ezzedine; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2012-05-01

    Garlic is a commonly used spice in folk medicine that can exert adverse health effects when given at a high dose. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibits a variety of beneficial effects even at a high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxicity of high-dose garlic treatment on liver and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally administered either with garlic extract (5 g·(kg body weight)(-1)) or GSSE (500 mg·(kg body weight)(-1)) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for 1 month. Plasma and hepatic levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and transaminases and liver antioxidant status were evaluated. Data showed that a high garlic dose induced liver toxicity and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Garlic increased intracellular H(2)O(2) but decreased free iron and Ca(2+). GSSE alone or in co-treatment with garlic had the reverse effect and counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious impacts to near control levels. In conclusion, a high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, inducing Ca(2+) depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca(2+) repletion.

  19. The acceleration of garlic (Allium sativum L ethanolic extract on gingival wound healing process in Wistar rats

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    Indra Bramanti Ngatidjan Setyo Purwono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L is a medicinal plant traditionally used to relieve pain. Garlic’s active constituents, allicin and triacremonone, have been proven to have antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic ethanolic extract gel in gingival wound healing process of rats. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks with with body weight 200-250 g were subjected in this study. Rats were divided randomly into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I as negative control was given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC base gel. Group II as positive control was given Benzydamine® gel and Group IV-V were given garlic ethanolic extract gel at dose of 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. Each group was subdivided into two sub groups of three rats according to the decapitation period which were 5th (D-5 and 7th (D-7 day after the garlic extract gel application. Excisional wounds using punch biopsy, 2.5 mm in diameter, were created at the mandibular labial gingiva between right and left incisor teeth of the rats. The garlic extract gel of each preparation dose was then applied on the wound three times a day, starting at 0 day until 7th day. The decapitation was conducted on the D-5 and D-7. Histological slides of wounded tissue were prepared. Epithelial thickness, new blood vessel, and number of fibroblast were examined. The results showed that the epithelial thickness of garlic ethanolic extract gel groups was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05, especially after 5thday application. However, the number of new blood vessels and the amount of fibroblast of those groups were not significantly higher than control group (p>0.05. In conclusion, topical application of garlic ethanolic extract gel accelerates the gingival wound healing process in rats by increasing epithelial thickness.     Keywords: garlic ethanolic extract - gingival wound healing - epithelium thickness

  20. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties.

  1. The effect of garlic extract on growth, haematology and cell-mediated immune response of newborn goat kids

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    Borhan Shokrollahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of garlic extract supplemented in milk on growth rate, haematology and cell–mediated immune response of Markhoz newborn goat kids. Twenty four newborn goat kids (aged 7+/-3days were randomly assigned to four groups. The groups consisted of control (received milk without garlic extract, T1, T2 and T3 which received milk supplemented with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg aqueous garlic extract per kg live weight per day for 42 days, respectively. Body weights were measured weekly throughout the experimental period. At day 42, about 10 ml blood samples were collected from each kid via the jugular vein for haematological study. Cell–mediated immune response was evaluated through double skin thickness after intradermal injection of phyto-hematogglutinin (PHA at day 21 and 42. Total gain was significantly higher for kids in T3 (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Average daily gain (ADG in T3 group in week 4–5 was higher (P<0.05. Significant differences in globulin (P<0.01, hemoglobin (Hb; P<0.001, hematocrit (PCV; P<0.001, erythrocyte (RBC; P<0.001, neutrophil (P<0.001, lymphocyte (P<0.001 and leukocyte (WBC; P<0.001 were observed among groups. Hb, PCV, RBC, lymphocytes and WBC were higher in kids given garlic extract supplementation. There was a significant difference of double skin thickness among the groups at day 42 (P<0.01. In conclusion, this study indicated that milk supplemented with aqueous garlic extract improved growth rate and immunity of newborn goat kids.

  2. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-Wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

  3. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  4. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

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    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  5. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  6. The aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts release nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione and prolong relaxation of aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Misak, Anton; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Tomaskova, Zuzana; Bertova, Anna; Ondrias, Karol

    2011-12-01

    Garlic, onion and leek have beneficial effects in treatment of numerous health disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms. To test the potency of the aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts to release NO from GSNO we have measured NO oxidation product, NO(2)-, by the Griess reagent method. Further, we studied the ability of garlic extract to relax noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortic rings in the presence of GSNO and effects of garlic extract on electrical properties of rat heart intracellular chloride channels. We have observed that: i) garlic, onion and leek extracts released NO from GSNO in the order: garlic > onion > leek; ii) the ability of garlic extract to release NO was pH-dependent (8.0 > 7.4 > 6.0) and potentiated by thiols (Cys > GSH = N-acetyl-cysteine > oxidized glutathione) at concentration 100 µmol/l; iii) the garlic extract (0.045 mg/ml) prolonged relaxation time of aortic rings induced by GSNO (50 nmol/l) and inhibited intracellular chloride channels. We suggest that NO-releasing properties of the garlic, onion and leek extracts and their interaction with Cys and GSH are involved in NO-signalling pathway which contributes to some of its numerous beneficial biological effects.

  7. THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT ON MOUTH MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mehrabian

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of mouth normal microflora containing staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus mutant, lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosos and candida albicans, were isolated and identified then cultured and purified on different media by using routine methods in microbiology. Extract of 3 garlic samples south (Khuzestan, north (Mazanderan and Hamedan garlics, were affected on these microbial cultures using Bauer and Kirby method. The effects were compared with antimicrobial effects of erythromycin. The results show all three used extracts have antimicrobial effects. The extract had a bactericidal effect on bacteria but a fungi static on candida albicans.

  8. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents.

  9. Aqueous garlic extract alleviates liver fibrosis and renal dysfunction in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; Zakaria, Sara; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Garlic was found to lower the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the serum of rats in a diabetic model. We examined the effect of an aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on the ACE activity, cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis, and associated renal dysfunction in comparison with the effect of the standard drug enalapril. Both AGE and enalapril were administered orally for six weeks starting from the third day after bile duct ligation (BDL). BDL significantly increased the serum activities of liver enzymes, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, an indicator of liver cell death, serum total bilirubin (TB) level, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content. BDL was associated with elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels indicating renal dysfunction. BDL also caused an increase in the transcript levels of the genes coding for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a collagenase, in liver tissues. A significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in BDL rats, while serum ACE activity was increased. Both AGE and enalapril counteracted all these deleterious changes, with the exception that only AGE reduced the MPO activity. These findings suggest that AGE possesses hepato- and renoprotective properties, similar to enalapril, probably by modulating the levels of proteins such as TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and MMP-13, and involving a reduction of ACE and of oxidative stress.

  10. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  11. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

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    Biljana Bauer Petrovska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ′Russian penicillin′, ′natural antibiotic′, ′vegetable viagra′, ′plant talisman′, ′rustic′s theriac′, ′snake grass′ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life.

  12. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic (Liliaceae against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari

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    Felix Nchu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (DCM extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98 with increasing concentration (40.03% – 86.96% yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks and 87.5% (female ticks in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  13. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  14. Extraction of garlic with supercritical CO2 and conventional organic solvents

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    J. M. del Valle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. and garlic extracts have therapeutical properties that stem from their sulfur-containing compounds, mainly allicin. The main objective of this work was to compare conventional and "premium" garlic extracts in terms of yield and quality, with the latter being obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as the solvent. Yield ranged between 0.65 and 1.0% and increased with extraction pressure (150-400 bar at a constant temperature of 50°C. Extraction temperature (35-60°C, on the other hand, had little effect at a constant pressure of 300 bar. Based on yield and quality considerations, the best extraction conditions using SC-CO2 were 35-50°C and 300-400 bar. A yield of 5.5% was obtained by conventional extraction using ethanol as the solvent, but ethanol appeared to be less selective for valuable components than SC-CO2. The use of fresh garlic resulted in extracts that more closely resembled commercial products, possibly because of thermal and oxidative degradation of valuable microconstituents during drying.

  15. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  16. Prevention of methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by concomitantadministration of garlic aqueous extract in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Walaa; ZAKI, AMR; NABIL, TAGHRED

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, but its use has been limited by its nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out to determine whether garlic exerts a protective effect against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats after a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg/kg). Garlic extract (1 mL/100 g b.w.) was given orally for 7 days before and after MTX administration. Serum samples ...

  17. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre- Hypertension?

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    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. Lycopene in tomato extract has a protective effect on serum cholesterol similar to low-dose statins, and may also be beneficial for lowering blood pressure in hypertensive people.

  18. A Classroom Demonstration of Garlic Extract and Conventional Antibiotics' Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunsanmi, Toye J.

    2005-01-01

    The Kirby-Bauer method is regularly used to test bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and is often employed in the classroom for teaching this concept. In this exercise, additional materials and instructions were given to students for the preparation of garlic extract and loading on blank BBL paper discs. They were further instructed to test…

  19. Evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of garlic shoots extract in experimental pain models in mice

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    Suresh V. Dange

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Garlic shoot extract (GSE was found to be effective in all three models of experimental pain. However it is less potent than standard analgesic drugs and could be employed safely in higher doses. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2393-2396

  20. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum essential oil and ethanol extract

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    Raja Zouari Chekki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish some nutritional properties of garlic cultivated in Tunisia and to evaluate the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activites of its essential oil and ethanol extract. Tunisian garlic (Allium sativum was characterized for moisture, ash and protein contents which were determined as 66%, 1.4% and 5.2% respectively. In addition, Fe (5.90 mg/kg, Cu (1.61 mg/kg, Mg (15 mg/kg and P (140 mg/kg were reported such as the major minerals in garlic. The fat profile of tunisian garlic was conducted, the main fatty acids identified were lauric acid (49.3% and linoleic acid (20.4%. Essential oil obtained from A. sativum was analysed by capillary GCMS. Diallyl disulfide (49.1% and diallyl trisulfide (30.38% were the main components of the five identified components. The phenolic content of The ethanol extract are analysed for its phenolic profiles, colorimetric analysis revealed that the total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents were respectively 43.63 mg GA/g, 13.18 mg quercetin/g and 24.24 mg of catechin/g. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, essential oil presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to its ethanolic extract. IC50 values observed for the essential oil and ethanol extract were 300 μg/ml and 600 µg/ml respectively. The essential oil and ethanol extract from raw garlic were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven microorganisms. The results showed that ethanol extract was active against all tested strains: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogene, Yersinia enterocolitica and Bacillus cereus.

  1. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

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    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  2. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae), commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The efficacy of the extract wa...

  3. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of caraway, garlic and oregano extracts against filamentous moulds

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    Tanackov Ilija J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of caraway, garlic and oregano extracts (0.07, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2%, against four moulds species was investigated. The caraway extract had the strongest inhibitory effect by inhibiting the germination of Emericella nidulans, Penicillium commune and P. implicatum at the concentration of 0.1% and Aspergillus tamarii at the concentration of 0.5% during 7 days of incubation at 25ºC. The extract of garlic only partially inhibited the growth of A. tamarii and P. commune. However, it inhibited completely the growth of P. implicatum and E. nidulans at the doses of 0.5 and 1%. Oregano partially inhibited all mould species, significantly reducing the growth of colonies, especially of E. nidulans (93.3%.

  5. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-03

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.

  6. The Investigation of Garlic (Allium Sativum Extract on Lead Detoxification of Neonatal Rats Kidney

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    Habibollah Johari

    2014-06-01

    in kidney poisoning treatment induced by lead in neonatal rat.Materials & Methods: Rats were divided into 7 groups of 8. The First group was the control group, which had received no materials. The second group had received 0/1 ml distilled water, the third group had received the lead with a dose of 0/6 gram per liter. The forth group had just received 0/4 g/kg garlic alcoholic – water extract. The fifth, sixth, and seventh group had first received 0/6 g lead perliter and then received doses of 0/1, 0/2, 0/4 g/kg garlic. Then, injections was performed orally in 10 consecutive days. The data were analysed then using T. Results: Based on the obtained results, there is a significant increase in the body weight and the kidney of the third, fifth, sixth and seventh groups compared with the control group. However, the body weight and kidney of rats in the fourth group showed a meaningful decrease comparing with the lead group. Regarding the third group, there was a meaningful increase in Urea, uric acid, creatinine and potassium compared with the control group but a significant decrease in the sodium. Conclusion: Protective effects of garlic on kidney are related to antioxidant properties, since different types of oxidation reactions have negative effects on glomerular filtration rate. Garlic is eliminating the poisoning effect of lead on the kidney because of having properties such as antioxidant and protective effect.

  7. Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) extract applied as a therapeutic immersion treatment for Neobenedenia sp. management in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, T A; Southgate, P C; Carton, A G; Hutson, K S

    2014-05-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum L., extract administered as a therapeutic bath was shown to have antiparasitic properties towards Neobenedenia sp. (MacCallum) (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting farmed barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). The effect of garlic extract (active component allicin) immersion on Neobenedenia sp. egg development, hatching success, oncomiracidia (larvae) longevity, infection success and juvenile Neobenedenia survival was examined and compared with freshwater and formalin immersion. Garlic extract was found to significantly impede hatching success (5% ± 5%) and oncomiracidia longevity (95% hatching success and mean oncomiracidia longevity of 37 ± 3 h. At much lower allicin concentrations (0.76 and 1.52 μL L(-1)), garlic extract also significantly reduced Neobenedenia infection success of L. calcarifer to 25% ± 4% and 11% ± 4%, respectively, compared with 55% ± 7% in the seawater control. Juvenile Neobenedenia attached to host fish proved to be highly resistant to allicin with 96% surviving 1-h immersion in 10 mL L(-1) (15.2 μL L(-1) allicin) of garlic extract. Allicin-containing garlic extracts show potential for development as a therapy to manage monogenean infections in intensive aquaculture with the greatest impact at the egg and larval stages.

  8. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on high dosage garlic-induced renal oxidative stress

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    Sonia Hamlaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective role of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE against high garlic dose-induced renal toxicity has been evaluated. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with garlic (5 g/kg bw or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for one month. Renal oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status were evaluated. We also measured plasma creatinine and urea. Data showed that high garlic dose induced renal toxicity by increasing creatinine and urea and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, calcium and H2O2, but decreased free iron. Unexpectedly garlic increased catalase but decreased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. GSSE co-treatment counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H2O2 and free iron, inducing Ca2+ depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca2+ repletion.

  9. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic

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    Weidong WANG

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from black garlic. Black garlic polyphenol (BGP was extracted from black garlic. The in vitro antioxidant activities of BGP were determined using DPPH·, OH and O2– radical scavenging assays. The in vivo antioxidant activities were determined by detecting the malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in mice. Results showed that, the DPPH· radical inhibition rate of 200 and 250 μg/mL BGP was equivalent with Vc (P > 0.05. With concentration of 400 and 500 μg/mL, the OH radical inhibition rate of BGP was slightly lower than Vc (P > 0.05. The O2– radical inhibition rates of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μg/mL BGP were significantly lower than Vc (P < 0.05. In the groups treated with BGP with suitable dose, the serum MDA content was significantly decreased compared with model group (P < 0.05, and the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased (P < 0.05. BGP has obvious DPPH· and ·OH radical scavenging activities, and can significantly decrease the serum MDA content in mice with oxidative damage, and increase the serum SOD and GSH-Px activities.

  10. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp nut and garlic (Allium sativum extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices

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    Abbas Ali Eskandarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts′ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep and goats from Ziyaran abattoir. The chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts from hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic were extracted using the succilate method. Scolicidal effect of each extract assessed in different concentrations and effected time using microscopy and 0.1% eosin solution stained only killed protoscolices. Results: Present study showed that garlic had more potent scolicidal effects among all the 3 plants and the chloroformic extract of garlic was the most potent protoscolicid among all of the extracts and killed 98% of protoscolices in 50 mg/ml on a minimum of 20 minutes exposure. Conclusion: Garlic chloroformic extract is a safe and potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  11. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

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    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  12. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

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    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  13. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

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    Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Ali-Reza; Hami, Javad; Alipour, Fatemeh; Haghir, Hossein; Fazel, Ali-Reza; Sadeghi, Akram

    2016-10-01

    Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Garlic administration during pregnancy and lactation on lead-induced apoptosis in rat developing hippocampus. Timed pregnant Wistar rats were administrated with Lead (1500 ppm) via drinking water (Pb group) or lead plus Ascorbic acid (Pb + AA Group, 500 mg/kg, IP), or lead plus Garlic Extract (Pb + G Group, 1 ml garlic juice/100 g BW, via Gavage) from early gestation (GD 0) until postnatal day 50 (PN 50). At the end of experiments, the pups' brains were carefully dissected. To identify neuronal death, the brain sections were stained with TUNEL assay. Mean of blood and brain lead levels increased significantly in Pb group comparing to other studied groups (P Ascorbic acid or Garlic (P Ascorbic acid and Garlic during pregnancy and lactation protect against lead-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups partially via the reduction of Pb concentration in the blood and in the brain.

  14. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

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    Dhingra Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae, commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST and forced swim test (FST. The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist, baclofen (GABA B agonist and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o. and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o. in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems.

  15. The field efficacy of garlic extract against Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms of Babol, Iran.

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    Faghihzadeh Gorji, Shohreh; Faghihzadeh Gorji, Sina; Rajabloo, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays.

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.

  17. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  18. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in 0.5 M HCl by Garlic aqueous extract

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    Saedah R. Al-Mhyawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of extract of Garlic on aluminium in hydrochloric acid solutions has been evaluated by weight loss techniques. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and temperature. Generally, inhibition was found to increase with inhibitor concentration, half-life, activation energy but decrease with temperature and first-order rate constant at the temperatures studied. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for the inhibition and Langmuir , Temkin adsorption isotherm was obeyed. Garlic is an inhibitor of aluminium corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution.The values of standard free energy of adsorption suggest that the adsorption of inhibitor on aluminium surface occurred by physisorption mechanism. the negative sign of the Free Energy of adsorption indicates that the adsorption of the inhibitors on the aluminum surface was a spontaneous process.the negative values of enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH suggest that the chemical reaction involved in the adsorption of the inhibitors on the metal surface is an exothermic process, hence increase in the reaction temperature of the medium will decrease the inhibition efficiency.

  19. The Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Interleukin-12 and 10 Levels in Leishmania Major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Infected Macrophages

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    M Roozbehani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major.Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested. The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12.Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly.Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites.

  20. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

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    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  1. Effect of Garlic, Gingko and St. John's Wort Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: A Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkanovic, Jasmina; Gerber, Jacobus P; Ward, Michael B; Milne, Robert W

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control) or milli Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats were either administered fexofenadine (orally or intravenously), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or the small intestine divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analysed for P-gp and Oatp1a5. In vivo, SJW increased the CL of fexofenadine by 28%. Garlic increased the AUC0-∞ and Cmax of fexofenadine by 47% and 85%, respectively. Ginkgo and SJW had no effect on the oral absorption of fexofenadine. In the perfused liver, garlic, ginkgo and SJW increased the biliary clearance of fexofenadine with respect to perfusate by 71%, 121% and 234%, respectively. SJW increased the biliary clearance relative to the liver concentration by 64%. The ratio of liver to perfusate concentrations significantly increased in all treated groups. The expression of Oatp1a5 in SI was increased by garlic (88%) and SJW (63%). There were no significant changes in the expression of P-gp. Induction of intestinal Oatp1a5 by garlic may explain the increased absorption of orally administered fexofenadine. Ginkgo had no effect on the expression of intestinal P-gp or Oatp1a5. A dual inductive effect by SJW on opposing intestinal epithelial transport by Oatp1a5 and P-gp remains a possibility.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  3. 微波辅助丙酮提取大蒜油工艺的研究%Study on the Microwave-Assisted Acetone Extraction of Garlic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金华; 陈莫林; 董加宝; 胡娜

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the garlic oil yield and add value of garlic,this article made a study on the extraction technology of garlic oil by using microwave-assisted acetone extraction method.Through single factor and orthogonal design of microwave power,garlic and acetone ratio,microwave extraction time and acetone concentration on garlic oil extraction rate effects.The results showed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of garlic oil were the microwave power of 100W,microwave extraction time of 75s,ratio of solvent to material of 25∶1 and acetone concentration of 90%,and the highest rate of the garlic oil was 3.85%,and the ratio of solvent to material was a major influence factor for the extraction yield of garlic oil.%为提高大蒜油的得率,增加大蒜的附加值,采用微波辅助、丙酮提取的方法进行大蒜油提取工艺.通过单因素和正交试验考察微波的功率、大蒜和丙酮的配比、微波提取的时间和丙酮的浓度对大蒜油提取得率的影响.结果表明,大蒜和丙酮的配比为大蒜油提取工艺的最显著影响因素;最佳的工艺条件是,微波功率100 W、微波提取时间75 s、液料比25∶1、丙酮体积分数为90%时,大蒜油的提取率最高,提取率为3.85%.

  4. Pharmacodynamic interaction study of Allium sativum (garlic with cilostazol in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

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    A A Mateen

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Coadministration of aged garlic extract and cilostazol did not enhance the antiplatelet activity compared with individual drugs. Large randomized trials are needed to further evaluate the possible interaction of garlic in higher doses and in combination with other antiplatelet activity drugs.

  5. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED DIETS WITH GARLIC ORGANIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE ON INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN BROILERS

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    F.E. DIEUMOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.

  6. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Garlic Extract on Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Mature Male Rats under Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

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    Marzie Mirfard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (with the brand name of Endoxana is an anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy. The side effects of this drug include anoretic, nausea, decrease in genital gland function, creating amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Garlic has been used throughout history as a medicinal drug and a beneficial spice in cooking. The beneficial effects of garlic which have been studied are its anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti- atherosclerosis, anti-blood platelet effects as well as its role in reducing blood glucose and fat. Garlic has many compounds mostly contain a sulfuric content such as Di-alkyl Di-sulfide (Alicin, Di alyl Di sulfide (DAS, that caused antioxidant and protective properties. Materials & Methods: Cyclophosphamide and garlic extract were given to 56 rats for a period of 28 days. The rats were weighted and after anesthesia, their testis was taken out and tissue dissections were obtained, Student t-test was applied for the statistical analysis. Results: The results show that cyclophosphamide alone leads to a reduction in body and testis weight, and spermatogenesis compared to the control group. In the group that used cyclophosphamide along with garlic extract, as the dose of extract increased, the body and testis weight and spermatogenesis increased in the rats. Conclusion: It seems, the existing compounds in garlic extract can control active metabolites caused by cyclophosphamide and the destructive effect of this drug. Prescribing garlic extract along with cyclophosphamide can possibly be beneficial and effective due to the anti-oxidant characteristics of garlic and also its effect on reducing harmful metabolites.

  7. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  8. Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age

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    Victor Mela Obinna Okoro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying dietary supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture on semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks aged 35-41 weeks. The experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but with different supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. The three dietary supplemental levels based on garlic and onion supplemental inclusion levels were Q0 (0 g onion and 0 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, Q1 (2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, and Q2 (5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed with each treatment having three replicates. A quadratic type equation was used to determine the onion and garlic levels for optimum semen quality characteristics. Daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased progressive motile cells (%, actual life sperm count (×106/nl, and live sperm (% by 221.20%, 301.51%, and 352.43%, while 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced them by 28.67%, 12.69%, and 19.00%, respectively. However, daily supplementation with 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased sperm count (×106/nl by 12.82%, whereas daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced it by 10.26% in Koekoek breeder cocks. Dietary onion and garlic supplemental inclusion levels of 3.009, 3.191, 4.621, 6.601, 6.719, 2.327, 2.385, and 2.247 g per 600 g DM feed supported optimum progressive motile cells (%, immotile sperm cells (%, actual dead sperm count (×106/nl, actual live sperm count (×106/nl, live sperm (%, acrosome morphology defects (%, acrosome detachment (%, and acrosome swelling (%, with probability values ranging from 0.003 to 0.783, whereas minimum progressive motile cells (% increase was achieved at an optimum onion and garlic supplementation levels of 3.009 g per 600 g DM feed. These findings have a lot of

  9. Garlic extract as an alternative to the growth promoters in broiler chickens

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    Wilber Hernando Botía Carreño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of garlic extract (GE and to determine its effect on the absorption surface of the duodenum as a potential alternative to growth promoters in broiler chickens. We used 300 chickens, male and female, which were one day old, commercial stock CobbAvian, and they were distributed at random into three experimental units of 100 chickens each one. The diet of the broiler chickens was supplemented with doses 0 %, 0.5 % and 1 % GE. The variables valuated were: production indicators, intestinal morphometry, heart rate and internal parasites presence. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 % of GE in the diet improved the broiler chickens’ body weight gain (P <0.05 and the feed conversion rate was favorable for the inclusion of 0.5 % GE (P <0.05 however there were no significant differences in feed intake, mortality, heart rate, and presence of internal parasites. For the histological analysis it was determined that the inclusion of 1% GE was statistically larger (P <0.05 on parameters such as the intestinal villus height and width, crypt depth and apparent area of the villus, and no differences were found to the relation between villus/crypt. It can be concluded that the inclusion of GE has an effect on intestinal health, which can be related to an improvement in production indicators, serving as an alternative to growth promoters.

  10. AMELIORATION OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS BY GARLIC EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, N; Jagadeeswari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of Garlic against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in albino rats was studied. Oral administration of mercuric chloride (100mg/kg/p.o) for 30 days resulted in significant increase in LPO Basal level and LPO FeSO4 induced and significant decrease in GSH (Glutathione) and Vit C as compared to the normal and control group. Simultaneous administration of Garlic along with Mercuric chloride, produced a pronounced neproprotective effect against mercuric chloride induced toxicity in rats by...

  11. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Mehmood S; Iqbal, Javaid

    2009-06-01

    Currently reliance on natural products is gaining popularity to combat various physiological threats including oxidative stress, cardiovascular complexities, cancer insurgence, and immune dysfunction. The use of traditional remedies may encounter more frequently due to an array of scientific evidence in their favor. Garlic (Allium sativum) holds a unique position in history and was recognized for its therapeutic potential. Recent advancements in the field of immunonutrition, physiology, and pharmacology further explored its importance as a functional food against various pathologies. Extensive research work has been carried out on the health promoting properties of garlic, often referred to its sulfur containing metabolites i.e. allicin and its derivatives. Garlic in its preparations are effective against health risks and even used as dietary supplements such as age garlic extract (AGE) and garlic oil etc. Its components/formulations can scavenge free radicals and protect membranes from damage and maintains cell integrity. It also provides cardiovascular protection mediated by lowering of cholesterol, blood pressure, anti-platelet activities, and thromboxane formation thus providing protection against atherosclerosis and associated disorders. Besides this, it possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that are interesting in chemopreventive interventions. Several mechanisms have been reviewed in this context like activation of detoxification phase-I and II enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and reducing DNA damage etc. Garlic could be useful in preventing the suppression of immune response associated with increased risk of malignancy as it stimulates the proliferation of lymphocytes, macrophage phagocytosis, stimulates the release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and enhances natural killer cells. In this paper much emphasis has been placed on garlic's ability to ameliorate oxidative stress, core role

  12. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sharifi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA and garlic extract with together on plasma concentration of cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL, and formation of fatty streaks through the phenomena called “chelation therapy” in male Rabbit aorta. 32 male Rabbits were used and divided to 4 groups as group 1: cholesterol – rich diet (CRD + EDTA + Garlic Extract (GE, group 2: CRD + EDTA, Group 3: CRD + GE, Group 4: CRD (control group. The animals were under food and drug diet for 5 weeks. Blood samples of Rabbits were taken before and after the test and then plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were measured. Finally, abdominal aorta was studied and pathologically evaluated. Results: The experiments showed the significant decrease of mean cholesterol in case groups and mean triglyceride in the groups which have received EDTA + GE and EDTA. Our results showed that mean LDL and LDL/HDL Ratio in case groups have been decreased in comparison to control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean HDL in the group which has received EDTA + GE. Conclusion: In this study it was shown that the using of fresh garlic and EDTA with together has a reductive effect on cholesterol, Triglyceride, and LDL concentration and also has an increasing effect on HDL concentration. But it seems that concomitant using of these tow substances with together strengthen the effect of each one, and it produces a great reduction of the blood

  13. Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model

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    Narges Zare Mehrjardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4+ and CD8+ cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student’s t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses.Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein’s fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI. These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8+ subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8+ T-lymphocytes in treated animals.Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These fi ndings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment.

  14. aged black garlic exerts anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing no and proinflammatory cytokine production with less cytoxicity in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septicemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Yoo, Yung Choon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Suk Kyung; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Min, A Young; Sung, Nak Yun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antisepticemic activities of a water extract of aged black garlic (AGE), which is not pungent, were compared with those of raw garlic extract (RGE). The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed that AGE was not toxic up to 1000 μg/mL and was at least four times less cytotoxic than RGE. AGE significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of AGE on LPS-induced inflammation was confirmed by downregulation of inducible NO synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The anti-inflammatory activities of AGE were similar to those of RGE at nontoxic concentrations up to 250 μg/mL. Signal transduction pathway studies further indicated that both garlic extracts inhibited activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB induced by LPS stimulation. Treatment with both AGE and RGE in an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia significantly reduced the level of TNF-α and interleukin-6 in serum and completely protected against LPS-induced lethal shock in C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that AGE is a more promising nutraceutical or medicinal agent to prevent or cure inflammation-related diseases for safety aspects compared with RGE.

  15. Analyzing the antibacterial effects of food ingredients : model experiments with allicin and garlic extracts on biofilm formation and viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate different effects of garlic extracts and their main antibiotic substance allicin, as a template for investigations on the antibacterial activity of food ingredients. Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 and the isogenic biofilm-forming strain ATCC 35984 were used to compare the activ

  16. Effects of a blended garlic and cinnamon essential oil extract with and without monensin sodium on the performance of grazing steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of stocker grazing experiments were conducted with the objective to determine the efficacy of supplementing growing calf diets with essential oils from garlic and cinnamon extracts (GCOE) in promoting growth on cool-season annuals in Arkansas (SWREC) and Oklahoma (SPRRS), or native rangelan...

  17. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  18. Garlic in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V; Pal, R; Vaiphei, K; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ola, R P

    2011-06-01

    The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.

  19. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  20. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  1. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Crude Garlic Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Mukta; Kakumanu, Srikanth; Wilson, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    Garlic and its lipid-based extracts have played an important medicinal role in humans for centuries that includes antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering properties. The present study was to investigate the effects of crude garlic extract (CGE) on the proliferation of human breast, prostate, hepatic, and colon cancer cell lines and mouse macrophageal cells, not previously studied. The human cancer cell lines, such as hepatic (Hep-G2), colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), and breast (MCF-7), were propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated RPMI-1640 Medium and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while the mouse macrophage cell line (TIB-71) was propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated DMEM and 10% FBS. All cells were plated at a density of ∼5000 cells/well. After overnight incubation, the cells were treated with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL of CGE an additional 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation of 80-90% was observed for Hep-G2, MCF-7, TIB-71, and PC-3 cells, but only 40-55% for the Caco-2 cells when treated with 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL. In a coculture study of Caco-2 and TIB-71 cells, inhibition of cell proliferation of 90% was observed for Caco-2 cells compared to the 40-55% when cultured separately. CGE also induced cell cycle arrest and had a fourfold increase in caspase activity (apoptosis) in PC-3 cells when treated at a dose of 0.5 or 1 μg/mL. This investigation of CGE clearly highlights the fact that the lipid bioactive compounds in CGE have the potential as promising anticancer agents.

  3. Efficacy of garlic extract on hepatic coccidiosis in infected rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): histological and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulah, Fawzia H; Al-Rawi, Maisaa M

    2007-12-01

    The rabbits were divided into three groups, of 12 rabbits each. G1 was the (non-infected non-treated) as control, G2 was the (infected-non treated), and G3 was the (infected and treated) rabbits. Each rabbit in the infected groups were given (10(3)) sporuleted oocysts of Eimeria stiedae per rabbit after forty five days exactly. Faecal sample of rabbits from each group were examined each day post infection till oocysts appeared in faeces. The treatment was given by using suitable dosage of garlic according to body weight. After 15, 21, 28, & 35 days post-treatment faecal oocysts were output. Biochemical parameters as serum liver function (ALT, AST, GGT & ALP) that denoted the he-patic cells injury. The results showed a significant differences in the mean values of oocysts shedding and their mean number in bile ducts between Gs 2 &3 from the 15th day post infection (PI) (mean +/-SD:40.33 +/- 16.72 & 25.17 +/- .56 respectively) till the experimental end on the 35th day (55.75 +/- 19.79 & 0.94 +/- 1.43 respectively). The histopathological alterations were in liver of G2 at the experimental end. Coccidiosis in G2 induced histopathological alterations in liver tissue, marked cytoplasmic vacuolations in hepatocytes with clear signs of karyolysis, and dilatation of sinusoids with increase in Kupffer cells. Leukocytic infiltration around congested blood vessels was noticed. Efficacy of garlic on E. stiedae in infected Gs was resident. The liver of G3 regained almost normal appearance compared to control.

  4. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods:Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against Gram positive and negative were 100%and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25%concentration were 66.6%, 55.6%and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up

  5. 大蒜提取物在果蔬保鲜中的应用%Application in the Preservation of Garlic Extracts on Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵玉涛; 宋彦显

    2013-01-01

    The garlic extract was used widely as a natural preservation in fruits and vegetables .In this pa-per, the mechanism and application in the preservation of garlic extract on fruits and vegetables were re -viewed ,the development prospects were also discussed .%大蒜提取物具有抑菌和抗氧化等功效,是天然的果蔬保鲜剂,广泛应用于水果和蔬菜的保鲜防腐中。介绍了大蒜提取物的保鲜机理,及其在果蔬保鲜方面的应用现状,并对其发展前景作了展望。

  6. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  7. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  8. Dormancy break with garlic extract and hydrogen peroxide in rootstock vine ‘SO4’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilla Juan Saavedra del

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic product is used to help overcome dormancy of the buds of vines in tropical and sub-tropical climate, but the product currently available in Brazil has the highest level of toxicity to humans. The objective was to study some alternatives to break the dormancy of the buds of the rootstock vine ‘SO4’. The sprayed treatments were: T1 = water (control; T2 = hydrogen cyanamide (3%; T3 = garlic (33% and; T4 = Hydrogen Peroxide – H2O2 – (3%. The cuttings were immersed in a indole acetic acid (IAA of 5 ppm for 15 seconds and placed in plastic bags (19 cm× 5 cm× 8 cm with 50% sand + 50% commercial substrate (H. Decker® . After 04 months, were evaluated: percentage of live cuttings, aerial part height (cm, length of roots (cm and dry matter of aerial parts and root (g. Regarding the roots, root dry weight and dry matter of aerial parts, stood out the cuttings treated with H2O2 at a concentration of 3% (T4. In the present work conditions, preliminarily concluded that H2O2 at a concentration of 3% can assist in breaking dormancy of the buds of the roostock vine ‘SO4’.

  9. Chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms of garlic organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; You, Sixiang; He, Xi; He, Jianhua; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.

  10. Hexane extracts of garlic cloves induce apoptosis through the generation of reactive oxygen species in Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi Young; Choi, Young-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) compounds have recently received increasing attention due to their cancer chemopreventive properties, and their anticancer activities are extensively reported in many cancer cell lines. However, the anticancer activity and the signaling pathway associated with the induction of apoptosis by extracts of garlic cloves have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of hexane extracts of garlic cloves (HEGCs) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the association of these effects with apoptotic cell death, using a Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cell line in vitro. The results demonstrated that HEGCs mediate ROS production, and that this mediation is followed by a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm), the downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. HEGCs also promoted the activation of caspase-8 and the downregulation of Bid, a BH3-only pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2. However, the apoptotic phenomena displayed by HEGCs were significantly diminished by the presence of z-VAD-fmk (non-selective caspase inhibitor). Moreover, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a widely used ROS scavenger, effectively blocked the HEGC-induced apoptotic effects via the inhibition of ROS production and MMP collapse. These observations clearly indicate that HEGC-induced ROS are key mediators of MMP collapse, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, followed by caspase activation.

  11. Garlic extract diallyl sulfide (DAS activates nuclear receptor CAR to induce the Sult1e1 gene in mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sueyoshi

    Full Text Available Constituent chemicals in garlic extract are known to induce phase I and phase II enzymes in rodent livers. Here we have utilized Car(+/+ and Car(-/- mice to demonstrate that the nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR regulated the induction of the estrogen sulfotransferase Sult1e1 gene by diallyl sulfide (DAS treatment in mouse liver. DAS treatment caused CAR accumulation in the nucleus, resulting in a remarkable increase of SULT1E1 mRNA (3,200 fold and protein in the livers of Car(+/+ females but not of Car(-/- female mice. DAS also induced other CAR-regulated genes such as Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11 and Gadd45β. Compared with the rapid increase of these mRNA levels, which began as early as 6 hours after DAS treatment, the levels of SULT1E1 mRNA began increasing after 24 hours. This slow response to DAS suggested that CAR required an additional factor to activate the Sult1e1 gene or that this activation was indirect. Despite the remarkable induction of SULT1E1, there was no decrease in the serum levels of endogenous E2 or increase of estrone sulfate while the clearance of exogenously administrated E2 was accelerated in DAS treated mice.

  12. Effect of garlic extract on some serum biochemical parameters and expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Bazrafshani, Mohamad Reza; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2013-12-01

    Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

  13. 75 FR 22788 - Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability AGENCY... decisions. Garlic oil is the volatile oil extracted from the bulb of the garlic plant or the entire plant. Garlic oil is used as a repellent for the control of insects, mites, birds, deer, rabbits and...

  14. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  15. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation.

  16. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of

  17. Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hye; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Min Jung; Hwang, Cho Rong; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2013-08-01

    Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25 °C and 95 °C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

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    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  19. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

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    Ried K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Karin Ried, Peter Fakler National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic's BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO, which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Keywords: garlic, S-allylcysteine, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitric oxide (NO, redox signaling, hypertension

  20. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

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    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  1. Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor-Fernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2003-07-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations derived from natural sources such as vegetables often contain compounds that contribute to the antioxidant defence system and apparently play a role in the protection against degenerative diseases. In the present study, commercial preparations containing extracts of turmeric, artichoke, devil's claw and garlic or salmon oil were investigated. The products were divided into fractions of different polarity, and their antioxidant activity was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. This test is based on the efficacy of the test material to scavenge 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) derived radicals. Total phenols were determined in all fractions as well as specific carotenoids in the most lipophilic fraction to assess their contribution to the antioxidant activity. For comparison, the radical scavenging effect of selected constituents of the extracts such as curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, harpagoside, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol was investigated and compared with that of Trolox. Curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and beta-carotene showed an antioxidant activity superior to Trolox in the TEAC assay; harpagoside was barely active. All fractions of the turmeric extract preparation exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity, which was assigned to the presence of curcumin and other polyphenols. The antioxidant activity corresponding to the artichoke leaf extract was higher in the aqueous fractions than in the lipophilic fractions. Similarly, devil's claw extract was particularly rich in water-soluble antioxidants. Harpagoside, a major compound in devil's claw, did not contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the garlic preparation was poor in the TEAC assay. That of salmon oil was mainly attributed to vitamin E, which is added to the product for stabilization. In all test preparations, the antioxidant

  2. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

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    Menjívar Marta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a aqueous garlic extracts or (b garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling

  3. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  4. Study on microwave-assisted extraction of garlic polysaccharide and its antioxidant activity%微波辅助大蒜多糖的提取及其抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金华; 李涛; 杨佳

    2013-01-01

    研究了微波辅助大蒜多糖的提取工艺及抗氧化活性.结果表明:最佳功率为300 W,提取温度为65℃,提取时间为8 min,料液比1∶7(g·mL-1);大蒜多糖有一定的清除DPPH和OH·自由基的作用,与Vc相比,大蒜多糖对DPPH和OH·自由基的清除效果要差;但大蒜多糖对菜籽油的抗氧化能力较Vc强,能够有效抑制菜籽油的氧化.%The microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from garlic was studied in this paper.Moreover,we also investigated the antioxidant feature of the extracted garlic polysaccharide.The optimum extraction conditions were that 300 W of microwave power,8 min of extraction time and the rate between material and solvent was 1∶7 (g·mL-1).Although the garlic polysaccharide showed certain scavenging effect on the DPPH and hydroxyl radical,but it was not as good as vitamin C.However,the garlic polysaccharide was more effective than vitamin C in protecting the camellia seed oil from being oxidized.

  5. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources.

  6. NATURAL HEALING AGENT: GARLIC, AN APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagori B.P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have grown up in the era of so-called wonder drugs. Garlic is one such drug which is grown globally. China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produces less than 2% of global output. The purpose of this study is to highlight new applications of cultivated as well as wild garlic in medicine. Areas of beneficial activity include anti-AIDS, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-infectious properties, amongst others. Garlic is uniquely the richest dietary source of many otherwise rare healthful sulphur compounds, plus organic selenium and germanium besides other essential nutrients and active health-promoting phytochemicals. Various forms of garlic are available, the most effective being fresh, powdered, distilled and especially aged garlic, which later lacks the irritant effect of fresh garlic, yet possesses equal or greater bio-active range and potency.Since many years cultivated garlic (Allium sativum has served the medicinal purpose. As demand of garlic is continuously increasing due to its valuable features, other garlic species are screened for potential benefits of cultivated garlic with less side effects. Wild garlic grows abundantly in many areas of country. It is a plant that seldom needs to be cultivated. They have a distinct garlic flavor, though are milder than garlic cloves. Hence extensive study is required for both cultivated and wild species so as to establish them as a future wonder drug.

  7. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  8. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  9. Effect of garlic extract on physical, oxidative and microbial changes during refrigerated storage of restructured product from Thai pangas (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Saha, Apurba; Dhar, Bahni; Maurya, Pradip K; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Balange, Amjad K

    2015-12-01

    The effect of garlic's aqueous extract (GAE) during refrigerated storage of the restructured products from Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was evaluated. Protein and lipid oxidation, protein pattern on SDS-PAGE, TPC as well as WHC, gelling properties, texture profiles and whiteness of the surimi gel was evaluated periodically during a refrigerated storage period of 20 days. Increase of water holding capacity in GAE added gels indicated stronger protein network formation, whereas, decrease of protein solubility suggested formation of protein aggregates during gelation process. Lipid oxidation decreased in treated samples but the rate of increase varied, depending upon the concentration of GAE. Protein carbonyl content increased during storage, but slow increase in treated samples. Gel strength in treated samples increased and accompanied by thickening of myofibrillar head chain. Hardness, adhesiveness and gumminess parameters affected most due to addition of GAE. Sensory analysis revealed that the RP with 1 % GAE preferred most and control was acceptable upto 12 days.

  10. The mechanisms responsible for garlic - drug interactions and their in vivo relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2013-01-01

    Garlic phytochemicals and garlic supplements influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior of concomitantly ingested drugs. In this paper we have summarized the mechanisms responsible for first-pass intestinal pharmacokinetic interactions by investigating the intestinal permeability of some cardiovascular, antiviral drugs, their transport with hepatic transporters and CYP3A4 metabolism. Transporter-enzyme interplay was studied with several in vitro models of varying complexity: rat small intestine and Caco-2 cell monolayers were used in studies of intestinal processes, and hepatic pharmacokinetics was monitored in HepG2 cells, isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver slices. Garlic phytochemicals from aged garlic extract modified the activities of secretory and absorptive transporters in both intestine and liver and competitively inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme. The increased activities of the most important intestinal efflux (P-glycoprotein - Pgp, Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 2 - MRP-2, Breast Cancer Resistance Protein - BCRP) and uptake (MonoCarboxylate Transporter 1 - MCT1, Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide - OATP, Peptide transporter 1 - PepT1) transporters were caused by changes in electrophysiological membrane properties and by allosteric modifications. Because clinical studies investigating interactions between garlic and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors saquinavir and ritonavir have already been performed, we used these in vivo data to evaluate the in vitro results and the reliability of the models employed as screening tools for forecasting the potential of first-pass intestinal metabolism changes. We also assessed the probability of pharmacokinetic interactions with garlic of the novel drug darunavir and other cardiovascular drugs. Finally, selected garlic phytochemicals were tested for their ability to influence P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 activities.

  11. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-07-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  12. 大蒜提取液对番茄主要病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Garlic Extract of the Major Pathogens in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文静; 赵洪锟; 董英山; 周义发; 李启云

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of garlic extract of 4 pathogens in tomato was studied by using aimiao, the imported fungicide, and carbendazim, the commonly used fungicide at home, as the contrast. The results indicated the controlled ability of aimiao EC is the highest, and the garlic extract EC is close to carbendazim powder, but garlic extract EC is better compared to carbendazim powder by garlic extract EC,carbendazim powder and aimiao EC control the growth of 4 pathogens in tomato. By analyzing the inhibitory rate and calculating the trend of fungicide concentration, the EC_(95) oiFulvia fulva that aimiao EC controlled turns out to be 5 025-time diluent, and that of other fungi is about 2 220 times; the EC_(90) of Col-letotrichum coccodesthat garlic extract EC controlled is 586-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Fulvia fulva and Botrytis cinerea are 149,173 and 446 times respectively; EC_(90) of Fulvia fulva that carbendazim powder controlled is 178-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum coccodes and Botrytis cinerea are 111,145,107 times respectively. In a word, garlic extract EC and 2 fungicides have very strong ability in controlling the growth of the 4 pathogens in tomato, and the trend of fungicide concentration is consistent with the measured result, but the specificity is different for different fungicides respectively.%以进口杀菌剂爱苗和国内常用杀菌剂多菌灵为对照,研究了大蒜提取液对番茄4种病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:爱苗对4种病菌的抑制作用最大,大蒜提取液抑菌作用好于多菌灵.大蒜提取液对炭疽菌的EC_(90)为586倍稀释液,对早疫菌、叶霉菌和灰霉菌的EC_(90)分别为149,173,446倍.大蒜提取液和2种农药对番茄4种病原真菌有很强的抑制作用,但不同药剂有不同的专一性.

  13. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  14. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30 min and the solvent extracts were analyzed b

  15. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Rasmussen, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been evaluated....... P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the garlic......-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality, histopathology...

  16. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L{sup −1} of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic.

  17. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Ramesh Karkare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1 hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Results: Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  18. Garlic in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were...

  19. Supercritical CO2 Extracting Technology of Garlic Essential Oil and Active Components Analysis%大蒜精油的超临界 CO2萃取技术与有效成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李羿为; 赖万东

    2013-01-01

      Introduce the garlic essential oil properties and its application in life and production , summarize supercritical CO 2 extraction principle and process characteristics , analyze the technology application and development prospects , and also describe qualitative and quantitative detection methods of garlic essential oil .%  介绍大蒜精油的性质及其在生活生产中的应用,阐述超临界萃取技术的原理及工艺特点,分析其应用现状及发展前景,并介绍了大蒜精油有效成分的定性和定量检测方法。

  20. The Mathematics of Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  1. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  2. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  3. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  4. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector for the trace determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Padmaja, P; Pandey, S Y

    2014-06-01

    A fast and an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction technique using a lower density extraction solvent than water was developed for the trace-level determination of tebuconazole in garlic, soil and water samples followed by capillary gas chromatography combined with nitrogen-phosphorous selective detector (GC-NPD). In this approach, ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of the ethyl acetate in aqueous samples to enhance the extraction efficiency of tebuconazole without requiring extra partitioning or cleaning, and the use of capillary GC-NPD was a more sensitive detection technique for organonitrogen pesticides. The experimental results indicate an excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1-50 μg/kg or μg/L. The limit of detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and limit of quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) were obtained in the range 0.2-3 and 1-10 μg/kg or μg/L. Good spiked recoveries were achieved from ranges 95.55-101.26%, 96.28-99.33% and 95.04-105.15% in garlic, Nanivaliyal soil and Par River water, respectively, at levels 5 and 20 μg/kg or μg/L, and the method precision (% RSD) was ≤5%. Our results demonstrate that the proposed technique is a viable alternative for the determination of tebuconazole in complex samples.

  5. The Analysis of Saccharide in Black Garlic and its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic was created by keeping whole ordinary garlic in a humidity controlled room at 70-80°C for 10-15 days without any artificial treatments and additives. The black garlic was extracted with 80% ethanol and concentrated to obtain black garlic ethanol extracts. The saccharides of the extracts were analyzed according to the method of Phenol Sulphate colorimetry, DNS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity in vitro of the extracts was assessed by measuring the scavenging activities on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Drosophila melanogaster were employed to explore the effect of black garlic extract on lifespan and antioxidant index in vivo. The results showed that the total sugar content in the black garlic extracts was 55.5% including monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide, the content of reducing sugar was 25.22%. The results from this study demonstrated black garlic extracts possessed strong antioxidant capacity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, the longevity of Drosophila melanogaster treated with black garlic extract was prolonged evidently and the content of MDA was decreased by improving SOD (including CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD and CAT activities.

  6. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used since time immemorial as a culinary spice and medicinal herb. Garlic has been cultivated in the Middle East for more than 5,000 years and has been an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The region with the largest commercial garlic production is central California. China is also a supplier of commercial garlic. The bulb is used medicinally. Garlic has been touted as an herb with numerous health benefits, from treating the common cold to serving as an anticancer agent. Research has proven that garlic is beneficial for those with hypertension. By thinning the blood garlic can lower blood pressure by 5 to 10 percent. It can also lower cholesterol and discourage clot formation. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic or by taking powdered garlic products with allicin potential, in turn produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. In this review, we focused on the cardiovascular effects of garlic.

  8. Garlic biodiversity and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic clo

  9. 大蒜提取物中总酚含量及其抗氧化活性研究%The Study on Total Phenol and Antioxidant Activities of Garlic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武宇芳; 乔丽钧; 赵二劳

    2011-01-01

    分别以水、体积分数为50%的乙醇、加酶水和加酶的体积分数为50%的乙醇为溶剂,采用超声波提取大蒜,用Folin-Ciocalteu法测定提取物中总酚含量,研究提取物对DPPH·、·OH和O2-的清除能力.实验结果表明:提取剂水、体积分数为50%的乙醇、加酶水和加酶的体积分数为50%的乙醇的超声波在100 g大蒜的提取物中总酚含量依次为112.7、102.4、171.1和130.8 mg.4种提取物对DPPH·、·OH和O2-均具有较强的清除能力,表明其均具有较强的抗氧化活性.大蒜提取物抗氧化活性与其总酚含量呈明显的量效关系.%In this paper, ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used to extract activated components from garlic by water, 50% ethanol, water including cellulase and 50% ethanol including cellulase, respectively. The total contents of phenol from the extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method and the clearing ability of the extracts on DPPHvOH and O2- was studied. The results indicated that under ultrasonic radiation, using water, 50% ethanol, water including cellulase or 50% ethanol including cellulase as extractants, the total contents of phenol was 112.7 mg, 102.4 mg, 171.1 mg and 130.8 mg per 100 g garlic, respectively. All four extracts had strong clearing ability on DPPH·,·OH and O2-, which showed they had strong anti-oxidant capacity. In conclusion, the anti-oxidation ability is proportional to the total phenol contents of the garlic extracts.

  10. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (pgarlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (pgarlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (pgarlic-fed group, as compared to control. These findings demonstrate the potential of garlic as a natural alternative to currently used chemical treatments for monogenean sp. infection in the guppy.

  11. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2014-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  12. Extração e caracterização de carboidratos presentes no alho (Allium sativum L.: proposta de metodologia alternativa Extraction and characterization of carbohydrates present in the garlic (Allium sativum L.: proposal of alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Dalonso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O alho é um alimento funcional que contém inulina, um polissacarídeo de reserva, que auxilia no controle das bactérias patogênicas e putrefativas existentes no intestino. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar uma metodologia simples de extração de carboidratos do alho, qualificar e quantificar a composição desse extrato empregando a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e a espectroscopia na região do infravermelho utilizando para isso um padrão de inulina. Os bulbos de alho foram submetidos à extração aquosa a quente por 4 horas; posteriormente o líquido resultante foi separado e a ele foram adicionados 300 mL de acetona. O extrato isolado foi avaliado quanto aos seus produtos de hidrólise alcalina e os resultados indicaram a presença de um oligossacarídeo como o observado para a inulina padrão. As principais bandas características dos carboidratos foram visualizadas entre 3600 a 3000 e 1200 a 900 cm-1. A técnica utilizada neste trabalho pode ser utilizada para extração da inulina, pois agrega valor a produtos naturais, gerando alternativas do ponto de vista econômico.Garlic is a functional food that contains inulin, a reserve polysaccharide, which helps in the control of pathogenic and putrefactive bacterial present in the intestine. The aim of this work was to evaluate a simple method for the extraction of garlic carbohydrates and to qualify and quantify the composition of the extract using high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy using the standard inulin. The bulbs of garlic were submitted to a four-hour water extraction and the remaining liquid was separated by centrifugation and added to 300 mL of acetone. The isolated extract was evaluated in relation to its products of alkaline hydrolysis and the results indicate the presence of an oligosaccharide as observed for the standard inulin. The main characteristic bands of carbohydrate were identified in the range of 3600 - 3000 cm-1

  13. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Black Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Sook Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic (BG is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05 and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  14. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  15. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05). Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (pexperiment, the effects of dietary garlic extracts on blood plasma changes were investigated using 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon averaging 56.5 g. Fish were randomly allotted to each of 2 tanks (300 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the rate of 2% of body weight per day for 23 d. At the end of the feeding trial, blood was taken from the tail vein (n = 5, per group) at 1, 12, and 24 h after feeding, respectively. Blood plasma glucose, insulin and the other serological characteristics were also measured to assess postprandial status of the fish. Plasma glucose concentrations (mg/dl) between two groups (GE vs control) were significantly (p0.05) were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0). Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml) between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05) different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06) and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96) after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  16. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in garlic bulbs by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani Moreno, Claudia; Stadler, Teodoro; da Silva, Antônio Alberto; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, the release of information about the preventative and curative properties of garlic on different diseases and their benefits to human health has led to an increase in the consumption of garlic. To meet the requirements of international markets and reach competitiveness and profitability, farmers seek to extend the offer period of fresh garlic by increasing post-harvest life. As a result, the use of maleic hydrazide (1,2-dihydropyridazine-3,6-dione) [MH], a plant growth regulator, has been widespread in various garlic growing regions of the world. The present work was undertaken to develop and validate a new analytical procedure based on MH extraction from garlic previously frozen by liquid nitrogen and submitted to low temperature clean-up. The applicability of the method by analysis of garlic samples from a commercial plantation was also demonstrated. The influence of certain factors on the performance of the analytical methodology were studied and optimized. The approach is an efficient extraction, clean-up and determination alternative for MH residue-quantification due to its specificity and sensitivity. The use of liquid nitrogen during the sample preparation prevents the degradation of the analyte due to oxidation reactions, a major limiting factor. Moreover, the method provides good linearity (r(2): 0.999), good intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (CV): 8.39%), and extracts were not affected by the matrix effect. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) (0.33 mg kg(-1)) was well below the maximum residue level (MRL) set internationally for garlic (15 mg kg(-1)), with excellent rates of recovery (over 95%), good repeatability and acceptable accuracy (CV averaged 5.74%), since garlic is a complex matrix. The analytical performance of the methodology presented was compared with other techniques already reported, with highly satisfactory results, lower LOD and higher recoveries rates. In addition, the extraction

  17. Preparation of blue pigment extract from pickled garlic and its physio-chemical properties%绿变大蒜蓝色素的制备及理化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓丹; 李星

    2014-01-01

    为了进一步明确大蒜绿变物质的结构及性质,该研究对绿变产物进行分离制备并探索了其相关理化活性。从绿变大蒜中提取出绿变产物,并通过AmberliteCG-50和SephadexLH-20两步纯化制备得到了蓝色素的纯化产品,其色价为76.7。对色素的理化性质进行了研究,结果表明蓝色素在酸性条件pH值<7时稳定;对热处理也比较稳定,60℃以下加热处理对色素影响较小;长时间的日光照射会使蓝色素有较大的损失;一些常见的金属离子Cu2+、Zn2+、Al3+、Fe2+的存在对蓝绿色素几乎没有影响,Fe3+的存在会使色素迅速褪色。蓝色素对自由基有清除效果:质量浓度为2 mg/mL的蓝色素提取物对1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(DPPH)清除率达到96.4%;在10 mg/mL质量浓度下,蓝色素对超氧和羟基自由基的清除率分别为96.8%和87.6%;色素提取物对自由基的清除效果低于同浓度的抗坏血酸。该研究结果对深入研究绿变色素的性质和结构奠定了初步基础。%The greening compounds in garlic are of great importance to both industry and academic research. In this study, the blue pigment extract in greening garlic has been prepared and its physio-chemical properties and scavenging activities towards DPPH radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals have been investigated. The blue pigments in Laba garlic were extracted and separated by chromatography with Amberlite CG-50 and Sephadex LH-20, and the blue pigment extract (BPE) was obtained. Color value of BPE was elevated to 76.7 compared to 10.7 that of the raw extract without any purification. BPE was stable in acidic conditions, but sensitive to illumination. Low-temperature heating (lower than 60 2℃+,)Zhna2d+,lAittl3e+,eFffe2c+thoandthliettlsetaebfifleictyt onfBthPeE.M etalionssuch as pigment stability, but Fe3+ caused obvious color loss. The BPE displayed concentration-dependent inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl

  18. Extrato de alho como alternativa na quebra de dormência de gemas em macieiras cv. Fuji Kiku Garlic extract as alternative on bud dormant break of apple trees cv. Fuji Kiku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do extrato de alho (Bioalho® na quebra de dormência de gemas de macieiras 'Fuji Kiku', em comparação ao uso convencional de cianamida hidrogenada (H2CN2, na região de Guarapuava-PR. Logo após a poda de inverno, em setembro de 2005, os seguintes tratamentos foram pulverizados nas plantas durante o estádio fenológico de gema dormente: 1 Testemunha (sem tratamento; 2 EA (extrato de alho 1%; 3 EA 5%; 4 EA 10%; 5 OM (óleo mineral 2%; 6 EA 1% + OM 2%; 7 EA 5% + OM 2%; 8 EA 10% + OM 2%; 9 H2CN2 0,4% + OM 4%. Os tratamentos com extrato de alho e óleo mineral apresentaram efeitos similares ao tratamento convencional com cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral, atingindo mais de 90% de brotação das gemas aos 50 DAT, enquanto o tratamento com óleo mineral isoladamente a 2% e a testemunha atingiram apenas 62,5 e 42,7%, respectivamente. Os tratamentos com EA 5% ou 10%, com ou sem óleo mineral, foram os que apresentaram menores valores para as variáveis número de frutos, produção por planta e produtividade por área, não por ineficiência na quebra de dormência, mas, possivelmente, pela antecipação da floração que coincidiu com período bastante chuvoso no início da primavera.This study aimed to examine the effects of garlic extract (Bioalho® on bud break of 'Fuji Kiku' apple trees in comparison to the conventional use of hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2 at the region of Guarapuava-PR, Brazil. Soon after winter pruning, in September 2005, the following treatments were sprayed on plants at dormant bud stage: 1 control (untreated; 2 1% GE (garlic extract; 3 5% GE; 4 10% GE; 5 2% MO (mineral oil; 6 1% GE + 2% MO; 7 5% GE + 2% MO; 8 10% GE + 2% MO; 9 0.4% H2CN2 + 4% MO. The treatments with garlic extract and mineral oil showed similar effects in comparison to the hydrogen cyanamide treatment, achieving up to 90% of bud sprouting at 50 DAT, while only 2% mineral oil and control, attained only 62

  19. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps.

  20. 酶解工艺条件对大蒜中有机硫化物提取率的影响%Effect of enzymolysis process condition on extraction rate of garlic organic sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 王朝瑾; 邹洲

    2012-01-01

    The extraction rate of garlic organic sulfide was optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface method. They were determined as follows ..enzymolysis temperature 35℃ ,enzymolysis pH6.5, enzymolysis time 60min. Density of Fe2+ 10.67mmol/L,density of sucrose 15.67mmol/L,density of pyridoxal phosphate 2.13mmol/L. The Di(2-propenyl) trisulfide content of optimized sample was 2.7 times of control group. Under this condition,the extraction rate of organic sulfide was above 0.4% ,which provided theoretical basis for industrial deep processing of garlic.%以有机硫化物提取率为评价指标,利用单因素实验确定了最佳酶解温度为35℃,最佳酶解pH为6.5,最佳酶解时间为60min:利用响应面分析法确定了加入的Fe2+浓度为10.67mmol/L,蔗糖浓度为15.67mmol/L,磷酸吡哆醛浓度为2.13mmol/L;利用气相色谱法测定了最佳酶解工艺条件下二烯丙基三硫醚含量是对照组的2.7倍;在此条件下,有机硫化物提取率达到0.4%以上.为大蒜工业化深加工提供了理论依据。

  1. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of N-nitrosoproline and N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine in human urine: application to a study of the effects of garlic consumption on nitrosation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Keary; Seifried, Harold; Seifried, Rebecca; Milner, John; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Harrison, Earl H

    2009-11-15

    Biomarkers in urine can provide useful information about the bioactivation of chemical carcinogens and can be used to investigate the chemoprotective properties of dietary nutrients. N-Nitrosoproline (NPRO) excretion has been used as an index for endogenous nitrosation. In vitro and animal studies have reported that compounds in garlic may suppress nitrosation and inhibit carcinogenesis. We present a new method for extraction and sensitive detection of both NPRO and N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine from urine. The latter is a metabolite of S-allylcysteine, which is found in garlic. Urine was acidified and the organic acids were extracted by reversed-phase extraction (RP-SPE) and use of a polymeric weak anion exchange (WAX-SPE) resin. NPRO was quantified by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using [13C5]NPRO and N-nitrosopipecolinic acid (NPIC) as internal standards. This method was used to analyze urine samples from a study that was designed to test whether garlic supplementation inhibits NPRO synthesis. Using this method, 2.4 to 46.0 ng NPRO/ml urine was detected. The method is straightforward and reliable, and it can be performed with readily available GC-MS instruments. N-Acetyl-S-allylcysteine was quantified in the same fraction and detectable at levels of 4.1 to 176.4 ng/ml urine. The results suggest that 3 to 5 g of garlic supplements inhibited NPRO synthesis to an extent similar to a 0.5-g dose of ascorbic acid or a commercial supplement of aged garlic extract. Urinary NPRO concentration was inversely associated with the N-acetyl-S-allylcysteine concentration. It is possible that allyl sulfur compounds found in garlic may inhibit nitrosation in humans.

  2. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content...... in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few...

  3. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  4. policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d - α - tocopheryl hydrogen succinate , riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol ® and reduction of blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol......-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that, although no evidence was provided for an LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of any of the single food constituents in Limicol® at the proposed conditions of use or as to how...... policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and a reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  5. 旋转回归法优化大蒜汁处理条件对大肠杆菌的抑制作用%Optimization of treatment conditions of garlic extract on inhibition effect on E.coli with quadratic rotary design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春丽; 杨海波; 郭端强; 柳静

    2011-01-01

    Garlic has significant antibacterial effect. Using 100% garlic extract as raw material, effects of extracts on main putrefying and pathogenic bacteria of meat, such as E. coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus were studied first. The most sensitive strain-E .coli was selected as bacteria for study on inhibition effect of garlic extract treated with different pH and temperature. Effect of treating pH and temperature of garlic extract on inhibition effect on E. coli was studied with quadratic rotary design. Regression analysis indicated treating temperature, pH and composition of garlic extract have significant effects on inhibition effect of garlic extract on E. coli. The optimum treating conditions, which were temperature under 35℃ and pH at 6.5, were obtained after ridge analysis. And under the optimum conditions, the diameter of inhibition zones of E. coli could reach 3.9cm,improved by 30%.%大蒜对许多微生物有很好的抑菌效果.研究了以原汁浓度100%为基础,对肉制品中常见的腐败菌和致病菌-大肠杆菌、假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌为供试菌,筛选出对大蒜汁最敏感的菌-大肠杆菌为研究对象,经不同pH值和温度处理的大蒜汁对大肠杆菌的抑制作用,并利用旋转回归法研究了大蒜汁处理条件的2个重要因素:温度和pH值对大肠杆菌抑菌的影响,并拟合出同归方程.经回归分析表明,大蒜汁处理条件温度和pH值的取值及其配比对大肠杆菌抑菌有显著影响.通过岭脊分析寻优得出:温度最佳值为35℃、pH最佳值为6.5,在此优化条件下大肠杆菌的抑菌圈直径可以达到3.9cm,比优化前提高了30%.

  6. The antitrichomonal efficacy of garlic and metronidazole against Trichomonas gallinae infecting domestic pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiek, Sh A; El-Shorbagy, Mohamed M; Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  7. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  8. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes

  9. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  10. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iciek, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Inga; Włodek, Lidia

    2009-04-01

    Medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been widely known and used since ancient times till the present. Garlic enhances immune functions and has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus activities. It is known to prevent platelet aggregation, and to have hypotensive and cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering properties, although the latter features have been questioned. This review is focused on anticancer efficacy of Allium sativum, and attempts to explain the mechanisms of this action. Medicinal properties of garlic rely upon organosulfur compounds mostly derived from alliin. Organosulfur compounds originating from garlic inhibit carcinogen activation, boost phase 2 detoxifying processes, cause cell cycle arrest mostly in G2/M phase, stimulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, increase acetylation of histones. Garlic-derived sulfur compounds influence also gap-junctional intercellular communication and participate in the development of multidrug resistance. This review presents also other little known aspects of molecular action of garlic-derived compounds, like modulation of cellular redox state, involvement in signal transduction and post-translational modification of proteins by sulfane sulfur or by formation of mixed disulfides (S-thiolation reactions).

  11. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  12. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  13. Bactericidal Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic Against Multidrug Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Epidemic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emerging trend of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera epidemics is a matter of serious concern for the management of the disease. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics generally results in selection of antibiotic resistant strains. Introduction of newer antibiotics is a challenging task for the researchers as bacteria soon attain resistance. Therefore, identifying natural compounds of medicinal importance for control of cholera would be the best alternative. Garlic (Allium sativum was recognised for many centuries in early Chinese, Egyptian and Indian civilisations as an herbal or traditional medicine. In present study, garlic was selected for screening of antimicrobial efficacy against V. cholerae. A total of 55 V. cholerae strains isolated from various outbreaks/epidemics were subjected to antimicrobial testing as per CLSI, USA 2010 guidelines. Antimicrobial screening of garlic extract was performed against all the multidrug resistant strains of V. cholerae. The garlic extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the V. cholerae strains tested, irrespective of their origin, multidrug resistance and virulence. Antibacterial efficacy of garlic on V. cholerae was also evident from in vivo study on sealed adult mice model. Thus, the Garlic extract harnesses the potential to control infection of multidrug resistant V. cholerae, especially in outbreak like situations in remote and under developed areas where drug supply itself is a challenge

  14. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  15. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  16. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”.

  17. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  18. Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal K R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face recognition system with large sets of training sets for personal identification normally attains good accuracy. In this paper, we proposed Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification (FEBFRGAC algorithm with only small training sets and it yields good results even with one image per person. This process involves three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction and Classification. The geometric features of facial images like eyes, nose, mouth etc. are located by using Canny edge operator and face recognition is performed. Based on the texture and shape information gender and age classification is done using Posteriori Class Probability and Artificial Neural Network respectively. It is observed that the face recognition is 100%, the gender and age classification is around 98% and 94% respectively.

  19. HSPA6 augments garlic extract-induced inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer EJ cells; Implication for cell cycle dysregulation, signaling pathway alteration, and transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byungdoo; Noh, Dae-Hwa; Park, Sung Lyea; Kim, Won Tae; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Although recent studies have demonstrated the anti-tumor effects of garlic extract (GE), the exact molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism associated with the inhibitory action of GE against bladder cancer EJ cell responses. Treatment with GE significantly inhibited proliferation of EJ cells dose-dependently through G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. This G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest by GE was due to the activation of ATM and CHK2, which appears to inhibit phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Thr14/Tyr15), this in turn was accompanied by down-regulation of cyclin B1 and up-regulation of p21WAF1. Furthermore, GE treatment was also found to induce phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK) and AKT. In addition, GE impeded the migration and invasion of EJ cells via inhibition of MMP-9 expression followed by decreased binding activities of AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB motifs. Based on microarray datasets, we selected Heat shock protein A6 (HSPA6) as the most up-regulated gene responsible for the inhibitory effects of GE. Interestingly, overexpression of HSPA6 gene resulted in an augmentation effect with GE inhibiting proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells. The augmentation effect of HSPA6 was verified by enhancing the induction of G2/M-phase-mediated ATM-CHK2-Cdc25C-p21WAF1-Cdc2 cascade, phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT signaling, and suppression of transcription factor-associated MMP-9 regulation in response to GE in EJ cells. Overall, our novel results indicate that HSPA6 reinforces the GE-mediated inhibitory effects of proliferation, migration, and invasion of EJ cells and may provide a new approach for therapeutic treatment of malignancies. PMID:28187175

  20. Antimicrobial activity of garlic and aloe vera L.var chinensis(Haw) berger extracts%大蒜与芦荟抑菌作用的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二芳; 王峰; 王卫兵

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the raw garlic juice and the raw garlic juices different concentration dilution liquid were studied with filter paper and liquid dilution.The result showed that the antimicrobial effect of the garlic raw juice and different%采用滤纸片法和液体稀释法对大蒜、芦荟原汁及其稀释液的抑菌作用进行研究,结果表明大蒜对3种供试菌的抑菌作用强于相应浓度的芦荟的抑菌作用。随稀释程度增强,芦荟和大蒜的抑菌力均减弱。

  1. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  2. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  3. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  4. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  5. AN ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF GARLIC PRODUCTION IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Hussain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the technical efficiency of farmers in garlic production in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Data was randomly collected from 110 farmers using multistage sampling technique. Maximum likelihood estimation technique was used to estimate Cob-Douglas frontier production function. The analysis revealed that the estimated mean technical efficiency was 77 percent indicating that total output can be further increased with efficient use of resources and technology. The estimated gamma value was found to be 0.93 which shows 93% variation in garlic output due to inefficiency factors. The analysis further revealed that seed rate, tractor hours, fertilizer, FYM and weedicides were positive and statistically significant production factors. The results also show that age and education were statistically significant inefficiency factors, age having positive and education having negative relationship with the output of garlic. This study suggests that in order to increase the production of garlic by taking advantage of their high efficiency level, the government should invest in the research and development aspects for introducing good quality seeds to increase garlic productivity and should organize training programs to educate farmers about garlic production.

  6. Effects of garlic on Schistosoma mansoni harbored in albino mice: molecular characterization of the host and parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Nahed H A; Taha, Hoda A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2013-04-15

    Garlic has been used for its health benefits for thousands of years. Modern research confirmed many of the healing properties of garlic, including its antiparasitic activity. This study was designed to evaluate the antischistosomal action of garlic through detecting the changes in DNA profile of Schistosoma mansoni worms and the infected mouse. Forty mice were subcutaneously infected with ~200 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae/mouse. Infected mice were divided into four equal groups: non-treated, prophylactic, therapeutic, and continuously-treated. Non-infected control and garlic-treated groups were assigned for the sake of comparison. Garlic extract (50mg/kg bw/mouse) was given orally, day after day, at a fixed daytime. Seven weeks post-infection, adult schistosomes were recovered by perfusion and the livers of the mice were excised out and were processed for DNA extraction and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). The results showed that garlic exerted no major changes in the genome of schistosomes. Nevertheless, that schistosomal infection induced genetic alterations in the DNA of mice, and garlic was able to ameliorate such alterations to a great extent.

  7. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  8. Effect of garlic extract on physical, oxidative and microbial changes during refrigerated storage of restructured product from Thai pangas (pangasianodon hypophthalmus) surimi

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Ranendra K.; Saha, Apurba; Dhar, Bahni; Maurya, Pradip K.; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Balange, Amjad K.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of garlic’s aqueous extract (GAE) during refrigerated storage of the restructured products from Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was evaluated. Protein and lipid oxidation, protein pattern on SDS-PAGE, TPC as well as WHC, gelling properties, texture profiles and whiteness of the surimi gel was evaluated periodically during a refrigerated storage period of 20 days. Increase of water holding capacity in GAE added gels indicated stronger protein network formation, whereas, decr...

  9. Freshly crushed garlic is a superior cardioprotective agent than processed garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-08-12

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-a-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all of the rats were sacrificed and isolated the hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both of the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, the freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of antiapoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NFkappaB, Nrf2, and enhanced GLUT 4, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection, the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

  10. Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity.

  11. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2012-01-01

    the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic...... to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation...... model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections....

  12. Effect of Nitrogen Topdressing on Growth and Yield of Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wentong HOU; Zhenxiang LIU; Zhaoping HU

    2016-01-01

    With Cangshan garlic and early bolting garlic as experimental materials,this paper studies the effect of nitrogen topdressing on the garlic growth and yield of garlic stems and garlic bulbs. The results show that under the same amount of nitrogen,applying ammonium phosphor nitrate can better promote the growth of garlic than applying urea and ammonium chloride; both ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphor nitrate can effectively improve the yield of garlic stems and garlic bulbs,especially for ammonium phosphor nitrate; through economic benefit analysis,applying ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphor nitrate can produce greater economic benefits than applying urea,and especially ammonium phosphor nitrate increases the economic benefits of Cangshan garlic and early bolting garlic by 5490 yuan and 6690 yuan per ha,respectively.

  13. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  14. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice O efeito das propriedades antioxidantes do extrato aquoso do alho e da Nigella sativa como agentes anti-esquistossômicos no camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla S. EL Shenawy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant and anti-schistosomal activities of the garlic extract (AGE and Nigella sativa oil (NSO on normal and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. AGE (125 mg kg-1, i.p. and NSO (0.2 mg kg-1, i.p. were administrated separately or in combination for successive 28 days, starting from the 1st day post infection (pi. All mice were sacrificed at weeks 7 pi. Hematological and biochemical parameters including liver and kidney functions were measured to assess the progress of anemia, and the possibility of the tissue damage. Serum total protein level, albumin, globulin and cholesterol were also determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels were determined in the liver tissues as biomarkers for oxidative and reducing status, respectively. The possible effect of the treatment regimens on Schistosoma worms was evaluated by recording percentage of the recovered worms, tissue egg and oogram pattern. Result showed that, protection with AGE and NSO prevented most of the hematological and biochemical changes and markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of schistosomiasis mice compared to the infected-untreated ones. In addition, remarkable reduction in worms, tissue eggs and alteration in oogram pattern were recorded in all the treated groups. The antioxidant and antischistosomal action of AGE and NSO was greatly diverse according to treatment regimens. These data point to these compounds as promising agents to complement schistosomiasis specific treatment.O propósito deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos anti-oxidantes e anti-esquistossômicos do extrato de alho (AGE e do óleo da Nigella sativa (NSO em camundongos normais e infectados com S. mansoni. AGE (125 mg/kg, i.p. e NSO (0,2 mg/kg, i.p. foram administrados separadamente ou em combinação por 28 dias sucessivos começando do primeiro dia pós infecção (p.i.. Todos os camundongos foram sacrificados sete semanas p.i. Parâmetros hematol

  15. GARLIC AND ONION IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Onion and garlic are the commonly used ingredients in the kitchen. We are still completely unaware that its health benefits are numerous. They have been tried in vivo in the treatment of deadly diseases like cancer, HIV etc. and are proved to be successful. They both belong to same family of Allium genus. They provide benefit even in morphine withdrawal, diabetes and are known to confer significant immunity to humans. Here, in this review, we discuss the constituents, properties; medicinal uses, Dental applications, adverse effects and contraindications of these naturally available herbs.

  16. Efeito do extrato de alho na quebra de dormência de gemas de videiras e no controle in vitro do agente causal da antracnose (Elsinoe ampelina Shear Effect of garlic extract on bud break of grapevines and in vitro control of causal agent of antracnose (Elsinoe ampelina Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a redução ou eliminação do uso de substâncias sintéticas que preconizam os sistemas sustentáveis de produção de frutas, este trabalho teve como objetivo a busca de novas alternativas para a quebra de dormência e o controle de doenças em videiras. Estacas de videira contendo uma gema foram pulverizadas com os seguintes tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 OV (óleo vegetal 1%; 3 extrato de alho (EA 3%; 4 EA 3% + OV 1%. Posteriormente, as estacas foram mantidas em câmara de crescimento (25±2.5ºC por 56 dias. O único tratamento que estimulou a brotação das estacas de videira cv. Isabel Precoce foi o EA 3% + OV 1%, que atingiu 35% de brotação, diferindo estatisticamente dos tratamentos- testemunha (12,5%, OV 1% (17,5% e EA 3% (15,0%. Provavelmente, o estádio de endodormência profunda das gemas, após apenas 90 horas de frio ( Considering the reduction or elimination of synthetic compounds used in sustainable fruit production systems, this work aimed to search for new alternatives for bud break dormancy and diseases control in grapevines. Single-bud cuttings of grapevines were sprayed with the following treatments: 1 control, 2 1% SO (soybean oil, 3 3% GE (garlic extract, 4 3% GE + 1% SO. After that, the cuttings were kept in a growth chamber (25±2.5ºC for 56 days. The unique treatment that stimulated sprouting of grapevines cv. Isabel Precoce was 3% GE + 1% S, that reached 35% sprouting, differing statistically from the control (12.5%, 1% SO (17.5% and 3% GE (15.0%. Probably, the stage of deep endodormancy of buds, after only 90 chilling hours (< 7.0ºC, avoided better results of bud breaks treatments. Three experiments were carried out in vitro, with different garlic extract doses aiming to evaluate the control of the fungus Elsinoe ampelina. In all trials, there were quadratic effects on mycelial growth, without differences between garlic extract treatments, evidencing its fungicide effect, even for the lowest dose of 0

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of garlic, tea tree oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and ultraviolet sanitizing device in the decontamination of toothbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrdas, Dithi; Jayakumar, H L; Chandra, Mahesh; Katodia, Lavleen; Sreedevi, Athira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the efficacy of 3% garlic extract, 0.2% tea tree oil, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, and ultravoilet (UV) toothbrush sanitizing device as toothbrush disinfectants against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized controlled parallel study was done on 210 dental students. The subjects were divided into one control group using distilled water and five study groups representing 0.2% tea tree oil, 3% garlic extract...

  18. Garlic and hepatic coccidiosis: prophylaxis or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akkada, Somaia S; Oda, Samah S; Ashmawy, Karam I

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of crude garlic (Allium sativum) against experimental infection with Eimeria stiedae in rabbits. Forty rabbits were divided into four groups of ten rabbits each: a healthy control group (HC); a challenged-garlic-protected group (CGP) which received a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight (bwt) crude garlic for five successive days before challenge with E. stiedae; a challenged-garlic-treated group (CGT) which was treated with a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg bwt crude garlic for five successive days post-challenge; and an infected control group (IC). The challenge dose was 5 x 10(4) sporulated E. stiedae oocysts per rabbit. Mortality rate, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and faecal oocyst count were evaluated throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, all rabbits were killed and histopathological examination was performed. No mortalities were recorded in the HC and CGP groups, whilst mortality was found to be 20% and 40% in the CGT and IC groups, respectively. CGP rabbits had better body weight gain and lower numbers of oocysts than those in the CGT and IC groups. Hepatic lesions were less severe in the CGP group than in the CGT and IC groups. These results showed that oral administration of crude garlic ameliorated the adverse impacts of hepatic coccidiosis on rabbits when used as a prophylactic, but garlic was less effective as a therapeutic.

  19. Anti-mycobacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) against multi-drug resistant and non-multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Usman, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Absar, Muhammad; Javed, Khursheed

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB throughout the developing world is very disturbing in the present scenario of TB management. There is a fundamental need to explore alternative anti-TB agents. Hence natural plants should be investigated to understand their antimicrobial properties and safety. Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of natural plant which possesses variety of biological properties like anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipedemic and anti-microbial etc. The present study was evaluated for anti-bacterial activity of garlic against non-MDR and MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. A total of 20 clinical isolates of MTB including 15 MDR and 5 non-MDR were investigated. Ethanolic extract of garlic was prepared by maceration method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was performed by using 7H9 middle brook broth dilution technique. MIC of garlic extract was ranged from 1 to 3 mg/ml; showing inhibitory effects of garlic against both non-MDR and MDR M. tuberculosis isolates. Alternate medicine practices with plant extracts including garlic should be considered to decrease the burden of drug resistance and cost in the management of diseases. The use of garlic against MDR-TB may be of great importance regarding public health.

  20. [Garlic--a "secret miracle of God"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, B

    1995-01-03

    Garlic belongs to the oldest traditional medicinal plants. It has already been mentioned 1500 A. D. in an ancient egyptian medical script, the Papyrus Ebers. In modern times antitumoral and antiarteriosclerotic effects are attributed to garlic-derived drugs. These effects could be demonstrated in vitro and appear to be supported by epidemiologic studies. Production of commercial products and pharmacologic studies, however, are rendered more difficult by chemical instability and low bioavailability of the active drugs. Clinical studies on effects and case reports about side effects of garlic consumption are summarized in this paper.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that the food which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. High LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that, although no evidence was provided for an LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of any of the single food constituents in Limicol® at the proposed conditions of use or as to how the ingredients individually or in any combination could contribute to the claimed effect and despite the lack of a dose-response relationship observed in one human intervention study, three human intervention studies conducted by two independent research groups showed an effect of the combination of food ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol

  2. Direction Identification System of Garlic Clove Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the requirements of seeding direction of garlic cloves, the paper proposed a research method of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, it expounded the theory of garlic clove direction identification, stated the arithmetic of it, designed the direction identification device of it, then developed the control system of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, at last tested the garlic clove direction identification, and the result of the experiment certificated that the rate of garlic clove direction identification could reach to more than 97%, and it demonstrated that the research is of high feasibility and technological values.

  3. Development and performance evaluation of a garlic peeler

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Garlic peeling is a tedious, key, costly and time consuming unit operation in garlic processing. A power operated garlic peeler having a cylinder-concave mechanism was developed with an intention to reduce cost and time. Physical properties of garlic relevant for peeler development were identified and measured. The average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, weight of garlic segment and weight of 1,000 garlic segment were measured as 26.3 mm, 10.4 mm, 8.7 mm, 13.3 m...

  4. Evaluating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Capacity of Raw and Steamed Garlic as Well as Five Organosulfur Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chen Ho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  6. Evaluating the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw and steamed garlic as well as five organosulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Su-Chen; Su, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-31

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DATS and diallyl disulfide at 200 and 400 μM, respectively, displayed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Meanwhile, even at 1 mM, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine and alliin did not display such activity. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation was the mechanism underlying this protective effect of raw garlic and DATS. Analysis results indicated that the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of raw garlic is due to the alliin-derived OSCs. Importantly, DATS is a highly promising therapeutic candidate for treating inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  8. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF TIME-RELEASED GARLIC POWDER TABLETS ON ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGOR SOBENIN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of commonly spread positive opinion about the antibacterial and antiviral properties of garlic, very few and fragmented data exist on the benefits of garlic and garlic-based preparations in the prevention of acute respiratory diseases (ARD. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of timereleased garlic powder tablets (Allicor in prevention of ARD in children. At the first stage, in open-labeled 5-months study it has been shown that ARD morbidity was reduced by 2.4-fold in 172 Allicor-treated (600 mg daily schoolchildren aged 7-16 as compared to 468 controls. At the second stage, the effects of Allicor (300 mg daily on ARD morbidity were investigated in the double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized 5-months comparative study in 42 children aged 10-12 in comparison with 41 placebo-treated children and 73 benzimidazole-treated children. Allicor treatment reduced ARD morbidity by 2.4-fold as compared to placebo, and by 1.7-fold as compared to benzimidazole. Health index in Allicor-treated group was 1.5-fold higher as compared either to placebo- or benzimidazole-treated children. The results of this study have demonstrated that garlic powder tablets Allicor are effective in non-specific prevention of acute respiratory infections in children and possess no side effects. Additionally, the commonly used ARD prevention withbenzimidazole turned to be entirely ineffective in placebocontrolled study, so the development of new useful and safe efficient drugs like garlic-based preparations is of ultimate importance.

  11. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-04-15

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H2S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H2S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30min and the solvent extracts were analyzed by GC-MS/FID and HPLC. A cell-based assay was used to measure the H2S-releasing activity of the extracts. Results showed that the amounts of allyl polysulfides increased in crushed garlic boiled for 6-10min; however, prolonging the thermal treatment to 20 or 30min decreased their concentrations. Data of the H2S-releasing activity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E), parallel this trend, being significantly higher at 6 and 10min boiling. Our results showed enhancement of H2S-releasing activity upon moderate boiling, suggesting that shorter cooking time may maximize its health benefits as a dietary source of natural H2S donors.

  12. Effect of pH and postmortem aging on protein extraction from broiler breast muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, M; Samuel, D; Bowker, B

    2014-07-01

    This study determined the effects of extraction buffer pH and postmortem aging on the extraction of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins from broiler pectoralis muscle. Deboned broiler breast fillets were collected at 4 h postmortem, packaged, and then stored at 4°C until 1, 5, or 8 d postmortem. After the designated aging period, salt-soluble and water-soluble protein extractions were performed using buffers at 7 different pH levels (pH 5.4, 6.4, 6.9, 7.2, 7.5, 8.0, 9.0). Protein concentrations of the extracts were measured and SDS-PAGE analysis was performed. Salt-soluble protein concentration increased (P protein concentration increased (P extraction buffer pH by aging treatment interaction for the total protein concentration of either the salt-soluble or water-soluble protein extracts. The protein concentrations of salt-soluble extracts were similar at both 1 and 8 d postmortem but lower (P protein concentrations of water-soluble extracts were similar at both 1 and 5 d postmortem, but higher (P extraction buffer pH and postmortem aging influenced the SDS-PAGE protein profiles of salt-soluble and water-soluble protein extracts from breast muscles. Data demonstrate that postmortem aging and extraction buffer pH influence both the total amount and the composition of the myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins that can be extracted from broiler breast fillets.

  13. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from...

  14. Glutathione-Garlic Sulfur Conjugates: Slow Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Agents for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashif Iqbal Bhuiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS or without (GaWS glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S, also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-20

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  16. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited b...

  17. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  18. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L. y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L. bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC, ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in water. The supercritical fluid extraction technique allows for obtaining extracts at low temperature using high pressures, avoiding compound degradation and making possible solvent separation by exposing the extract at room temperature. Mites were bred on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a laboratory environment in Laureles Campus, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Mortality was evaluated putting 10 mites in P. vulgaris 3 cm diameter leaf discs previously submersed in the extract. The lowest mean lethal concentrations (LC50 were obtained with the CSC method (8.1188, 5.4105, 2.8206 mg g-1 at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Extracts were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, finding vinyl dithiins (63.11%, diallyl disulfide (10.88% and diallyl trisulfide (10.4% as the main compounds in the CSC extract. The main conclusion is that, in comparison with other techniques of extraction from garlic bulbs used in this study, supercritical fluids allow for obtaining extracts with a higher concentration of biologically active compounds against T. urticae.Tetranychus urticae Koch es una plaga que causa grandes pérdidas económicas porque ataca un numeroso grupo de cultivos. Además, algunas poblaciones han desarrollado resistencia a acaricidas comerciales. Este trabajo compara diferentes extractos a partir de bulbos de ajo (Allium sativum L. a través de su toxicidad y repelencia sobre T. urticae. Los extractos se

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Garlic Waste on Pathogenic Microorganisms of Corps%大蒜废弃物对农作物病原菌的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓荔; 宋永辉; 胡林潮; 刘玮晶; 孙德峰; 代静玉

    2012-01-01

    我国大蒜废弃物资源丰富,为引导其合理化、资源化利用,测定了大蒜提取物对大豆尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum fsp.tracheiphilum)、油菜菌核病菌(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum( Lib.)de Bary)、大豆细菌性斑点病菌(Pse udomonas.s yringae pv.glycinea)和水稻白叶枯病菌(Xanthomonas oryzae pv ?oryzae[ Ishiyama]Dye,Xoo)4种植物病原菌的抑制作用,并通过大蒜提取物、大蒜渣、大蒜肥对土壤中大豆尖孢镰刀菌的抑制试验,测定了其在土壤中对土传病原菌的抑制效果.结果表明,高浓度的大蒜提取物对这4种植物病原菌有抑制作用,随着提取物浓度的升高,抑菌效果也更为明显.质量浓度为500 mg? mL-1时对大豆尖孢镰刀菌、大豆细菌性斑点病菌和水稻白叶枯病菌的抑菌效果最好.培养基中提取物浓度达100 mg?mL-1时对两种真菌的抑制达100%.同时,含大蒜提取物0.05 mL?g-1、大蒜渣5%或大蒜肥25%的土壤能抑制土传病原菌大豆尖孢镰刀菌在土壤中的定殖.%Garlic extract has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, so garlic products have been widely used in food, medicine, animal breeding, agriculture, and so on. The planting area of garlic in our country is more than a third of the total cultivated area of the world. Most of them are for direct food comsumption, rough machining, primary products, export, therefore, garlic waste resource is very abundant. In order to discuss the role of garlic waste on crop disease prevention and determine the reasonable dosage of garlic extract to restrain the pathogenic bacteria and not to hurt crops, we carried out the experiment of antibacterial effect of garlic extract, the antibacterial activity and inhibitory effect tests of garlic extract and garlic slag on soil-spread pathogen, Fusarium oxysporumfsp.tracheiphilum.The inhibitory effects of garlic extract on four kinds of plant pathogen as Fusarium oxysporumfsp. Tracheiphilum, Sclerotinia

  20. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-05-25

    The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.

  1. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material.

  2. Effects of garlic supplementation on parasitic infestation, live weight, and hematological parameters in Black Bengal goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Md. Iqbal Hasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of garlic on egg per gram (EPG count of feces for gastrointestinal parasites, live weight, and hematological parameters in Black Bengal goat. A total of 18 dry does of 18-22 months of age were divided into 3 groups as T0, T1 and T2; where, each group comprised of 6 goats. The goats of T0 were feed with normal feeds, whereas the goats of T1 and T2 were fed with normal feeds plus 25 mL and 50 mL of 10% water solution of garlic twice per day, respectively for 60 days. The EPG count was performed by McMaster counting chamber, and live weight was measured by digital electric balance. EPG count for gastrointestinal parasites was found significantly lower in the treatment groups as compared to T0. Weight gain was recorded significantly higher in the treatment groups. The hematological parameters like total leucocyte count (TLC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb and total erythrocyte count (TEC showed significant changes in the treatment groups. The study suggests that 10% water solution of garlic is a useful supplementation to decrease EPG count, body weight gain; thus, the 10% aqueous garlic solution can improve the general health condition of goat. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 326-331

  3. Effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehri Najafi Sani; Hamid Reza Kianifar; Abdolrazagh Kianee; Gholamreza Khatami

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of oral garlic on arterial oxygen pressure in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.METHODS: Garlic powder in a capsule form was given to 15 children with hepatopulmonary syndrome (confirmed by contrast echocardiography) at the dosage of 1g/1.73 m2 per day. Patients were evaluated clinically and by arterial blood gas every four weeks.RESULTS: The garlic capsule was administered to 15patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome. There were 10 boys and 5 girls with a mean age of 9.4±3.9 years.The underlying problems were biliary tract atresia (4patients), autoimmune hepatitis (4 patients), cryptogenic cirrhosis (4 patients) and presinusoidal portal hypertension (3 patients). Eight patients (53.3%) showed an increase of 10 mmHg in their mean arterial oxygen pressure. The baseline PaO2 was 65.6±12.1 mmHg in the responder group and 47.1±11.2 mmHg in nonresponder group. At the end of treatment the mean PaO2 in responders and non-responders was 92.2±7.75mmHg and 47.5±11.87 mmHg, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Garlic may increase oxygenation and improve dyspnea in children with hepatopulmonary syndrome.

  4. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanocrystals with tunable surface plasmon resonance using garlic phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepthy; Basanth, Amritha; Retnakumari, Archana; Manzoor, K; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles having tunable optical absorbance finds immense use in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Hence, it is imperative to develop environment and bio-friendly green chemical processes that aid in preparing gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties. In the present work, phytochemicals present in the medicinal herb, viz., garlic, were used to provide the dual effects of reduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles as well as stabilization, in a single step process. The optical tunability of nanogold with respect to concentration of precursor and volume of garlic extract, processing conditions of garlic, its differing molecular weight fractions, reaction time and temperature has been demonstrated. The presence of a range of anisotropic nanogold including nanotriangles, nanorods and nanospheres as evident from TEM endows the colloid with a tunable optical absorption, specifically into the near infrared region. In vitro stability studies of the colloidal suspension in various media including saline, BSA, histidine and PBS showed that gold nanoparticles did not aggregate with time or differing pH conditions. The role of the garlic phytochemicals in providing stability against agglomeration was also substantiated by FTIR studies. Cytotoxicity studies performed using spherical and anisotropic gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines proved the biocompatibility of the material up to high doses of 500 microg/ml. The present work highlights the role of garlic phytochemicals in preparing biocompatible metallic gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties and good in vitro stability, suggesting its potential use for molecular imaging or therapeutic nanomedicines.

  5. Speciation and identification of tellurium-containing metabolites in garlic, Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Yasumi; Yoshida, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Saki; Katai, Ryota; Tokumoto, Maki; Ouerdane, Laurent; Łobiński, Ryszard; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-09-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a widely used metalloid in industry because of its unique chemical and physical properties. However, information about the biological and toxicological activities of Te in plants and animals is limited. Although Te is expected to be metabolized in organisms via the same pathway as sulfur and selenium (Se), no precise metabolic pathways are known in organisms, particularly in plants. To reveal the metabolic pathway of Te in plants, garlic, a well-known Se accumulator, was chosen as the model plant. Garlic was hydroponically cultivated and exposed to sodium tellurate, and Te-containing metabolites in the water extract of garlic leaves were identified using HPLC coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). At least three Te-containing metabolites were detected using HPLC-ICP-MS, and two of them were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS for identification. The MS spectra obtained by ESI-MS-MS indicated that the metabolite was Te-methyltellurocysteine oxide (MeTeCysO). Then, MeTeCysO was chemically synthesized and its chromatographic behavior matched with that of the Te-containing metabolite in garlic. The other was assigned as cysteine S-methyltellurosulfide. These results suggest that garlic can assimilate tellurate, an inorganic Te compound, and tellurate is transformed into a Te-containing amino acid, the so-called telluroamino acid. This is the first report addressing that telluroamino acid is de novo synthesized in a higher plant.

  6. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  7. Identification of a Novel Garlic Cellulase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeri; Kim, Ryong Nam; Kim, Dae-Won; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kang, Aram; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Park, Hong-Seog

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding cellulase enzymes have been investigated in various plants due to the importance of cellulase enzymes in industrial applications, especially in the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Although several cellulase genes have been cloned and characterized, little is known about cellulase genes from garlic or enzyme activities of their gene products. In this study, a cellulase gene from garlic was cloned and characterized in gene and protein levels for the first time. The DNA sequence of the garlic cellulase gene showed 81% identity with the sequence of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase of Pisum sativum. The open reading frame of this gene is 1,506 bp, which corresponds to 501 deduced amino acids. We identified the novel ORF region, which was translated into a 55.2 kDa protein using the protein expression vector, pET28a, in Escherichia coli and we confirmed that this protein has cellulase activity in vitro. Our study demonstrates that garlic is very useful, not only for the culinary and pharmaceutical industries, but also as an excellent natural source of various kinds of important genes and enzymes.

  8. GARLIC - GAmma Reconstruciton for the LInear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    In order to profit from the high granularity of the calorimeters proposed for the ILC that are suitable for the Particle Flow Approach, specialised clustering algorithms have to be developped. GARLIC is such an algorithm with the goal to find and identify pointing photons in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This would help to improve the energy resolution on the photon contribution in jets.

  9. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  10. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was perform...

  11. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  12. 大蒜及大蒜油与铅镉作用的初步研究%Study on the Action of Gralic and Garlic Oil on Lead and Cadmium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 李晓兵; 覃亮政; 王克勤

    2000-01-01

    The action of garlic and garlic oil on lead and cadmium ions was investigated by using Potentiometric Stripping Analysis. With increasing the amount of garlic's water extract, garlic's ethanol extract, or garlic oil added in a measuring solution containing lead or cadmium ion, the PSA signals due to the free ions of lead or cadmium decreased . It suggests that garlic and garlic oil have some action on lead and cadmium ions.%用电位溶出分析法对大蒜及大蒜油与铅、镉的作用进行了初步研究。实验结果表明,大蒜水浸取液、大蒜乙醇浸取液及大蒜油均会使游离铅镉离子的电位溶出信号下降,提示大蒜及大蒜油与铅镉可能发生了配位作用。

  13. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  14. NATURAL HEALING AGENT: GARLIC, AN APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We have grown up in the era of so-called wonder drugs. Garlic is one such drug which is grown globally. China is by far the largest producer of garlic, with approximately 10.5 million tonnes (23 billion pounds) annually, accounting for over 77% of world output. This leaves 16% of global garlic production in countries that each produces less than 2% of global output. The purpose of this study is to highlight new applications of cultivated as well as wild garlic in medicine. Areas of beneficial...

  15. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  16. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Luchun [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and {sup 14}C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of {sup 14}C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed.

  17. Comparison of dietary agents' garlic and bitter melon on in vitro glycation and advanced glycation end products formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini Garima

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: M. charantia L seems to aggravate sugar mediated glycation of the protein and need further studies to pinpoint specific bioactive compounds responsible for the observed activities whereas aged garlic seems to have strong ant glycation properties. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 257-262

  18. Dietary supplementation of garlic and rosemary: effects on colour stability and lipid oxidation in lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafizzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour of fresh meat is an important criterion consumers take into consideration when purchasing meat. Meat colour depends on the occurrence of chemical and microbial deterioration processes. The role of vitamin E and other antioxidants on ruminant meat colour stability and prevention of lipid oxidation has been widely investigated (Macit et al., 2003; Realini et al., 2004. Many natural herbs and plant extracts exert antioxidant effects such as garlic (Yin and Cheng, 2003 and rosemary (Sánchez-Escalante et al., 2001. Their use as additives for animal feeding may be a valid alternative to synthetic antioxidants since they show beneficial effects also on animal welfare and other physiological functions (Tedesco, 2001. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether garlic and rosemary dietary supplementation as compared with vitamin E affects lamb meat colour and lipid stability during storage.

  19. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  20. Study on antibacterial activity of garlic solution against Campylobacter jejuni%大蒜液对空肠弯曲杆菌的抑菌作用研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小叶; 邱宏; 邓继家; 田瑶; 周秀萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the antibacterial activity of garlic solution against Campylobacter jejuni,and to provide theoriti-cal basis for further utilization of garlic.Methods Mashed garlic and extracted garlic solution.Antimicrobial susceptibility was de-termined by usig K-B disk diffusion test and broth dilution method.Results The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC)of garlic solution against campylobacter jejuni was 40%.It showed positive correlation between bacteriostatic effect and concentration of gar-lic solution.Conclusion Garlic solution has strong bacteriostasis function to campylobacter jejuni.%目的:研究大蒜提取液对空肠弯曲杆菌的抑菌作用,为进一步利用大蒜资源提供理论依据。方法直接捣碎大蒜提取大蒜液,用琼脂纸片扩散法(K-B 纸片法)和肉汤稀释法检测大蒜液对空肠弯曲杆菌的抑菌作用。结果大蒜液对空肠弯曲杆菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)为40%,其抑菌活性与浓度呈正相关。结论大蒜液对空肠弯曲杆菌有较强的抑菌作用。

  1. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  2. Shan Dong:Garlic Export Situation and Measures to Expand Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    @@ China is one of the world's major garlic-producing,consumer and exporter countries.The main production bases of China's garlic are in Shandong,Henan,Jiangsu and other places.Shandong Province is the main home-town of garlic.The planting area of garlic in Jinxiang,Shandong and its surrounding rural counties is over 100 million Chinese acres.

  3. Conservation of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. ) by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Arranz, T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given during the two months following harvest. During this period, 5 krad are enough to inhibit garlic bulbs sprouting.

  4. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health.

  5. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  6. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  7. Garlic (Allium sativum L.: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae, one of the best-researched herbal remedies, is frequently used as a food and a spice. Garlic contains enzymes (e.g., allinase, sulphur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin. Conventionally, it has been used to treat infections, wounds, diarrhoea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes and many other disorders. Experimental studies have demonstrated that garlic exhibits antibacterial, antihypertensive, cardioprotective, antilipidaemic, anticarcinogenic, immunostimulant and hypoglycaemic properties. Clinically, garlic has been investigated for a variety of indications, namely, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidaemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  8. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  9. Yeast extract with blood plasma in diets for piglets from 21 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Maria Carlos Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of yeast extract as a partial replacemer of blood plasma in piglet diets and its effect on the performance and intestinal morphometry of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred and twenty animals were randomized into blocks, with five diets (4.0% blood plasma; 2.0% blood plasma with 0.0; 1.0; 2.0 or 3.0% yeast extract, six replicates and four pigs per experimental unit. At 35 days of age, one pig per experimental unit was slaughtered in order to evaluate duodenal and jejunal morphometry. The levels of yeast extract had a quadratic impact on daily feed intake and final weight, which increased up to the estimated level of 1.91%. Daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were not affected. A comparison between diets containing different levels of yeast extract and the basal diet showed that the diets containing 2.0% and 1.0% yeast extract provided the highest final weight and the worst feed conversion rate, respectively. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were quadratically affected by yeast extract levels and the best results were achieved with the estimated levels of 1.64 and 1.16%, respectively. The levels of yeast extract provided a linear increase in the duodenal villus:crypt ratio, but did not change the morphometric variables of the jejunum. No difference was found in the morphometric variables of the duodenum and jejunum when diets containing different levels of yeast extract were compared with the basal diet. The results suggest that the inclusion of 1.91% yeast extract allows for a partial replacement for plasma in the diet, decreasing plasma inclusion from 4.0 to 2.0%.

  10. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  11. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoungwoo Shin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  12. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  13. Garlic Sulfur Compounds Suppress Cancerogenesis and Oxidative Stress: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořáková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has long been considered a food with many health benefits. Several studies have confirmed that sulfur compounds are responsible for the positive effects of garlic on organisms. Garlic acts as an antioxidant by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing reactive oxygen species generation, and protecting proteins and lipids from oxidation. Garlic suppresses carcinogenesis through several mechanisms: (1 it reduces oxidative stress, and therefore, prevents damage to DNA; (2 it induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cancer cells; and (3 it modifies gene expression through histon acetylation. The positive effects of garlic could be mediated by several mechanisms. It influences signalling pathways of gasotransmitters such as hydrogen sulfide. Garlic enhances hydrogen sulfide production both through its direct release and through an increase in activity of enzymes which produce hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a signalling molecule in various tissues and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes. We can presume that garlic, which is able to release hydrogen sulfide, exhibits effects similar to those of this gasotransmitter.

  14. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  15. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Dini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  16. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  17. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  18. Osteoprotective effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi aqueous extract in aged ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Kwok

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL is a commonly used herb for treating bone disorders in Chinese medicine. The present study investigates the anti-osteoporotic activity of FLL aqueous extract in the model of postmenopausal bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX female rats. Methods After eight weeks of treatment of FLL or water, the lumbar spine was scanned by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Effects of FLL water extract on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations in rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were assessed by biochemical methods and staining. Results FLL aqueous extract significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD loss in total, trabecular and cortical bones without affecting body weight and uterus wet weight. FLL extract significantly promoted osteogenesis and suppressed adipogenesis in MSCs as indicated by the elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition levels and decreased adipocyte number in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxic effects. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG-to-receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL mRNA, indicating a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the osteoprotective effects of FLL aqueous extract on aged OVX rats, stimulation of osteogenesis, inhibition of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in MSCs.

  19. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L. that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60–90°C under controlled high humidity (80–90%. When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings of black garlic, such as its production, bioactivity, and applications, have thus been conducted. Several types of black garlic products are also available in the market with a fair selling volume. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of changes in the components, bioactivity, production, and applications of black garlic, as well as the proposed future prospects on their possible applications as a functional food product.

  20. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-10-25

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognitive performance of aged and scopolamine treated young mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance and elevated plus maze task. Aged or scopolamine treated mice showed poor retention of memory in step-down type passive avoidance and in elevated plus maze task. Chronic administration (21 days) of Punica granatum extract and vitamin C significantly (p Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Garlic and Resveratrol attenuate diabetic complications, loss of β-cells, pancreatic and hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The study was aimed at finding the effect of garlic and resveratrol on loss of β-cells and diabetic complication in streptozotocin (STZ-induced Type-I diabetic rats. Rats were injected with single dose STZ (50mg/kg, i.p. for induction of type 1 diabetes (Dia and compared with control group. Rats from third (Dia+Gar, fourth (Dia+Resv and fifth (Dia+Met groups were fed raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day, resveratrol (25 mg/kg/day and metformin (500 mg/kg/day orally, respectively for a period of 4 weeks. Diabetic group had decreased serum insulin and hydrogen sulfide levels along with increased blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, uric acid and nitric oxide levels. Significant (p<0.05 increase in pancreatic and hepatic TBARS, conjugated dienes, nitric oxide, and AGE level and significant (p<0.05 decrease in SOD, catalase, H2S, GSH level were observed in diabetic group. Administration of garlic, resveratrol and metformin significantly (p<0.05 normalized most of the altered metabolic and oxidative stress parameters as well as histopathological changes. Administration of garlic, resveratrol and 9metformin in diabetic rat decreases pancreatic β-cell damage and hepatic injury. Our data concluded that administration of garlic showed more promising effect in terms of reducing oxidative stress and pathological changes when compared to resveratrol and metformin groups.

  2. Garlic and Resveratrol Attenuate Diabetic Complications, Loss of β-Cells, Pancreatic and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Padiya, Raju; Adela, Ramu; Putcha, Uday K.; Reddy, G. S.; Reddy, B. R.; Kumar, K. P.; Chakravarty, Sumana; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at finding the effect of garlic and resveratrol on loss of β-cells and diabetic complication in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type-I diabetic rats. Rats were injected with single dose STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for induction of type 1 diabetes (Dia) and compared with control group. Rats from third (Dia+Gar), fourth (Dia+Resv), and fifth (Dia+Met) groups were fed raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/day), resveratrol (25 mg/kg/day), and metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, respectively, for a period of 4 weeks. Diabetic group had decreased serum insulin and hydrogen sulfide levels along with increased blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride, uric acid, and nitric oxide levels. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in pancreatic and hepatic TBARS, conjugated dienes, nitric oxide, and AGE level and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in SOD, catalase, H2S, GSH level were observed in diabetic group. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin significantly (p < 0.05) normalized most of the altered metabolic and oxidative stress parameters as well as histopathological changes. Administration of garlic, resveratrol, and metformin in diabetic rat decreases pancreatic β-cell damage and hepatic injury. Our data concluded that administration of garlic showed more promising effect in terms of reducing oxidative stress and pathological changes when compared to resveratrol and metformin groups.

  3. Managing diseases in seed garlic: What are the options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes) causing diseases of seed garlic are discussed in terms of their pathogenic abilities, aggressiveness, management constraints and management options. Management options for vectors (for viral diseases) are placed in context. Concise and general manag...

  4. Preparation of Garlic Powder with High Allicin Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; XU Shi-ying

    2007-01-01

    Garlic powder with high allicin content was prepared using microwave-vacuum and vacuum drying as well as microencapsulation to protect alliinase activity throughout the stomach and improve the ratio of alliin transforming into allicin. The results showed that the optimal drying condition was 376.1 W for 3 min, 282.1 W for 3 min, 188 W for 9 min, and 94 W for 3 min. The thiosulfinates retention after drying was 90.2%. Following drying, the garlic powder was microencapsulated by modified fluidized bed technique. Scanning electron microscope revealed good integrity and core materials that were embedded in the microcapsules. Studies on the release kinetics of microencapsulated garlic granulates in vitro using simulated intestinal fluid indicated that release of garlic powder could be controlled in the intestine by passing stomach conditions.

  5. Acute Lymphangitis Treated by Moxibustion with Garlic in 118 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韦

    2003-01-01

    @@ In recent years, the author has treated 118 cases of acute lymphangitis (usually called red-thread furuncle in TCM) by moxibustion with garlic and achieved good therapeutic results. It is briefly introduced as follows.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L.), have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cult...

  7. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-06-06

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO₂). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO₂ are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  8. Formula optimization for garlic and pepper-flavoured puffed snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Wilkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs show high potential as functional ingredients in Thai snacks. Garlic was the most preferred herb in snacks, followed by holy basil, and pepper. This study was to determine the amount of spices such as garlic and pepper to be added to the products to beneficially improve the health status of the consumer without detrimental effect on the flavour and taste. The Box-Behnken (k = 3, nc = 3 response surface design was used to create a model to determine the optimum garlic and pepper flavour for puffed snacks. Specified quantities of salt (1-2 %(w/w, garlic (0-4 %(w/w, and pepper (0-4 %(w/w were used in the design. Fifteen spiced snacks were evaluated by 30 Thai panelists. The model showed the optimum pepper quantity of 0.7 % (w/w and salt and garlic of no more than 1.10 and 2.80 %(w/w, respectively. If 25 g of the puffed snacks were eaten daily the consumer would get enough garlic to satisfy its daily requirements, but not enough pepper to get its purported health benefits. However, as the Thais use copious quantities of pepper in most other dishes, it is likely that eating 25 g of the proposed functional snack with their other dishes would more than likely provide enough pepper to give them the health benefits from this herb.

  9. A Natural Wonder Drug Helps to Prevent Cancer: Garlic Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the oldest and popular spices in the World that also contain very good nutritional value. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for this reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that garlic oil has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect and other pharmacological properties through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing glutathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S transferase, catalase, incubation of cytochrome p450 2E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type. Several hypotheses suggest that the anticancer mechanism may be due to DNA repair mechanism, prevention of chromosomal damage, antiproliferative effect and alteration of the cell cycle. Garlic and garlic oil should be considered as one of the most valuable food for good quality of life in general.

  10. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2. Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences.

  11. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.

  12. To study the anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering effects of garlic as add-on therapy to amlodipine in patients of hypertension with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishalee Punj

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: AGE has been shown to have anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering properties suggesting that garlic can be valuable agent in patients having hypertension with obesity. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 26-32

  13. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, E; DeSousa, L; Jorquera, A; Sanchez, J; Lander, A; Rodriguez, E; Jain, M K; Apitz-Castro, R

    1996-01-01

    The present report shows the efficacy of ajoene, a garlic-derived organic trisulphur, for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The use of ajoene as a 0.4% (w/w) cream resulted in complete clinical and mycological cure in 27 of 34 patients (79%) after 7 days of treatment. The remaining seven patients (21%) achieved complete cure after seven additional days of treatment. All patients were evaluated for recurrence of mycotic infections 90 days after the end of treatment, yielding negative cultures for fungus. These results show that ajoene is an alternative, efficient and low-cost antimycotic drug for short-term therapy of tinea pedis. The fact that ajoene can be easily prepared from an alcoholic extract of garlic may make it suitable for Third World public health care.

  14. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  15. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31316] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: [[Page 344

  16. Biobleaching of industrial important dyes with peroxidase partially purified from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5-5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  17. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Chigozirim Osuji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and Vmax for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  18. Inter simple sequence repeat fingerprints for assess genetic diversity of tunisian garlic populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbes, Naouel; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Le Clerc, Valérie; Dridi, Boutheina; Hannechi, Chérif

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) that is cultivated in Tunisia is heterogeneous and unclassified with no registered local cultivars. At present, the level of genetic diversity in Tunisian garlic is almost unknown. Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) genetic markers were therefore used to assess the genetic diversity and its distribution in 31 Tunisian garlic accessions with 4 French classified clones used as control. It was the first time that ISSR markers were used to detect diversity in garlic. ...

  19. Diversity of the arthropod fauna in organically grown garlic intercropped with fodder radish.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Wagner Barata; Haro, Marcelo Mendes; Silveira, Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of garlic faces several problems, which include pest attack, and the diversification of habitat through intercropping with attractive plants comes up as a method to pest management. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of the association of garlic with fodder radish on richness, abundance and diversity of arthropods under organic production system in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The treatments were composed of garlic in monoculture and garlic in association with fodd...

  20. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages.......Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  1. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010...'' section below. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  2. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review AGENCY: United States...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China... Commission has found the response submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its...

  3. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... administrative review (AR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...

  4. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  5. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the...

  6. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  7. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November...

  8. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994....

  9. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  10. 77 FR 11486 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Final Results and Partial Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Final Results and... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC. See Fresh Garlic From...

  11. 78 FR 77653 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves. Fresh garlic that...

  12. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa Garlic... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews,...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER SLAVONIAN GARLIC (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies conducted on garlic (Allium sativum L., have proved the presence of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, sulfur compounds and several vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the content of total phenols, ascorbic acid; total antioxidant activities of four winter Slavonian garlic cultivars, as well as establishment of correlations between these parameters. The total antioxidant activity and the content of ascorbic acid and total phenols in four cultivars of winter Slavonian garlic were spectrophotometrically determined. Genetic diversity of winter Slavonian garlic cultivars significantly affected the content of ascorbic acid and the total antioxidant activity. The total antioxidant activity significantly positively correlated with the content of ascorbic acid (r2 = 0.64, p = 0.006, while the content of total phenols and total antioxidant activity were not significantly related. Cultivar PFO 1 had the highest antioxidant activity (8.006 μmol Trolox /g FW and the highest ascorbic acid content (8.57 mg /100 g FW, thus, the best quality of the four tested garlic cultivars.

  14. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-02-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides.

  15. Lycopersicon esculentum Extract Enhances Cognitive Function and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus. Moreover, we found an increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and subsequently-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding (CREB) signaling pathway in the TEE-supplemented mice hippocampus. In conclusion, the oral administration of TEE exhibits a cognition-enhancing effect, and the putative underlying mechanism is the induction of BDNF signaling-mediated proliferation and synapse formation in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that TEE could be a candidate for treatment of age-related memory impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27792185

  16. The Assimilate Partitioning Importance for Heartwood Extractives Formation in Robinia Pseudoacacia l. of Different Ages

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    Oliver Dünisch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to investigate the influence of tree age on the assimilates partitioning and its significance for the formation of heartwood extractives in Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust. Assimilate translocation in 6- and 15-year-old plants was measured in May and August 2006 using the 14CO2 feeding method. The heartwood extractives content in the sapwood-heartwood transition zone and in individual tree rings of the pure heartwood were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. All plants, buds and young leaves showed the strongest 14C specific activity compared to other plant parts in May and August(14C specific activity in buds/leaves of 6-years old plants: 35.2-37.0%, 15-years old plants: 31.4-32.2%. However, in plants labelled in August 2006 at the sapwood-heartwood transition zone also showed a strong assimilates sink, while only small amounts of assimilates were translocated to the sapwood-heartwood transition zone in the plants labelled in May 2006. The amount of assimilates transported to the sapwood-heartwood transition zone was significantly higher in the 15-year-old plants compared to the 6-year-old plants. This was monitored by a higher content of extractives in the heartwood formed by the older plants compared to heartwood formed by the younger plants. The results indicate that uneven assimilate partitioning in younger and older black locust plants affects the heartwood extractives formation, which might lead to a lower natural durability of the heartwood formed by younger trees compared to heartwood formed by older trees.

  17. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  18. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

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    N. Nurwantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef ingarlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completelyrandomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 thatbeef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature(25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters wasconducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria,total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P<0.05 affected by marinationwith garlic juice. Conversely, cooking loss was not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the treatments. Asa conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and waterholding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  20. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

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    Sankhadip Bose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

  1. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Lembo, Carina; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. PMID:21876795

  2. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

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    Marcela Alejandra Vazquez-Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G and onion (O in fructose-fed rats (FFR. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C, F (10% fructose in drinking water, F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant, F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables.

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Kh I; Ishioroshi, M; Samejima, K

    2004-12-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of equivalent concentrations of fresh garlic (FG), garlic powder (GP) and garlic oil (GO) were investigated against lipid oxidation and microbial growth in raw chicken sausage during storage at 3 degrees C. The antioxidant activities were compared to that of a standard synthetic antioxidant; butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The initial mean levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and peroxide value (POV) were 0.140 and 6.32, respectively. However after 21 days of storage, TBA and POV ranged from 0.151 to 4.92, respectively, in FG (50 g/kg) formulated samples to 0.214 and 8.64, respectively, in GO (0.06 g/ kg) formulation. Addition of either garlic or BHA (0.1 g/kg) significantly delayed lipid oxidation when compared with control. The antioxidant activities of the various materials added followed the order FG>GP>BHA>GO. On the other hand, the initial aerobic plate count (APC) in the samples was 4.41 log(10) CFU/g. Addition of FG (30 g/kg) or GP (9 g/kg) significantly reduced the APC and, subsequently, the shelf-life of the product was extended to 21 days. However, addition of GO or BHA resulted in no significant difference in APC when compared with control. Sensory analysis indicated that FG had a significant stronger flavor than the other sausage formulations. The results suggest that fresh garlic and garlic powder, through their combined antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are potentially useful in preserving meat products.

  4. Pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic and atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats

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    G Dilip Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic with atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats with induced dyslipidemia were divided into five groups of eight rats each. Group 1 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight (b.wt orally, group 2 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (1% w/w in feed, group 3 was maintained on atorvastatin (5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.5% w/w in feed, group 4 was maintained on atorvastatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.25% w/w in feed, and group 5 was maintained on atorvastatin (2.5 mg/kg b.wt orally+garlic (0.75% w/w in feed for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosing of atorvastatin for single and multiple dose studies, respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for atorvastatin concentration by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and then the concentration-time data were analyzed. Results: Maximum observed plasma concentration (C max , half-life, Area Under Plasma Concentration Time Curve (AUC, and Mean Resident Time (MRT were significantly (P<0.05 increased during multiple dose kinetic study and elimination rate constant was significantly (P<0.05 decreased in comparison with their respective single-dose values, while there was no significant difference in time to achieve maximum concentration (t max in all groups during both phases of the study. The highest values for kinetic parameters were observed in group 2 with correspondingly low activity of Cytochrome P 450 (CYP 450 . Conclusion: The study revealed higher values [C max , AUC, Area Under The Moment Curve (AUMC, MRT, and half-life] of atorvastatin in garlic-treated groups.

  5. Garlic (Alium sativum) preservation by application of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina P, M.C.; Casas G, L. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones de los Isotopos y Radiaciones)

    1984-04-01

    Garlic preservation was studied during a period of eleven months using doses of gamma radiation of 0,06 and 0,12 kGy. The product was stored in netted mesh bags, at room temperature and relative humidity. Sprouting, weight losses, microbiological damages, decoloration and emaciation were controlled periodically. The results of this study permit to conclude that with a dose of 0,06 kGy it is possible to preserve garlic for a period up to ten months, with market quality.

  6. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

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    Khadijeh Khoshtinat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and bacterial growth assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Minitab statistical software.Results and conclusion: Garlic oil had poor antioxidant activity (EC50, 5222 µg ml-1 and EC50 because garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin (containing 1495 µg ml-1 released garlic oil was achieved after 5 h and 25 min. Agar well diffusion showed no inhibition zone on Muller Hinton Agar for garlic oil and garlic oil/betacyclodextrin (with initial release (shaking at 150 rpm for 24 h at 37ºC and without initial release. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to garlic oil, and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with and without initial release (minimum inhibitory concentration 10-5 , 10-4 and 10-3 % w v -1 , respectively; however, Bacillus cereus was the most resistant. The effect of initial release for garlic oil/betacyclodextrin on inhibiting the growth of all four bacteria was significant. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 between the inhibitory effect of garlic oil and garlic oil/beta-cyclodextrin with initial release on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, also Salmonella entrica and Escherichia coli. Garlic oil showed a weak antioxidant activity in 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. Garlic oil and its complex were not able to penetrate to the solid media; therefore, no inhibition zone and no antibacterial activity in the agar well diffusion assay were

  7. Tuning a 96-Well Microtiter Plate Fluorescence-Based Assay to Identify AGE Inhibitors in Crude Plant Extracts

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    Luc Séro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Among them, cellular accumulation of AGEs contributes to vascular complications in diabetes. Besides using drugs to lower blood sugar, a balanced diet and the intake of herbal products potentially limiting AGE formation could be considered beneficial for patients’ health. The current paper presents a simple and cheap high-throughput screening (HTS assay based on AGE fluorescence and suitable for plant extract screening. We have already implemented an HTS assay based on vesperlysines-like fluorescing AGEs quickly (24 h formed from BSA and ribose under physiological conditions. However, interference was noted when fluorescent compounds and/or complex mixtures were tested. To overcome these problems and apply this HTS assay to plant extracts, we developed a technique for systematic quantification of both vesperlysines (λexc 370 nm; λem 440 nm and pentosidine-like (λexc 335 nm; λem 385 nm AGEs. In a batch of medicinal and food plant extracts, hits were selected as soon as fluorescence decreased under a fixed threshold for at least one wavelength. Hits revealed during this study appeared to contain well-known and powerful anti-AGE substances, thus demonstrating the suitability of this assay for screening crude extracts (0.1 mg/mL. Finally, quercetin was found to be a more powerful reference compound than aminoguanidine in such assay.

  8. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents

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    Amaia Iriondo-DeHond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector’s sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  9. Comparison of antiplatelet activity of garlic tablets with cardio-protective dose of aspirin in healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial

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    Mojtaba Shafiekhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l, epinephrine (20 μmol/l, collagen(0.19 mg/ ml and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding. No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion:  In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method.

  10. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is impaired by the garlic volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in vitro and in-feed garlic alleviates pleuropneumonia in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Petra M; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Mul, Monique F; Pol, Arjan; Engel, Bas; Wijdenes, Jan W; van der Peet-Schwering, Carola M C; Wisselink, Henk J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2012-01-27

    Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) as a lead compound of volatile garlic metabolites was shown to exhibit an antibacterial effect against the pig pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9. AMS caused a delay in the appearance of the optical density-monitored growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in medium when compared to unaffected growth curves, yet without lowering the stationary phase yield at the concentration range tested. At 1.1mM, AMS impaired the in vitro growth rate of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 by 8% compared to unimpeded growth. In an animal trial, a garlic-fed group of 15 pigs that received a diet with 5% garlic feed component and a control group of 15 pigs that received a diet without garlic were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 via an aerosol and subsequently followed for 4 days. At the day of the challenge, blood AMS in the garlic-fed group amounted to 0.32 ± 0.13 μM. A beneficial, alleviating effect of garlic on the course and severity of an A. pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs was indicated by the reduced occurrence of characteristic pleuropneumonia lesions (27% of the lungs affected in the garlic-fed group vs. 47% in the control group) and a near to significant (p=0.06) lower relative lung weight post mortem in the garlic-fed group.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

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    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  12. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity).

  13. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  14. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  15. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

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    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  16. Enrichment of African catfish with functional selenium originating from garlic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Pedrero, Z.; Camara, C.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to create functional seafood with high concentrations of organic selenium (seleno-methyl-selenocysteine and ¿-glutamyl-seleno-methyl-selenocysteine) with anti-carcinogenic properties for human consumers. Garlic containing high concentrations of these organic selenium compounds was used as

  17. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.

  18. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  19. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  20. Changes in blood profile in sheep receiving raw garlic, garlic oil or monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anassori, E; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Pirmohammadi, R; Hadian, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing a basal diet (CTR) with raw garlic (GAR) or garlic oil (GAO) on blood profile in sheep. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Four ruminally fistulated rams were used in three experiments each arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Experiments 1 and 2 differed in the dose of GAR (75 vs. 100 g/kg DM) and GAO (500 vs. 750 mg/kg DM), while experiment 3 was designed to compare the two doses of each additive (GAR and GAO). The animals were fed a basal diet as TMR consisting of 77.83% forage (alfalfa hay and corn silage) and 22.17% concentrate, providing 10.50 MJ/kg DM (metabolizable energy) and 16.5% crude protein to cover maintenance energy and protein requirements. Supplementation of monensin decreased (P < 0.05) β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in the blood compared with other treatments. There was no significant effect of additives on serum concentration of glucose, total triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Although the serum insulin concentration was elevated in sheep receiving MON and GAO (P < 0.01), no change was observed in blood glucose concentration. No significant effect of GAO and GAR was observed in key energy and protein-related blood metabolites. However, administration of monensin had a positive influence on energy indices. In conclusion, whereas parameters characterizing the energy balance did not show a significant effect of GAR supplementation, a higher insulin concentration in GAO-treated animals was observed.

  1. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  2. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  3. The Effect of Low Dose of Lead Acetate on the Fallopian Tubes and the Role of Garlic Extract—A Histomorphic Study on Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naureen Waseem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of lead acetate on the fallopian tube of adult mice and the possible effect of garlic extract in a Laboratory Based Randomized Control Trial. In this study, 30 female BALBc mice were selected and randomly divided into three groups. Ten animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control received only the laboratory diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate at 30 mg/kg/day and garlic extract at 500 mg/kg/day. All treatments were given through oral gavage tube for 60 days. The mice were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60 days. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and fixed in 10% formalin for routine histological examination. The histological findings in experimental group B showed increase in epithelial height, whereas no such findings were observed in group A and there was slight increase in height in group C. The lead acetate affected the epithelial height in lead acetate treated group which improved when cotreated with garlic extract.

  4. Insilico studies of organosulfur-functional active compounds in garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogendra P; Singh, Ram A

    2010-01-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity because of its antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, ability to reduce cardiovascular diseases, improving immune functions, and antidiabetic activities and also in reducing cardiovascular diseases and improving immune functions. Recent studies identify that the wide variety of medicinal functions are attributed to the sulfur compounds present in garlic. Epidemiological observations and laboratory studies in animal models have also showed anticarcinogenic potential of organosulfur compounds of garlic. In this study, in silico analysis of organosulfur compounds is reported using the methods of theoretical chemistry to elucidate the molecular properties of garlic as it is more time and cost efficient, reduces the number of wet experiments, and offers the possibility of replacing some animal tests with suitable in silico models. The analysis of molecular descriptors defined by Lipinski has been done. The solubility of drug in water has been determined as it is of useful importance in the process of drug discovery from molecular design to pharmaceutical formulation and biopharmacy. All toxicities associated with candidate drug have been calculated. P-Glycoprotein expressed in normal tissues as a cause of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics has been examined. Drug-plasma protein binding and volume of distribution have also been calculated. To avoid rejection of drugs, it is becoming more important to determine pK(a), absorption, polar surface area, and other physiochemical properties associated with a drug, before synthetic work is undertaken. The present in silico study is aimed at examining these compounds of garlic to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  5. Comparison of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Free and Encapsulated Garlic Oil with Beta-cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Application of garlic oil in food industry can be improved by encapsulation. There is no study about the formation of inclusion complex of garlic oil by beta-cyclodextrin. The aim of the present study is comparison of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of free and encapsulated garlic oil with beta-cyclodextrin.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl assay, and antibacterial properties by agar well dif...

  6. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, T. Naga; Kanth, V. Rajani; Lavanya, K.

    2008-01-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H2O2 wi...

  7. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Tarak N.; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mohammed, Soheb A.; Dinda, Amit K.; Srinivas, R.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na+/K+-ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28194108

  8. Assessment of age and greenness of herbarium specimens as predictors for succesful extraction and amplification of DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.; Cross, H.; Maas, J.W.; Hoenselaar, K.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2008-01-01

    Age and the greenness of leaves have been frequently used as indicators for selecting herbarium specimens for molecular studies. Although plant DNA extraction and amplification have been common lab procedures for the past 20 years, no studies specifically investigated the success of these indicators

  9. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  10. To study the hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects of garlic in smokers in the North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayballabh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Results: Garlic has a significant hypotensive effect by lowering DBP, SBP also lowered but it was not statistically significant. Also hypolipidemic effects of garlic were found to be statically significant in cases of triglyceride, HDL and LDL, but changes in cases of cholesterol and VLDL are not statically significant. Conclusions: Garlic being hypotensive and hypolipidemic in nature as shown in our study, therefore it can be concluded that garlic is beneficial for human beings. Its main beneficial effect for decreasing the lipid levels as well as the blood pressure in smokers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2053-2057

  11. The pungency of garlic: activation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in response to allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Lindsey J; Geierstanger, Bernhard H; Viswanath, Veena; Bandell, Michael; Eid, Samer R; Hwang, SunWook; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2005-05-24

    Garlic's pungent flavor has made it a popular ingredient in cuisines around the world and throughout history. Garlic's health benefits have been elevated from folklore to clinical study. Although there is some controversy as to the efficacy of garlic, garlic products are one of the most popular herbal supplements in the U.S. Chemically complex, garlic contains different assortments of sulfur compounds depending on whether the cloves are intact, crushed, cooked, or raw. Raw garlic, when cut and placed on the tongue or lips, elicits painful burning and prickling sensations through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that raw but not baked garlic activates TRPA1 and TRPV1, two temperature-activated ion channels that belong to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family. These thermoTRPs are present in the pain-sensing neurons that innervate the mouth. We further show that allicin, an unstable component of fresh garlic, is the chemical responsible for TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation and is therefore likely to cause garlic's pungency.

  12. Lipid Profiles are Altered in Rats Fed with Different Garlic Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Yoshie Yosino da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties that are attributed to its organosulfur compounds being allicin, which is reported to be the most active of these compounds. We hypothesized that allicin content could reduce plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL (high density lipoproteins, VLDL (very low density lipoproteins, and glucose. Two different cultivars of commercial garlic, Peruano and Jinxiang, were used. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into 6 groups and fed for 15 days with standard diet (Control, Control with Peruano garlic treatment (CGP, Control with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CGCH, cholesterol-added control diet (CholC, cholesterol-added diet with Peruano garlic treatment (CholGP, and cholesterol-added diet with Jinxiang garlic treatment (CholGCH. Garlic treatment consisted of a daily oral dose of 1ml of lyophilized garlic. We observed that garlic treatment in Control group significantly reduced plasma TG and VLDL concentrations. The CGCH group presented a significant increase in plasma TC levels (25.5% and glucose (11%. No significant changes in TC, HDL, TG and VLDL were observed in CholGP and CholGCH, but levels of fasting plasma glucose were increased: CholGP (23% and CholGCH (27.5%. Results suggested allicin treatments alter lipid profile in rats. Nevertheless, further studies are necessary to address the increase in plasma glucose levels.

  13. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  14. Protective effects of a catechin-rich extract on the hippocampal formation and spatial memory in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jorge; Assunção, Marco; Lukoyanov, Nikolay; Cardoso, Armando; Carvalho, Félix; Andrade, José Paulo

    2013-06-01

    Green tea (GT) displays strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties mostly attributed to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), while experiments focusing on other catechins are scarce. With the present work we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of prolonged consumption of a GT extract (GTE) rich in catechins but poor in EGCG and other GT bioactive components that could also afford benefit. The endpoints evaluated were aging-induced biochemical and morphological changes in the rat hippocampal formation (HF) and behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats aged 12 months were treated with GTE until 19 months of age. This group of animals was compared with control groups aged 19 (C-19M) or 12 months (C-12M). We found that aging increased oxidative markers but GTE consumption protected proteins and lipids against oxidation. The age-associated increase in lipofuscin content and lysosomal volume was also prevented by treatment with GTE. The dendritic arborizations of dentate granule cells of GTE-treated animals presented plastic changes accompanied by an improved spatial learning evaluated with the Morris water maze. Altogether our results demonstrate that the consumption of an extract rich in catechins other than EGCG protected the HF from aging-related declines contributing to improve the redox status and preventing the structural damage observed in old animals, with repercussions on behavioral performance.

  15. Effects of Supplementation Time of L-Carnitine and Garlic Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatibjoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006. It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996. AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998. Materials and Methods Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks and long time (total production period. Dietary treatments were 1 Basal diet (BD: no supplementation, 2 ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control, 3 ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management

  16. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  17. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2014-05-01

    The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.

  18. Detection of garlic gamma-irradiated by assay comet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Miranda, Enrique F. Prieto; Carro, Sandra; Iglesias Enrique, Isora; Matos, Wilberto [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)], e-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    The garlic samples were irradiated in a facility with {sup 60}Co sources, at absorbed dose values of 0-0,15 kGy. The detection method utilized for the identification of the irradiated garlic was biological comet assay. The samples were classified post-irradiation several times. The irradiated samples showed high strand breaks of DNA exhibiting comets of several forms, while the not irradiated and lower dose samples showed a behavior like round shape and light comets. Significant differences were found for higher absorbed dose values at 0.06 kGy, this absorbed dose value is corresponding with the applied dose value at this food in order to avoid the germination. (author)

  19. Investigations for garlic oil content of garlic in various areas%不同地区大蒜中大蒜油含量调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭尉

    2001-01-01

    The contents of garlic oil were investigated in various sorts of garlic in main garlic product areas of our country.We found that the highest produce oil rate of the garlic were the sorts of Ershuizao,Sanyuehuang and Dongdongqing produced in Dafen county,Jiangsu province,the lowest produce oil rate of the garlic was non-liverwort garlic produced in Zhongmu county,Henan province.It can be regarded as a theoretical base for buying raw material or developing product of garlic product unites.%通过对国内主要大蒜产区不同品种的大蒜中大蒜油的含量测定,发现大蒜的出油率以江苏省大丰县产的二水早、三月黄、冬冬青等品种最高,河南省中牟县的无苔蒜出油率最低。可作为大蒜油生产单位购进原料或发展生产的依据。

  20. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  1. Effects of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, and turmeric oleoresin on gene expression profile of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of feeding 3 plant extracts on gene expression in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (n = 32, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens for 9 d and fed 4 different diets: a nursery basal diet as control diet, basal diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin. Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea and increased growth rate of weaning pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 9. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray. Microarray data were analyzed in R using packages from the Bioconductor project. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model equivalent to ANOVA using the limma package. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. Three pairwise comparisons were used to compare each plant extract diet with the control diet. Quantitative real time PCR was applied to verify the mRNA expression detected by microarray. Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin altered (P expression of 490 genes (280 up, 210 down), and feeding garlic botanical altered (P expression of 64 genes (33 up, 31 down), while feeding turmeric oleoresin altered (P expression of 327 genes (232 up, 95 down). Compared with the control diet, feeding capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin increased [Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) expression of genes related to integrity of membranes and tight junctions, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health, but decreased (EASE expression of genes associated with immune responses, indicating that feeding these plant extracts may stimulate the immune responses of pigs in the normal conditions. In conclusion, plant extracts regulated the expression of genes in ileal mucosa of pigs, perhaps providing benefits by enhancing the gut mucosa

  2. Molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by garlic-derived organosulfides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna HERMAN-ANTOSIEWICZ; Anna A POWOLNY; Shivendra V SINGH

    2007-01-01

    The medicinal benefits of Allium vegetables, especially garlic, have been noted throughout recorded history. The known health benefits of Allium vegetables and their constituents include cardiovascular protective effects, stimulation of immune function, reduction of blood glucose level, radioprotection, improvement of memory loss, protection against microbial, viral and fungal infections, as well as anticancer effects. Population-based case control studies have suggested an inverse correlation between dietary intake of Allium vegetables and the risk of different types of cancers. The anticarcinogenic effect of Allium vegetables in-eluding garlic is attributed to organosulfur compounds (OSC), which are highly effective in affording protection against cancer in animal models induced by a variety of chemical carcinogens. More recent studies have shown that certain naturally occurring OSC analogues can suppress proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. The OSC-induced changes in the proliferation of cancer Cellsare frequently associated with perturbations in cell cycle progression and induc-tion of G2/M phase arrest. The OSC have also been demonstrated to induce apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway by altering the ratio of the Bc1-2 family of proteins both in cell culture and in in vivo models. Anti-angiogenic activity for garlic-derived OSC has also been documented. This article summarizes current knowledge on molecular targets of cancer chemoprevention by OSC.

  3. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  4. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No. APHIS-2011-0015] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European... United States of garlic from the European Union and other countries. Based on the findings of a commodity... importation of garlic from the European Union and other countries. DATES: Effective Date: July 27, 2011....

  5. 77 FR 34346 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2009-2010 Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2009... duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the two mandatory.../exporters who certified no sales, exports or entries. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of...

  6. 76 FR 37321 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission, in Part, of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final... duty order on Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR... the 2008-2009 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC....

  7. 76 FR 15279 - Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other Countries Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other... document (CIED) that evaluates the phytosanitary measures under which garlic may be imported into the continental United States from the European Union and several other countries. Currently, garlic may...

  8. 76 FR 19322 - Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... International Trade Administration Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... results for the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic From...

  9. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for.... \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results, Rescission of...). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

  10. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jinxiang Chengda Imp.... covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic From the People's...

  11. 76 FR 54487 - Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Fresh Garlic From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  12. 77 FR 36480 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the 2010-2011 Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the... review of, inter alia, the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... Department received review requests from PRC producers/exporters of fresh garlic \\2\\ and the Fresh...

  13. 77 FR 36255 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... notifying the public that the final judgment in this case is not in harmony with Garlic AR8 Final Results \\3... garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') of...

  14. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary Results of... (Department) published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's... extended the time limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  15. 75 FR 34976 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1, 2007, through October 31, 2008. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic...

  16. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... of the 2008-2009 administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See... preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the...

  17. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New...-line Trading Co. Ltd. (Qingdao Sea- line) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... its eligibility for separate rate. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China:...

  18. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, and Intent To Rescind, in...

  19. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits...) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of, and...

  20. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of... fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year...

  1. 77 FR 65171 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of... shipper reviews (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... covered by the order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves....

  2. 76 FR 52315 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of New Shipper Reviews of Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd., Shenzhen Bainong Co., Ltd., and Yantai Jinyan... the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering...

  3. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November 16, 1994.\\1\\ On May 8 and 24, 2013,...

  4. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Doc No: 2010-16355] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... garlic from the People's Republic of China for Qingdao Sea-line International Trade Co. Ltd. (Qingdao Sea-line), covering the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic...

  5. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1\\ covering the period of review (POR) November... and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission...

  6. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in... duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period of review (``POR'') of November 1, 2006, through October 31, 2007 with respect to Greening. See Fresh Garlic...

  7. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review of November 1, 2007.... Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic...

  8. 76 FR 65172 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results, Rescission of, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Preliminary Results... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review... Information for Partial Preliminary Results of Administrative Review for Fresh Garlic from the...

  9. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...: Jacqueline Arrowsmith (Yantai Jinyan Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd... antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for three exporters:...

  10. 78 FR 44928 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision... redetermination \\1\\ relating to the ninth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from... garlic from the PRC covering the period of review (``POR'') of November 1, 2002 ] through October...

  11. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping... new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on ] November...

  12. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To... (NSRs) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSRs cover Shenzhen Bainong Co., Ltd. (Shenzhen Bainong) and Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co.,...

  13. 76 FR 76375 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2009-2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the... fresh garlic from People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of November 1..., the Department published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  14. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  15. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  16. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-05-15

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  17. The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: contemporary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Namiesnik, Jacek; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the contemporary data concerning atherosclerosis and protecting properties of garlic. Recent advances in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of this disease from initiation through progression and, ultimately, the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. These new findings provide important links between risk factors and the mechanisms of atherogenesis and garlic properties. Numerous in vitro studies have confirmed the ability of garlic to reduce the parameters of the risk of atherosclerosis: total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, oxidized LDL. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials in fresh, cooked, boiled and commercial garlic from different regions are presented, using beta-carotene, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with K2S2O8 or MnO2, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and others assays for antioxidant status. In vivo studies were reviewed on with garlic and cholesterol supplemented diets. The positive influences of garlic on plasma lipids, proteins, antioxidant activity, and some indices of blood coagulation are dose dependent. Garlic could be a valuable component of atherosclerosis-preventing diets only in optimal doses. Many recently published reports show that garlic possesses plasma lipid-lowering and plasma anticoagulant and antioxidant properties and improves impaired endothelial function.

  18. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  19. Unlocking variability: inherent variation and developmental traits of garlic plants originated from sexual reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, E.; Scholten, O.E.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Kamenetsky, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent collections of fertile garlic (Allium sativum) accessions from Central Asia allow a detailed study of seedling developments and the evaluation of inherent variations. We hereby provide a comprehensive account of the ontogenesis of a population of garlic seedlings and their vegetative and repr

  20. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of p

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  2. Negligible effect of oral garlic oil on the oral absorption of pyridoxine in metadoxine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae Young; Kang, Hee Eun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Myung Gull

    2010-07-01

    Metadoxine [an ion-pair between pyridoxine and pyrrolidone carboxylate (PCA)] plus garlic oil treatment synergistically reduces alcoholic steatosis compared to each agent alone. We evaluated the effect of garlic oil on the pharmacokinetics of pyridoxine. After the oral administration of metadoxine, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of pyridoxine were significantly greater (by 40.6%) and higher (by 63.9%), respectively, than after oral administration of pyridoxine plus PCA. Oral metadoxine plus garlic oil also gave larger AUC (31.8%) and higher C(max) (64.9%) than pyridoxine plus PCA. However, garlic oil did not change the AUC or C(max) of pyridoxine in metadoxine. Thus, garlic oil does not enhance the metadoxine activity by affecting the absorption of pyridoxine.

  3. [Comparative study on FTIR spectra of garlic from different geographical populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming; Li, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Yong; Lu, Hai-Bo; Du, Wei-Jun; Chen, Jian

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, 25 garlic samples from different geographical populations were studied. FTIR spectra for each sample were obtained by using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and the similarity of garlic samples from different geographical populations was compared through "quick comparison" function in software of the spectrometer. The results showed that there are differences among FTIR spectra of garlic samples from different geographical populations. The quick comparison showed that the similarity is from 76.3% to 99.8% and the diversity of differentiation is more obvious. To some extent, the results reflected the effects of populations environment on physical and chemical properties of garlic. The study provided a simple, rapid, non-destructive and new methods for identification and evaluation of garlic germplasm resources.

  4. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  5. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  6. Effects of garlic oil on tumoragenecity and intercellular communication in human gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) and its anti-tumor compound could inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis in human cancer cells.In order to explore the effects of garlic oil on carcinoma cells,a gastric carcinoma cell line,BGC-823 was studied at cellular and molecular levels after garlic oil treatment.Data showed that the cell differentiation and suppression of tumorigenicity were significantly induced in tumor cells after garlic oil treatment.There was a correlation between the cell-cell communication recovery and the increase of p53 and waf1/p21 gene expression in garlic oil-treated cells.This result suggested that tumor suppressor gene waf1/p21 and wt p53 might play an important role in this effect.

  7. Effects of garlic oil on tumoragenecity and intercellular communication in human gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓光; 谢锦玉; 李文梅; 季加孚; 崔建涛; 赵敏; 孙梅; 吕有勇

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) and its anti-tumor compound could inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis in human cancer cells. In order to explore the effects of garlic oil on carcinoma cells, a gastric carcinoma cell line, BGC-823 was studied at cellular and molecular levels after garlic oil treatment. Data showed that the cell differentiation and suppression of tumorigenicity were significantly induced in tumor cells after garlic oil treatment. There was a correlation between the cell-cell communication recovery and the increase of p53 and waf1/p21 gene expression in garlic oil-treated cells. This result suggested that tumor suppressor gene waf1/p21 and wt p53 might play an important role in this effect.

  8. Construction of cDNA representational difference analysis based on two cDNA libraries and identification of garlic inducible expression genes in human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Li; Lin Yang; Jian-Tao Cui; Wen-Mei Li; Rui-Fang Guo; You-Yong Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate molecular mechanism of chemopreventiveefficacies of garlic against human gastric cancer (HGC):METHODS: HGC cell line BGC823 was treated with Allitridi (akind of garlic extract) and Allitridi-treated and parentalBGC823 cDNA librarles were constructed respectively byusing λZAP Ⅱ vector. cDNA Representatinal DifferenceAnalysis (cDNA RDA) was perfonmed using BamH Ⅰ cutting-site and abundant ~DNA messages provided by the Iibrarles.Northern blot analysls was applied to identifythe obtaineddifference prnducts.RESULTS: Two specific cDNA fragments were obtained andcharacterized to be derived from homo sapiens folatereceptorα (FRα) gene and calcyclin gene respectively.Northern blot results showed a 4-fold increase in FRα geneexpression level and 9-fold increase in calcyclin mRNA levelin BGC823 cells after Allilridi treatment for 72 h.CONCLUSION: The method of cDNA RDA based on cDNAlibraries combines the high specificity of cDNA RDA withabundant cDNA messages in cDNA library; this expands theapplication of cDNA library and increases the specificity ofcDNA RDA. Up-regulstion of FRα gene and calcyclin geneexpressions induced by Allitridi provide valuable molecularevidence for theefficacy of garlic in treating HGC as well asother diseases.

  9. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum) in Human Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2), confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet. PMID:27916960

  10. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O, as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS, allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2, confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet.

  11. Osmanthus fragrans Flower Extract and Acteoside Protect Against d-Galactose-Induced Aging in an ICR Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lina; Mao, Shuqin; Lu, Baiyi; Yang, Jiajia; Zhou, Fei; Hu, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yirong; Shen, Canxi; Zhao, Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans flower extract (OFE) is an organic extract from O. fragrans flower, which exhibits neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the protective effect of OFE and acteoside against aging was studied. An aging ICR mouse model was established by chronically administering d-galactose (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. d-galactose induced spatial learning and memory impairments that were successfully inhibited by OFE and acteoside, which could shorten escape latency, improve platform crossing times, and increase zone time. The antioxidant potential of OFE and acteoside in vivo was evaluated by estimating the following: activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase and aging-related enzyme, particularly monoamine oxidase; contents of lipid peroxidation methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, advanced glycation end products, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a DNA damage product); and levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. OFE and acteoside also inhibited d-galactose-induced neurological aging by suppressing the increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophin-3. Considering the dose-dependent protective effects of OFE and acteoside, we concluded that OFE, rich in acteoside, was a good source of natural antiaging compounds.

  12. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented.

  13. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jeans, Daniel; Reinhard, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  14. GARLIC: GAmma Reconstruction at a LInear Collider experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, D.; Brient, J.-C.; Reinhard, M.

    2012-06-01

    The precise measurement of hadronic jet energy is crucial to maximise the physics reach of a future Linear Collider. An important ingredient required to achieve this is the efficient identification of photons within hadronic showers. One configuration of the ILD detector concept employs a highly granular silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeter to identify and measure photons, and the GARLIC algorithm described in this paper has been developed to identify photons in such a calorimeter. We describe the algorithm and characterise its performance using events fully simulated in a model of the ILD detector.

  15. Investigating the Synergic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Allium sativum L and Electromagnetic Field with Low Frequency on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sadooghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A number of researches show anti-proliferative effects of EMF on animal cells. In addition to antioxidant properties of garlic,it contains compounds that can inhibit cell proliferation. This study wasconducted to investigate the effects of garlic extract and EMF with low frequency on angiogenesis. Methods: Eighty fertilized eggs were divided into the control group, sham-exposed 1 (treated by normal saline, sham-exposed 2 (in vicinity of switched off EMF, experimental group 1 (treated by concentration 100 μg/ml of garlic extract, experimental group 2 (treated by concentration 200 μg/ml of garlic extract, experimental group 3 (in vicinity of EMF with intensity of 50 gauss, experimental group 4 (treated by concentration 100 μg/ml of garlic extract and EMF with intensity of 50 gauss, experimental group 5 (treated by concentration 200 μg/ml of garlic extract and EMF with intensity of 50 gauss. On the 8th day of incubation, gelatin sponge was placed on the chorioallantoic membrane and experimental groups 1, 2, 4, and 5 were treated with 10 microliters of garlic extract. On the 10th day of incubation, experimental groups 3, 4 and 5 were exposed to EMF for 4 hours. All samples were photographed on the 12th day of incubation and the length and numbers of vessels were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results: The mean number and length of blood vessels in all experimental groups were significantly decreased compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Garlic has inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Moreover, these effects wereamplified by EMF with intensity of 50 gauss.

  16. Mercury modulates selenium activity via altering its accumulation and speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiating; Hu, Yi; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Dong, Yuanxing; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity.

  17. Influence of garlic or its main active component diallyl disulfide on iron bioavailability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahdi, Afef; Hammami, Imen; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Pilard, Nathalie; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hedi; Beaumont, Carole; El May, Michèle

    2010-02-01

    Garlic is regularly consumed and is known to have diverse biologic activities, particularly due to its antioxidant properties. In this study, we hypothesized that crude garlic can prevent iron-mediated oxidative stress in a rat model of nutritional iron overload, and we used an in vitro model to confirm the results. For the in vivo studies, rats received a basal diet supplemented with or without carbonyl iron (3%) and were fed distilled water or garlic solution (1g/kg body weight) by gavage for 3 weeks. The presence of both garlic and iron led to a 2-fold increase in plasma iron and a 50% increase in liver iron as compared with iron alone. However, garlic did not offer any protection against iron-induced oxidative stress. Duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 mRNA expression was fully repressed by iron and by the combined treatments but was also reduced by garlic alone. To confirm these data, we tested the effect of diallyl disulfide, one of the active components in garlic, in vitro on polarized Caco-2 cells. A 24-hour treatment decreased iron uptake at the apical side of Caco-2 cells but increased the percentage of iron transfer at the basolateral side. This probably resulted from a modest induction of ferroportin mRNA and protein expression. These results suggest that garlic, when given in the presence of iron, enhances iron absorption by increasing ferroportin expression. The presence of garlic in the diet at the dose studied does not seem to protect against iron-mediated oxidative stress.

  18. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  19. In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC and α-tocopherol (VE. Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions.

  20. Sparse representation of brain aging: extracting covariance patterns from structural MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Su

    Full Text Available An enhanced understanding of how normal aging alters brain structure is urgently needed for the early diagnosis and treatment of age-related mental diseases. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a reliable technique used to detect age-related changes in the human brain. Currently, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA enables the exploration of subtle and distributed changes of data obtained from structural MRI images. In this study, a new MVPA approach based on sparse representation has been employed to investigate the anatomical covariance patterns of normal aging. Two groups of participants (group 1:290 participants; group 2:56 participants were evaluated in this study. These two groups were scanned with two 1.5 T MRI machines. In the first group, we obtained the discriminative patterns using a t-test filter and sparse representation step. We were able to distinguish the young from old cohort with a very high accuracy using only a few voxels of the discriminative patterns (group 1:98.4%; group 2:96.4%. The experimental results showed that the selected voxels may be categorized into two components according to the two steps in the proposed method. The first component focuses on the precentral and postcentral gyri, and the caudate nucleus, which play an important role in sensorimotor tasks. The strongest volume reduction with age was observed in these clusters. The second component is mainly distributed over the cerebellum, thalamus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These regions are not only critical nodes of the sensorimotor circuitry but also the cognitive circuitry although their volume shows a relative resilience against aging. Considering the voxels selection procedure, we suggest that the aging of the sensorimotor and cognitive brain regions identified in this study has a covarying relationship with each other.

  1. Use of Organic Solvents to Extract Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Aged Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; JIN Xin; JIANG Xin; YANG Xing-Lun; SUN Ming-Ming; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Fang; GU Cheng-Gang; WEI Hai-Jiang; SONG Yang; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated sites in China have received wide attention.To solve such problems,innovative ex-situ methods of site remediation are urgently needed.We investigated the feasibility of the extraction method with different organic solvents,ethanol,1-propanol,and three fractions of petroleum ether,using a soil collected from Wujiang (WJ),China,a region with long-term contamination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs).We evaluated different influential factors,including organic solvent concentration,washing time,mixing speed,solution-to-soil ratio,and washing temperature,on the removal of DDTs from the WJ soil.A set of relatively better parameters were selected for extraction with 100 mL L-1 petroleum ether (60-90 ℃):washing time of 180 min,mixing speed of 100 r min-1,solution-to-soil ratio of 10:1,and washing temperature of 50 ℃.These selected parameters were also applied on three other seriously OCP-polluted soils.Results demonstrated their broad-spectrum effectiveness and excellent OCP extraction performance on the contaminated soils with different characteristics.

  2. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, M R; Blommaert, F A; Verleye, G; Castermans, J; Jansen Steur, E N; Kleijnen, J

    1998-12-01

    A growing number of people is subject to age-related cognitive impairment due to the proportional increase of the ageing population. Therefore, there is a growing interest in cognition-enhancing substances. The efficacy of an alcohol/water extract of Ginkgo biloba in elderly individuals with memory- and/or concentration complaints was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by using both subjective and objective parameters. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks 241 non-institutionalised patients in the age range 55-86 years were randomly allocated to receive either Ginkgo biloba alcohol/water extract in a high dose (HD), a low dose (LD) or a placebo (PL) for 24 weeks. Patients were assessed using a psychometric testbattery in the following order: Expended Mental Control Test (EMCT) measuring attention and concentration, Benton Test of Visual Retention-Revised (measures short term visual memory), Rey Test part 1 (measures short term memory and learning curve), Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) measuring the presence and severeness of a depression in order to exclude depressive patients and Rey Test part 2 (measures long term memory: recognition). Furthermore, subjective perception of memory and concentration was measured. 197 patients completed the study (mean MMSE score: 26.29). In the subjective test, the EMCT, the Rey 1 and Rey 2 no significant differences in improvement in time between the groups were observed. In the Benton test increases of 18%, 26% and 11% (expressed as percentage of baseline scores) were observed in the HD, LD and PL respectively (MANOVA; p = 0.0076). No substantial correlation was observed between subjective perception of the severeness of memory complaints and the objective test results. No differences in the number of (gastrointestinal) side effects were observed between placebo and verum groups. These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising

  3. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages.

  4. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  5. Do garlic-derived allyl sulfides scavenge peroxyl radicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco

    2008-03-21

    The chain-breaking antioxidant activities of two garlic-derived allyl sulfides, i.e. diallyl disulfide (1), the main component of steam-distilled garlic oil, and allyl methyl sulfide (3) were evaluated by studying the thermally initiated autoxidation of cumene or styrene in their presence. Although the rate of cumene oxidation was reduced by addition of both 1 and 3, the dependence on the concentration of the two sulfides could not be explained on the basis of the classic antioxidant mechanism as with phenolic antioxidants. The rate of oxidation of styrene, on the other hand, did not show significant changes upon addition of either 1 or 3. This unusual behaviour was explained in terms of the co-oxidant effect, consisting in the decrease of the autoxidation rate of a substrate forming tertiary peroxyl radicals (i.e. cumene) upon addition of little amounts of a second oxidizable substrate giving rise instead to secondary peroxyl radicals. The relevant rate constants for the reaction of ROO(.) with 1 and 3 were measured as 1.6 and 1.0 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, fully consistent with the H-atom abstraction from substituted sulfides. It is therefore concluded that sulfides 1 and 3 do not scavenge peroxyl radicals and therefore cannot be considered chain-breaking antioxidants.

  6. Diagnosis of the Nutritional Status of Garlic Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Lúcio Pereira Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Univariate methods for diagnosing nutritional status such as the sufficiency range and the critical level for garlic crops are very susceptible to the effects of dilution and accumulation of nutrients. Therefore, this study aimed to establish bivariate and multivariate norms for this crop using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS and Nutritional Composition Diagnosis (CND, respectively. The criteria used were nutritional status and the sufficiency range, and then the diagnoses were compared. The study was performed in the region of Alto Paranaíba, MG, Brazil, during the crop seasons 2012 and 2013. Samples comprised 99 commercial fields of garlic, cultivated with the cultivar “Ito” and mostly established in Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (Oxisol. Copper and K were the nutrients with the highest number of fields diagnosed as limiting by lack (LF and limiting by excess (LE, respectively. The DRIS method presented greater tendency to diagnose LF, while the CND tended towards LE. The sufficiency range of both methods presented narrow ranges in relation to those suggested by the literature. Moreover, all ranges produced by the CND method provided narrower ranges than the DRIS method. The CND method showed better performance than DRIS in distinguishing crop yield covered by different diagnoses. Turning to the criterion of evaluation, the study found that nutritional status gave a better performance than sufficiency range in terms of distinguishing diagnoses regarding yield.

  7. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  8. Anti-Ageing Effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (pūhā) Leaf Extracts on H2O2-Induced Cell Senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Quan Ou; Thomas Rades; Arlene McDowell

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants protect against damage from free radicals and are believed to slow the ageing process. Previously, we have reported the high antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. We hypothesize that S. oleraceus extracts protect cells against H2O2-induced senescence by mediating oxidative stress. Premature senescence of young WI-38 cells was induced by application of H2O2. Cells were treated with S. oleraceus extracts before or after H2O2 stress...

  9. Neurotoxicity induced by amyloid beta-peptide and ibotenic acid in organotypic hippocampal cultures: protection by S-allyl-L-cysteine, a garlic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshihisa; Ito, Moriyuki; Takagi, Noritaka; Saito, Hiroshi; Ishige, Kumiko

    2003-09-19

    We have assessed amyloid-beta (Abeta)-induced neurotoxicity, with and without added ibotenic acid (IBO), a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist, in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHC). In the OHC, there was little neurotoxicity after treatment with Abeta(25-35) (25 or 50 microM) alone for 48 h. However, with IBO alone neuronal death was observed in the pyramidal cell layer at low concentrations, and there was dramatic neuronal death at concentrations of 65 microM or more. When Abeta was combined with IBO (Abeta+IBO) there was more intense cell death than with IBO alone. S-Allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), one of the organosulfur compounds having a thioallyl group in aged garlic extract, was shown to protect the hippocampal neurons in the CA3 area and the dentate gyrus (DG) from the cell death induced by Abeta+IBO with no change in the CA1 area. Although L-glutamate (500 microM) potentiated the degree of IBO-induced neuronal death, it attenuated the Abeta+IBO-induced neuronal death in both the CA3 area and the DG with no obvious effect on the CA1 area. These results suggest that Abeta+IBO induces extensive neuronal death, and that SAC and L-glutamate protect cells from death in specific areas of the hippocampus. In addition, inhibition using a pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, only provided partial protection from Abeta+IBO-induced toxicity for the neurons in the CA3 area. These results suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in Abeta+IBO-induced neuronal death in the OHC.

  10. Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Heimfarth, Luana; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Gomes, Henrique Mautone; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Delgado, Jeferson; Roncato, Sabrina; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2017-03-27

    During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a group according to their treatment (saline, CGE, or caffeine). Solutions were administered daily by oral gavage for 6 months. Open field and novel object recognition tasks were performed before and after treatment. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the hippocampus and striatum. Our open field data showed an increase in exploratory activity and a decrease in anxiety-like behavior with caffeine but not with the CGE treatment. In the CGE-treated group, catalase activity decreased in the hippocampus and increased in the striatum. Analyses of the hippocampus and striatum indicate that CGE and/or caffeine altered some of the analyzed parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Our data suggest that CGE intake does not improve cognitive development, but modifies the oxidative stress machinery and neurodegenerative-signaling pathway, inhibiting pro-survival pathway molecules in the hippocampus and striatum. This may contribute to the development of unfavorable microenvironments in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Design of planting mechanism for garlic planter%大蒜播种机种植机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学虎; 张永; 刘召; 程永健; 刘彩霞; 毕力格图

    2015-01-01

    为了满足大蒜在栽植过程中保持蒜瓣鳞芽朝上垂直入土且蒜瓣弓背面朝向一致的农艺要求,该文根据蒜瓣的外形特征,设计了一种大蒜播种机种植机构并对该机构进行详细的理论分析,运用Solidworks软件对该机构进行建模并通过3D打印机打印出零件,然后组建试验台对该种植机构进行试验。试验数据显示采用该种植机构不但可以确保大蒜弓背面朝向一致,而且播种机前进速度的变化对蒜瓣垂直度的影响较小。该文为大蒜种植机械种植机构的设计提供了一种设计方法,为研究大蒜播种机和同类机具提供了参考。%Garlic planters developed relatively late and its technology is not matured in the agricultural machinery. However, due to the growing demand for garlic, intensive planting of garlic has become the trend in modern agriculture. The restricting factor of garlic intensive planting is delayed garlic planting machinery development. This paper proposed two key problems of developing garlic planting machinery:garlic cloves insert vertically and the cloves face towards consistent. To solve these two problems, we designed a garlic planting mechanism which can meet the garlic agricultural cultivation requirement. Based on the study of garlic planter at home and abroad, we designed a mechanism and analyzed it in detailed according to the shape characteristics of garlic cloves. The software of Solidworks was used for modeling the mechanism and the parts were printed by 3D printer, and then the garlic cultivation mechanism was built and tested. The test bench includes mobile platform which can control the speed, stepper motor, garlic planting mechanism, bracket, soil and 10 different sizes of garlic cloves. The garlic cultivation mechanism is fixed on the mobile platform through the bracket and steeper motor is fixed on the mobile platform. The rope of garlic cultivation mechanism is winded up onto the stepper

  12. Extraction of global 21-cm signal from simulated data for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) using an MCMC pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Keith A.; Burns, Jack O.; Rapetti, David; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is a mission concept proposed to NASA in which a crossed dipole antenna collects low frequency (40-120 MHz) radio measurements above the farside of the Moon to detect and characterize the global 21-cm signal from the early (z~35-11) Universe's neutral hydrogen. Simulated data for DARE includes: 1) the global signal modeled using the ares code, 2) spectrally smooth Galactic foregrounds with spatial structure taken from multiple radio foreground maps averaged over a large, well characterized beam, 3) systematics introduced in the data by antenna/receiver reflections, and 4) the Moon. This simulated data is fed into a signal extraction pipeline. As the signal is 4-5 orders of magnitude below the Galactic synchrotron contribution, it is best extracted from the data using Bayesian techniques which take full advantage of prior knowledge of the instrument and foregrounds. For the DARE pipeline, we use the affine-invariant MCMC algorithm implemented in the Python package, emcee. The pipeline also employs singular value decomposition to use known spectral features of the antenna and receiver to form a natural basis with which to fit instrumental systematics. Taking advantage of high-fidelity measurements of the antenna beam (to ~20 ppm) and precise calibration of the instrument, the pipeline extracts the global 21-cm signal with an average RMS error of 10-15 mK for multiple signal models.

  13. Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mikaili

    2013-10-01

    Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents.

  14. Rsearch of haw thorn garlic sauce%山楂蒜蓉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎海彬

    2001-01-01

    In order to make a kind of product of mashed garlic with rich garlic sweet smell,the fresh garlic and hawthorn should be used as raw materials.By using microwave heating,polymer absorption and covering was the unpleasant smell of garlic removed with added and mixed tastes and flavor.%以新鲜大蒜和山楂果为主要原料,采用微波加热法、吸附法及掩蔽法相结合对大蒜进行脱臭,并添加焦糖和食盐调色调味制成一种具有浓郁蒜香味的蒜蓉调味品。

  15. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors, some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Farahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic (Allium sativum on growth factors,some hematological parameters and body compositions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. A totalnumber of 360 fish (average weight 20.88±0.25 g was used. Fish were divided into four groups fed ondiets containing garlic in different levels; 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group dietwas without garlic. The experiment extended for two months. The results showed that, weight gain andgrowth performance of O. mykiss significantly (p-1 diet of garlic than all other groups. Total lipids content in fish body decreased in treatments and itwas lower in fish fed on 30 g kg-1 diet of garlic. The results of this study show that addition of garlicAllium sativum to fish diet can promote growth and improve fish health.

  16. Development of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of garlic viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-xi; LEI Yan; WANG Pei; TANG Lin-fei; HE Chang-zheng; SONG Yong; XIONG Xing-yao; NIE Xian-zhou

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary screening for garlic viruses in garlic plants in Hunan, China, using existing monoplex (simplex) reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures detected four viruses/virus groups. These viruses/virus groups were Onion yel ow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yel ow stripe virus (LYSV), Shal ot latent virus (SLV) and al exiviruses (e.g., garlic viruses A, B, C, D, E, X). Sequence analysis of the projected al exivirus amplicons revealed the al exivirus in the infected garlic plants was Garlic virus D (GarV-D), which shared 92–97%sequence identities with various isolates from the world. A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) was therefore developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the four viruses/virus groups. To achieve this, four primer pairs targeting al exiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were designed. The anticipated amplicon sizes are 183 bp (al exiviruses), 265 bp (OYDV), 404 bp (LYSV) and 592 bp (SLV), respectively. Al primer pairs produced virus-speciifc fragments in both simplex and multiplex formats, thus conifrming the efifcacy of the newly developed mRT-PCR for detection of these viruses. The mRT-PCR further was evaluated by applying it to garlic plant samples col ected in two geographic locations in Hunan. Al exiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were detected in 50.9, 40.3, 28.3 and 58.5%of leaf samples, respectively;and mixed infections with two or more viruses accounted for 54%of the garlic samples. The results obtained by mRT-PCR were conifrmed by simplex RT-PCR assays. In conclusion, this newly devel-oped mRT-PCR provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the detection and identiifcation of major garlic viruses.

  17. Maitake Mushroom Extracts Ameliorate Progressive Hypertension and Other Chronic Metabolic Perturbations in Aging Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry G. Preuss, Bobby Echard, Debasis Bagchi, Nicholas V. Perricone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We assessed the ability of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom to overcome many age-associated metabolic perturbations such as progressive, age-related elevation of blood pressure, over activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, decreased insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in an in vivo laboratory model. Design and Method: We divided forty mature, female Sprague-Dawley rats (SD into five groups of eight. SD ingested regular rat chow containing added sucrose (20% w/w. The groups received baseline diet alone (control or baseline diet containing captopril, niacin-bound chromium, maitake fraction SX, or maitake fraction D. In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: losartan and insulin challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, glucose tolerance testing, blood chemistries, LNAME challenge, and measurement of various circulating cytokines. Results: We found that implementation of all test conditions stopped the gradual elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP in the SD over the four months of study, even reversing some of the previous elevation that occurred over time. In general, the treatment groups showed decreased activity of the RAS estimated by less lowering of SBP after losartan challenge and decreased serum ACE activity and were more sensitive to exogenous insulin challenge. TNFa levels decreased in all four test groups suggesting a lessening of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: We believe our data suggest that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation -- actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span.

  18. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  19. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action of garlic compounds in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-05-01

    The medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been well known and widely used since historical times. Garlic compounds have received increasing attention during the last few years due to their cancer chemopreventive properties. The anti-cancer activity of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are extensively reported in many cancers but only a few in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma, which warrants exploration of new therapy for its management. There are some recent reports suggesting that garlic-derived OSCs cause cell cycle arrest, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate stress kinases, and also stimulate the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma. The comprehensive mechanisms of anti-cancer action of OSCs still remain unclear and require more studies in neuroblastoma. This review is designed to highlight the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of garlic-derived OSCs in neuroblastoma and as well as in several other cancers. Further studies should be conducted to establish the clinical expediency of garlic-derived OSCs for treatment of malignant neuroblastoma in humans.

  1. The potential benefits of a garlic and hydrochlorothiazide combination as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of combined therapy of garlic homogenate and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in animals with hypertension and myocardial damage. Three weeks of high fructose (10% w/v) in fluid to albino rats resulted in hypertension. They were subsequently administered garlic (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, 3 weeks in separate groups) and HCTZ (10 mg/kg, 6th week) once daily in their respective groups. At the end of 6 weeks, myocardial damage was induced by subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol (175 mg/kg) for 2 consecutive days. The results showed that garlic and HCTZ increase the lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in heart homogenate when used concurrently or separately. Further, restoration of normal values in fluid/food intake, body weight, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and histopathological scores were observed in all treated groups. Furthermore, histological disturbances and hypertension were significantly ameliorated in treated animals. Moreover, moderate dose of garlic was more effective than low dose, while a high dose of garlic was least effective in correcting electrocardiographic changes. Thus it is concluded that garlic in moderate dose (250 mg/kg) with added HCTZ possesses synergistic cardioprotective and antihypertensive properties against fructose- and isoproterenol-induced toxicities.

  2. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  3. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  4. 芦荟和大蒜多糖的提取及抗氧化性的比较%Comparative on Polysaccharide Content and Antioxidant Activities of Aloe and Garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宏伟; 尹春光; 彭浩; 王晓强

    2016-01-01

    The extraction method of hot water was optimized with orthogonal experimental design.This text uses phenol - sulfuric acid method of chromogenic to determine the Polysaccharide content of Aloe and Garlic extracts . The extraction is measured for the ability of clear away ·OH and O2-. , and compares the antioxidant properties of the aloe and Garlic extracts.The orthogonal experimental results shows that the optimal condition was 1:30 ;water extraction temperature 90℃; extraction time 4h. The ability of Aloe and Garlic polysaccharide extracts clear away ·OH and O2-. isn’t much more different,but lower than that of VC.%对芦荟、大蒜水浴浸提法提取多糖的工艺进行优化,采用苯酚—硫酸法测定多糖含量。测定并比较了芦荟、大蒜多糖提取液对超氧阴离子和羟自由基的清除能力。结果表明:芦荟、大蒜多糖的最佳提取条件均为:料液比1:30,提取时间4h,提取温度为90℃;芦荟、大蒜多糖提取液对超氧阴离子和羟基自由基均有一定的清除能力。同浓度下,芦荟多糖提取液和大蒜多糖提取液的清除作用相差不大,但明显低于VC的清除作用。

  5. AGE CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FEATURES EXTRACTED FROM THIRD ORDER NEIGHBORHOOD LOCAL BINARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pullela S.V.V.S.R. Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper extended the work carried out by Kumar et. al. [10] on Third order Neighbourhood LBP (TN-LBP and derived an approach that estimates pattern trends on the outer cell of TN-LBP. The present paper observed and noted that the TN-LBP forms two types of V-patterns on the outer cell of TN-LBP i.e. Outer Right V Patterns (ORVP and Outer Left V Patterns (OLVP. The ORLP and OLVP of TN-LBP consist of 5 pixels each. The present paper derived Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM features based on LBP values of ORVP and OLVP. This GLCM is named as ORLVP-GLCM (Outer cell Right and Left V-Patterns of GLCM and on this four features are evaluated to classify human into child (0 to 12 years, young (13 to 30 years, middle aged (31 to 50 years and senior adult (above 60 years. The proposed method is experimented on FGNET, GOOGLE and Scanned facial images and the results are compared with the existing methods. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method over the existing methods.

  6. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids.

  7. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyunji Lee,1 Youngeun Hong,1 So Hee Kwon,2 Jongsun Park,1 Jisoo Park1 1Department of Pharmacology and Medical Science, Metabolic Diseases and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Research Institute for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 2Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, South Korea Background: Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair.Objective: Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF, a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Methods: PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student’s unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls.Results: PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed

  8. Effects of root and stem extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis on biochemical indicators related to aging in the brain and liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dasheng; Yu, Long-Xi; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Chunqiu; Xiong, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating lung and spleen-related diseases. In this study, we compared the medicinal effects of A. cochinchinensis root and stem extracts on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein content in the brain, liver and plasma of mice. Polysaccharides and aqueous extracts of the roots significantly increased the spleen index and the SOD activity but reduced the MDA content and slowed down the aging process. In contrast, feeding with the stem extracts significantly reduced the SOD activity and increased the MDA accumulation in the brain and liver of mice, suggesting that the stem extracts may not be appropriate for treating aging-related diseases.

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...

  10. Effect of plasma and/or yeast extract on performance and intestinal morphology of piglets from 7 to 63 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro César Milagres Rigueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with plasma and/or yeast extract on performance (daily weight gain [DWG], daily feed intake [DFI] and feed conversion [FC] and intestinal morphology of piglets from 7 to 63 days of age. A total of 288 piglets aged 7 days and weighing 2.57±0.05 kg were studied. A randomized block design consisting of four experimental diets, six repetitions and 12 piglets per experimental unit was adopted. The pre-starter I (7 to 21 days, pre-starter II (22 to 35 days and starter I (36 to 49 days diets were supplemented as follows: control diet (CD: no plasma or yeast extract; plasma (PL diet: addition of 6%, 4% and 2% plasma; yeast extract (YE diet: addition of 6%, 4% and 2% yeast extract; plasma + yeast extract (PL+YE diet: addition of 3%, 2% and 1% plasma and yeast extract each. From 50 to 63 days of age all piglets received the same diet. No difference in performance was observed from 7 to 21 days and from 7 to 28 days of age, whereas DWG was higher from 7 to 35 days in piglets receiving the PL+YE diet (268, 278, 271 and 288 g/day for CD, PL, YE and PL+YE, respectively. From 7 to 49 days and from 7 to 63 days, DWG (330 and 519 g/day, respectively and DFI (307 and 647 g/day were higher in animals receiving the PL-YE diet when compared with those consuming CD (DWG: 295 and 486 g/day; DFI: 266 and 594 g/day. No significant differences in intestinal morphology were observed between piglets receiving the different diets. The combination of plasma and yeast extract elevates DWG, but does not affect the intestinal morphology of piglets from 7 to 63 days of age.

  11. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sou

  12. Anti-Ageing Effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (pūhā Leaf Extracts on H2O2-Induced Cell Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Quan Ou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants protect against damage from free radicals and are believed to slow the ageing process. Previously, we have reported the high antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae leaf extracts. We hypothesize that S. oleraceus extracts protect cells against H2O2-induced senescence by mediating oxidative stress. Premature senescence of young WI-38 cells was induced by application of H2O2. Cells were treated with S. oleraceus extracts before or after H2O2 stress. The senescence- associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal activity was used to indicate cell senescence. S. oleraceus extracts showed higher cellular antioxidant activity than chlorogenic acid in WI-38 cells. S. oleraceus extracts suppressed H2O2 stress-induced premature senescence in a concentration-dependent manner. At 5 and 20 mg/mL, S. oleraceus extracts showed better or equivalent effects of reducing stress-induced premature senescence than the corresponding ascorbic acid treatments. These findings indicate the potential of S. oleraceus extracts to be formulated as an anti-ageing agent.

  13. Anti-ageing effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (pūhā) leaf extracts on H₂O₂-induced cell senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2015-03-12

    Antioxidants protect against damage from free radicals and are believed to slow the ageing process. Previously, we have reported the high antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. We hypothesize that S. oleraceus extracts protect cells against H2O2-induced senescence by mediating oxidative stress. Premature senescence of young WI-38 cells was induced by application of H2O2. Cells were treated with S. oleraceus extracts before or after H2O2 stress. The senescence- associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity was used to indicate cell senescence. S. oleraceus extracts showed higher cellular antioxidant activity than chlorogenic acid in WI-38 cells. S. oleraceus extracts suppressed H2O2 stress-induced premature senescence in a concentration-dependent manner. At 5 and 20 mg/mL, S. oleraceus extracts showed better or equivalent effects of reducing stress-induced premature senescence than the corresponding ascorbic acid treatments. These findings indicate the potential of S. oleraceus extracts to be formulated as an anti-ageing agent.

  14. 75 FR 24578 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... has placed on the record copies of certain laws and regulations, including the ``Company Law of the... Administration of Company Registration.'' The Department has analyzed these PRC laws and found that they...., the Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc.) (collectively, Petitioners)...

  15. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31,...

  16. A systematic review on the influence of trial quality on the effect of garlic on blood pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.O.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Thien, Th.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Garlic is a widely used herbal product for hypertension. Previous meta-analyses on the effect of garlic on blood pressure (BP) have been contradictory however. We hypothesised that methodological deficiencies may have contributed to this disagreement. We therefore evaluated whether trial

  17. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Jinxiang Chengda Imp & Exp... Co., Ltd. (Huachao) covering the period November 1, 2008 through October 31, 2009. See Fresh...

  18. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1,...

  19. 黑蒜的营养价值及保健作用的研究进展%Research progress in the nutritional value and health effects of black garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷逢超; 郝果; 朱黎; 杨颖; 张有林

    2012-01-01

    The black garlic nutrition, chemical composition and immunity,anti-cancer effects and regulation of blood sugar The mainstream of black garlic as a health food an active role future research directions. its antioxidant, bactericidal, anti-aging, enhancing and other biological functions were summarized. in the human body was introduced,and proposed%本文总结了黑蒜的营养价值、化学成分以及其抗氧化作用、杀菌、抗衰老、增强免疫力、抗癌作用和调节血糖等生物学功能,介绍了黑蒜作为健康食品对人机体的积极作用,提出今后的研究方向。

  20. [Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, Eliades; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2006-06-01

    The curative properties of garlic in medicine have been known for a long time. But, it was only in the last three decades when garlic properties were seriously investigated confirming its potential as therapeutic agent. Allicin, ajoene, thiosulfinates and a wide range of other organosulphurate compounds, are known to be the constituents linked to the garlic properties. Regarding the biochemical properties of these compounds, ajoene [(E,Z)-4,5,9 Trithiadodeca 1,6,11 Triene 9-oxide] is stable in water, and it can be obtained by chemical synthesis. There is evidence that some of the garlic constituents exert a wide variety of effects on different biological systems. However, ajoene is the garlic compound related to more biological activities, as showed in in vitro and in vivo systems. Those studies found that ajoene has antithrombotic, anti-tumoral,antifungal, and antiparasitic effects. This study deals with a recently described antifungal property of ajoene, and its potential use in clinical trails to treat several fungal infections.

  1. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5:100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  2. Soil properties, nutrient dynamics, and soil enzyme activities associated with garlic stalk decomposition under various conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Han

    Full Text Available The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5:100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C, highest concentration (5:100, and shortest duration (10 or 20 days. The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks.

  3. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (Pgarlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (Pgarlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (Pgarlic dietary supplementation (Pgarlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  4. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun PANG; Xue-ling FENG; Xiu-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the classⅡ emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996), seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  5. Effects of Garlic Oil on the Migration of Neutrophil-Like Cell Studied by Using a Chemotactic Gradient Labchip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chen Shih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and fabricated a novel chemotactic gradient Labchip for studying cell migration quantitatively. Owing to the great potential of garlic and its preparations in developing antiinflammatory drugs, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of garlic oil on the locomotion of a neutrophil-like cell by measuring the dynamic features of cell migration including migration direction, average migration speed, chemotactic index (CI, and motility index (MI with the newly designed Labchip. We found that garlic oil treatment lowered the values of CI and MI and reduced the average speed of cell migration from 13 to 8 μm/min. The results indicate that garlic oil is a potential inhibitor for neutrophil-like cell migration and chemotactic responsiveness. By comparing with the effects of nocodazole and cytochalasin B, we also suggest that the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by garlic oil was mainly through inhibiting the assembly-disassembly processes of the cytoskeleton.

  6. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage.

  7. Pectinase-treated Panax ginseng extract (GINST) rescues testicular dysfunction in aged rats via redox-modulating proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Yoo, Sung-Kwang; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Sung, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2014-05-01

    The root of Panax ginseng improves testicular function both in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism by which ginseng exerts this effect has not been elucidated. Changes in protein expression in the rat testis in response to a pectinase-treated P. ginseng extract (GINST) were identified using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Number of sperm, Sertoli cells and germ cells, and the Sertoli Cell Index decrease in the testis of aged rats (AR) relative to young control rats (YCR). However, those parameters were completely restored in GINST-treated AR (GINST-AR). A proteomic analysis identified 14 proteins that were differentially expressed between vehicle-treated AR (V-AR) and GINST-AR. Out of these, the expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) mu5 and phospholipid hydroperoxide (PH) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly up-regulated in GINST-AR compared to V-AR. The activity of GPx and GST, as well as the expression of glutathione, in the testis of GINST-AR was higher than that in V-AR. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased in AR compared with YCR, but this change was reversed by GINST-AR. These results suggest that the administration of GINST enhances testicular function by elevating GPx and GST activity, thus resulting in increased glutathione, which prevents LPO in the testis.

  8. The effect of paprika, garlic and salt on rancidity in dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirrezábal, M M; Mateo, J; Domínguez, M C; Zumalacárregui, J M

    2000-01-01

    Eight batches of ground fat and eight batches of a mixture of meat and fat (70 and 30%, respectively), were prepared by adding salt, paprika and garlic, in the proportions used for making chorizo - a dry fermented sausage - stuffed into natural casings and then ripened. The evolution of rancidity in these products was evaluated by means of total free fatty acid content, peroxide value and TBARS during the ripening period. Spanish paprika and salt showed antioxidant and prooxidant properties, respectively. Paprika was even able to inhibit the prooxidant effect of salt. Also, four batches of chorizo were made to compare the antioxidant effect of the spices (garlic and paprika) with a mixture of nitrate, nitrite and ascorbic acid. In this respect, paprika and garlic were as effective as the mixture of additives in inhibiting lipid oxidation.

  9. Garlic attenuates histological and histochemical alterations in livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Y I; Riad, N H; Taha, H

    2016-08-01

    Interest in screening for new anti-schistosomal agents is growing because of increased concerns about resistance to and safety of praziquantel. We investigated the anti-schistosomal action of prophylactic and therapeutic doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical alterations caused by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Livers of infected mice were characterized by granulomas, periportal inflammation and fibrosis, hepatocyte vacuolation, fatty degeneration and necrosis, and hypertrophy and pigmentation of Kupffer cells. Significant depletion of carbohydrates and increased lipid vacuoles also were observed. All garlic regimens caused suppression of granuloma formation and amelioration of histological and histochemical changes; the continuous treatment protocol produced the best results. Garlic appears to be a safe and economical anti-schistosomal adjuvant for attenuating the pathogenicity of schistosomiasis.

  10. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  11. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  12. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Plant Extracts and Plant Secondary Metabolites on Chronic Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Aging: A Mechanistic and Empirical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Christina; Timmer, Jorinde; Stough, Con

    2017-01-01

    Advances in healthcare have considerably improved the life expectancy of the human population over the last century and this has brought about new challenges. As we live longer the capacity for cognitive aging increases. Consequently, it has been noted that decline in cognitive performance in the elderly in domains of reasoning, problem solving skills, attention, processing speed, working memory and episodic memory is a significant societal problem. Despite the enormity of this issue there are relatively few interventions for cognitive aging. This may be due to our current state of knowledge on biological factors that underpin cognitive aging. One of the biological contributors to cognitive aging is chronic neuroinflammation. This review will provide an overview of the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in chronic neuroinflammation and how neuroinflammation may be related to age-associated cognitive decline. Plant based extracts including herbal and nutritional supplements with anti-inflammatory properties will be examined in relation to their utility in treating age-related cognitive decline. Plant based extracts in particular offer interesting pharmacological properties that may be quickly utilized to prevent cognitive aging.

  13. The Immunomodulatory Effects of Plant Extracts and Plant Secondary Metabolites on Chronic Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Aging: A Mechanistic and Empirical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Christina; Timmer, Jorinde; Stough, Con

    2017-01-01

    Advances in healthcare have considerably improved the life expectancy of the human population over the last century and this has brought about new challenges. As we live longer the capacity for cognitive aging increases. Consequently, it has been noted that decline in cognitive performance in the elderly in domains of reasoning, problem solving skills, attention, processing speed, working memory and episodic memory is a significant societal problem. Despite the enormity of this issue there are relatively few interventions for cognitive aging. This may be due to our current state of knowledge on biological factors that underpin cognitive aging. One of the biological contributors to cognitive aging is chronic neuroinflammation. This review will provide an overview of the peripheral and central mechanisms involved in chronic neuroinflammation and how neuroinflammation may be related to age-associated cognitive decline. Plant based extracts including herbal and nutritional supplements with anti-inflammatory properties will be examined in relation to their utility in treating age-related cognitive decline. Plant based extracts in particular offer interesting pharmacological properties that may be quickly utilized to prevent cognitive aging. PMID:28344556

  14. TOTAL PHENOLICS, TOTAL TANNINS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CASSIA FISTULA L. EXTRACTS OF BARK, STEM, LEAF AND ROOT UNDER DIFFERENT AGE CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI TZEKIAT, LIEW KANG CHIANG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L. bark, stem, leaf and root under different age classes namely Class A (2-3years, Class B (5-10 years and Class C (10-15 years were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC,total tannin content (TTC and antioxidant activity (AA. Both total phenolic content (TPC and total tannincontent (TTC were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assays and antioxidant activity (AA was carried out byFree Radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. From the study, higher TPC, TTC and AA wereobserved in Cassia fistula bark extracts compare to otherportion extracts (stem, leaf and root. Bark extractsfrom three different age classes, showed total means of 16.67 % TPC and 3.12% TTC. In addition, bark extractsfrom three different age classes also showed high antioxidant activity (AA with mean IC50 values of 0.04g/ml.

  15. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khadijeh bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.

  16. A Study of the Shrinkage Changes and Mathematical Modeling of Garlic (Allium sativumL. During Convective Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rasouli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativumL. is one of the most important Allium spice. From an economic point of view, the dried garlic slices are valuable products. In this research, garlic slices as a thin layer were dried in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer, under air flow of 1.5 m/s, air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70˚C and slice thicknesses of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The mean values of shrinkage of garlic slices obtained 69.8%. In addition, the effects of the drying variables on the shrinkage of dried garlic were evaluated. The ANOVA results indicated that the air temperature and slice thickness had no significant effect on final shrinkage of dried garlic slices. In order to derive and select the appropriate shrinkage model, four mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data. According to the statistical criteria (R2, SSE & RMSE the best model was found to describe the shrinkage behavior of garlic slice.

  17. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis.

  18. Garlic accelerates red blood cell turnover and splenic erythropoietic gene expression in mice: evidence for erythropoietin-independent erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Akgül

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been valued in many cultures both for its health effects and as a culinary flavor enhancer. Garlic's chemical complexity is widely thought to be the source of its many health benefits, which include, but are not limited to, anti-platelet, procirculatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuro-protective, and anti-cancer effects. While a growing body of scientific evidence strongly upholds the herb's broad and potent capacity to influence health, the common mechanisms underlying these diverse effects remain disjointed and relatively poorly understood. We adopted a phenotype-driven approach to investigate the effects of garlic in a mouse model. We examined RBC indices and morphologies, spleen histochemistry, RBC half-lives and gene expression profiles, followed up by qPCR and immunoblot validation. The RBCs of garlic-fed mice register shorter half-lives than the control. But they have normal blood chemistry and RBC indices. Their spleens manifest increased heme oxygenase 1, higher levels of iron and bilirubin, and presumably higher CO, a pleiotropic gasotransmitter. Heat shock genes and those critical for erythropoiesis are elevated in spleens but not in bone marrow. The garlic-fed mice have lower plasma erythropoietin than the controls, however. Chronic exposure to CO of mice on garlic-free diet was sufficient to cause increased RBC indices but again with a lower plasma erythropoietin level than air-treated controls. Furthermore, dietary garlic supplementation and CO treatment showed additive effects on reducing plasma erythropoietin levels in mice. Thus, garlic consumption not only causes increased energy demand from the faster RBC turnover but also increases the production of CO, which in turn stimulates splenic erythropoiesis by an erythropoietin-independent mechanism, thus completing the sequence of feedback regulation for RBC metabolism. Being a pleiotropic gasotransmitter, CO may be a second messenger for garlic

  19. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Choi, Haymie

    2008-03-01

    To compare the anti-diabetic effects of dietary ginger and garlic, 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (HF) diet (22% fat) for 2 weeks and then randomly divided into six groups of eight animals: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Ginger Low (GNL), Ginger High (GNH), Garlic Low (GRL), and Garlic High (GRH) groups. "Low" and "High" indicate addition of 0.5% and 2.0% freeze-dried ginger or garlic powder in their respective diets. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg of body weight) in all groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks of feeding of experimental diets, food intake was significantly (P GRH group. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the NC and GNH groups compared to the DBC, GNL, and GRL groups, while no significant difference was observed for the GRH group. Better glucose tolerance was observed in the GNH group compared to the DBC and all other ginger- and garlic-fed groups. Final body weight, fasting blood glucose, blood glycated hemoglobin, liver weight, liver glycogen levels, and serum lipid profiles were not influenced by the ginger- or garlic-containing diet. Data of this study suggest that ginger and garlic are insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic while overall anti-diabetic effects of ginger are better than those of garlic, at least in this experimental condition. Much better anti-diabetic effects of ginger and garlic may be obtained when feeding is with a normal rather than a HF-containing diet.

  20. Tomato and garlic by gavage modulate 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bhuvaneswari

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprotection by dietary agents is a promising strategy for cancer prevention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the combined effect of tomato and garlic against 7,12-dimethylbenz- [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced genetic damage and oxidative stress in 12-14-week-old male Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into eight groups of five animals each. Group 1 animals were injected intraperitoneally with 35 mg/kg body weight DMBA suspended in peanut oil as a single dose. Groups 2-4 animals received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight, garlic (125 mg/kg body weight and a combination of tomato and garlic for 5 days by gavage, respectively, followed by DMBA 1.5 h after the final feeding. The doses of tomato and garlic correspond to the average human daily consumption. Animals in groups 5, 6 and 7 received tomato alone, garlic alone and tomato + garlic combination, respectively, for 5 days. Group 8 animals received the same volume of water and served as control. The incidence of bone marrow micronuclei and the extent of lipid peroxidation and the concentrations of antioxidants glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in the liver, 48 h after DMBA exposure. Increased frequency of micronuclei and enhanced lipid peroxidation accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses were observed in DMBA-treated animals. Although pretreatment with tomato or garlic significantly reduced the frequency of DMBA-induced bone marrow micronuclei, the combination of tomato and garlic exhibited more profound effect in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress. We suggest that a broad spectrum of antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects can be achieved through an effective combination of functional foods such as tomato and garlic.

  1. Effect of food preservative and food coloring agent on some physiological and hematological parameters in albino rats and theprotective role of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Mervat Abdel- Rahman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most children, in the age of nursery consume food that contains both colorants and preservatives with great amount. This observation led us to study the interaction between sodium nitrite as a food preservative and sun set yellow as a coloring agent. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were divided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10 mg sod.nitrite (NaNO3/kg mixed with 0.5 mg/kg/day sun set yellow (S.S.Y. The third group received garlic (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of the animals was left for another 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, RBCs and WBCs counts, Hb%, Hct%. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature. A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most physiological and hematological parameters was observed after the recovery period or when garlic was administered

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) fertility: transcriptome and proteome analyses provide insight into flower and pollen development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh-Mayer, Einat; Ben-Michael, Tomer; Rotem, Neta; Rabinowitch, Haim D.; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Perlikowski, Dawid; Sherman, Amir; Kamenetsky, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Commercial cultivars of garlic, a popular condiment, are sterile, making genetic studies and breeding of this plant challenging. However, recent fertility restoration has enabled advanced physiological and genetic research and hybridization in this important crop. Morphophysiological studies, combined with transcriptome and proteome analyses and quantitative PCR validation, enabled the identification of genes and specific processes involved in gametogenesis in fertile and male-sterile garlic genotypes. Both genotypes exhibit normal meiosis at early stages of anther development, but in the male-sterile plants, tapetal hypertrophy after microspore release leads to pollen degeneration. Transcriptome analysis and global gene-expression profiling showed that >16,000 genes are differentially expressed in the fertile vs. male-sterile developing flowers. Proteome analysis and quantitative comparison of 2D-gel protein maps revealed 36 significantly different protein spots, 9 of which were present only in the male-sterile genotype. Bioinformatic and quantitative PCR validation of 10 candidate genes exhibited significant expression differences between male-sterile and fertile flowers. A comparison of morphophysiological and molecular traits of fertile and male-sterile garlic flowers suggests that respiratory restrictions and/or non-regulated programmed cell death of the tapetum can lead to energy deficiency and consequent pollen abortion. Potential molecular markers for male fertility and sterility in garlic are proposed. PMID:25972879

  3. Microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin using maltodextrin as wall material by spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, P; Palaniswamy, P T; Visvanathan, R; Thirupathi, V; Subbarayan, A; Prakash Maran, J

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on microencapsulation of garlic oleoresin by spray drying with garlic oleoresin concentration (10%, 20% and 30%) as core material, maltodextrin concentration (40%, 50% and 60%) as wall material and inlet temperature of drying air (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) as process parameters. The process in-terms of encapsulation efficiency was optimised following response surface methodology and Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second order polynomial regression model showed good fit of the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) along with predicted values. The relationships between the independent and dependent parameters were represented using response surface and contour plots. The optimum levels of process parameters, viz., garlic oleoresin concentration, maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature of air drying were found to be 10%, 60% and 200 °C, respectively with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 81.9% and desirability of 0.998. The microencapsulated garlic oleoresin powder obtained at optimized conditions was spherical with smooth surface as analysed through scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Effect of garlic powder on the growth of commensal bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filocamo, Angela; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; Bisignano, Carlo; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan

    2012-06-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is considered one of the best disease-preventive foods. We evaluated in vitro the effect of a commercial garlic powder (GP), at concentrations of 0.1% and 1% (w/v), upon the viability of representative gut bacteria. In pure culture studies, Lactobacillus casei DSMZ 20011 was essentially found to be resistant to GP whereas a rapid killing effect of between 1 and 3 log CFU/ml reduction in cell numbers was observed with Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium longum DSMZ 20090 and Clostridium nexile A2-232. After 6h incubation, bacterial numbers increased steadily and once the strains became resistant they retained their resistant phenotype upon sub-culturing. A colonic model was also used to evaluate the effect of GP on a mixed bacterial population representing the microbiota of the distal colon. Lactic acid bacteria were found to be more resistant to GP compared to the clostridial members of the gut microbiota. While for most bacteria the antimicrobial effect was transient, the lactobacilli showed a degree of resistance to garlic, indicating that its consumption may favour the growth of these beneficial bacterial species in the gut. Garlic intake has the potential to temporarily modulate the gut microbiota.

  5. Sequence homology of polymorphic AFLP markers in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Meryem; Ipek, Ahmet; Simon, Philipp W

    2006-10-01

    Linkage mapping and genetic diversity studies with DNA markers in plant species assume that comigrating bands are identical, or at least that they have homologous sequences. To test this assumption in a plant with a large genome, sequence identities of 7 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers of garlic, previously used to estimate similarity in genetic diversity studies, were characterized. Among 37 diverse garlic clones, 87 bands from these 7 polymorphisms were excised, amplicons were cloned, and 2 to 6 colonies were sequenced from each band, to yield a total of 191 DNA amplicons. Of these 87 bands, 83 bands (95.4%) contained AFLP amplicons that were identical or highly homologous to the typical marker of that band; only 4 bands contained amplicons with little homology to the same-sized amplicons of other garlic clones. Of these 83 bands, 64 (73.6%) contained only highly homologous amplicons (>90% sequence identity), whereas 19 (21.8%) contained both homologous and nonhomologous amplicons, with sequence identities less than 60%. Of the 37 nonhomologous amplicons identified, 25 (67.5%) differed in length from other amplicons in the band. Sequence conservation of AFLP amplicons followed patterns similar to phylogenetic relationships among garlic clones, making them useful for developing simple PCR-based markers in genetic mapping and diversity assessment.

  6. Diversity in fertility potential and organo-sulphur compounds among garlics from Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Shafir, I.L.; Khassanov, F.; Kik, C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Vrielink-van Ginkel, M.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Auger, J.; Arnault, I.; Rabinowitch, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    Extending the collection of garlic (Allium sativum L.) accessions is an important means that is available for broadening the genetic variability of this cultivated plant, with regard to yield, quality, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic traits; it is also an important means for restoring fertility

  7. Efficacy of antibacterial activity of garlic cloves from Tamil Nadu and Jowai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Thus our study reveals that garlic not only makes the food more spicy and edible with its flavour but can also be used as an effective antibacterial agents against MDR gram positive and gram negative bacteria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 434-438

  8. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  9. ALCOHOLIC TINCTURE OF GARLIC (Allium sativum ON GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOPARASITES OF SHEEP- SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carlini Cunha Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuous and indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs has caused a growing problem of parasite resistance to conventional treatments. In this context, plant essential oils and active components can be used as alternatives or in association with current anthel¬mintic treatment. Garlic (Allium sativum is a herbal medicine with various therapeutic properties: immunostimulating, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic alcoholic tincture on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep. For this, 54 sheep were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment 1 (T1 received 40 g of garlic alcoholic tincture orally; treatment 2 (T2 received 60 g orally; T3 was the control group. Fecal samples were collected at days 0, 7 and 14, to perform laboratorial tests. Reduction of eggs per gram of feces in T1 and T2 was 0% on days 7 and 14. No difference in larvae genus was identified between treatments or days. In this experiment garlic alcoholic tincture presented no effect on gastrointestinal endoparasites of sheep.

  10. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  11. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  12. Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Vasseur, L.

    2011-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to gr

  13. Using Garlic As A Far-Transfer Problem of Proportional And Probabilistic Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, N T

    2008-01-01

    The work describes a general problem, which emphasizes proportional reasoning and probabilistic reasoning skills in the context of planting garlic in a backyard garden. Along with practicing these reasoning skills in a context far-removed from the standard high school or college curriculum, our solution involves the development of a few relatively sophisticated statistical concepts, specifically histograms and confidence intervals.

  14. Development and validation of new SSR markers from expressed regions in the garlic genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers is available for the genome of garlic (Allium sativum L.) although SSR markers have become one of the most preferred marker systems because they are typically co-dominant, reproducible, cross species transferable and highly polymorphic. In this ...

  15. Molecular markers: are they really useful to detect genetic variability in local garlic collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivation of garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important activity in economic and social terms in Argentina. The traditional techniques of improvement have allowed us to obtain monoclones with proven superiority, compared with to the populations of origin. Currently these materials have been re...

  16. Diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) using SSR, EST and AFLP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm from the center of origin/diversity is important for the breeding and fingerprinting crop plants. In this study we utilized both dominant and co-dominant markers for the characterization of garlic samples from diverse geographic origins to assess the relative utility of these markers to id...

  17. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. Methods: In this study, 32 aged and 32 you...

  18. Study of the Role of Garlic Consumption in Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghobeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are various ways to treat H.pylori infection, such as triple-therapy and quadruple therapy for two weeks. However, these treatments have some side effects and Helicobacter pylori easily become resistant to these antibiotics. Some studies have confirmed a relationship between consumption of garlic and reduction in Helicobacter pylori infection, whereas some others have rejected this relationship. Therefore, this present study was performed to determine the effects of garlic on Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: This trial was performed in a randomized, case-controlled design on outpatients diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection. The patients in the case group took four grams of garlic powder daily (two tablets each containing two grams of garlic powder whereas the patients in the control group took two placebo tablets (each containing two grams of white flour. In order to confirm the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, urea breath test was taken, and in order to examine the presence of inflammation and/or ulcer in stomach, esophagus and duodenum, upper endoscopy was performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Results: At the beginning of this study, all the patients had positive urea breath test. At the end of this study, the results of urea breat*- test showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was negative in 87% of the case group and 73% of control group showing eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, this difference was not significant statistically when compared to the control group (P= 0.36. Conclusion: These findings suggest that taking garlic powder along with prescribed antibiotics can help in reducing Helicobacter pylori infection.

  19. Effect of garlic on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Pal; Kim Vaiphei; Arbab Sikander; Kartar Singh; Satya V Rana

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of garlic on liver injury induced by isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF).METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were treated orally with 50 mg/kg of INH and RIF daily each for 28 d. For hepatoprotective studies, 0.25 g/kg per day of freshly prepared garlic homogenate was administered orally half an hour before the INH+RIF doses. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin were estimated on d 0, 14, 21,and 28 in all the rats. Histological analysis was carried out to assess the injury to the liver. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) as a marker of oxidative stress and non-protein thiols (glutathione) for antioxidant levels were measured in liver homogenate.RESULTS: The treatment of rats with INH+RIF (50 mg/kg per day each) induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals as judged by elevated serum ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, presence of focal hepatocytic necrosis (6/8) and portal triaditis (8/8). Garlic simultaneously administered at a dose of 0.25 g/kg per day prevented the induction of histopathological injuries in INH+RIF co-treated animals, except in 4 animals, which showed only moderate portal triaditis. The histological changes correlated with oxidative stress in INH+RIF treated animals. The group which received 0.25 g/kg per day garlic homogenate along with INH+RIF showed higher levels of glutathione (P< 0.05) and low levels of LPO (P< 0.05) as compared to INH+RIF treated group.CONCLUSION: Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against INH+RIF-induced liver injury in experimental animal model.

  20. Extracts of Tsai Tai (Brassica chinensis): enhanced antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects both in vitro and in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ju; Xiang, Yanxia; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Yongmei; He, Xiangjiu; Zhou, Xiaoju; Liu, Xin; Huang, Zebo

    2016-02-01

    Tsai Tai is one of the most widely consumed Brassica vegetables in Asian countries because of its good taste and its nutritional benefits. This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and possible associated health benefits of 3 Tsai Tai (Brassica chinensis) varieties, namely, Hon Tsai Tai, Pak Choi and Choi Sum. The DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model for evaluation of beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity and delayed aging. In vitro, the Hon Tsai Tai extract exhibited higher antioxidant activities than Pak Choi and Choi Sum, and the total phenolic contents were significantly correlated with the DPPH and RP values. In vivo, the three assayed Tsai Tai extracts significantly increased resistance against paraquat-induced oxidative stress with an increase in survival rates from 15% to 28% compared with controls. However, only the extract from Hon Tsai Tai significantly prolonged the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, with an 8% increase in the mean lifespan with respect to controls. Further evidence of antioxidant protection was obtained by assessing ROS production via the DCF assay. The analyses of intracellular SOD activity and MDA content confirmed the existence of an antioxidant protective effect. These results suggest that Tsai Tai might serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, and in particular, Hon Tsai Tai could be explored as a potential dietary supplement to retard aging.

  1. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  2. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum on gentamycin–induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo O. Ademiluyi

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.

  3. Treatment with garlic restores membrane thiol content and ameliorates lead induced early death of erythrocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Avik; Sengupta, Dipanwita; Mandal, Samir; Sen, Gargi; Dutta Chowdhury, Kaustav; Chandra Sadhukhan, Gobinda

    2015-04-01

    Sequelae of chronic lead (Pb(2+) ) toxicity includes anemia that is partially due to early death of erythrocytes characterized by excess accumulation of ROS and downregulation of antioxidant system causing oxidative stress and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In this study, pathophysiological based therapeutic application of garlic was evaluated against erythrocyte death. Results suggest that garlic administration prevents oxidative stress, restored the antioxidant balance in erythrocytes of Pb(2+) exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that activity of both scramblase and aminophospholipid translocase could be changed by modifying the critical sulfhydryl groups in presence of dithiothreitol during Pb(2+) exposure. Data also indicated that garlic treatment in Pb(2+) exposed mice exhibited sharp decline in PS exposure and increase in erythrocyte membrane thiol group followed by increase in aminophospholipid translocase activity and decline in scramblase activity. Findings indicated that garlic has the ability to restore the lifespan of erythrocytes during Pb(2+) exposure.

  4. Leaf age affects the quality of DNA extracted from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae), a tropical tree species from the Cerrado region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, P A; Oliveira, D A

    2011-03-01

    Isolation of high-quality DNA from plants, especially plants from the Cerrado, is notoriously difficult because of polysaccharides and secondary compounds produced by plants from this biome. DNA isolation and its quality may be compromised by chemical defenses such as tannins and phenols. Quantitative plant defenses tend to have a cumulative effect, increasing in concentration during leaf development, reducing DNA quality extracted in mature compared to young leaves. We report the effect of leaf age on DNA extraction of Dimorphandra mollis. Our working hypothesis was that the young leaves have more DNA than old leaves of the same individual because chemical defenses accumulate in older leaves. Young and old leaves were sampled from eight mature trees as well as leaves from eight seedlings in the north region of Minas Gerais State. Genomic DNA extraction followed the standard CTAB procedure. DNA isolation was very successful from young leaves of 16 individuals of D. mollis. The extracted DNA exhibited high quality and the DNA quantity was also high, with an A(260)/A(280) ratio above 1.8, which is within the optimal sample range. In contrast, DNA isolation from old leaves was not successful. When the DNA was extracted from old leaves, the DNA was brownish, indicating contamination by phenolic compounds. These metabolites oxidize the DNA irreversibly, which hinders amplification of DNA by PCR by inhibiting the action of enzymes such as Taq polymerase. PCR performed with DNA from young leaves of D. mollis was successful and produced strong bands for RAPD markers.

  5. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  6. Luminescent and transparent nanopaper based on rare-earth up-converting nanoparticle grafted nanofibrillated cellulose derived from garlic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingpeng; Wei, Zuwu; Feng, Xin; Miao, Miao; Sun, Lining; Cao, Shaomei; Shi, Liyi; Fang, Jianhui

    2014-09-10

    Highly flexible, transparent, and luminescent nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) nanopaper with heterogeneous network, functionalized by rare-earth up-converting luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), was rapidly synthesized by using a moderate pressure extrusion paper-making process. NFC was successfully prepared from garlic skin using an efficient extraction approach combined with high frequency ultrasonication and high pressure homogenization after removing the noncellulosic components. An efficient epoxidation treatment was carried out to enhance the activity of the UCNPs (NaYF4:Yb,Er) with oleic acid ligand capped on the surface. The UCNPs after epoxidation then reacted with NFC in aqueous medium to form UCNP-grafted NFC nanocomposite (NFC-UCNP) suspensions at ambient temperature. Through the paper-making process, the assembled fluorescent NFC-UCNP hybrid nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency, strong up-conversion luminescence, and good flexibility. The obtained hybrid nanopaper was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), up-conversion luminescence (UCL) spectrum, and ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The experimental results demonstrate that the UCNPs have been successfully grafted to the NFC matrix with heterogeneous network. And the superiorly optical transparent and luminescent properties of the nanopaper mainly depend on the ratio of UCNPs to NFC. Of importance here is that, NFC and UCNPs afford the nanopaper a prospective candidate for multimodal anti-counterfeiting, sensors, and ion probes applications.

  7. An Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Synergy of Garlic (Allium sativum and Utazi (Gongronema latifolium on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eja, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the on-going search for potent and resistance-free antimicrobial medicinal plants, the antimicrobial and synergistic effects of the plants, Allium sativum (E1 and Gongronema latifolium (E2 on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The sensitivities of E. coli and S. aureus to E1 and E2 and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the plant extracts, individually and in combination with themselves, and with ciprofloxacin (CPX and ampicillin (AMP, were tested using standard procedures. E1 and E2 individually showed appreciable antimicrobial effect (zones of inhibition > 16mm. The combination of E1 and E2 against the test organisms was not effective due to antagonism between E1 and E2. E1 or E2 when combined with CPX, completely suppressed the effect of CPX against E. coli, and rather produced additive effect on S. aureus similar to the combination of E2 and AMP against S. aureus, although CPX alone was more effective than either E1 or E2, unlike AMP. Synergism was observed in the combination of E1 and AMP against S. aureus. It is concluded that synergism associated with the combination of medicinal plants is doubtful. However, the synergistic or additive effect between garlic and conventional drugs to some strains of bacteria which are resistant to some conventional drugs, gives hope of fighting drug resistance.

  8. The effect of the weight of cloves on the growth and the yield of fall-planted garlic

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    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In three years trials (1990-1993 the effect of diameter of bulbilson growth and yield of local garlic ecotype R was studied. Nine size classes of bulbils were investigated. Significant effect of diameter of bulbils on biometric propeities and yield of local garlic was found out. The plants grown from big bulbils gave higher and better quality yield then those grown from smaller bulbils. There was no difference in yield of plants grown from big and medium bulbils.

  9. Therapeutic competence of dried garlic powder (Allium sativum on biochemical parameters in lead (Pb exposed broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwar Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the therapeutic competence of garlic (Allium sativum in lead (Pb exposed chickens. The experimental birds (n=350 were grouped into T0 (as control, T1, T2, T3 and T4. The birds of group T1 was provided with lead acetate at 100 mg/kg body weight. Group T2 had lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 1% garlic supplement, whereas group T3 was fed with lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 2% garlic supplement, and group T4 had lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 4% garlic supplement. The mean values (mg/dL of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and blood glucose in the birds of group T1 were significantly increased (p<0.01 on day 42 of post-treatment. Elevation of these parameters was suggestive for the pathological involvement of different organs like liver, kidney, muscles. Statistical analysis of variance indicated that lead acetate at 100 mg/kg b.wt. + 2% garlic supplement (T3 resulted significant (p<0.01 ameliorative effect on the biochemical parameters as compared to the group T2 and T4. In conclusion, potency of garlic in reversion of the values of the biochemical properties in Pb exposed chickens was close to the normal levels of the values.

  10. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  11. Can garlic oil ameliorate diabetes-induced oxidative stress in a rat liver model? A correlated histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdultawab, Hanem Saad; Ayuob, Nasra N

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the structural changes in liver of an alloxan-induced diabetic rat and to explain such changes in terms of the biochemical changes in free radicals and antioxidants. In addition, it aimed to determine the potential ability of garlic oil to alter these changes. The study groups were: control (n=12), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n=10) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with garlic oil (10 mg/kg body weight (n=10)). Markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Small pieces of the liver were processed for transmission electron microscopic study. Garlic oil caused a significant decrease in levels of LPO in plasma (0.26 vs 0.53), erythrocyte lysate (14.4 vs 24.8) and liver tissue homogenate (1.04 vs 2.08), whereas those of thiols were significantly elevated (1.2 vs 0.46), (24 vs 15) in plasma and erythrocyte lysate respectively. SOD activity and G-S-T activity were significantly elevated in erythrocyte lysate (5.7 vs 3.3) (377 vs 179) and liver homogenate (1.4 vs 0.5) (752 vs 623) respectively after garlic oil administration. Ultrastructural study of the liver confirmed the ability of garlic to retard lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes induced by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. Therefore, garlic could normalise oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  12. Effect of garlic (Allium stivum powder supplementation on growth performance and body measurements in Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted at Avian Research and Training Centre UVAS Lahore in order to observe and identify the effect of different levels of garlic supplementation and a commercial growth promoter on Japanese quail. Four different levels of garlic powder (0.1% (GA, 0.2% (GB, 0.3% (GC and 0.4% (GD, 0.2% commercial growth promoter (GP and a controlled (C diet according to NRC standards (1994 were used in this experiment. Thirty six hundred day old chicks of Japanese quail were randomly divided into six experimental units having six replicate of each with hundred birds in each replicate. Analysis of data through ANOVA technique in completely randomized design and the comparison of mean with the help of Duncan’s Multiple Range Test by using SAS 9.1 revealed significant differences in terms of body weight with the highest value for group fed 0.4% Garlic and the lowest for 0.2% garlic. Significantly higher feed intake was observed in birds fed 0.2% garlic and the lowest for control group followed by 0.4% garlic supplemented. Significantly the best FCR was observed for GB (1.58 ± 0.03 followed by C  (1.53 ± 0.02, GC (1.46 ± 0.04, GP (1.41 ± 0.05, GA (1.34  ±  0.03 and GD (  1.32 ± 0.03 also significant differences were observed in drum stick length with the highest value for GD(4.95±0.18 and the lowest GP (4.05±0.30, and breast width with GB (3.38±0.23 having the highest value and the lowest in GP (2.65±0.19, while non-significant differences were observed in bird length (cm, keel length (cm, drumstick circumference, shank length (cm and shank circumference.

  13. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  14. Combined anti-ages and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanacea) fruits during ripening and related to their phytochemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houda, Mejri; Derbré, Séverine; Jedy, Ahmed; Tlili, Nizar; Legault, Jean; Richomme, Pascal; Limam, Ferid; Saidani-Tounsi, Moufida

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known as key factors for the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy, cataract as well as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s diseases. In this context, natural products have been previously identified as promising sources for antioxidant and anti-glycation compounds. The current study focuses on the evaluation of antioxidant and glycation inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanaceae) fruits at different ripening stages. The results showed that antioxidant and anti-AGEs activities were significantly influenced by solvents polarities and ripening stages of S. elaeagnifolium Cav. With one exception, methanolic extract of overripe S. elaeagnifolium Cav fruit showed important protective effects against cellular oxidative stress. The aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS+ scavenging ability. Principal component analysis showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents correlated well with observed antioxidants and anti-glycation activities. These results bring attention to the possible use of S. elaeagnifolium Cav as a valuable source of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant effects and potentially alleviating diabetic complications. PMID:26417319

  15. Iron and aluminum soil/paleosol extractions as age/environment indicators: Some examples from a catchment in southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Somelar, Peeter; Milan, Alison

    2016-10-01

    Various chemical extractions of Fe and Al from bulk soil samples, including Na-pyrophosphate (Fep, Alp), acid ammonium oxalate (Feo, Alo), and Na-dithionite (Fed, Ald), have been used over the last half century to distinguish soil ages over varying time frames from 102 to 106 years and even as far into antiquity as the Oligocene (30 × 106) years. Problems with mineral/chemical uniformity of sediments, free drainage of open system profiles, and variable climate over long time frames have produced problems and uncertainties as to just what each extraction removes from the bulk material analyzed. Some problems have been resolved by the work of Parfitt and Childs (1988); but some persist, especially with respect to the solubility of some extractant forms and the actual composition of others, particularly Alp, Alo, and Ald. A recent test of soils and paleosols in a fluvial chronosequence in southern Ontario illustrates the soil-paleosol evolutionary time trend over a period of ~ 11 ky, essentially post-Iroquois time in the Ontario basin (Jackson et al., 2000). This work highlights the importance of isolated, free draining weathering systems, mineral uniformity, and new relationships between secondary forms of Fed and Ald, the latter previously considered of little importance in age relationship quests.

  16. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  17. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies of hexane-extractable lipids from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, Lech Wojciech; Maryganova, Victoria; Skakovskii, Eugene; Tychinskaya, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of the composition of lipids extracted with n-hexane from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants and adjoining cultivated fields in agrolandscape has been carried out with the application of (1)Н and (13)С NMR spectroscopy. The lipid content correlates with the organic carbon content in soils and is the highest in the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt. The data received indicate that hexane-extractable lipids from the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt have undergone the most significant biochemical and chemical transformations (oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization) with the accumulation of resistant compounds and destruction of esters of o-phthalic acid as anthropogenic contaminants compared to the lipids from the soil under the 14-years old shelterbelt and soils of adjoining arable fields.

  18. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  19. Antioxidant activity of garlic essential oil (Allium Sativum) grown in north Indian plains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reena lawrence; Kapil lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil isolated from fresh rhizomes of garlic (Allium sativum) of the family Alliaceae in an yield of 0.2% (v/w). Methods:2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitrogen oxide scavenging, reducing power and毬-carotene bleaching assays were conducted. BHT and gallic acid were kept as standards.Results:IC50 values observed for DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays were 0.5 mg/mL and 50毺g/mL respectively. In reducing power assay absorbance increased linearly with increasing concentration of the oil, in毬-carotene bleaching method also there is 84% bleaching in first one hour and it decreased to 45 % by the completion of second hour. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate garlic essential oil is effective in scavenging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.

  20. Therapeutic Effect Observations on Treatment of Urticaria with Acupuncture plus Garlic-partitioned Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Ping; TIAN Yu-hua; LIN Zhao-juan; WANG Gui-fen; WANG Si-you

    2004-01-01

    Forty-six patients with intractable urticaria were treated by acupuncture plus garlic-partitioned moxibustion. The results were compared with those of simple acupuncture in a control group of 30patients. The total effective rate were 91.3%, in the observation group and 73.3%, in the control group. It is showed that acupuncture plus garlic-partitioned moxibustion has a better effect on intractable urticaria than simple acupuncture.%针刺配合隔蒜灸治疗顽固性荨麻疹46例,并与单纯针刺治疗30例对照观察,结果观察组总有效率91.3%;对照组总有效率73.3%.说明针刺配合隔蒜灸较单纯针刺治疗顽固性荨麻疹效果更好.