Sample records for aged drivers

  1. Space Age Driver Education (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.


    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  2. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age. (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  3. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers. (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew


    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is a driver's license age waiver worth a teen's life? (United States)

    Porter, Dawn M; Miller, Beverly K; Mullins, Samantha H; Porter, Mary E; Aitken, Mary E


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers. This is a brief report on an informative query exploring risk factors related to age waivers. Publicly available databases were utilized for across state comparisons. The Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems (WISQARS) was utilized to calculate motor vehicle crash crude death rates. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data were utilized to identify seat belt use rates. The Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) was utilized to identify crash fatality risks for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas (N = 24). Age waiver data were obtained from the Arkansas Driver Control Administration. De-identified data on fatal crashes and rates of age waiver issuance in Arkansas for 14 and 15 year olds from 2004 through 2016 were calculated. We reviewed crash data for 14 and 15 year old drivers in Arkansas between 2004 and 2014 to determine fatality risks. Thirty-one out of seventy-five counties in Arkansas were above the state age waiver issuance rate of 30.4 per 1000 14 to 15 year old teens. Among the four states that had similar age waivers for 14 to 15 year olds, Arkansas had the highest motor vehicle death rate of 10.2 per 100,000 young teens and the lowest seat belt use rate at 73%. Arkansas had the highest reported teen crash fatality rates among 4 states with age waivers. The volume of age waivers issued in Arkansas is concerning. Further research is needed

  5. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  6. Turning movements, vehicle offsets and ageing drivers driving behaviour at channelized and unchannelized intersections. (United States)

    Choi, Jaisung; Tay, Richard; Kim, Sangyoup; Jeong, Seungwon


    Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections. We find that ageing drivers experience more crashes at intersections than younger drivers, especially crashes involving turning movements. Furthermore, ageing drivers experience more crashes at unchannelized intersections compared to channelized intersections. In addition, this study finds that ageing drivers exhibit greater and more inconsistent offsets during turning movements compared to those of younger drivers at both channelized and unchannelized intersections. Ageing drivers also tend to make relatively sharper or tighter turns than younger drivers. Hence, transportation engineers and road safety professionals should consider appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risks of crashes involving ageing drivers at intersections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The use of biological age on mental work capacity model in accelerated aging assessment of professional lorry-drivers]. (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S


    The studies of biological age, aging rate, mental work capacity in professional drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions determining the mental work capacity levels. Dynamics of the aging process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age model. The results point at the premature decrease of the mental work capacity in professional drivers. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic and psychophysiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the aging process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating aging was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. The expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated aging prevention among working population was demonstrated.

  8. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript “Predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events”, which investigates potential predictors of older drivers’ involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016 [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s2. All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  9. Innovating Responsibly in ICT for Ageing: Drivers, Obstacles and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Chatfield


    Full Text Available Responsible research and innovation (RRI is a nascent concept, promoted actively by the European Union and other policy makers around the world. Hitherto, this concept has been associated primarily with publicly funded activities but given the considerable proportion of research and innovation that is undertaken in the private sector, RRI will be rendered irrelevant unless it is adopted by industry. This paper introduces a private sector perspective of RRI, specifically that of the information and communication technology (ICT industry, working in the field of healthy ageing. Drawing upon empirical data from 30 in-depth interviews with key industry representatives from across Europe, it explores: (a the level of awareness of RRI; (b the drivers and obstacles influencing its implementation; and (c the factors deemed vital for facilitation of RRI in industry. The findings paint a varied picture, including significant concerns about adoption of RRI in an industry environment where the economic implications of all activities must be considered carefully. However, some companies have found their own ways to balance financial and altruistic goals, suggesting that there is both a willingness and a place for an RRI-type governance framework within the private sector.

  10. The reaction times of drivers aged 20 to 80 during a divided attention driving. (United States)

    Svetina, Matija


    Many studies addressing age-related changes in driving performance focus on comparing young vs. older drivers, which might lead to the biased conclusion that driving performance decreases only after the age of 65. The main aim of the study was to show that changes in driving performance are progressive throughout the adult years. A sample of 351 drivers aged 20 to 80 was assessed for their reaction times while driving between road cones. The drivers were exposed to 2 conditions varying according to task complexity. In single task conditions, the drivers performed a full stopping maneuver at a given signal; in dual task conditions, the drivers were distracted before the signal for stopping maneuver was triggered. Reaction times were compared across conditions and age groups. The results showed that both reaction times and variability of driving performance increased progressively between the ages of 20 and 80. The increase in both reaction times and variability was greater in the complex task condition. The high-performing quarter of elderly drivers performed equally well or better than younger drivers did. The data clearly supported the claim that driving performance changes steadily across age groups: both mean reaction time and interindividual variability progressively increase with age. In addition, a significant group of older drivers was identified who did not show the expected age-related decrease in performance. The findings have important implications, suggesting that in relation to driving, aging is a progressive phenomenon and may lead to variety of driving performance; age-related studies of driving performance should put more emphasis on investigating changes across the whole driver age range rather than only comparing younger and older drivers.

  11. Driver alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by age group and vehicle type (United States)


    The data in this research note demonstrate that while the overall proportion of passenger vehicle drivers with alcohol in fatal crashes is lower in older age groups, the median blood : alcohol concentration (BAC) is generally higher for those age gro...

  12. Driver Licensing Age and Lifestyle of 16 Year Olds. (United States)

    Preusser, David F.; And Others


    The relationship of driver licensure rate to 16-year-old lifestyles was assessed in three states: Michigan (where 56% of 16-year-olds are licensed), New York (14% licensure), and New Jersey (2% licensure). For the most part, the differences in 16-year-old licensure and mobility were not reflected in lifestyle differences. (KH)

  13. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs. (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M


    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Driver distraction by smartphone use (WhatsApp) in different age groups. (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Ortiz-Peregrina, S; Castro, J J; Casares-López, M; Salas, C


    This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality. Simulated driving performance was assessed under a baseline driving condition (without distraction) as well as a texting condition (WhatsApp messages) while driving. The participants used their own mobile phone. Lastly, objective results of driving performance were compared with subjective self-report data from the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The analysis indicated that functional changes occurring with age, such as a lower contrast sensitivity and greater retinal straylight, were correlated with a higher number of collisions, longer distances driven outside the lane, and greater standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The results showed a significant main effect of age for the driving-performance parameters. Also, compared to the baseline, texting WhatsApp messages while driving worsens driving performance for all age groups, most notably among older participants. Thus, the older drivers' SDLP was ∼14% higher than that for the baseline average of all the other drivers and rose to 29% under distraction, reflecting the impact of secondary tasks. The negative effect of the use of the smartphone during driving was also reflected in the number of collisions, with a greater risk of accidents in all the groups of drivers (by 8.3% for young adults, 25.0% for adults, 80.5% for middle-aged adults, and 134.5% for older

  15. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age. (United States)

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L


    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  16. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study [summary]. (United States)


    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...

  17. Cellular and epigenetic drivers of stem cell ageing. (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Maria; Neri, Francesco; Ori, Alessandro; Rudolph, K Lenhard


    Adult tissue stem cells have a pivotal role in tissue maintenance and regeneration throughout the lifespan of multicellular organisms. Loss of tissue homeostasis during post-reproductive lifespan is caused, at least in part, by a decline in stem cell function and is associated with an increased incidence of diseases. Hallmarks of ageing include the accumulation of molecular damage, failure of quality control systems, metabolic changes and alterations in epigenome stability. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence in support of a novel concept whereby cell-intrinsic damage that accumulates during ageing and cell-extrinsic changes in ageing stem cell niches and the blood result in modifications of the stem cell epigenome. These cumulative epigenetic alterations in stem cells might be the cause of the deregulation of developmental pathways seen during ageing. In turn, they could confer a selective advantage to mutant and epigenetically drifted stem cells with altered self-renewal and functions, which contribute to the development of ageing-associated organ dysfunction and disease.

  18. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study. (United States)


    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...

  19. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28. (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja


    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age vs. experience : evaluation of a video feedback intervention for newly licensed teen drivers. (United States)


    This project examines the effects of age, experience, and video-based feedback on the rate and type of safety-relevant events captured on video event : recorders in the vehicles of three groups of newly licensed young drivers: : 1. 14.5- to 15.5-year...

  1. Aging baby boomers--a blessing or challenge for driver licensing authorities. (United States)

    Dobbs, Bonnie M


    In less than 5 years, the first wave of baby boomers will begin turning 65, with the last wave of boomers entering their senior years in January 2029. Currently, boomers make up a significant percentage of the population in Canada, the United States, and other developed countries. The baby boom generation has had a profound impact on our society over the last six decades, and this large cohort will continue to exert its influence for several decades to come. Central to this article is the rapid growth in the number of persons 65 years of age and older, beginning in 2011, with a corresponding increase in the number of older drivers. The demographic shift has important implications for licensing authorities, the regulatory bodies charged with licensing and 'fitness to drive' decisions. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the published scientific literature on licensing policies and procedures currently in use for older drivers, discuss their limitations, and provide recommendations for meeting the upcoming challenges of an aging baby boomer population of drivers. Online searches were conducted using the following databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Scopus, and TRIS. Google and Google Scholar also were searched for scientific articles. References identified from database and online searches were examined for relevant articles. A number of studies have investigated the utility of different licensing policies and procedures for identifying older drivers who may be at risk for impaired driving performance. Overall, results suggest that current policies and procedures are ineffective in identifying high-risk older drivers. The results also emphasize the need for a different approach for the identification of high risk older drivers by licensing agencies. Recommendations to assist with that goal are provided. The aging of the baby boomer population, combined with the projected high crash rates for this cohort of drivers as it moves through the senior years, underscores

  2. Road traffic offending, stress, age, and accident history among male and female drivers. (United States)

    Simon, F; Corbett, C


    This paper draws on data gathered during a larger study of driving behaviour to explore possible connections between stress, offending against the traffic laws, and accident rates, and gives particular attention to comparisons between male and female drivers. Data were gathered from 422 drivers by a postal questionnaire, and further measures of stress were obtained during semi-structured interviews with a specially selected subset of 66 of them. Analyses of variance investigated links between offending rates, accident history, and up to seven measures of stress, taking age and gender into account. In the results accident history, although positively related to offending, played little part in links involving stress variables. The principal findings were that (a) stress, both on and off the road, was positively associated with offending among both male and female drivers, and (b) although females overall offended less than males, females experienced more stress than males whatever their level of offending. One possible interpretation of these results is suggested by the feminist literature, which could account for both the higher levels of stress and lower levels of offending found among women drivers. However, there is unlikely to be a clear-cut gender divide in offending-stress relationships, and some small groups of female drivers in the study behaved like male ones. It is suggested that people's driving reflects their lifestyles, and that women drivers' patterns of offending and stress will resemble those of male drivers to the extent that their lives and concerns are similar to men's. It is concluded that this position warrants further research.

  3. Planning for a Nondriving Future: Behaviors and Beliefs Among Middle-Aged and Older Drivers. (United States)

    Harmon, Annie C; Babulal, Ganesh; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Carr, David B


    Despite the reality of older adults living many years after driving cessation, few prepare for the eventuality; empirically, planning for a nondriving future has not been directly quantified or explored. The following study quantifies 1) the extent of current drivers' planning, 2) specific planning behaviors, 3) beliefs about benefits of planning, 4) drivers' intention to plan more for future transportation needs, and 5) group differences associated with planning. In a predominantly female, black, urban sample of current drivers ages 53-92, fewer than half (42.1%) had planned at all for a nondriving future, with correspondingly low levels of planning behaviors reported. However, over 80% believed planning would help them meet their needs post-cessation and transition emotionally to being a nondriver. Most (85%) intended to plan more in the future as well, indicating further potential openness to the topic. Drivers who planned were older, drove less frequently, limited their driving to nearby places, reported less difficulty believing they would become a nondriver, and expected to continue driving three years less than non-planners. These findings suggest that drivers' perceived nearness to driving cessation impacts planning for future transportation needs, and existing perceived benefits of planning may provide leverage to motivate action.

  4. Driver licensing and reasons for delaying licensure among young adults ages 18-20, United States, 2012


    Tefft, Brian C; Williams, Allan F; Grabowski, Jurek G


    Background Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens and young adults in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems were designed to protect young novice drivers by limiting their exposure to specific risks while they gain experience driving. In the United States, most states? GDL systems only apply to new drivers younger than 18. Some experts suggest that GDL might encourage young people to wait until age 18 to obtain a license, to avoid GDL requirements...

  5. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja


    related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...

  6. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)


    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  7. Examining the nonparametric effect of drivers' age in rear-end accidents through an additive logistic regression model. (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Yan, Xuedong


    This study seeks to inspect the nonparametric characteristics connecting the age of the driver to the relative risk of being an at-fault vehicle, in order to discover a more precise and smooth pattern of age impact, which has commonly been neglected in past studies. Records of drivers in two-vehicle rear-end collisions are selected from the general estimates system (GES) 2011 dataset. These extracted observations in fact constitute inherently matched driver pairs under certain matching variables including weather conditions, pavement conditions and road geometry design characteristics that are shared by pairs of drivers in rear-end accidents. The introduced data structure is able to guarantee that the variance of the response variable will not depend on the matching variables and hence provides a high power of statistical modeling. The estimation results exhibit a smooth cubic spline function for examining the nonlinear relationship between the age of the driver and the log odds of being at fault in a rear-end accident. The results are presented with respect to the main effect of age, the interaction effect between age and sex, and the effects of age under different scenarios of pre-crash actions by the leading vehicle. Compared to the conventional specification in which age is categorized into several predefined groups, the proposed method is more flexible and able to produce quantitatively explicit results. First, it confirms the U-shaped pattern of the age effect, and further shows that the risks of young and old drivers change rapidly with age. Second, the interaction effects between age and sex show that female and male drivers behave differently in rear-end accidents. Third, it is found that the pattern of age impact varies according to the type of pre-crash actions exhibited by the leading vehicle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostics of damage accural in SSL luminaires and drivers subjected to HTSL accelerated aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sakalaukus, Peter [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    This paper will show an investigation of off-the-shelf luminaires with the focus on the LED electronic drivers, specifically the aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs), that have been aged using high temperature shelf life (HTSL) testing of 135°C in order to prognosticate the remaining useful life of the luminaires. Luminaires have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects being stored at high temperatures for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products. In this work, the four AECs of three different types inside each LED electronic driver were studied. The change in capacitance and the change in equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the AECs were measured and considered to be a leading indication of failure of the LED system. These indicators were used to make remaining useful life predictions to develop an algorithm to predict the end of life of the AECs. The luminous flux of a pristine downlight module was also monitored using each LED electronic driver that was subjected to HTSL through the progression of the testing to determine a correlation between the light output of the lamp and the failing components of the LED electronic driver. Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) is a useful tool for assessment of the remaining life of electrical components and is demonstrated for AECs in this work.

  9. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja


    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...

  10. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. (United States)

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T


    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating.

  11. Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD): study design and methods. (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Eby, David W; Santos, Robert; Mielenz, Thelma J; Molnar, Lisa J; Strogatz, David; Betz, Marian E; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Ryan, Lindsay H; Jones, Vanya; Pitts, Samantha I; Hill, Linda L; DiMaggio, Charles J; LeBlanc, David; Andrews, Howard F


    As an important indicator of mobility, driving confers a host of social and health benefits to older adults. Despite the importance of safe mobility as the population ages, longitudinal data are lacking about the natural history and determinants of driving safety in older adults. The Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) project is a multisite prospective cohort study designed to generate empirical data for understanding the role of medical, behavioral, environmental and technological factors in driving safety during the process of aging. A total of 2990 active drivers aged 65-79 years at baseline have been recruited through primary care clinics or health care systems in five study sites located in California, Colorado, Maryland, Michigan, and New York. Consented participants were assessed at baseline with standardized research protocols and instruments, including vehicle inspection, functional performance tests, and "brown-bag review" of medications. The primary vehicle of each participant was instrumented with a small data collection device that records detailed driving data whenever the vehicle is operating and detects when a participant is driving. Annual follow-up is being conducted for up to three years with a telephone questionnaire at 12 and 36 months and in-person assessment at 24 months. Medical records are reviewed annually to collect information on clinical diagnoses and healthcare utilization. Driving records, including crashes and violations, are collected annually from state motor vehicle departments. Pilot testing was conducted on 56 volunteers during March-May 2015. Recruitment and enrollment were completed between July 2015 and March 2017. Results of the LongROAD project will generate much-needed evidence for formulating public policy and developing intervention programs to maintain safe mobility while ensuring well-being for older adults.

  12. Effects of major-road vehicle speed and driver age and gender on left-turn gap acceptance. (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Guo, Dahai


    Because the driver's gap-acceptance maneuver is a complex and risky driving behavior, it is a highly concerned topic for traffic safety and operation. Previous studies have mainly focused on the driver's gap acceptance decision itself but did not pay attention to the maneuver process and driving behaviors. Using a driving simulator experiment for left-turn gap acceptance at a stop-controlled intersection, this study evaluated the effects of major traffic speed and driver age and gender on gap acceptance behaviors. The experiment results illustrate relationships among drivers' left-turn gap decision, driver's acceleration rate, steering action, and the influence of the gap-acceptance maneuver on the vehicles in the major traffic stream. The experiment results identified an association between high crash risk and high traffic speed at stop-controlled intersections. The older drivers, especially older female drivers, displayed a conservative driving attitude as a compensation for reduced driving ability, but also showed to be the most vulnerable group for the relatively complex driving maneuvers.

  13. Age of licensure and monitoring teenagers' driving: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Haire, Emily R


    To assess parental decision making regarding the timing of teenagers initiating driving and monitoring teenagers' driving after licensure. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, states with varying licensing provisions, while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. States' differences in ages of obtaining learner's permits and licenses reflected different licensing laws, but most teenagers obtained permits and took road tests within the first few months after they became eligible. Common reasons for delaying obtaining permits were fulfilling driver education requirements and lack of readiness/immaturity. Insufficient practice driving most often delayed licensure. Among the parents interviewed, 33-49% believed the minimum licensure age should be 17 or older. Almost all parents planned to supervise teenagers' driving after licensure, and most wanted to know about speeding or distractions. When asked about in-vehicle devices to monitor teenagers' driving, 37-59% of parents had heard of them. Parents were least interested in using video cameras and about equally interested in computer chips and cell-phone-based GPS systems. Disinterest in monitoring devices most often was attributed to trusting teenagers or respecting their privacy. Licensing laws influence ages of initiating driving. Although many parents support licensing at 17 or older - higher than in all but one state - most teenagers initiate driving soon after reaching the minimum age. Parents plan to supervise teenagers' driving, and many say they are open to using in-vehicle monitoring devices. Many parents support a minimum licensing age of 17 or older and would consider in-vehicle devices to extend their supervision of teenager's driving.

  14. Driver licensing and reasons for delaying licensure among young adults ages 18-20, United States, 2012. (United States)

    Tefft, Brian C; Williams, Allan F; Grabowski, Jurek G


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens and young adults in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems were designed to protect young novice drivers by limiting their exposure to specific risks while they gain experience driving. In the United States, most states' GDL systems only apply to new drivers younger than 18. Some experts suggest that GDL might encourage young people to wait until age 18 to obtain a license, to avoid GDL requirements, resulting in older teenagers having less driving experience and higher crash risk than they might have had without GDL. This study examined the prevalence and timing of licensure among young adults, and explored factors associated with delaying licensure among those not licensed before age 18. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,039 persons aged 18-20 years, recruited from a representative panel of United States households. Main outcome measures were acquisition of driver's license (a) within 12 months of the state minimum age for licensure, (b) before age 18. Associations of timing of licensure with demographic characteristics were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Respondents not licensed before age 18 were asked to rate the importance of various possible reasons for delaying licensure. 54% of respondents were licensed before age 18. Blacks (37%; adjusted Prevalence Ratio 0.67, 95% Confidence Interval 0.48-0.93) and Hispanics (29%; adjusted Prevalence Ratio 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval 0.45-0.81) were less likely than non-Hispanic whites (67%) to be licensed before age 18. Lower household income was independently associated with delayed licensure (P self-reported reasons for not becoming licensed sooner were not having a car, being able to get around without driving, and costs associated with driving. There was little evidence that GDL is a major contributor to delayed licensure; however, a substantial minority of young people do not obtain a driver

  15. Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future? (United States)

    Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy


    Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession: Effects of habitat age and season on an aquatic insect community. (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Ives, Anthony R; Juliano, Steven A


    1. Classical studies of succession, largely dominated by plant community studies, focus on intrinsic drivers of change in community composition, such as interspecific competition and changes to the abiotic environment. They often do not consider extrinsic drivers of colonization, such as seasonal phenology, that can affect community change. 2. We investigated both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession for dipteran communities that occupy ephemeral pools, such as those in artificial containers. By initiating communities at different times in the season and following them over time, we compared the relative importance of intrinsic (i.e., habitat age) vs. extrinsic (i.e., seasonal phenology) drivers of succession. 3. We placed water-filled artificial containers in a deciduous forest with 20 containers initiated in each of three months. Containers were sampled weekly to assess community composition. Repeated-measures mixed-effects analysis of community correspondence analysis (CA) scores enabled us to partition intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession. Covariates of temperature and precipitation were also tested. 4. Community trajectories (as defined by CA) differed significantly with habitat age and season, indicating that both intrinsic and extrinsic effects influence succession patterns. Comparisons of AICcs showed that habitat age was more important than season for species composition. Temperature and precipitation did not explain composition changes beyond those explained by habitat age and season. 5. Quantification of relative strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession in dipteran and other ephemeral communities enables us to disentangle processes that must be understood for predicting changes in community composition.

  17. What vehicle features are considered important when buying an automobile? An examination of driver preferences by age and gender. (United States)

    Vrkljan, Brenda H; Anaby, Dana


    Certain vehicle features can help drivers avoid collisions and/or protect occupants in the event of a crash, and therefore, might play an important role when deciding which vehicle to purchase. The objective of this study was to examine the importance attributed to key vehicle features (including safety) that drivers consider when buying a car and its association with age and gender. A sample of 2,002 Canadian drivers aged 18 years and older completed a survey that asked them to rank the importance of eight vehicle features if they were to purchase a vehicle (storage, mileage, safety, price, comfort, performance, design, and reliability). ANOVA tests were performed to: (a) determine if there were differences in the level of importance between features and; (b) examine the effect of age and gender on the importance attributed to these features. Of the features examined, safety and reliability were the most highly rated in terms of importance, whereas design and performance had the lowest rating. Differences in safety and performance across age groups were dependent on gender. This effect was most evident in the youngest and oldest age groups. Safety and reliability were considered the most important features. Age and gender play a significant role in explaining the importance of certain features. Targeted efforts for translating safety-related information to the youngest and oldest consumers should be emphasized due to their high collision, injury, and fatality rates. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of solid-state lighting electrical drivers subjected to WHTOL accelerated aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Sakalauku, Peter; Davis, Lynn


    An investigation of a solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaire with the focus on the electronic driver which has been exposed to a standard wet hot temperature operating life (WHTOL) of 85% RH and 85°C in order to assess reliability of prolonged exposer to a harsh environment has been conducted. SSL luminaires are beginning introduced as head lamps in some of today's luxury automobiles and may also be fulfilling a variety of important outdoor applications such as overhead street lamps, traffic signals and landscape lighting. SSL luminaires in these environments are almost certain to encounter excessive moisture from humidity and high temperatures for a persistent period of time. The lack of accelerated test methods for LEDs to assess long-term reliability prior to introduction into the marketplace, a need for SSL physics based PHM modeling indicators for assessment and prediction of LED life, as well as the U.S. Department of Energy's R&D roadmap to replace todays lighting with SSL luminaires makes it important to increase the understanding of the reliability of SSL devices, specifically, in harsh environment applications. In this work, a set of SSL electrical drivers were investigated to determine failure mechanisms that occur during prolonged harsh environment applications. Each driver consists of four aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) of three different types and was considered the weakest component inside the SSL electrical driver. The reliability of the electrical driver was assessed by monitoring the change in capacitance and the change in equivalent series resistance for each AEC, as well as monitoring the luminous flux of the SSL luminaire or the output of the electrical driver. The luminous flux of a pristine SSL electrical driver was also monitored in order to detect minute changes in the electrical drivers output and to aid in the investigation of the SSL luminaires reliability. The failure mechanisms of the electrical drivers have been

  19. Crash data and rates for age-sex groups of drivers, 1996 (United States)


    The results of this research note are based on 1996data for fatal crashes, driver licenses, and estimates of total crashes based upon data obtained from the nationally representative sample of crashes gathered in the General Estimates System (GES). T...

  20. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.


    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  1. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills (United States)


    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  2. Risk and safety perception on urban and rural roads: Effects of environmental features, driver age and risk sensitivity. (United States)

    Cox, Jolene A; Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J


    The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of this study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban vs. rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience, and risk sensitivity. Sixty-three licensed drivers aged 18-70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low risk, high risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element that would require a change to driver behavior. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors. Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviors predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes, there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high

  3. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012. (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R


    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Annual mileage, driving violations, and accident involvement in relation to drivers' sex, age, and level of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, PF; Vissers, JAMM; Jessurun, M

    The paper presents results of some analyses on a Dutch database that contains disaggregated data on both the traffic system input variables of the driver population (characteristics of drivers, including their annual mileage) and the output variables of the driver population in terms of habitual

  5. Aging-Induced Stem Cell Mutations as Drivers for Disease and Cancer (United States)

    Adams, Peter D.; Jasper, Heinrich; Rudolph, K. Lenhard


    Aging is characterized by a decrease in genome integrity, impaired organ maintenance, and an increased risk of cancer, which coincide with clonal dominance of expanded mutant stem and progenitor cell populations in aging tissues, such as the intestinal epithelium, the hematopoietic system, and the male germline. Here we discuss possible explanations for age-associated increases in the initiation and/or progression of mutant stem/progenitor clones and highlight the roles of stem cell quiescence, replication-associated DNA damage, telomere shortening, epigenetic alterations, and metabolic challenges as determinants of stem cell mutations and clonal dominance in aging. PMID:26046760

  6. Aging stem cells. A Werner syndrome stem cell model unveils heterochromatin alterations as a driver of human aging. (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Li, Jingyi; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Qu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Junzhi; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Xu, Xiuling; Ocampo, Alejandro; Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Jiping; Li, Ying; Shi, Liang; Guan, Dee; Pan, Huize; Duan, Shunlei; Ding, Zhichao; Li, Mo; Yi, Fei; Bai, Ruijun; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Chang; Yang, Fuquan; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zimei; Aizawa, Emi; Goebl, April; Soligalla, Rupa Devi; Reddy, Pradeep; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua


    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by WRN protein deficiency. Here, we report on the generation of a human WS model in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Differentiation of WRN-null ESCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recapitulates features of premature cellular aging, a global loss of H3K9me3, and changes in heterochromatin architecture. We show that WRN associates with heterochromatin proteins SUV39H1 and HP1α and nuclear lamina-heterochromatin anchoring protein LAP2β. Targeted knock-in of catalytically inactive SUV39H1 in wild-type MSCs recapitulates accelerated cellular senescence, resembling WRN-deficient MSCs. Moreover, decrease in WRN and heterochromatin marks are detected in MSCs from older individuals. Our observations uncover a role for WRN in maintaining heterochromatin stability and highlight heterochromatin disorganization as a potential determinant of human aging. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Protein biogenesis machinery is a driver of replicative aging in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Georges E.; Meinema, Anne C.; Gonzalez, Javier; Wolters, Justina C.; Schmidt, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Bischoff, Rainer; Wit, Ernst C.; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Heinemann, Matthias


    An integrated account of the molecular changes occurring during the process of cellular aging is crucial towards understanding the underlying mechanisms. Here, using novel culturing and computational methods as well as latest analytical techniques, we mapped the proteome and transcriptome during the

  8. Sexual dimorphism, age and fat mass are key phenotypic drivers of proteomic signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curran, Aoife M; Fogarty Draper, Colleen; Scott-Boyer, Marie-Pier


    Validated protein biomarkers are needed for assessing health trajectories, predicting and sub-classifying disease, and optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision-making. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision of single or combinations of protein biomarkers may be alter...... female) and continuous phenotypes (age, fat mass) which may influence the identification and use of biomarkers of clinical utility for health diagnosis and therapeutic strategies....

  9. Effects of uncertainty, transmission type, driver age and gender on brake reaction and movement time. (United States)

    Warshawsky-Livne, Lora; Shinar, David


    Braking time (BT) is a critical component in safe driving, and various approaches have been applied to minimize it. This study analyzed the components of BT in order to assess the effects of age, gender, vehicle transmission type, and event uncertainty, on its two primary components, perception-reaction time and brake-movement time. Perception-reaction time and brake-movement time were measured at the onset of lights for 72 subjects in a simulator. The six experimental conditions were three levels of uncertainty conditions (none, some, and some + false alarms) and two types of transmission (manual and automatic). The 72 subjects, half male and half female, were further divided into three age groups (mean of 23, 30, and 62 years). Each subject had 10 trials in each of the three levels of uncertainty conditions. Transmission type did not significantly affect either perception-reaction time or brake-movement time. Perception-reaction time increased significantly from 0.32 to 0.42 s (P brake-movement time did not change. Perception-reaction time increased (from 0.35 to 0.43 s) with age but brake-movement time did not change with age. Gender did not affect perception-reaction time but did affect brake-movement time (males 0.19 s vs. females 0.16 s). At 90 km/h, a car travels 0.25 m in 0.01 s. Consequently, even such small effects multiplied by millions of vehicle-kilometers can contribute to significant savings in lives and damages.

  10. Well-Being of Lagos Urban Mini-Bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status


    Bolajoko I. Malomo; Maryam O. Yusuf


    Lagos urban mini bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of moder...

  11. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  12. MVisAGe Identifies Concordant and Discordant Genomic Alterations of Driver Genes in Squamous Tumors. (United States)

    Walter, Vonn; Du, Ying; Danilova, Ludmila; Hayward, Michele C; Hayes, D Neil


    Integrated analyses of multiple genomic datatypes are now common in cancer profiling studies. Such data present opportunities for numerous computational experiments, yet analytic pipelines are limited. Tools such as the cBioPortal and Regulome Explorer, although useful, are not easy to access programmatically or to implement locally. Here, we introduce the MVisAGe R package, which allows users to quantify gene-level associations between two genomic datatypes to investigate the effect of genomic alterations (e.g., DNA copy number changes on gene expression). Visualizing Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients according to the genomic positions of the underlying genes provides a powerful yet novel tool for conducting exploratory analyses. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing three publicly available cancer datasets. Our approach highlights canonical oncogenes in chr11q13 that displayed the strongest associations between expression and copy number, including CCND1 and CTTN , genes not identified by copy number analysis in the primary reports. We demonstrate highly concordant usage of shared oncogenes on chr3q, yet strikingly diverse oncogene usage on chr11q as a function of HPV infection status. Regions of chr19 that display remarkable associations between methylation and gene expression were identified, as were previously unreported miRNA-gene expression associations that may contribute to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Significance: This study presents an important bioinformatics tool that will enable integrated analyses of multiple genomic datatypes. Cancer Res; 78(12); 3375-85. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY


    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  15. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin? (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio


    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Beginning teenage drivers (United States)


    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  17. A Neuropsychological Instrument Measuring Age-Related Cerebral Decline in Older Drivers : Development, Reliability, and Validity of MedDrive.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaucher, Paul; cardoso, isabel; Veldstra, Janet; Herzig, Daniela; Mangin, Patrice; Herzog, Micheal; Favrat, Bernard


    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in

  18. Unravelling the Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Track Position since the Little Ice Age (United States)

    Baldini, L. M.; Baldini, J. U. L.; McElwaine, J.; Frappier, A. B.; Asmerom, Y.; Liu, K. B.; Prufer, K. M.; Ridley, H.; Polyak, V. J.; Kennett, D. J.; Macpherson, C.; Aquino, V. V.; Awe, J.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.


    In the last decade, stalagmites have been recognised as valuable archives of past hurricane activity. The characteristically low δ18O rainfall of tropical cyclones (TCs, including both hurricanes and tropical storms) is particularly well-preserved in fast-growing tropical speleothems. Here we present a new multi-proxy approach used to extract the western Caribbean TC signal from background wet season rainfall that, at our site in southern Belize, is driven by seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The result is an annual 450-year record of western Caribbean TC activity that, when compared to documentary and statistical model-based reconstructions of North Atlantic TC activity, reveals a northward migration of dominant TC track since the height of Little Ice Age cooling. Importantly, the record reveals a reversal in the TC track position-North Atlantic sea surface temperature relationship between the pre-Industrial and Industrial Eras. During the pre-Industrial interval, TC track position migrated with the ITCZ toward the warmer hemisphere. Conversely, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions during the Industrial Era have decoupled TC track position from the ITCZ through expansion of the Hadley Cell. This research suggests that under future greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions scenarios, the dominant TC track is likely to remain to the north. Combined with greenhouse gas-induced rising sea surface temperatures, the risk to the NE US population and financial centres is likely to increase in the future.

  19. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates


    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  20. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  1. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  2. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech. (United States)


    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  3. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas. (United States)


    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  4. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief]. (United States)


    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  5. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers. (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira


    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  6. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  7. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers. (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew


    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  8. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako


    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual behavior among truck drivers. (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar


    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  10. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  11. Symbol signing design for older drivers (United States)


    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  12. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education (United States)


    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  13. Online driver's license renewal. (United States)


    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  14. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  15. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers]. (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa


    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P occupational stress factors and mitigating factors to depressive symptoms of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0

  16. National Driver Register (NDR) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  17. Intersection assistance : A safe solution for older drivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.


    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations

  18. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H


    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  19. A Simple Wave Driver (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet


    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  20. Efecto de la edad, el sexo y la experiencia de los conductores de 18 a 24 años sobre el riesgo de provocar colisiones entre turismos The effect of age, sex, and experience on the risk of causing a car collision in drivers aged 18-24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Jiménez-Moleón


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Cuantificar el efecto independiente de la edad, el sexo y la experiencia de los conductores de 18 a 24 años sobre el riesgo de verse activamente involucrados en una colisión entre turismos en España, en un estudio realizado entre 1990 y 1999. Métodos: Se ha realizado un estudio de casos y controles emparejados a partir de la información contenida en el Registro de accidentes de tráfico con víctimas de la Dirección General de Tráfico. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por los conductores involucrados en aquellas colisiones entre turismos en las que sólo uno de los conductores implicados cometió alguna infracción. Los conductores infractores constituyeron el grupo de casos, y los no infractores implicados en la misma colisión, sus controles emparejados. Tras excluir los casos con información faltante o inconsistente, se dispuso de un total de 123.586 casos y 140.482 controles. Se calculó la odds ratio (OR cruda y ajustada para cada combinación de la edad del conductor (entre 18 y 24 años, el sexo y los años de antigüedad del permiso (entre 0 y 7. Resultados: En general, las estimaciones de la OR de los varones fueron superiores a las de las mujeres de igual edad y antigüedad. En los varones se observa que, para cualquier edad, las OR crudas y ajustadas disminuyen significativamente a medida que aumenta el número de años de antigüedad del permiso. En las mujeres se apreció una tendencia similar, aunque con menor claridad. Tras ajustar por el efecto de la experiencia, la edad del conductor no parece estar asociada con el riesgo de verse activamente implicado en la colisión. Conclusiones: El presente estudio confirma la importancia que tiene la inexperiencia como factor responsable del exceso de accidentalidad en los conductores jóvenes, por encima del efecto atribuible a la edad en sí misma.Objective: To assess the separate effects of age, sex, and experience on the risk of drivers aged 18-24 years

  1. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak


    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  2. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan


    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  3. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving. (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard


    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Driver behavior analysis for right-turn drivers at signalized intersections using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving study data. (United States)

    Wu, Jianqing; Xu, Hao


    Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos. Different factors of drivers, vehicles, roads and environments were studied for their influence on driver behavior. An influencing index function was developed and the index was calculated for each influencing factor to quantitatively describe its influencing level. The influencing index was applied to prioritize the factors, which facilitates development and selection of safety countermeasures to improve intersection safety. Drivers' speed control was analyzed under different conditions with consideration of the prioritized influencing factors. Vehicle type, traffic signal status, conflicting traffic, conflicting pedestrian and driver age group were identified as the five major influencing factors on driver observation. This research revealed that drivers have high acceleration and low observation frequency under Right-Turn-On-Red (RTOR), which constituted potential danger for other roadway users, especially for pedestrians. As speed has a direct influence on crash rates and severities, the revealed speed patterns of the different situations also benefit selection of safety countermeasures at signalized intersections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Driver behavior in traffic. (United States)


    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  6. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.


    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  7. Internet driver education study. (United States)


    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  8. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.


    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  9. Drugs related to motor vehicle crashes in northern European countries: A study of fatally injured drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørland, Jørg; Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese


    The aim of this study was to find which drugs and drug combinations were most common in drivers who died, in particular, in single vehicle crashes where the responsibility for the crash would be referred to the driver killed. The study included all available blood samples from drivers, who died......% respectively of the drivers under 30 with drugs present). Similar findings were obtained for drivers 30–49 years of age (63% with alcohol and/or drugs). In drivers aged 50 years and above, killed in single vehicle crashes (48% with alcohol and/or drugs) illicit drugs were found in only one case...

  10. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections. (United States)

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang


    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE


    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  12. Myocardial infarction in Swedish subway drivers. (United States)

    Bigert, Carolina; Klerdal, Kristina; Hammar, Niklas; Gustavsson, Per


    Particulate matter in urban air is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population. Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system of Stockholm, as well as in several other large cities. This situation has caused concern for negative health effects among subway staff. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increased incidence of myocardial infarction among subway drivers. Data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 40-69 in Stockholm County in 1976-1996 were used. The study included all first events of myocardial infarction in registers of hospital discharges and deaths. The controls were selected randomly from the general population. National censuses were used for information on occupation. Altogether, 22 311 cases and 131 496 controls were included. Among these, 54 cases and 250 controls had worked as subway drivers. The relative risk of myocardial infarction among subway drivers was not increased. It was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.68-1.25] when the subway drivers were compared with other manual workers and 1.06 (95% CI 0.78-1.43) when the subway drivers were compared with all other gainfully employed men. Subgroup analyses indicated no influence on the risk of myocardial infarction from the duration of employment, latency time, or time since employment stopped. Subway drivers in Stockholm do not have a higher incidence of myocardial infarction than other employed persons.

  13. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.


    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  14. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.


    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  15. Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polsky Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with certain comorbid conditions have a higher risk of pneumonia than the overall population. If treatment of pneumonia is more costly in certain predictable situations, this would affect the value proposition of populations for pneumonia prevention. We estimate the economic impact of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP for adults with asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF in a large U.S. commercially-insured working age population. Methods Data sources consisted of 2003 through 2007 Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Thomson Reuters Health Productivity and Management (HPM databases. Pneumonia episodes and selected comorbidities were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. By propensity score matching, controls were identified for pneumonia patients. Excess direct medical costs and excess productivity cost were estimated by generalized linear models (GLM. Results We identified 402,831 patients with CAP between 2003 through 2007, with 25,560, 32,677, 16,343, and 5,062 episodes occurring in patients with asthma, diabetes, COPD and CHF, respectively. Mean excess costs (and standard error, SE of CAP were $14,429 (SE=44 overall. Mean excess costs by comorbidity subgroup were lowest for asthma ($13,307 (SE=123, followed by diabetes ($21,395 (SE=171 and COPD ($23,493 (SE=197; mean excess costs were highest for patients with CHF ($34,436 (SE=549. On average, indirect costs comprised 21% of total excess costs, ranging from 8% for CHF patients to 27% for COPD patients. Conclusions Compared to patients without asthma, diabetes, COPD, or CHF, the excess cost of CAP is nearly twice as high for patients with diabetes and COPD and nearly three times as high for patients with CHF. Indirect costs made up a significant but varying portion of excess CAP costs. Returns on prevention of pneumonia would therefore be higher in adults with these comorbidities.

  16. Age (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  17. The role of simulation in the assessment of older drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sascha; Rothermel, Stefan; Henriksson, Per; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Sommer, Sascha; Verwey, Willem B.


    Within the project AGILE an assessment system for ageing drivers is developed. A multi-tier procedure including simulator-based diagnostic tests is will be created. Objective driver performance measurement, design of risky scenarios to test performance limits and high face validity are benefits of

  18. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Čičević


    Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.

  19. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko


    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  20. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.


    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  1. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong


    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  2. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that ... To compare Safe Travel to School Programme driver safety perfor- .... The SA government has recognised the challenges faced with.

  3. Assessing Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive: The development of a toolkit based on cognition measurements. (United States)

    Wang, Huarong; Mo, Xian; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ruixue; Qiu, Peiyu; Dai, Jiajun


    Road traffic accidents resulting in group deaths and injuries are often related to coach drivers' inappropriate operations and behaviors. Thus, the evaluation of coach drivers' fitness to drive is an important measure for improving the safety of public transportation. Previous related research focused on drivers' age and health condition. Comprehensive studies about commercial drivers' cognitive capacities are limited. This study developed a toolkit consisting of nine cognition measurements across driver perception/sensation, attention, and reaction. A total of 1413 licensed coach drivers in Jiangsu Province, China were investigated and tested. Results indicated that drivers with accident history within three years performed overwhelmingly worse (panalysis, in which the eliminated 5% tail was calculated from on integrated index. Methods to categorizing qualified, good, and excellent coach drivers and criteria for evaluating and training Chinese coach drivers' fitness to drive were also proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers. (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N


    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehraneh Ghaemi


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are used to model the driver's behavior. Three different positions are considered for driving and decision making. A fuzzy model called Model I is presented for modeling the change of steering angle and speed control by considering time distances with existing cars in these three positions, the information about the speed and direction of car, and the steering angle of car. Also we obtained two other models based on fuzzy rules called Model II and Model III by using Sugeno fuzzy inference. Model II and Model III have less linguistic terms than Model I for the steering angle and direction of car. The results of three models are compared for a driver who drives based on driving laws.

  6. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.


    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  7. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  8. Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R.; Poehler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the

  9. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers (United States)


    Young drivers in the United States are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group of drivers in the general population. Though efforts have been made to reduce drinking and driving among young drivers (especially teens)...

  10. A Comparative Study of Back Pain among Taxi and Truck Drivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SSPSS version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics to analyze and present data. The prevalence of back pain in Port Harcourt for taxi drivers was 70.4% and 71.4% for truck drivers. The prevalence among truck drivers was due to age ,sitting position and shock absorbers. However variables like ...

  11. Improving the Effectiveness of Countermeasures to Prevent Motor Vehicle Crashes among Young Drivers (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.


    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury and death among adolescents 16 to 19 years of age. Three areas of countermeasures for decreasing young driver risk are driver education, licensing policies, and parental management. Driver education is an essential part of teaching adolescents the rules of the road and operating a…

  12. Visual Scanning Training For Older Drivers: A Literature Review (United States)


    This literature review focuses on older drivers' visual scanning ability and on evaluations of training in visual scanning skills for older adults, updating a previous review of studies published from 1997 to 2008 describing age-related functional ch...

  13. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  14. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences. (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas


    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  15. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro


    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  16. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.


    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  17. Does automatic transmission improve driving behavior in older drivers? (United States)

    Selander, Helena; Bolin, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn


    Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers. In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers - used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) - were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured. The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants' driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations. Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs. (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R


    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  19. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  20. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius


    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  1. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers? (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn


    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Older drivers are frequently viewed as overly represented in crashes, particularly when crash involvement per distance travelled is considered. This perception has led to a call for tighter licensing conditions for older drivers, a policy which inevitably results in mobility restrictions for at least some drivers. However there is a growing body of research evidence which shows that as a group, older drivers represent no greater road risk than drivers from other age groups once different levels of driving activity are taken into account. This paper has examined aspects of older drivers' fitness to drive based on survey data and off-road and on-road driving performance from a sample of 905 New Zealand older drivers. The results show that policies which target all older drivers and lead to licensing and mobility restrictions cannot be justified from a safety basis.

  3. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline. (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell


    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  4. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte


    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  6. Driving Performance among Bioptic Telescope Users with Low Vision Two Years after Obtaining Their Driver's License: A Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Lachance, Jean-Paul; Deaudelin, Isabelle


    This study sought to compare road safety of new drivers with low vision who have followed a specific pilot bioptic training program with other groups of drivers all matched for age and driving experience. A quasi-experimental design was used two years after drivers obtained their license. Drivers were classified in the experimental group (n = 10,…

  7. Driver Distraction in Public Transport




    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  8. [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers]. (United States)

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech


    The health condition of public transport drivers is one of the factors playing a role in assuring safety of passengers taking use of this kind of transportation means. Therefore, the assessment of pathologies occurring in this occupational group is essential from the prevention point of view. Drivers employed in the municipal transport system are at particular risk. The aim of the study was to define health reasons of work disability among bus and tram drivers in general and to indicate pathologies responsible for disabilities in particular. The study covered 940 drivers (including 788 men and 152 women) employed in a municipal transportation enterprise during the years 1996-2000. Bus (30%) and tram (22%) drivers as well as transport service workers (48%), aged over 45 years, but under the retirement age, were eligible for the study. The analysis of temporary work disability during a five-year period was based on sickness absence, sickness absence rate and the average duration of sickness absence. The analysis revealed that diseases of the circulatory system form the major group of pathologies responsible for total sickness absence among bus drivers (43%), tram drivers (27%) and transport service workers (27%). These disease are also a leading cause of earlier retirement. They mostly include ischemic heart disease in bus drivers and hypertension in tram drivers. Cancers (pleura, kidney and eye) were responsible for 9% of sickness absence in the group of male tram drivers, whereas endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (diabetes, disorders of thyroid gland) in 16% of female tram drivers. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the

  9. Obstacles to engaging in young driver licensing: Perspectives of parents. (United States)

    Naz, Sehana; Scott-Parker, Bridie


    Young novice drivers remain at greater risk of injury and death despite a wealth of interventions including graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. The key to implementing safer practices inherent in GDL appears to lie with optimising the role of parents. This qualitative research explored the parent's perspectives of obstacles to engaging in the driver licensing process within a GDL program. Parents also shared advice on what they found helpful, and where relevant, recommended changes in the process to enable safer practices for young drivers. Twenty-three parents (aged 35-60 years, M=49.52, SD=8.01, 11 males) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding licensing experiences with their young driver children. The young drivers included learner (n=11), provisional (restricted/intermediate) (n=9) and open (unrestricted/full) licence drivers (n=3), ranging from 16 to 24 years (M=18.04, SD=2.21, 13 males). Content analysis revealed that most obstacles were encountered at the learner licensing phase, with the parent-reported difficult temperament of the learner driver the most prominent. Unsurprisingly, advice to other parents to be patient and remain calm featured heavily during the same phase. Anxiety from not having control of the vehicle was another obstacle at the learner phase, translating to anxieties for child safety in the early stages of provisional driving. Recommendations for the current GDL included more rigorous road rule testing, with general support for the program, professional driver training at learner and provisional stages facilitated parental engagement through the licensing phases. The findings overwhelmingly suggest a need for parents to be educated regarding their importance in, and of, the driver licensing process, and the efficacy of their instruction, content and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  11. Petrochemical industry drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.


    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  12. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  13. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.


    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  14. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers. (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T


    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  15. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.


    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  16. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X


    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  17. Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers. (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota


    Road transport drivers are one of the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Medical documentation was a source of data for the reported study. It derived from medical examinations of truck and bus drivers applying for the new category II driving licence or for prolongation of the one they already had. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% were diagnosed with obesity. Hypertension was noted in the medical records of 36.7% drivers. The prevalence of abnormal BP values was increasing with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. In road transport drivers, the high prevalence of excessive body weight and elevated arterial blood pressure as the risk factors for diabetes indicates a need to undertake multidimensional actions targeted on this particular profession and involving various health care sectors. Prophylactic and detailed pre-placement examinations should be considered, depending on the rate and intensity of the disorders diagnosed. This should be coupled with an introduction of primary and secondary prophylactic activities and monitoring of relevant treatment. A close collaboration with the patient's GP is necessary.

  18. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers? (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H


    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Driver Injury Severity at Intersection: An Ordered Probit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang


    Full Text Available It is well known that intersections are the most hazardous locations; however, only little is known about driver injury severity in intersection crashes. Hence, the main goal of this study was to further examine the different factors contributing to driver injury severity involved in fatal crashes at intersections. Data used for the present analysis was from the US DOT-Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS crash database from the year 2011. An ordered probit model was employed to fit the fatal crash data and analyze the factors impacting each injury severity level. The analysis results displayed that driver injury severity is significantly affected by many factors. They include driver age and gender, driver ethnicity, vehicle type and age (years of use, crash type, driving drunk, speeding, violating stop sign, cognitively distracted driving, and seat belt usage. These findings from the current study are beneficial to form a solid basis for adopting corresponding measures to effectively drop injury severity suffering from intersection crash. More insights into the effects of risk factors on driver injury severity could be acquired using more advanced statistical models.

  20. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.


    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  1. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive ... of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour ...

  2. Knowledge of commercial bus drivers about road safety measures in Lagos, Nigeria. (United States)

    Okafor Ifeoma, P; Odeyemi Kofoworola, A; Dolapo Duro, C


    Road traffic injuries have persisted as a serious public health problem and much of the health burden is in developing countries. Over-speeding, poor enforcement of traffic regulations and commuter buses have been highly implicated in road traffic injuries in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine drivers' knowledge of selected road safety measures, i.e. the pre-requisites for driver's license, road signs and speed limits. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Lagos, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used to select the two motor parks used for the study and all the consenting commercial minibus drivers operating within the parks (407) were included in the study. Data was collected with a pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed with epi-info statistical software. Two hundred and sixty-one (64.1%) of them knew that Visual Acuity test should be done before obtaining driver's license and 53.8% knew the correct minimum age for obtaining driver's license. Only 1% of the drivers had correct knowledge of the driver's license authorities in Nigeria. The drivers had poor knowledge of road signs (59.0%) and poor knowledge of maximum speed limits (100%). The oldest, least educated and least experienced drivers had the poorest level of knowledge. The drivers demonstrated poor knowledge of road safety measures. There is need for driver education to improve their knowledge.


    Lester, Benjamin D; Sager, Lauren N; Dawson, Jeffrey; Hacker, Sarah D; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Kitazaki, Satoshi


    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have largely been developed with a "one-size-fits-all" approach. This approach neglects the large inter-individual variability in perceptual and cognitive abilities that affect aging ADAS users. We investigated the effectiveness of a forward collision warning (FCW) with fixed response parameters in young and older drivers with differing levels of cognitive functioning. Drivers responded to a pedestrian stepping into the driver's path on a simulated urban road. Behavioral metrics included response times (RT) for pedal controls and two indices of risk penetration (e.g., maximum deceleration and minimum time-to-collision (TTC)). Older drivers showed significantly slower responses at several time points compared to younger drivers. The FCW facilitated response times (RTs) for older and younger drivers. However, older drivers still showed smaller safety gains compared to younger drivers at accelerator pedal release and initial brake application when the FCW was active. No significant differences in risk metrics were observed within the condition studied. The results demonstrate older drivers likely differ from younger drivers using a FCW with a fixed parameter set. Finally, we briefly discuss how future research should examine predictive relationships between domains of cognitive functioning and ADAS responses to develop parameter sets to fit the individual.

  4. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008. (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany


    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  5. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes. (United States)


    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  6. Research on driver fatigue detection (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ouyang, Chao


    Driver fatigue is one of the main causes of frequent traffic accidents. In this case, driver fatigue detection system has very important significance in avoiding traffic accidents. This paper presents a real-time method based on fusion of multiple facial features, including eye closure, yawn and head movement. The eye state is classified as being open or closed by a linear SVM classifier trained using HOG features of the detected eye. The mouth state is determined according to the width-height ratio of the mouth. The head movement is detected by head pitch angle calculated by facial landmark. The driver's fatigue state can be reasoned by the model trained by above features. According to experimental results, drive fatigue detection obtains an excellent performance. It indicates that the developed method is valuable for the application of avoiding traffic accidents caused by driver's fatigue.

  7. Teen driver cell phone blocker. (United States)


    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  8. Driver performance and attention allocation in use of logo signs on freeway exit ramps. (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Machado, Patricia; Lau, Mei Ying; Deng, Yulin; Pankok, Carl; Hummer, Joseph; Rasdorf, William; Kaber, David B


    The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of driver age, ramp signage configuration, including number of panels, logo format and sign familiarity, on driver performance and attention allocation when exiting freeways. Sixty drivers participated in a simulator study and analysis of variance models were used to assess response effects of the controlled manipulations. Results revealed elderly drivers to demonstrate worse performance and conservative control strategies as compared to middle-aged and young drivers. Elderly drivers also exhibited lower off-road fixation frequency and shorter off-road glance durations compared to middle-aged and young drivers. In general, drivers adopted a more conservative strategy when exposed to nine-panel signs as compared to six-panel signs and were more accurate in target detection when searching six-panels vs. nine and with familiar vs. unfamiliar logos. These findings provide an applicable guide for agency design of freeway ramp signage accounting for driver demographics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Look who's talking! A roadside survey of drivers' cell phone use. (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G


    The objective of this study was to quantify Melbourne drivers' rates of handheld and hands-free phone use and the driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics associated with phone use. Additionally, this study sought to examine any change in the prevalence of handheld cell phone use by Melbourne drivers between 2006 and 2009. Observational survey of vehicle drivers at various times of the day and week at 3 sites across metropolitan Melbourne during May 2009. A total of 195 (3.4%) of the 5813 drivers observed were using handheld phones and 81 (1.4%) were using hands-free phones. This represents a significant increase in handheld phone usage rates compared to those found in an earlier study conducted in Melbourne in 2006. Cell phone use was associated with a range of driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics. Handheld phone users were predominately young or middle-aged drivers who drove cars or 4-wheel-drive vehicles (4WDs), and this activity was more likely to occur in the late afternoon. Use of hands-free phones did not differ significantly across gender, age group, vehicle type, observation site, or time of day; however, use of hands-free phones was higher on weekdays compared to weekends. Despite legislation being in place, drivers' handheld cell phone use is still a major road safety concern, particularly for young and middle-aged drivers. The effectiveness of other strategies for decreasing handheld usage rates, including increased surveillance and tougher penalties, need to be ascertained.

  10. Self- and peer-assessments of ambulance drivers' driving performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sundström


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and examine the quality of the Ambulance Driver Self-assessment Questionnaire (ADSQ and the Ambulance Driver Peer-assessment Questionnaire (ADPQ measuring aspects of, driving performance, driving style and driving competence. In addition the ADSQ measures self-reflection and safety-attitudes. The aim of the study was also to examine ambulance drivers' self- and peer-assessments as well as to examine the accuracy of self-assessments by comparing self-assessed and peer-assessed driving performance, driving style and competence. 76 ambulance drivers employed at two ambulance stations in northern Sweden completed ADSQ and ADPQ. Item analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the items, and based on the results some revisions were made to improve the questionnaires. The revised questionnaires were functioning rather well, although some subscale demonstrated low internal consistency. Subscale inter-correlations provided support for construct validity. Self- and peer-assessments indicated safe driving performance and good driver competence, which is positive from a traffic safety perspective. A comparison of mean self- and peer-assessment ratings, controlling for age, gender and driving experience showed no significant differences, except for the subscale overtaking. This indicates that ambulance drivers' self-assessments are realistic in most areas.

  11. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers]. (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J


    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  12. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems. (United States)

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M


    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of Hazard Anticipation Training Programs for Young Drivers. (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Goodwin, Arthur H; Pradhan, Anuj K; Romoser, Matthew R E; Williams, Allan F


    Poor hazard anticipation skills are a risk factor associated with high motor vehicle crash rates of young drivers. A number of programs have been developed to improve these skills. The purpose of this review was to assess the empirical literature on hazard anticipation training for young drivers. Studies were included if they (1) included an assessment of hazard anticipation training outcomes; (2) were published between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2013 in an English language peer-reviewed journal or conference proceeding; and (3) included at least one group that uniquely comprised a cohort of participants aged anticipation outcomes but none investigated crash effects. Although there is promise in existing programs, future research should include long-term follow-up, evaluate crash outcomes, and assess the optimal timing of hazard anticipation training taking into account the age and experience level of young drivers. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    is the Danish legal limit. The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were...... the most frequent illicit drugs detected above the limit of quantitation (LOQ); while, codeine, tramadol, zopiclone, and benzodiazepines were the most frequent legal drugs. Middle aged men (median age 47.5 years) dominated the drunk driving group, while the drivers positive for illegal drugs consisted......Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...

  15. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn


    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  16. Chinese carless young drivers' self-reported driving behavior and simulated driving performance. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Man, Dong; Xu, Xunnan


    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers become carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has raised great concern in China. This study aims to provide initial insight into the self-reported driving behaviors and simulated driving performance of Chinese carless young drivers. Thirty-three carless young drivers and 32 young drivers with their own cars (as a comparison group) participated in this study. A modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) with a 4-factor structure (errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses) was used to study carless young drivers' self-reported driving behaviors. A simulated driving experiment using a low-cost, fixed-base driving simulator was conducted to measure their simulated driving performance (errors, violations, attention lapses, driving maintenance, reaction time, and accidents). Self-reported DBQ outcomes showed that carless young drivers reported similar errors, more attention lapses, fewer memory lapses, and significantly fewer violation behaviors relative to young drivers with their own cars, whereas simulated driving results revealed that they committed significantly more errors, attention lapses, and violation behaviors than the comparison group. Carless young drivers had a lower ability to maintain the stability of speed and lane position, drove more cautiously approaching and passing through red traffic lights, and committed more accidents during simulated driving. A tendency to speed was not found among carless young drivers; their average speed and speeding frequency were all much lower than that of the comparison group. Lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of carless young drivers' self-reported violations, simulated violations

  17. Compliance with driver's license laws and illegal licensing among commercial bus drivers in Lagos, Nigeria: policy implications and evidence for action. (United States)

    Okafor, I P; Odeyemi, K A; Dolapo, D C; Adegbola, A A


    To determine the level of compliance with driver's license laws among commercial bus drivers in Lagos, Nigeria. Two intercity motor parks were selected by simple random sampling and all consenting minibus drivers participated in the study. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were also conducted with selected officials in the driver training and licensing authorities. Compliance with the minimum age for driving was high (93.6%), so also was having driving test prior to driver's license procurement (83.3%). Formal driver training and VA testing were very low, (26.1% and 32.9% respectively) Overall, only 9.3% of them were found to have fulfilled all the pre-license obligations before obtaining their first driver's license. The odds of a driver with a secondary education having formal driver training is 3.33 times higher than those with no education (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.01-11.35). Drivers who were 60 years or older were 3.62 times more likely to be compliant than those who were between 20-29 years (OR 3.62, 95% CI 0.56-29.19). For the 98.3% of them who possessed valid licenses, 52.3% of them obtained them illegally. All the key officials saw RTIs as a serious public health problem but faced several challenges in the course of their work. Overall compliance with pre-license regulations was very poor. There is need for a review and strict enforcement of driver's license laws to improve compliance. Also vital are fostering inter-sectoral collaboration and improvement in the operations of all establishments involved in driver training and license procurement in Nigeria.

  18. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks As a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers : Traffic Tech (United States)


    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for all 15- to 20-year-olds. In 2014, there were 1,717 young drivers (15 to 20 years old) who died in motor vehicle crashes. In 2014, even though it was illegal for drivers under age 21 to operate ...

  19. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska


    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  20. Neurological symptoms and syndromes in municipal transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Sińczuk-Walczak


    Full Text Available Background: The way the municipal transport drivers perform their job contributes to varied burdens linked with the body posture at work, stress, shift work, vibration, noise and exposure to chemical agents. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the nervous system (NS in municipal transport drivers. Material and Methods: The study covered 42 men, aged 43.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 8.3, employed as bus drivers in the municipal transport enterprise. The duration of employment was 11.8 years on average (SD: 8.6. The condition of the nervous system was assessed on the basis of clinical neurological examinations. Results: Chronic lumbosacral syndrome was found in 54.8% of the subjects. A significant relationship between the incidence of lumbosacral syndrome and the duration of employment (p = 0.032 was observed; significantly higher in drivers employed for 11–15 years (90.9% in comparison to the remaining groups. Nervous system functional disorders were niejedcharacterized by the increased emotional irritability (47.6%, sleep disorders manifested by excessive sleepiness (33.3% or insomnia (28.6% and headaches (3%, mostly tension headaches. Excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly age-dependent (p = 0.038. Conclusions: The evidenced NS disorders indicate the need to undertake preventive measures tailored for the occupational group of bus drivers. Med Pr 2015;66(3:333–341

  1. Evaluation of a program to enhance young drivers' safety in Israel. (United States)

    Toledo, Tomer; Lotan, Tsippy; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Grimberg, Einat


    Young drivers in Israel, as in other parts of the world, are involved in car crashes more than any other age group. The graduated driver licensing system in Israel requires that all new drivers be accompanied by an experienced driver whenever they drive for the first 3 months after obtaining a driving license. In an effort to make the accompanied driving phase more effective, a novel program which targets both young drivers and their parents was initiated in 2005. The program administers a personal meeting with the young driver and the accompanying parent scheduled for the beginning of the accompanied driving phase. In this meeting guidance is given regarding best practices for undertaking the accompanied driving, as well as tips for dealing with in-vehicle parent-teen dynamics. Through 2008, almost 130,000 families of young drivers have participated in the program. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, injury crash records of the young drivers who participated in the program were compared with those of all other young drivers that were licensed at the same time period. The results obtained indicate statistically significant lower crash records for young drivers that participated in the program. Limitations of the evaluation related to self-selection biases are discussed, and practical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatigue in Younger and Older Drivers: Effectiveness of an Alertness-Maintaining Task. (United States)

    Song, Woojin; Woon, Fu L; Doong, Alice; Persad, Carol; Tijerina, Louis; Pandit, Pooja; Cline, Carol; Giordani, Bruno


    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving. Younger ( n = 29) and older drivers ( n = 39) participated in a 50-minute simulated drive designed to induce fatigue, followed by four 10-minute sessions alternating between driving with and without an AMT. Younger drivers were significantly more affected by fatigue on driving performance than were older drivers but benefitted significantly from the AMT. Older drivers did not demonstrate increased driver errors with fatigue, and driving did not deteriorate significantly during participation in the AMT condition, although their speed was significantly more variable with the AMT. Consistent with earlier research, an AMT applied during fatiguing driving is effective in improving alertness and reducing driving errors in younger drivers. Importantly, older drivers were relatively unaffected by fatigue, and use of an AMT did not detrimentally affect their driving performance. These results support the potential use of an AMT as a new automotive technology to improve fatigue and promote driver safety, though the benefits of such technology may differ between different age groups.

  3. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette


    Although screening policies for older drivers based on chronological age are widely used in many countries, previous research has shown that increasing age does not cause higher crash rates and that consequently, chronological age per se is at best only a weak predictor of safe driving performanc...... is an example of a political measure that intuitively makes sense, but fails to produce the desired benefits. On the contrary, on a system level, it decreases the overall safety and is connected to various direct and indirect costs........ Previous research on age-based mandatory screening of older drivers has not been able to demonstrate any safety benefits from screening measures.The present study is a population-based evaluation of the safety effects that the introduction of the cognitive test as an age-based screening tool has had...

  4. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.


    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette


    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... negatively when the hazard is visible. To enhance the HPS among young drivers, the results of this study suggest that specific hazard perception training is relevant, especially for hazards that require more advanced HPS....

  6. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech. (United States)


    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  7. Analysis of West Virginia's graduated driver licensing program. (United States)


    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for individuals between the ages of 15-20 years old in the United States. Top safety concerns involving teen drivers include; safety belt use, impaired driving, and distracted driving. Rules tha...

  8. An analysis of West Virginia's graduated driver licensing program. (United States)


    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for individuals between the ages of 15-20 years old in the United States. Top safety concerns involving teen drivers include; safety belt use, impaired driving, and distracted driving. Rules tha...

  9. Reducing casualties involving young drivers and riders in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atchison, L.


    Young drivers and riders aged 15-25 are more likely to be killed on Europe’s roads than their older counterparts, despite continued improvements in road safety. Road collisions remain one of the highest external causes of death for young people. The risks are especially high for young males and for

  10. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses. (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C


    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  11. Evaluation of older driver head functional range of motion using portable immersive virtual reality. (United States)

    Chen, Karen B; Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G


    The number of drivers over 65 years of age continues to increase. Although neck rotation range has been identified as a factor associated with self-reported crash history in older drivers, it was not consistently reported as indicators of older driver performance or crashes across previous studies. It is likely that drivers use neck and trunk rotation when driving, and therefore the functional range of motion (ROM) (i.e. overall rotation used during a task) of older drivers should be further examined. Evaluate older driver performance in an immersive virtual reality, simulated, dynamic driving blind spot target detection task. A cross-sectional laboratory study recruited twenty-six licensed drivers (14 young between 18 and 35 years, and 12 older between 65 to 75 years) from the local community. Participants were asked to detect targets by performing blind spot check movements while neck and trunk rotation was tracked. Functional ROM, target detection success, and time to detection were analyzed. In addition to neck rotation, older and younger drivers on average rotated their trunks 9.96° and 18.04°, respectively. The younger drivers generally demonstrated 15.6° greater functional ROM (p<.001), were nearly twice as successful in target detection due to target location (p=.008), and had 0.46 s less target detection time (p=.016) than the older drivers. Assessing older driver functional ROM may provide more comprehensive assessment of driving ability than neck ROM. Target detection success and time to detection may also be part of the aging process as these measures differed between driver groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Key drivers of airline loyalty. (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna


    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  13. UWB dual burst transmit driver (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA


    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  14. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese


    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  15. Evaluation of four steering wheels to determine driver hand placement in a static environment. (United States)

    Mossey, Mary E; Xi, Yubin; McConomy, Shayne K; Brooks, Johnell O; Rosopa, Patrick J; Venhovens, Paul J


    While much research exists on occupant packaging both proprietary and in the literature, more detailed research regarding user preferences for subjective ratings of steering wheel designs is sparse in published literature. This study aimed to explore the driver interactions with production steering wheels in four vehicles by using anthropometric data, driver hand placement, and driver grip design preferences for Generation-Y and Baby Boomers. In this study, participants selected their preferred grip diameter, responded to a series of questions about the steering wheel grip as they sat in four vehicles, and rank ordered their preferred grip design. Thirty-two male participants (16 Baby Boomers between ages 47 and 65 and 16 Generation-Y between ages 18 and 29) participated in the study. Drivers demonstrated different gripping behavior between vehicles and between groups. Recommendations for future work in steering wheel grip design and naturalistic driver hand positioning are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Using naturalistic driving study data to investigate the impact of driver distraction on driver's brake reaction time in freeway rear-end events in car-following situation. (United States)

    Gao, Jingru; Davis, Gary A


    The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations. A statistical analysis, exploring the causal model structure regarding drivers' distraction impacts on reaction times, was conducted. Distraction duration, distraction scenario, and secondary task type were chosen as distraction-related factors. Besides, exogenous factors including weather, visual obstruction, lighting condition, traffic density, and intersection presence and endogenous factors including driver age and gender were considered. There was an association between driver distraction and reaction time in the sample freeway rear-end events from SHRP 2 NDS database. Distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and secondary task type were related to reaction time, while all other factors showed no significant effect on reaction time. The analysis showed that driver distraction duration is the primary direct cause of the increase in reaction time, with other factors having indirect effects mediated by distraction duration. Longer distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and engaging in auditory-visual-manual secondary task tended to result in longer reaction times. Given drivers will be distracted occasionally, countermeasures which shorten distraction duration or avoid distraction presence while a leader vehicle brakes are worth considering. This study helps better understand the mechanism of freeway rear-end events in car-following situations, and

  17. Implications of advanced vehicle technologies for older drivers. (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W


    Advances are being made in vehicle technologies that may help older adults compensate for some of the declines in abilities associated with aging. These advances hold promise for increasing vehicle safety, reducing injuries, and making the driving task more comfortable. However, important research gaps remain with regard to how various advanced technologies impact the safety of older drivers, as well as older drivers' perceptions about these technologies. This special issue contains seven original contributions that address these issues. Specific topics include the: congruence of design guidelines with the needs and abilities of older drivers, transfer of control between automated and manual driving, use of in-vehicle monitoring technology, motivations for technology use and assigned meanings, technology valuation, and effects on driving behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver? (United States)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli


    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  19. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors. (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K


    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  20. GPS Usage in a Population of Low-Vision Drivers. (United States)

    Cucuras, Maria; Chun, Robert; Lee, Patrick; Jay, Walter M; Pusateri, Gregg


    We surveyed bioptic and non-bioptic low-vision drivers in Illinois, USA, to determine their usage of global positioning system (GPS) devices. Low-vision patients completed an IRB-approved phone survey regarding driving demographics and usage of GPS while driving. Participants were required to be active drivers with an Illinois driver's license, and met one of the following criteria: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than or equal to 20/40, central or significant peripheral visual field defects, or a combination of both. Of 27 low-vision drivers, 10 (37%) used GPS while driving. The average age for GPS users was 54.3 and for non-users was 77.6. All 10 drivers who used GPS while driving reported increased comfort or safety level. Since non-GPS users were significantly older than GPS users, it is likely that older participants would benefit from GPS technology training from their low-vision eye care professionals.

  1. ISAF'S Afghan Truck Drivers: The Overlooked Counterinsurgency Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron Varouhakis


    Full Text Available A yearlong U.S. Army field study in Afghanistan examined the demographics and threat perceptions of one of the most-at-risk populations, that of Afghan truck drivers working for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan (ISAF. The study collected data from 766 Afghan truck drivers at the U.S.-operated Kandahar Airfield in ISAF’s Regional Command South. The findings show a wide diversity in age of the Afghan drivers as well as in terms of their home province. The findings also show that although all Afghan truck drivers had acute awareness and understanding of the high risks and dangers of the job, they all noted that the attractive salary and scarcity of jobs were dominant reasons for staying on the job. Findings also reveal a strong resentment among the Afghan truck drivers about their treatment by ISAF soldiers, as for the lack of protection for them and their families after the 2014 departure of NATO forces. The findings can provide significant insights and enhance the understanding of scholars, counterinsurgency strategists, policymakers, and military planners about “Host Country Nationals” as an important population of the human terrain.

  2. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  3. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.


    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  4. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, D.D.


    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  5. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh


    actuator drive is the only form-fit continuous drive solution currently available for the development of high performance nonmagnetic motors. In this research focus will be on the non magnetic compact high efficiency driver for the piezo actuators and on employing energy recovery from the capacitive...

  6. The impact of later trading hours for hotels on levels of impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels. (United States)

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim


    To examine the impact of later trading hours for licensed hotels in Perth, Western Australia on levels of associated impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels (BALs). Police data on the "last place of drinking" for impaired drivers involved in road crashes and their corresponding BALs were examined to identify those associated with Perth hotels between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1997. During this period, 43 (23%) of the 186 hotels meeting study criteria were granted an Extended Trading Permit for 1 a.m. closing (ETP hotels), while the rest continued to close at midnight (non-ETP hotels). Time-series analyses employing multiple linear regressions were applied to determine whether an association existed between the introduction of extended trading and (i) monthly levels of impaired driver road crashes associated with ETP hotels and (ii) driver BALs associated with ETP hotels. Trends associated with non-ETP hotels were included as controls and possible confounders were considered. After controlling for the trend in crash rates associated with non-ETP hotels and the introduction of mobile police breath testing stations to Perth freeways, a significant increase in monthly crash rates for ETP hotels was found. This relationship was largely accounted for by higher volumes of high-alcohol content beer, wine and spirits purchased by ETP hotels. No relation was found between driver BALs and the introduction of ETPs. Late trading was associated with increased levels of impaired driver road crashes and alcohol consumption, particularly high-risk alcoholic beverages. Greater numbers of patrons and characteristics specific to clientele of hotels which applied for late trading hours (i.e. younger age, greater propensity to drunk-drive, preference for high-risk beverages) were suggested as having contributed to this increase.

  7. Evaluating driver reactions to new vehicle technologies intended to increase safety and mobility across the lifespan. (United States)


    Personal vehicle manufactures are introducing a wide range of new technologies that are : intended to increase the safety, comfort, and mobility of drivers of all ages. Examples range from : semi-autonomous technologies such as adaptive cruise contro...

  8. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.


    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  9. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  10. Drivers` activities and information needs in an automated highway system. Working paper, August 1995-May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitan, L.; Bloomfield, J.


    In most visions of the AHS--including that of the National Automated Highway System Consortium--it has been assumed that when a vehicle was under automated control, the driver would be allowed to engage in any of a variety of activities not related to driving (e.g, working, reading, sleeping). The objective of the first study reported here--one of the noncommuter studies--was to determine what drivers do when traveling under automated control, and whether the age of and/gender or the driver and/or the intrastring gap have an influence on those activities. One the objectives of the commuter experiment--of relevance for this report--was to determine whether what drivers do when traveling under automated control changes as a function of experience with the AHS (i.e., across trials). As conceptualization of the AHS proceeds, the details of the interface between the driver and the in-vehicle system will become more important. One part of that interface will be information supplied by the AHS to the driver, perhaps about such things as traffic conditions ahead predicted trip time to the driver`s selected exit, and so on. To maximize the utility of that information, it is important to determine what it is that drivers would like to know when traveling under automated control. The objective of the third study reported here--the second of the five noncommuter experiments--was to provide a first investigation of that issue.

  11. [Occupational risk factors and perceptions of air pollution by motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou, Benin]. (United States)

    Lawin, Hervé; Ayi Fanou, Lucie; Hinson, Vikkey; Tollo, Brice; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius

    Motorcycle taxis occupy a major place in urban transport. Motorcycle taxi drivers are exposed to occupational risk factors (ORF) including air pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate these ORF among motorcycle taxi drivers and their perceptions of air pollution. This mixed study was conducted on motorcycle taxi drivers in Cotonou. The qualitative study was based on focus groups concerning 16 items from the Participatory Occupational Risk Screening Guide (DEPARIS) until saturation and after triangulation of data. The quantitative study consisted of administering a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, cardiopulmonary diseases, and perception of air -pollution risk factors among 397 Cotonou motorcycle taxi drivers. Drivers perceived poor road conditions, effort and handling, and lack of social security as unsatisfactory ORF. Their mean age was 40.95 ± 8.75 years and 45.84% had primary -education. They had been working as motorcycle taxi drivers for an average of 134.95 ± 101.53 months with an average income of FCFA 3138 ± 1238. These occupational factors were significantly associated with cardiopulmonary disorders, observed in 63.2% of drivers. Less than 1/3 of drivers felt that air pollution affected their personal health. Motorcycle taxi drivers have a poor perception of ORF and the severity of exposure to air pollution in this occupation. There is a need to take action to promote the health of this population.

  12. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption. (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael


    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  14. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection. (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  15. among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Long years of driving [AOR =4.6 (95%CI, 1.6-12.9)], involvement in a similar activity prior to becoming taxi driver .... full time taxi driver; produce a valid driving license; .... Self-employee .... professional car drivers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

  16. Visually impaired drivers who use bioptic telescopes: self-assessed driving skills and agreement with on-road driving evaluation. (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Elgin, Jennifer; Wood, Joanne M


    To compare self-assessed driving habits and skills of licensed drivers with central visual loss who use bioptic telescopes to those of age-matched normally sighted drivers, and to examine the association between bioptic drivers' impressions of the quality of their driving and ratings by a "backseat" evaluator. Participants were licensed bioptic drivers (n = 23) and age-matched normally sighted drivers (n = 23). A questionnaire was administered addressing driving difficulty, space, quality, exposure, and, for bioptic drivers, whether the telescope was helpful in on-road situations. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed. Information on ocular diagnosis, telescope characteristics, and bioptic driving experience was collected from the medical record or in interview. On-road driving performance in regular traffic conditions was rated independently by two evaluators. Like normally sighted drivers, bioptic drivers reported no or little difficulty in many driving situations (e.g., left turns, rush hour), but reported more difficulty under poor visibility conditions and in unfamiliar areas (P Driving exposure was reduced in bioptic drivers (driving 250 miles per week on average vs. 410 miles per week for normally sighted drivers, P = 0.02), but driving space was similar to that of normally sighted drivers (P = 0.29). All but one bioptic driver used the telescope in at least one driving task, and 56% used the telescope in three or more tasks. Bioptic drivers' judgments about the quality of their driving were very similar to backseat evaluators' ratings. Bioptic drivers show insight into the overall quality of their driving and areas in which they experience driving difficulty. They report using the bioptic telescope while driving, contrary to previous claims that it is primarily used to pass the vision screening test at licensure.

  17. Substance Use and Cognitive Function as Drivers of Condomless Anal Sex Among HIV-Positive Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Aged 50 and Older: The Gold Studies. (United States)

    Kupprat, Sandra A; Krause, Kristen D; Ompad, Danielle C; Halkitis, Perry N


    Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older. Data from a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive MSM, aged 50 and older (N = 169) were gathered using a computer-assisted survey, researcher-administered behavioral and neurocognitive measures. More than 50% of the men used substances and had one or more cognitive impairments. However, only 25% were at higher risk for dementia (i.e., two or more cognitive impairments). Multivariable modeling indicated that use of alcohol to intoxication and date of HIV diagnosis were the strongest predictors of CAS in both a model that included dementia risk and a model that included impaired executive function risk. Current illicit substance use was a significant predictor of CAS only in the model that included dementia risk. Those with better cognitive and executive function had higher odds of CAS. However, only executive function was a significant cognitive predictor of CAS. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of cognitive function and substance use on sexual risk behaviors as these HIV-positive men achieve normal life expectancies, while continuing to use substances and engage in CAS. Furthermore, addiction treatment remains a critical need for this group even as they transition into later adulthood.

  18. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu


    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  19. Near peripheral motion contrast threshold predicts older drivers' simulator performance. (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Gagnon, Sylvain; Collin, Charles; Tabone, Ricardo; Stinchcombe, Arne


    Our group has previously demonstrated that peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) is significantly associated with self-reported accident risk of older drivers (questionnaire assessment), and with Useful Field of View(®) subtest 2 (UFOV2). It has not been shown, however, that PMCT is significantly associated with driving performance. Using the method of descending limits (spatial two-alternative forced choice) we assessed motion contrast thresholds of 28 young participants (25-45), and 21 older drivers (63-86) for 0.4 cycle/degree drifting Gabor stimuli at 15° eccentricity and examined whether it was related to performance on a simulated on-road test and to a measure of visual attention (UFOV(®) subtests 2 and 3). Peripheral motion contrast thresholds (PMCT) of younger participants were significantly lower than older participants. PMCT and UFOV2 significantly predicted driving examiners' scores of older drivers' simulator performance, as well as number of crashes. Within the older group, PMCT correlated significantly with UFOV2, UFOV3, and age. Within the younger group, PMCT was not significantly related to either UFOV(®) scores or age. Partial correlations showed that: substantial association between PMCT and UFOV2 was not age-related (within the older driver group); PMCT and UFOV2 tapped a common visual function; and PMCT assessed a component not captured by UFOV2. PMCT is potentially a useful assessment tool for predicting accident risk of older drivers, and for informing efforts to develop effective countermeasures to remediate this functional deficit as much as possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers. (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo


    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  1. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Barletta, W. A.; Winslow, L. A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Toups, M.; Adelmann, A.


    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented

  2. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, Andy


    This document is on Geant 4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They re OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output with out an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple

  3. Good Old Gamers, Good Drivers: Results from a correlational experiment among older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong


    Full Text Available In many situations, driving is essential for senior citizens to maintain their independent lifestyle. A systematic literature review was conducted that summarized the age-related physical, visual and cognitive functional declines and their associated risk to driving. Based on these findings, we explored whether the skills required in playing Xbox Kinect video games were correlated with measures of driving performance among older drivers. Fifty-two participants, 65 years of age or older (Mean = 72; SD = 3.84; range 65 – 85 years; 29 males who have access to a car and drive frequently were invited to play Just dance, Table Tennis (ping pong, Bowling, and Dr Kawashima’s Brain Training Exercises on an Xbox Kinect 360. Participants also completed a 25-minute on-road driving task along a predetermined route to assess and identify critical driving errors using a similar instrument as that used by a driving license tester. Bivariate correlation examined the relationship between game scores and these objective driving skills. There was a significant correlation between the Xbox Kinect video games and on-road driving scores (r = 0.861, p <0.001, indicating that ‘good gamers are good drivers’. This was correlation was significant for the males (r = 0.864, p <0.001 as well as for the females (r = 0.878, p <0.001. We suggest that performance on Xbox games may be a suitable, cost-effective and less-risky indicator of on-road driving skills for older drivers, particularly in jurisdictions in which mandatory testing of older citizens has been introduced or is being considered as a requirement in the driver licensing process.

  4. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.


    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  5. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.


    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  6. Augmented Reality Cues and Elderly Driver Hazard Perception (United States)

    Schall, Mark C.; Rusch, Michelle L.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Thomas, Geb; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew


    Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) cues in improving driving safety in elderly drivers who are at increased crash risk due to cognitive impairments. Background Cognitively challenging driving environments pose a particular crash risk for elderly drivers. AR cueing is a promising technology to mitigate risk by directing driver attention to roadway hazards. This study investigates whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in elderly drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Methods Twenty elderly (Mean= 73 years, SD= 5 years), licensed drivers with a range of cognitive abilities measured by a speed of processing (SOP) composite participated in a one-hour drive in an interactive, fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant drove through six, straight, six-mile-long rural roadway scenarios following a lead vehicle. AR cues directed attention to potential roadside hazards in three of the scenarios, and the other three were uncued (baseline) drives. Effects of AR cueing were evaluated with respect to: 1) detection of hazardous target objects, 2) interference with detecting nonhazardous secondary objects, and 3) impairment in maintaining safe distance behind a lead vehicle. Results AR cueing improved the detection of hazardous target objects of low visibility. AR cues did not interfere with detection of nonhazardous secondary objects and did not impair ability to maintain safe distance behind a lead vehicle. SOP capacity did not moderate those effects. Conclusion AR cues show promise for improving elderly driver safety by increasing hazard detection likelihood without interfering with other driving tasks such as maintaining safe headway. PMID:23829037

  7. Musculoskeletal injuries in auto racing: a retrospective study of 137 drivers. (United States)

    Koutras, Christos; Buecking, Benjamin; Jaeger, Marcus; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Heep, Hansjoerg


    The effect of continuous exposure of a driver's bones and muscles to vibration and G forces to years of automobile racing and the effect on overall health have not yet been examined in detail. The goal of this study was to investigate via questionnaire the musculoskeletal injuries and influencing parameters in 130 amateur and 7 professional race car drivers. A questionnaire, translated in English and German, was used to investigate the parameters that influence the racing performance and the character of resulting injuries. This investigation involved 137 drivers (133 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 42 years (standard deviation = 15). Approximately half of the drivers had race duration was relevant to neck and shoulder discomfort. The high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in race car driving indicates the need for further improvements. Elimination of driver complaints about pain in the spine and upper extremities can be achieved through technical development, as already accomplished in Formula One racing.

  8. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba]. (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón


    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  9. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers. (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei


    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  10. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  11. The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers. (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie


    The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognized as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has been recognized as a pervasive young driver problem. Though progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilization and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates. The aim of the research was to explore sex differences in self-reported risky driving behaviors of young drivers, including the associations with crash involvement, in a sample of young drivers attending university in Colombia. The Spanish version of the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS-Sp) was applied in an online survey to a sample of 392 students (225 males) aged 16-24 years attending a major university. Appropriate comparative statistics and logistic regression modeling were used when analyzing the data. Males reported consistently more risky driving behaviors, with approximately one quarter of all participants reporting risky driving exposure. Males reported greater crash involvement, with violations such as speeding associated with crash involvement for both males and females. Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviors as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviors than young female drivers, a finding consistent with the behaviors of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investigate how these

  12. Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers. (United States)

    Wayne, Nancy L; Miller, Gregory A


    Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics-either currently or in the past-significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers' age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability.

  13. [Social support and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1 413 train drivers in a railway bureau]. (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R


    Objective: To investigate the social support status of train drivers. Methods: Using cluster sampling, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 413 male train drivers (including 301 passenger train drivers, 683 freight train drivers, 85 guest scheduling train drivers, 265 cargo adjustable drivers, and 79 high-speed train drivers) from a railway bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, social support, occupational stressors, strains, personalities, and coping strategy using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. We compared the difference in social support scores between different drivers, who were divided according to job type and age. Additionally, the correlation between social support score and job strain-related factors was analyzed. The influence of depressive symptoms and job satisfaction were analyzed using a non-conditional logistic multivariate model. Results: The overall average age P (50) ( P (25), P (75)) of 1 413 train drivers was 33.92 (27.83,43.58) years. The overall average length of service 12.25 (5.25,22.75) years. A significant difference in social support scores was observed according to job type ( H =23.23, P40 years (27 (22,31)). Correlation analysis revealed that the social support score was negatively associated with job satisfaction ( r=- 0.43), reward ( r=- 0.22), working stability ( r=- 0.23), promotion opportunities ( r=- 0.12), positive affectivity ( r=- 0.31), esteem ( r=- 0.21), and self-esteem ( r=- 0.20) scores ( Pstress ( r= 0.29), negative affectivity ( r= 0.23), and depressive symptoms ( r= 0.44) scores ( Poccupational stress. High social support was related to reduction in the occurrence of occupational stress, depressive symptoms, and low job satisfaction. Social support is related to mental health of train drivers.

  14. Do Circadian Preferences Influence the Sleep Patterns of Night Shift Drivers? (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda V.; Esteves, Andrea M.; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R.A.; Silva, Rogerio S.; Pires, Maria Laura N.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio


    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. Subjects and Methods A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. Results The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. Conclusion The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. PMID:23988815

  15. An exploratory study of long-haul truck drivers' secondary tasks and reasons for performing them. (United States)

    Iseland, Tobias; Johansson, Emma; Skoog, Siri; Dåderman, Anna M


    Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related "necessities" (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Do circadian preferences influence the sleep patterns of night shift drivers? (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda V; Esteves, Andrea M; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R A; Silva, Rogerio S; Pires, Maria Laura N; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio


    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  18. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P


    Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution. To focus on crashes most likely to be affected, we limited analysis to crashes involving 16- & 17-year-old drivers occurring on days when school was in session. In the intervention county, there was a 14% downward shift in the time-series following the 75 min delay in school start times (p = .076). There was no change approaching statistical significance in any of the other three counties. Further analysis indicated marked, statistically significant shifts in hourly crash rates in the intervention county, reflecting effects of the change in school start time on young driver exposure. Crashes from 7 to 7:59 am decreased sharply (-25%, p = .008), but increased similarly from 8 to 8:59 am (21%, p = .004). Crashes from 2 to 2:59 pm declined dramatically (-48%, p = .000), then increased to a lesser degree from 3 to 3:59 pm (32%, p = .024) and non-significantly from 4 to 4:59 (19%, p = .102). There was no meaningful change in early morning or nighttime crashes, when drowsiness-induced crashes might have been expected to be most common. The small decrease in crashes among high school age drivers following the shift in school start time is consistent with the findings of other studies of teen driver crashes and school start times. All these studies, including the present one, have limitations, but the similar

  19. Older drivers with cognitive impairments : issues of detection and assessment


    Lundberg, Catarina


    Older drivers are often presented as a traffic safety problem . Age-related medical conditions such as dementias and stroke impair cognitive functions that are crucial for safe driving Uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate clinical methods to assess driving fitness in these patient groups. Furthermore, preclinical dementia and cognitive impairment may affect driving performance and lead to an increased crash risk. The first general aim of the thesis was to inve...

  20. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24). (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu


    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  1. The benefits and drawbacks of syringe drivers in palliative care. (United States)

    Costello, John; Nyatanga, Brian; Mula, Carole; Hull, Jenny


    This article will outline the use of continuous subcutaneous infusion pumps, known as syringe drivers, including their benefits and drawbacks in a palliative care context. There have been over 5000 articles published globally describing syringe drivers in the medical and nursing literature within the last decade. Many provide guidance on their use, although much of the data are repetitious, disease or age-group specific, and focused on pragmatic issues to do with clinical application. Several trusts and hospices across the UK are carrying out trials of the recently launched McKinley T34 syringe driver. Therefore, it seems timely to consider their wider use internationally. Globally, practitioners in palliative care are very familiar with their use, although the literature lacks specific guidance and, at times, the information is ambiguous. Having briefly reviewed their benefits, the article considers the limitations of using syringe drivers and comments on some of the lesser known/reported practical and patient-focused drawbacks associated with their use. We conclude by considering why, when so much education and training exists to help practitioners use these devices effectively, so many human errors occur.

  2. Dominant drivers of business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Cătălina


    Full Text Available Taibi Kahler wrote in 1974 a theory about five main drivers that could explain people’s motivation and a series of positive and negative behavior patterns: Be Strong, Be Perfect, Hurry Up, Try Hard and Please People. Of course, we consider there is no absolute positive or negative behavior, since (1 everything needs to be analyzed by taking into account the context and (2 any behavior pattern can mean a series of advantages as long as people understand their own values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. It would be interesting to link Kahler’s drivers to the educational process, in order to be able to adapt our courses and our teaching styles to students’ requirements and also to the requirements in the labor market. Our paper is built on literature review and a questionnaire applied to a sample of 607 students in Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Information was processed with Microsoft Excel 2013, in order to look at the main working styles our students have, at the main explanations for the differences between them and in order to test a series of hypotheses. We were interested to look at the main traits of the current generation of students in our university: dominant drivers, roles of managers and specialists, the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial career path, etc. and at a series of patterns (i.e. gender-related differences. We consider results of this study are useful both for teaching and research purposes. In terms of teaching, we plan to adapt our educational methods in order to improve the educational process.

  3. Evaluation of the safety benefits of the risk awareness and perception training program for novice teen drivers. (United States)


    This project evaluated the impact of the PC-based Risk Awareness and Perception Training (RAPT) program on young driver crashes and traffic violations. Young drivers 16 to 18 years of age were recruited immediately after they passed the on-road drivi...

  4. Dominant role of drivers' attitude in prevention of road traffic crashes: a study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers in Iran. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ramazan; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Sadegh Sabagh, Mohammad; Ansari Moghaddam, Alireza; Eslami, Vahid; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa


    Evaluating the relation between Iranian drivers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding traffic regulations, and their deterministic effect on road traffic crashes (RTCs). Two cities of Tehran and Zahedan, Iran. A cross-sectional study was designed. Using a simplified cluster sampling design, 2200 motor vehicle drivers including 1200 in Tehran and 1000 in Zahedan were selected. Sixty locations in Tehran and 50 in Zahedan were chosen. In each pre-identified location, 20 adult drivers were approached consecutively. A questionnaire developed by researchers was filled by each participant. The questionnaire had four sections including items assessing the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers toward traffic regulations. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the RTCs and KAP variables. The study sample consisted of 619 (28.1%) occupational and 1580 (71.8%) private drivers. Among them, 86.4% were male. The median age was 33.6 ± 10.83. Drivers in Tehran and Zahedan had no significant differences between their mean scores of KAP items of the questionnaire. Higher knowledge, safer attitude, and safer practice were associated with a decreased number of RTC. After adjusting for possible confounders, increase of one standard deviation in attitude and practice scores (but not knowledge) resulted in 26.4% and 18.5% decrease in RTC, respectively. Finally, considering knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers in one model to assess their mutual effect, it was shown that only attitude is significantly associated with a decrease of RTC (OR=0.76, P=0.007). Increase in attitude and practice accompanied with decreased number of RTCs in Iranian drivers. Specifically, drivers' attitude had the crucial effect. It is not knowledge and standard traffic education; rather it is how such education is registered as an attitude that translates what is being learned into actions. Without safer attitude, even safer self

  5. The Intention in Speeding Behavior between Low and High Intended Young Driver in Urban University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ghazali Masuri,


    Full Text Available The number of road traffic accidents among young adult aged under 25 years old is an alarming issue in Malaysia. A five pages self-reported questionnaire was distributed to 384 young drivers' to investigate their intention in speeding while driving. Results have shown, the intention to speed among low and high intended based line group revealed a significant difference when it was compared with four types of scenario. Correct stimulation while driving could help drivers to change their intention to speed. This stimulation may be able to reduce the drivers' potential to involve with an accident and will save peoples' life.

  6. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.


    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  7. Economic drivers of mineral supply (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.


    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  8. Risky behavior of drivers of motorized two wheeled vehicles in India. (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Lalit


    Motorized two-wheeled vehicles (MTV) account for a large proportion of road traffic in India and the riders of these vehicles have a high risk of road traffic injuries. We report on the availability of drivers licenses, use of a helmet, driver behavior, and condition of vehicles for MTV drivers in Hyderabad, a city in India Drivers of a MTV aged >16 years were interviewed at petrol filling stations There were 4,183 MTV drivers who participated in the study. Four hundred sixty one (11%; 95% CI 9.7-12.3%) drivers had not obtained a drivers license and 798 (21.4%) had obtained a license without taking the mandatory driving test. Two thousand nine hundred twenty (69.8%; 95% CI 67.9-71.7%) drivers reported no/very occasional use of a helmet, the significant predictors of which included that those driving borrowed a MTV (odds ratio 7.90; 95% CI 3.40-18.40) or driving moped/scooterette/scooter as compared with motorcycle (3.32; 2.76-3.98), lower education (3.10; 2.66-3.61), age >45 years (2.41; 1.63-3.57), and males (1.57; 1.16-2.13). Two thousand five hundred and eight (59.9%) drivers reported committing a traffic law violation at least once within the last 3 months. Overall, 1,222 (29.2%) drivers reported ever being caught by traffic police for a traffic law violation with data on violations available for 1,205 of these drivers, of whom 680 (56.4%) paid a fine, 310 (25.7%) paid by bribe, and 215 (17.8%) made no payment. The proportion of those who did not make payment for committed violation was significantly higher among females (46.8%) than males (16.3%). Two thousand fifty two (49%) of all MTVs had no rearview mirror These data suggest the need to enact and enforce policy interventions for improving the drivers license system, mandatory use of a helmet, effective traffic law enforcement, and ensuring good vehicle condition to reduce the risk factors that potentially contribute to mortality and morbidity in road traffic crashes in MTV drivers in Indian cities.

  9. Evaluation of Traffic Accident Risk in In-City Bus Drivers: The Use of Berlin Questionnaire (United States)

    Ekren, Pervin Korkmaz; Uysal, Funda Elmas; Başoğlu, Özen K.


    OBJECTIVES Traffic accidents associated with high mortality rate may produce serious problems especially in highways. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a high risk for traffic accidents due to excessive daytime sleepiness even in in-city drivers. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the rate of OSA symptoms and to identify risk factors associated with traffic accidents in in-city bus drivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS A self-administered questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric features, sleep and work schedules, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), and history of traffic accidents was used. RESULTS The questionnaire was conducted for 1400 male bus drivers (mean age, 38.0±6.4 y, body mass index, 27.8±3.9 kg/m2). A total of 1058 (75.6%) drivers had one or more accidents while driving bus. According to the Berlin questionnaire, 176 (12.6%) drivers were found to have high OSA risk and the accident rate was 83.0% in high-risk group, whereas 74.5% of low-risk drivers had accidents (p=0.043). The drivers with a history of traffic accident were older (p=0.030), had higher ESS (p=0.019), and were more in the high-risk OSA group according to the Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). In multivariate linear regression analysis, traffic accident was associated with only Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). CONCLUSION The present results support that city bus drivers with high OSA risk according to Berlin questionnaire have increased accident rates. Therefore, we suggest using Berlin questionnaire for screening sleep apnea not only in highway drivers but also in in-city bus drivers. PMID:29755810

  10. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers' public vehicles using willingness to pay method. (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban


    To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others.

  11. Truck drivers' opinion on road safety in Tanzania--a questionnaire study. (United States)

    Kircher, Katja; Andersson, Jan


    Even though the traffic fatality risk (fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants) in Tanzania is quite low, the fatality rate (fatalities per 10,000 vehicles) is one of the highest in the world. With increasing vehicle density this means that the number of people dying in traffic will increase dramatically in the near future. Therefore, it is important to implement measures to increase traffic safety as soon as possible, and in order to be able to do this in an efficient way, it is important to investigate where the main problems lie. Within the European Union (EU) project ASSET-Road a questionnaire study on road safety was conducted with 250 truck drivers in Tanzania. The study was done to increase the knowledge about the situation of the Tanzanian truckers, who are the most frequent road users in the country. The drivers were interviewed in 3 different towns in southern Tanzania, and participation was voluntary. The questionnaire treated demographics, the state of the drivers' vehicles, the frequency of breakdowns, and the maintenance of the vehicles. Further questions concerned driver behavior, crash involvement, crash risk, and crash mitigation. The drivers who participated in the study were predominantly male and their average age was 36 years. Truck drivers reported driving 10.6 h without a break on average, with several drivers reporting that they had to drive 24 h without rest. Around 40 percent of the trucks did not have any seat belts installed, with a larger share of older trucks lacking belts. Most of the drivers who had seat belts reported using them, however. Almost 40 percent of the drivers reported being involved in at least one crash, and 45 percent of those drivers had experienced fatal crashes. This underlines that the crash frequency per vehicle is very high, and the results are often severe, especially when heavy vehicles are involved. When asked what the 3 most common crash causations were, driver-related causes were named frequently. Drivers were


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Despite being an important mode of transportation in the developing world, little research has been conducted to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving three wheel vehicles. This study surveyed a convenient sample of 505 professional three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka to explore the similarities and differences in the demographic and work characteristics between three-wheeler drivers who reported experiencing at least one collision in the past twelve months and those who reported that they were not involved in any collisions. Our study revealed some interesting results that were quite different from those obtained in the studies on professional drivers in developed countries. In particular, both drivers with less than one year and more than five years of driving experience in our study were found to be associated with higher probability of crash involvement. Also, the number of trips per day and the average travel distance per trip were found to be insignificant in delineating between crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. Moreover, crash-involved drivers, on average, have significantly fewer working days per week and fewer hours per day, suggesting that the conventional approach used in most developed countries to tackle fatigue among professional drivers do not appear to be suitable for solving the road safety problem involving three-wheeler drivers in a developing country. Also, since the age of most drivers falls in a narrow range, this U-shaped relationship is not likely to be a result of youth and ageing but of inexperience in newer drivers and complacency in more experienced drivers. Lastly, since a relatively large proportion of the drivers had driven without a valid driving license, legislation and enforcement interventions are likely to be less effective than education and engineering countermeasures.

  13. Impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills in novice drivers (United States)

    Miller, Gregory A.


    Given that novice drivers tend to be young, and teenagers and young adult drivers are involved in the greatest number of accidents, it is important that we understand what factors impact the driving skills of this population of drivers. The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of gender, organized athletics, and video gaming on driving skills of novice drivers under real-world driving conditions. Novice driving students having less than five hours driving experience previous to a normal driving lesson were evaluated on their self-confidence (self-reported) prior to the lesson and driving skill evaluated by their instructor during the course of the lesson. Information was collected about gender, age, whether or not the students were involved in organized athletics, and the extent of their video game playing. There was no impact of gender or extent of video game playing on driving skills. Females were significantly less self-confident with driving than males, but this did not translate to gender differences in driving skills. Being involved in organized athletics—either currently or in the past—significantly enhanced driving skills in both females and males. Finally, novice drivers’ age was negatively correlated with driving skills. That is, younger novice drivers (especially males) had better driving skills than older novice drivers. This is counter to popular belief that young drivers lack technical driving skills because they have less experience behind the wheel. Based on the results of the current study, we hypothesize that the relatively high accident rate of younger drivers (especially male drivers) is most likely due to inattention to safety considerations rather than lack of technical driving ability. PMID:29364957

  14. Exploring road design factors influencing tram road safety - Melbourne tram driver focus groups. (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David


    Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers' safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers' age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded 'hook turns' as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the safety implications of young drivers' behavior, attitudes and perceptions. (United States)

    Hassan, Hany M; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A


    The present study aims at identifying and quantifying significant factors (i.e., demographic, aberrant driving behavior) associated with young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic citations at the ages of 16-17 (while having the Operational License) and 18-24 years old (while having the Full License). A second objective was to investigate the main reason(s) for involvement in risky driving behavior by young drivers. The data used for the analyses were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire survey carried out among 680 young drivers in Central Florida. To achieve these goals, the structural equation modeling approach was adopted. The results revealed that aggressive violations, in-vehicle distractions and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic violations at the age of 16-17. However, in-vehicle distractions, attitudes toward speeding and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' crash risk at 18-24. Additionally, the majority of participants reported that "running late" is the main reason for taking risk while driving (i.e., speeding, accept short gaps, or drive so close to the car in front) followed by "racing other cars". Additionally, "exceed speed limits" was the main reason for receiving traffic citations at 16-17 and 18-24 age groups. Practical suggestions on how to reduce crash risk and promote safe driving among young drivers are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drivers' reactions to sudden lead car braking under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van der Horst, A.R.A.; van Arem, Bart; Brookhuis, K.A.


    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  17. Toward best practice in Human Machine Interface design for older drivers: A review of current design guidelines. (United States)

    Young, K L; Koppel, S; Charlton, J L


    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population. While there is a strong emphasis for older people to maintain their mobility, the safety of older drivers is a serious community concern. Frailty and declines in a range of age-related sensory, cognitive, and physical impairments can place older drivers at an increased risk of crash-related injuries and death. A number of studies have indicated that in-vehicle technologies such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) may provide assistance to older drivers. However, these technologies will only benefit older drivers if their design is congruent with the complex needs and diverse abilities of this driving cohort. The design of ADAS and IVIS is largely informed by automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) guidelines. However, it is unclear to what extent the declining sensory, cognitive and physical capabilities of older drivers are addressed in the current guidelines. This paper provides a review of key current design guidelines for IVIS and ADAS with respect to the extent they address age-related changes in functional capacities. The review revealed that most of the HMI guidelines do not address design issues related to older driver impairments. In fact, in many guidelines driver age and sensory cognitive and physical impairments are not mentioned at all and where reference is made, it is typically very broad. Prescriptive advice on how to actually design a system so that it addresses the needs and limitations of older drivers is not provided. In order for older drivers to reap the full benefits that in-vehicle technology can afford, it is critical that further work establish how older driver limitations and capabilities can be supported by the system design process, including their inclusion into HMI design guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What are the impacts of giving up the driver license?


    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja


    Objectives: Driving cessation is a gradual process, where driver’s self-regulation plays an important role. Age-based license renewal procedures may interfere with this process and trigger premature driving cessation. The present study compares drivers aged 69 years at the baseline who either renewed their driver’s license (“renewers”) or did not (“non-renewers”) over a two-year period.Methods: Data were collected by interviewing a sample of older Danish people in 2009 (n = 1,792) and in 2012...

  19. Driving with advanced vehicle technology: A qualitative investigation of older drivers' perceptions and motivations for use. (United States)

    Gish, Jessica; Vrkljan, Brenda; Grenier, Amanda; Van Miltenburg, Benita


    For older drivers, in-vehicle technology offers much potential to improve safety and increase longevity of retaining both licensure and community mobility. However, little is known about how older drivers perceive Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVTs) based on everyday driving experience. Interviews with 35 older drivers (20 men; 15 women) aged 60-85 who owned a vehicle with at least two AVTs (e.g., back-up camera, lane departure warning) were conducted to explore the meanings that older drivers assigned to AVTs and motivations for use, including whether age-related functional changes were part of their automobile purchase decision. Findings indicate that age-related changes are not a primary reason for why older adults seek out AVTs, but they still perceived and experienced AVTs to counteract age-related changes in driving performance based upon changes they felt occurring within the body. Older drivers also described AVTs as generating a sense of comfort behind-the-wheel. Comfort with this technology was equated with convenience, ease of use, and increased feelings of safety. Discussion emphasizes how assessments of the quality of driving performance and value of technology occur in relation to an aging body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab


    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  1. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships. (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest


    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  2. Cedar Avenue driver assist system evaluation report. (United States)


    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the Driver Assist System (DAS) used by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority (MTVA) for bus shoulder operations. The DAS is a GPS-based technology suite that provides lane-position feedback to the driver via a ...

  3. Driver electronic device use in 2013. (United States)


    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  4. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit. (United States)


    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  5. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb


    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  6. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer (United States)

    Wallace, Bilby J.


    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  7. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project (United States)


    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  8. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.


    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  9. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  10. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.


    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam. (United States)

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat


    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking mind wandering tendency to risky driving in young male drivers. (United States)

    Albert, Derek A; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Jarret, Julien; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Paquette, Martin; Badeau, Nancy; Brown, Thomas G


    Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18-21 (N=30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing Drivers' Attitude towards HUD System Using a Stated Preference Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo


    Full Text Available It is very important for drivers to obtain driving information easily and efficiently. There are many advanced devices used for driving safety assistance. Of these assistance devices, the head-up display (HUD system can promote the reduction of driver's reaction time and improve spatial awareness. The drivers' attitude towards and preference for HUD system are crucial to design the functional framework and interface of HUD system. This study explored the relationships between drivers' attitude and HUD presentation image designs using stated preference data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included drivers' attitude towards the use of HUD and the preference for the information display zone and information display elements of the HUD. Contrastive analysis was adopted to examine the variations in drivers' attitude and preference for age and driving skills. According to the results, the participants have varying attitudes to HUD system, but most participants show relatively unified preference for the information display zone and information display elements. The results can also be used to customize a HUD presentation image which is in accordance with the drivers' feelings and preferences.

  14. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A


    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  15. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.


    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  16. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction. (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L


    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  18. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke


    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  19. How driving duration influences drivers' visual behaviors and fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Eye fixations express the focus of driver's visual attention on driving, ... driver's attention is attracted by fatigue. The second ... was divided into seven refined categories (see Table 1), ...... driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study.

  20. An analysis on older driver's driving behavior by GPS tracking data: Road selection, left/right turn, and driving speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Zhao


    Full Text Available With the high older-related accident ratio and increasing population aging problem, understanding older drivers' driving behaviors has become more and more important for building and improving transportation system. This paper examines older driver's driving behavior which includes road selection, left/right turn and driving speed. A two-month experiment of 108 participants was carried out in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Since apparently contradictory statements were often drawn in survey-based or simulators-based studies, this study collected not only drivers' basic information but also GPS data. Analysis of road selection demonstrates that older drivers are reluctant to drive on expressway not only in short trips but also in long trips. The present study did not find significant difference between older drivers and others while turning at the intersections. To investigate the impact factors on driving speed, a random-effects regression model is constructed with explanatory variables including age, gender, road types and the interaction terms between age and road types. Compared with other variables, it fails to find that age (60 years old or over has significant impact on driving speed. Moreover, the results reflect that older drivers drive even faster than others at particular road types: national road and ordinary municipal road. The results in this study are expected to help improve transportation planning and develop driving assistance systems for older drivers.

  1. Behind the wheel: community consultation informs adaptation of safe-transport program for older drivers. (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Keay, Lisa


    Safe-transport is important to well-being in later life but balancing safety and independence for older drivers can be challenging. While self-regulation is a promising tool to promote road safety, more research is required to optimise programs. Qualitative research was used to inform the choice and adaptation of a safe-transport education program for older drivers. Three focus groups were conducted with older drivers living in northwest Sydney to explore four key areas related to driving in later life including aged-based licensing, stopping or limiting driving, barriers to driving cessation and alternative modes of transportation. Data were analysed using content analysis. Four categories emerged from the data; bad press for older drivers, COMPETENCE not age, call for fairness in licensing regulations, and hanging up the keys: It's complicated! Two key issues being (1) older drivers wanted to drive for as long as possible but (2) were not prepared for driving cessation; guided the choice and adaption of the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS) program. This program was adapted for the Australian context and focus group findings raised the need for practical solutions, including transport alternatives, to be added. Targeted messages were developed from the data using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM), allowing the education to be tailored to the individual's stage of behaviour change. Adapting our program based on insights gained from community consultation should ensure the program is sensitive to the needs, skills and preferences of older drivers.

  2. The impact of Stereotype Threat on the simulated driving performance of older drivers. (United States)

    Joanisse, Mélanie; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Mihnea


    Older drivers are perceived as being dangerous and overly cautious by other drivers. We tested the hypothesis that this negative stereotype has a direct influence on the performance of older drivers. Based on the Stereotype Threat literature, we predicted that older driving performance would be altered after exposure to a Stereotype Threat. Sixty-one older drivers aged 65 and above completed a simulated driving assessment course. Prior to testing, half of the participants were told that the objective of the study was to investigate why older adults aged 65 and above were more implicated in on-road accidents (Stereotype Threat condition) and half were showed a neutral statement. Results confirmed that exposure to the threat significantly altered driving performance. Older adults in the Stereotype Threat condition made more driving mistakes than those in the control group. Interestingly, under a Stereotype Threat condition, older adults tended to commit more speeding infractions. We also observed that domain identification (whether driving is deemed important or not) moderated the impact of the threat. Taken together, these results support recent older drivers' performance models suggesting that the interaction between individual and social factors need to be considered when examining older drivers' performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of at-fault older drivers in light-vehicle crashes in Singapore. (United States)

    Chin, Hoong Chor; Zhou, Mo


    A number of studies on motor vehicle crashes have suggested that older drivers are more likely to be at-fault compared to younger drivers. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to older drivers (aged 65 and above) being at fault in light vehicle crashes in Singapore. Based on 3 years of crash data, the calibrated binary logit model shows that older drivers are more likely to be at fault during peak periods and festive seasons between November to February, as well as at gore areas of expressways, intersections. Curb lanes of multi-lane roads and single-lane roads are also found to increase the odds of older drivers being at fault. Furthermore, older drivers appear to have more problems on roads with wet surfaces and speed limits of 60 km/h and 70 km/h. In the light of an aging population in Singapore, it is imperative that more targeted countermeasures be taken from multiple perspectives to lower such risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Personality and attitudes as predictors of risky driving among older drivers. (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano


    Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toyota drivers' experiences with Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, Pre-Collision System, and Lane-Keeping Assist. (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; McCartt, Anne T


    Advanced crash avoidance and driver assistance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes. Previous surveys with drivers have found favorable opinions for many advanced technologies; however, these surveys are not necessarily representative of all drivers or all systems. As the technologies spread throughout the vehicle fleet, it is important to continue studying driver acceptance and use of them. This study focused on 2010-2013 Toyota Sienna and Prius models that were equipped with adaptive cruise control, forward collision avoidance, and lane departure warning and prevention (Prius models only). Telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2013 with 183 owners of vehicles with these technologies. About 9 in 10 respondents wanted adaptive cruise control and forward collision avoidance on their next vehicle, and 71% wanted lane departure warning/prevention again. Males and females reported some differences in their experiences with the systems; for example, males were more likely to have turned on lane departure warning/prevention than females, and when using this system, males reported more frequent warnings than did females. Relative to older drivers, drivers age 40 and younger were more likely to have seen or heard a forward collision warning. Consistent with the results in previous surveys of owners of luxury vehicles, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies was high, although less so for lane departure warning/prevention. Experiences with the Toyota systems differed by driver age and gender to a greater degree than in previous surveys, suggesting that the responses of drivers may begin to differ as crash avoidance technology becomes available on a wider variety of vehicles. Crash avoidance technologies potentially can prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their success depends in part on driver acceptance. These systems will be effective only to the extent that drivers use them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and

  6. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers. (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei


    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students. (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina


    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers. (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui


    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A parametric duration model of the reaction times of drivers distracted by mobile phone conversations. (United States)

    Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon


    The use of mobile phones while driving is more prevalent among young drivers-a less experienced cohort with elevated crash risk. The objective of this study was to examine and better understand the reaction times of young drivers to a traffic event originating in their peripheral vision whilst engaged in a mobile phone conversation. The CARRS-Q advanced driving simulator was used to test a sample of young drivers on various simulated driving tasks, including an event that originated within the driver's peripheral vision, whereby a pedestrian enters a zebra crossing from a sidewalk. Thirty-two licensed drivers drove the simulator in three phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld. In addition to driving the simulator each participant completed questionnaires related to driver demographics, driving history, usage of mobile phones while driving, and general mobile phone usage history. The participants were 21-26 years old and split evenly by gender. Drivers' reaction times to a pedestrian in the zebra crossing were modelled using a parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) duration model with a Weibull distribution. Also tested where two different model specifications to account for the structured heterogeneity arising from the repeated measures experimental design. The Weibull AFT model with gamma heterogeneity was found to be the best fitting model and identified four significant variables influencing the reaction times, including phone condition, driver's age, license type (provisional license holder or not), and self-reported frequency of usage of handheld phones while driving. The reaction times of drivers were more than 40% longer in the distracted condition compared to baseline (not distracted). Moreover, the impairment of reaction times due to mobile phone conversations was almost double for provisional compared to open license holders. A reduction in the ability to detect traffic events in the periphery whilst distracted

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Saberi


    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency. Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features. Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license. Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  11. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in Korean subway drivers. (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jo, Sun-Jin; Choi, Bongkyoo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Kang Sook; Park, Jong-Ik; Chang, Sung Man


    The purposes of this study are to investigate the prevalence of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Korean subway drivers, and find the association between these disorders and the drivers' person-under-train (PUT) experiences. A total of 826 subway drivers who participated in a cross-sectional work and health survey were included for this study. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was applied to assess major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and PTSD. The date of PUT, whether victim died, and how many PUTs the drivers experienced were asked using a structured questionnaire. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for lifetime prevalence of panic disorder and PTSD in subway drivers were 13.3 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.6-22.4) and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.1-3.4), respectively. In lifetime prevalence, after adjusting for age, education, income, and working career, the drivers who experienced PUT had significantly higher risks for panic disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, 95 % CI 1.2-16.6) and PTSD (OR = 4.4, 95 % CI 1.3-16.4). In 1-year prevalence, the drivers who experienced PUT had a significantly higher risk for PTSD (OR = 11.7, 95 % CI 1.9-225.8). There was no significant value of SPR and OR in major depressive disorder. This study suggests that Korean subway drivers are at higher risk for panic disorder and PTSD compared to the general population, and PUT experience is associated with panic disorder and PTSD. Drivers who have experienced PUT should be treated quickly, sympathetically, and sensitively by a psychological professional and their colleagues, so they can return to work soon.

  12. Examining physiological responses across different driving maneuvers during an on-road driving task: a pilot study comparing older and younger drivers. (United States)

    Koppel, S; Kuo, J; Berecki-Gisolf, J; Boag, R; Hue, Y-X; Charlton, J L


    This pilot study aimed to investigate physiological responses during an on-road driving task for older and younger drivers. Five older drivers (mean age = 74.60 years [2.97]) and 5 younger drivers (mean age = 30.00 years [3.08]) completed a series of cognitive assessments (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA], Mini Mental Status Examination [MMSE]; Trail Making Test [Trails A and Trails B]) and an on-road driving task along a predetermined, standardized urban route in their own vehicle. Driving performance was observed and scored by a single trained observer using a standardized procedure, where driving behaviors (appropriate and inappropriate) were scored for intersection negotiation, lane changing, and merging. During the on-road driving task, participants' heart rate (HR) was monitored with an unobtrusive physiological monitor. Younger drivers performed significantly better on all cognitive assessments compared to older drivers (MoCA: t(8) = 3.882, P task revealed a high level of appropriate overall driving behavior (M = 87%, SD = 7.62, range = 73-95%), including intersection negotiation (M = 89%, SD = 8.37%), lane changing (M = 100%), and merging (M = 53%, SD = 28.28%). The overall proportion of appropriate driving behavior did not significantly differ across age groups (younger drivers: M = 87.6%, SD = 9.04; older drivers: M = 87.0%, SD = 6.96; t(8) = 0.118, P =.91). Although older drivers scored lower than younger drivers on the cognitive assessments, there was no indication of cognitive overload among older drivers based on HR response to the on-road driving task. The results provide preliminary evidence that mild age-related cognitive impairment may not pose a motor vehicle crash hazard for the wider older driver population. To maintain safe mobility of the aging population, further research into the specific crash risk factors in the older driver population is warranted.

  13. Older driver failures of attention at intersections: using change blindness methods to assess turn decision accuracy. (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Edwards, Christopher J; Creaser, Janet I; Horrey, William J


    A modified version of the flicker technique to induce change blindness was used to examine the effects of time constraints on decision-making accuracy at intersections on a total of 62 young (18-25 years), middle-aged (26-64 years), young-old (65-73 years), and old-old (74+ years) drivers. Thirty-six intersection photographs were manipulated so that one object (i.e., pedestrian, vehicle, sign, or traffic control device) in the scene would change when the images were alternated for either 5 or 8 s using the modified flicker method. Young and middle-aged drivers made significantly more correct decisions than did young-old and old-old drivers. Logistic regression analysis of the data indicated that age and/or time were significant predictors of decision performance in 14 of the 36 intersections. Actual or potential applications of this research include driving assessment and crash investigation.

  14. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim


    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  15. Education for older drivers in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Keskinen


    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  17. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?


    Fraichard , Thierry


    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  18. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard


    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  19. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene


    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  20. Behavior and lifestyle characteristics of male Kuwaiti drivers. (United States)

    Al-Hemoud, Ali M; Simmons, Rodney J; Al-Asfoor, May M


    The high traffic accident risk among young drivers is a well-known and well-documented fact in most countries. Lifestyle has proven to affect driving behavior as well as accident risk. This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young male Kuwaiti drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 302 male Kuwaiti drivers (mean age=28 years; range 25-35 years) answer 39 questions related to behavioral and social factors, road conditions, police enforcement, and life satisfaction. They also report their involvement in accidents and traffic violations. The questionnaire's validity and reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.7) were achieved. Principal component analysis reduced the 39 items on the questionnaire to 5 factors. Inadequate police enforcement is strongly correlated (r=0.862) to accident risk and traffic violations and is thus considered the best predictor of traffic accidents in Kuwait. As driving-related incidents (on-the-job and off-the-job) are a significant source of fatalities and lost-work-days, the study points to the importance of considering cultural factors in the design of comprehensive safety programs for industry. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort among heavy truck drivers. (United States)

    Nazerian, Ramtin; Korhan, Orhan; Shakeri, Ehsan


    Heavy truck drivers are exposed to various psychological, psychosocial and physiological factors, some of which can cause musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. This study aims to investigate the correlation between different factors of musculoskeletal discomfort in heavy truck drivers. A cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 384 participants were interviewed using an updated version of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. While hypothesis testing was used to assess the association of different factors in musculoskeletal discomfort, logistic regression was applied to explore different correlations among questions of the survey. The results demonstrate that hours of exposure to vibration were associated with discomfort in the neck and shoulders (p  0.05. Fifty-seven percent of the drivers were suffering from discomfort in their lower back region. Moreover, seat comfort was found to be highly correlated with discomfort in the neck, shoulder and upper back areas. Additionally, with aging the likelihood of experiencing discomfort in the neck, upper back and knees is increased.

  2. Association between unsafe driving performance and cognitive-perceptual dysfunction in older drivers. (United States)

    Park, Si-Woon; Choi, Eun Seok; Lim, Mun Hee; Kim, Eun Joo; Hwang, Sung Il; Choi, Kyung-In; Yoo, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Kuem Ju; Jung, Hi-Eun


    To find an association between cognitive-perceptual problems of older drivers and unsafe driving performance during simulated automobile driving in a virtual environment. Cross-sectional study. A driver evaluation clinic in a rehabilitation hospital. Fifty-five drivers aged 65 years or older and 48 drivers in their late twenties to early forties. All participants underwent evaluation of cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance, and the results were compared between older and younger drivers. The association between cognitive-perceptual function and driving performance was analyzed. Cognitive-perceptual function was evaluated with the Cognitive Perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD), a computer-based assessment tool consisting of depth perception, sustained attention, divided attention, the Stroop test, the digit span test, field dependency, and trail-making test A and B. Driving performance was evaluated with use of a virtual reality-based driving simulator. During simulated driving, car crashes were recorded, and an occupational therapist observed unsafe performances in controlling speed, braking, steering, vehicle positioning, making lane changes, and making turns. Thirty-five older drivers did not pass the CPAD test, whereas all of the younger drivers passed the test. When using the driving simulator, a significantly greater number of older drivers experienced car crashes and demonstrated unsafe performance in controlling speed, steering, and making lane changes. CPAD results were associated with car crashes, steering, vehicle positioning, and making lane changes. Older drivers who did not pass the CPAD test are 4 times more likely to experience a car crash, 3.5 times more likely to make errors in steering, 2.8 times more likely to make errors in vehicle positioning, and 6.5 times more likely to make errors in lane changes than are drivers who passed the CPAD test. Unsafe driving performance and car crashes during simulated driving were more

  3. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review. (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria


    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  4. 2010 driver attitudes and awareness survey. (United States)


    A basic of questions were developed that could be used in periodic surveys that track drivers attitudes and awareness concerning impaired driving, seat belt use, and speeding issues. The objective of the survey was to learn the knowledge, views, and ...

  5. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability. (United States)


    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  6. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research


    Wang, Junhua


    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  7. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers (United States)


    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  8. Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities (United States)


    Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...

  9. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  10. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress (United States)


    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  11. Experimental testing of designated driver cues (United States)


    In theory, the designated-driver concept holds great promise for reducing the incidences of drunk driving. It is simple, inexpensive, almost universally recognized, and generally positively regarded by the U.S. population as a means for avoiding drun...

  12. Heavy-ion driver parametric studies and choice of a base 5 mega-joule driver design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Meier, W.


    Parametric studies to optimize heavy-ion driver designs are described and an optimized 5 MJ driver design is described. Parametric studies are done on driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, axial quadrupole field packing fraction, ion mass, and ion charge state. All modeled drivers use the maximum beam currents allowed by the Maschke limits; driver scaling is described in a companion paper. The optimized driver described is conservative and cost effective. The base driver direct costs are only $120/Joule, and the base driver uses no recirculation, beam combination, or beam separation. The low driver cost achieved is due, in part, to the use of compact Nb 3 Sn quadrupole arrays, but results primarily from optimization over the large, multi-dimensional, parameter space available for heavy-ion drivers

  13. Leveraging accelerated testing of LED drivers to model the reliability of two-stage and multi-channel drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Perkins, Curtis; Smith, Aaron; Clark, Terry; Mills, Karmann


    The next wave of LED lighting technology is likely to be tunable white lighting (TWL) devices which can adjust the colour of the emitted light between warm white (~ 2700 K) and cool white (~ 6500 K). This type of lighting system uses LED assemblies of two or more colours each controlled by separate driver channels that independently adjust the current levels to achieve the desired lighting colour. Drivers used in TWL devices are inherently more complex than those found in simple SSL devices, due to the number of electrical components in the driver required to achieve this level of control. The reliability of such lighting systems can only be studied using accelerated stress tests (AST) that accelerate the aging process to time frames that can be accommodated in laboratory testing. This paper describes AST methods and findings developed from AST data that provide insights into the lifetime of the main components of one-channel and multi-channel LED devices. The use of AST protocols to confirm product reliability is necessary to ensure that the technology can meet the performance and lifetime requirements of the intended application.

  14. Road Rage Menace: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Driver Anger Level in Public Motor Vehicle Drivers in a City in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Dixit


    Full Text Available Introduction: Road rage and aggressive driving is a prevalent condition in today’s society due to motorists’ frustrations during heavy traffic volumes. Objective: This study was done to assess the level of anger amongst the drivers of public transport vehicles in Indore, using Driving Anger Scale (DAS by Deffenbacher et. al. and various factors affecting it. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 drivers of Public transport vehicle drivers (Star bus, City-van and star cab drivers in Indore to assess their anger level using Driving Anger Scale. The participants were required to record the amount of anger they would experience in response to each item in the scale (1=not at all angry, 2=a little angry, 3=some anger, 4=much anger, 5=very much angry. Results: The mean DAS score in Indore was found to be 3.013 and in the three organizations namely Star bus drivers, City van drivers and Star cab drivers was 2.92, 3.08 and 3.04 respectively. The DAS score of drivers with respect to the 6 sub-scales were: hostile gestures (Star bus -3.42,City van -3.67,Star cab -3.38, slow driving (Star bus -2.73,City van driv-2.78,Star cab-3.17, traffic obstructions (Star bus-2.85,City van -3.25,Star cab-3.18, discourtesy (Star bus -3.23,City van-3.33,Star cab -3.25and police presence (Star bus -2.15,City van -1.99,Star cab -2.78, illegal driving (Star bus -3.04,City van -3.14,Star cab -2.89. The DAS scores of the drivers did not vary significantly with age group, experience, and educational qualification. Conclusion: Though DAS scores did not vary between the three groups of drivers, however average level anger for various given circumstances commonly found in the Indian traffic scenario was on the higher side.

  15. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld


    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  16. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol and illicit drugs, in Spanish drivers: A roadside study in 2015. (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Herrero, M Jesús; Fernandez, Beatriz; Perez, Julio; Del Real, Pilar; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; de la Torre, Rafael


    A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory. Laboratory confirmation analyses screened for 26 psychoactive substances. To evaluate the association between drug findings and age, sex, road type (urban/interurban), and period of the week (weekdays, weeknights, weekend days, weekend nights), logistic regression analyses were done (overall, and separately for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). A total of 2744 drivers, mean age of 37.5 years, 77.8% men, were included. Overall, 11.6% of the drivers had at least one positive finding to the substances assessed. Substances more frequently testing positive were cannabis (7.5%), cocaine (4.7%) and alcohol (2.6%). More than one substance was detected in 4% of the subjects. The proportion of positive results decreased with age, and was more likely among men and on urban roads. The pattern for alcohol use was similar but did not change with age and increased among drivers recruited at night. Cannabis was more likely to be detected at younger ages and cocaine was associated with night driving. Alcohol use before driving has decreased over the last decade; however, the consumption of other illegal drugs seems to have increased. The pattern of illegal psychoactive substance observed is similar to that declared in surveys of the general population of adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in professional drivers: results of RACER-ABPM (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study. (United States)

    Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J


    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.

  18. Important information for drivers in France

    CERN Multimedia


    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  19. Effects of Defensive Vehicle Handling on Novice Driver Safety : Phase 3. Data Analysis and Results (United States)


    This project evaluates the effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for Montanas young : drivers. A total of 347 teenaged drivers who had completed high school driver education agreed to participate. : These drivers were randomly spl...

  20. Driving Behaviors in Iran: A Descriptive Study Among Drivers of Mashhad City in 2014 (United States)

    Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Emadzadeh, Maryam; Vakili, Veda


    Background: Driver-related behaviors are substantial causes for motor vehicle accidents. It has been estimated that about 95% of all accidents are due to driver-related dangerous behaviors and approximately 60% of accidents are directly caused by driving behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess driving behaviors and its possible related factors among drivers in Mashhad city, Iran. Method: In a cross-sectional design, a total number of 514 drivers in Mashhad, Iran Surveyed. Manchester driver behavior questionnaire with 50 questions evaluated dangerous driving behaviors in 4 categories “aggressive violations”, “ordinary violations”, “errors” and “lapses”. Results: In this study, the median age of drivers was 31. Besides, 58.2% of men mentioned having a history of driving accident. Our study indicated smoking and alcohol drinking as risk factors of having more accidents. Hookah abuse is a predictor of aggressive violations and errors. Conclusion: This is the first study to assess the relation of personal car and its market value with the likelihood of having accidents. Due to major influences of driving fines, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and addiction on violations and errors, we recommend pivotal measures to be taken by road safety practitioners regarding driving surveillance. PMID:26153202

  1. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. (United States)

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta


    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P road traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  2. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.


    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  3. Young novice drivers and the risky behaviours of parents and friends during the provisional (intermediate) licence phase: a brief report. (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K


    While there is research indicating that many factors influence the young novice driver's increased risk of road crash injury during the earliest stages of their independent driving, there is a need to further understand the relationship between the perceived risky driving behaviour of parents and friends and the risky behaviour of drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence. As part of a larger research project, 378 drivers aged 17-25 years (M=18.22, SD=1.59, 113 males) with a Provisional licence completed an online survey exploring the perceived riskiness of their parents' and friends' driving, and the extent to which they pattern (i.e. base) their driving behaviour on the driving of their parents and friends. Young drivers who reported patterning their driving on their friends, and who reported they perceived their friends to be risky drivers, reported more risky driving. The risky driving behaviour of young male drivers was associated with the perceived riskiness of their fathers' driving, whilst for female drivers the perceived riskiness of their mothers' driving approached significance. The development and application of countermeasures targeting the risky behaviour of same-sex parents appears warranted by the robust research findings. In addition, countermeasures need to encourage young people in general to be non-risky drivers; targeting the negative influence of risky peer groups specifically. Social norms interventions may minimise the influence of potentially-overestimated riskiness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Skills of novices early trained or traditionaly trained versus experienced drivers confronted to simulated urban accidents' scenarios. (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Damm, Loïc


    In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The first and second groups were composed of young drivers having less than one month of driving licence; twelve have had a traditional learning course, and twelve had followed, in addition to the initial course, an early driver training under the supervision of an adult. The third group was composed of experienced drivers. Strategies of the three groups were analyzed through their response time, speed and maneuvers. No difference appeared across groups regarding obstacle detection. But traditionally-trained drivers' position control was more conservative than the two others groups, which were more likely to involve efficient evasive action. The exposure gained during early training could thus increase the development of visuo-motor coordination and involve better skills in case of difficult situations. Others accidents' scenarios could be used to confront young drivers with difficult situations not commonly encountered in natural driving.

  5. The effects of driver identity on driving safety in a retrospective feedback system. (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhen; Wu, Changxu


    Retrospective feedback that provides detailed information on a driver's performance in critical driving situations at the end of a trip enhances his/her driving behaviors and safe driving habits. Although this has been demonstrated by a previous study, retrospective feedback can be further improved and applied to non-critical driving situations, which is needed for transportation safety. To propose a new retrospective feedback system that uses driver identity (i.e., a driver's name) and to experimentally study its effects on measures of driving performance and safety in a driving simulator. We conducted a behavioral experimental study with 30 participants. "Feedback type" was a between-subject variable with three conditions: no feedback (control group), feedback without driver identity, and feedback with driver identity. We measured multiple aspects of participants' driving behavior. To control for potential confounds, factors that were significantly correlated with driving behavior (e.g., age and driving experience) were all entered as covariates into a multivariate analysis of variance. To examine the effects of speeding on collision severity in driving simulation studies, we also developed a new index - momentum of potential collision - with a set of equations. Subjects who used a feedback system with driver identity had the fewest speeding violations and central-line crossings, spent the least amount of time speeding and crossing the central line, had the lowest speeding and central-line crossing magnitude, ran the fewest red lights, and had the smallest momentum of potential collision compared to the groups with feedback without driver identity and without feedback (control group). The new retrospective feedback system with driver identity has the potential to enhance a person's driving safety (e.g., speeding, central-line crossing, momentum of potential collision), which is an indication of the valence of one's name in a feedback system design. Copyright

  6. Canadian drivers' attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving while impaired by alcohol. (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Nadeau, Louise; McKiernan, Anna; Hing, Marisela M; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G


    In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers' preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers' value ratio were also appraised. Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), pvalue ratios, R 2 (adj.)=0.014, pAccounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Nasri


    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: The link between occupational factors and coronary artery diseases (CAD has been studied and confirmed in many countries. Conditions associated with driving such as stress, and factors such as long working hours and the environment can increase the risk of CAD. In this study, we measured potential CAD risk factors in bus and taxi drivers and compared them with a control group. methods: 135 taxi drivers, 194 bus drivers and 121 non-drivers (control group were evaluated for CAD risk factors, i.e. age, body mass index (BMI>24, cigarette smoking, hypertension, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL, triglyceride >200, blood sugar >126 and familial history of CAD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used to distinguish major risk factors. results: Taxi drivers have an increased risk of hypertension compared with the control group (odds ratio: crude=5.94, adjusted=9.09; P<0001. Cigarette smoking in taxi and bus drivers was 1.4 (P<0.3 and 3.24 (P<0001 times as high as the control group, respectively. The risk of increased LDL and decreased HDL in bus drivers was 4.38 and 5.28 (P<0001 times as high as the control group, respectively. The risk of obesity, high blood sugar and high triglyceride was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Driving is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Known CAD risk factors are also more frequent in drivers.     Keywords: Driving, cardiovascular disease, risk factor.

  8. What are the impacts of giving up the driver license?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    Objectives: Driving cessation is a gradual process, where driver’s self-regulation plays an important role. Age-based license renewal procedures may interfere with this process and trigger premature driving cessation. The present study compares drivers aged 69 years at the baseline who either...... should try to prevent unwarranted mobility loss. Licensing policies signaling that in old age continuing to drive is an exception rather than the rule may work against this goal....... renewed their driver’s license (“renewers”) or did not (“non-renewers”) over a two-year period. Methods: Data were collected by interviewing a sample of older Danish people in 2009 (n = 1,792) and in 2012 (n = 863). The standardized interviews covered respondents’ background information, health and well...

  9. Older Driver Safety: A Survey of Psychologists' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practices. (United States)

    Love, Janet; Tuokko, Holly


    Using an online survey, we examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to older driver safety concerns of clinical psychologists from across Canada who self-identified as working with at least some drivers over 60 years of age. Eighty-four psychologists completed the survey, and many were aware of the issues relevant to older driver safety, although only about half reported that assessing fitness to drive was an important issue in their practice. The majority (75%) reported that they would benefit from education concerning evaluation of fitness to drive. The primary recommendation emerging from this investigation is to increase efforts to inform and educate psychologists about driving-related assessment and regulatory issues in general, and specifically with respect to older adults. As the population ages, it is of growing importance for all health care providers to understand the influence of mental health conditions-including cognitive impairment and dementia-on driving skills.

  10. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks. (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M


    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Weather Drivers in the ACE Era (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Jordanova, V. K.; Smith, C. W.; Cohen, C. M.


    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft was launched Aug.~25, 1997 [Stone et al., 1998]. Beginning shortly after launch and continuing to the present day ACE has provided real-time data telemetry of solar wind conditions upstream of the Earth. The real-time data includes solar wind speed and density, magnetic field direction and magnitude, and a range of energetic particle intensities [Zwickl et al., 1999]. The real-time data product is provided within 5 minutes of observation and many partners from both industry and science use these data for a variety of purposes. The most common purpose of practical industrial application involves mitigation of lost services arising from magnetospheric storm activity. Many space weather efforts are directed at providing improved predictions of magnetospheric response that can be applied to real-time data in the hope of better predicting the vulnerability and required action of industry to approaching disturbances. It therefore seems prudent that following 6 years of activity including one solar maximum period we should evaluate the nature and strength of the largest disturbances observed with the hope of better assessing the industrial response. Simply put: ``Did ACE observe disturbances that were as large as those seen previously during the space age?'' If not, it may be the case that industry must evaluate its response to the real-time warnings and not become complacent by the simple act of survival. We compare the most intense space weather events of the ACE era with those recorded on the Omnitape data set spanning 40+ years of spacecraft measurements in the near-Earth environment. We compare both magnetospheric response parameters and solar wind drivers. In addition, we compare the large energetic particle events over the same time frame. Stone, E.~C., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 357-408, 1998. Zwickl, R.~D., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 633-648, 1998.

  12. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi


    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  13. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers. (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann


    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speeding by young novice drivers: What can personal characteristics and psychosocial theory add to our understanding? (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J


    Young novice drivers continue to be overrepresented in fatalities and injuries arising from crashes even with the introduction of countermeasures such as graduated driver licensing (GDL). Enhancing countermeasures requires a better understanding of the variables influencing risky driving. One of the most common risky behaviours performed by drivers of all ages is speeding, which is particularly risky for young novice drivers who, due to their driving inexperience, have difficulty in identifying and responding appropriately to road hazards. Psychosocial theory can improve our understanding of contributors to speeding, thereby informing countermeasure development and evaluation. This paper reports an application of Akers' social learning theory (SLT), augmented by Gerrard and Gibbons' prototype/willingness model (PWM), in addition to personal characteristics of age, gender, car ownership, and psychological traits/states of anxiety, depression, sensation seeking propensity and reward sensitivity, to examine the influences on self-reported speeding of young novice drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence in Queensland, Australia. Young drivers (n=378) recruited in 2010 for longitudinal research completed two surveys containing the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale, and reported their attitudes and behaviours as pre-Licence/Learner (Survey 1) and Provisional (Survey 2) drivers and their sociodemographic characteristics. An Akers' measurement model was created. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that (1) personal characteristics (PC) explained 20.3%; (2) the combination of PC and SLT explained 41.1%; (3) the combination of PC, SLT and PWM explained 53.7% of variance in self-reported speeding. Whilst there appeared to be considerable shared variance, the significant predictors in the final model included gender, car ownership, reward sensitivity, depression, personal attitudes, and Learner speeding. These results highlight the capacity for

  15. Assisting Driver Sovereignty : A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.


    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the

  16. Study on mobile phone use while driving in a sample of Iranian drivers. (United States)

    Arvin, Ramin; Khademi, Mostafa; Razi-Ardakani, Hesamoddin


    The use of cell phone is a significant source of driver distraction. Phone use while driving can impair a number of factors critical for safe driving which can cause serious traffic safety problems. The objective of this paper was to investigate the frequency of using cell phones while driving in Iran's roads through an observational survey with a random sample of drivers, to recognize contributing factors to cell phone usage and to understand the magnitude of the problem. A total of 1794 observations were collected from 12 sites at controlled intersections, entrance and exit points of highways. The cell phone use rate among drivers (talking or texting) was estimated at 10% which is significantly higher than that in other countries such as Australia, USA and Canada. Rate of cell phone use among younger drivers (14.15%) was higher in comparison with other groups. In order to identify factors affecting cell phone use while driving, a binary logit model is estimated. Variables which significantly contribute to the rate of using cell phone were found to be the age of driver, number of passengers, presence of kids under the age of 8, time of observation, vehicle price and type of car.

  17. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. (United States)

    Ulinski, Sandra L; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J


    To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years). Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  18. Proactive vs. reactive car driving: EEG evidence for different driving strategies of older drivers (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Getzmann, Stephan


    Aging is associated with a large heterogeneity in the extent of age-related changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. All these functions can influence the performance in complex tasks like car driving. The present study aims to identify potential differences in underlying cognitive processes that may explain inter-individual variability in driving performance. Younger and older participants performed a one-hour monotonous driving task in a driving simulator under varying crosswind conditions, while behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded. Overall, younger and older drivers showed comparable driving performance (lane keeping). However, there was a large difference in driving lane variability within the older group. Dividing the older group in two subgroups with low vs. high driving lane variability revealed differences between the two groups in electrophysiological correlates of mental workload, consumption of mental resources, and activation and sustaining of attention: Older drivers with high driving lane variability showed higher frontal Alpha and Theta activity than older drivers with low driving lane variability and—with increasing crosswind—a more pronounced decrease in Beta activity. These results suggest differences in driving strategies of older and younger drivers, with the older drivers using either a rather proactive and alert driving strategy (indicated by low driving lane variability and lower Alpha and Beta activity), or a rather reactive strategy (indicated by high driving lane variability and higher Alpha activity). PMID:29352314

  19. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ulinski


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Method: Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years. Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. Conclusions: A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  20. Effects of in-car support on mental workload and driving performance of older drivers. (United States)

    Davidse, Ragnhild J; Hagenzieker, Marjan P; van Wolffelaar, Peter C; Brouwer, Wiebo H


    This study examined the extent to which driving performance of 10 older (70-88 years old) and 30 younger participants (30-50 years old) improves as a result of support by a driver assistance system. Various studies have indicated that advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may provide tailored assistance for older drivers and thereby improve their safe mobility. While drivers followed an urban route in a driving simulator, an ADAS provided them with prior knowledge on the next intersection. The system was evaluated in terms of effects on workload and safety performance. Messages informing drivers about the right-of-way regulation, obstructed view of an intersection, and safe gaps to join or cross traffic streams led to safer driving performance. A message regarding an unexpected one-way street led to fewer route errors. In general, effects were the same for all age groups. Workload was not reduced by the support system. The evaluated support system shows promising effects for all age groups. Longer evaluation periods are needed to determine long-term effects. The messages provided by the evaluated system are currently not provided by existing ADAS such as advanced cruise control and navigation systems, but they could possibly be added to them in the future.

  1. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States. A generalized ordered logit model is estimated in order to account for the ordered nature of severity, while allowing the violation of the proportional odds assumption across severity categories. Data...... for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers......Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The...

  2. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji


    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  3. The influence of sensitivity to reward and punishment, propensity for sensation seeking, depression, and anxiety on the risky behaviour of novice drivers: a path model. (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K


    Young novice drivers are significantly more likely to be killed or injured in car crashes than older, experienced drivers. Graduated driver licensing (GDL), which allows the novice to gain driving experience under less-risky circumstances, has resulted in reduced crash incidence; however, the driver's psychological traits are ignored. This paper explores the relationships between gender, age, anxiety, depression, sensitivity to reward and punishment, sensation-seeking propensity, and risky driving. Participants were 761 young drivers aged 17-24 (M=19.00, SD=1.56) with a Provisional (intermediate) driver's licence who completed an online survey comprising socio-demographic questions, the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale, Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale. Path analysis revealed depression, reward sensitivity, and sensation-seeking propensity predicted the self-reported risky behaviour of the young novice drivers. Gender was a moderator; and the anxiety level of female drivers also influenced their risky driving. Interventions do not directly consider the role of rewards and sensation seeking, or the young person's mental health. An approach that does take these variables into account may contribute to improved road safety outcomes for both young and older road users. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Views of US drivers about driving safety. (United States)

    Williams, Allan F


    To assess how drivers view dangers on the highway, what motivates them to drive safely, how they say they reduce their crash and injury risk, and how they rate their own driving skills. Most drivers rated their skills as better than average. The biggest motivating factor for safe driving was concern for safety of others in their vehicle, followed by negative outcomes such as being in a crash, increased insurance costs, and fines. The greatest threats to their safety were thought to be other drivers' actions that increase crash risk such as alcohol impairment or running red lights. In terms of reducing crashes and injuries, drivers tended to focus on actions they could take such as driving defensively or using seat belts. There was less recognition of the role of vehicles and vehicle features in crash or injury prevention. Knowing how drivers view themselves and others, their concerns, and their motivations and techniques for staying out of trouble on the roads provides insight into the difficulty of changing driving practices.

  5. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers. (United States)

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J


    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  6. Driving Cessation Anno 2010 Which Older Drivers Give Up Their License and Why? Evidence From Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja


    This study focuses on the decision to either stop or continue driving among a cohort of Danish seniors whose driving licenses expire, for the first time, at the age of 70. Based on 1,537 standardized telephone interviews with licensed drivers, we compared persons who intended to renew or not to r...

  7. 44. Causes of initiation and promotion of cannabis among local transport drivers of Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzullah Khan


    Conclusion: Cannabis smoking is common in local transport drivers. The major causes that are involved in the initiation and progression of cannabis smoking are; driving in young age, poverty, lack of education, easy availability of cannabis, inspiration from colleagues and smoker parents.

  8. Older driver involvements in police reported crashes and fatal crashes: trends and projections


    Lyman, S; Ferguson, S; Braver, E; Williams, A


    Objectives: Older drivers have become a larger part of the driving population and will continue to do so as the baby boomers reach retirement age. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential effects of this population increase on highway safety.

  9. The effect of positive and negative emotions on young drivers : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Taubman – Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer; Farah, H.


    The study examined the influence of affect induction on actual risk-taking behavior in a driving simulator, as well as the links between personal variables (relevance of driving to self-esteem, sensation seeking) and the level of risky driving. Eighty young drivers aged 18–21 (M = 19.24,

  10. A simulation-based assessment approach to increase safety among senior drivers. (United States)


    Statistics show that in the U.S., there are about 38 million licensed drivers over age 65; about 1/8 of our : population. By 2024, this figure will DOUBLE to 25%. The current research is intended to address the : driving capabilities of our older pop...

  11. Comparison of risk factors for tooth loss between professional drivers and white-collar workers: an internet survey


    SUZUKI, Seitaro; YOSHINO, Koichi; TAKAYANAGI, Atsushi; ISHIZUKA, Yoichi; SATOU, Ryouichi; KAMIJO, Hideyuki; SUGIHARA, Naoki


    This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine tooth loss and associated factors among professional drivers and white-collar workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 592 professional drivers and 328 white-collar workers (male, aged 30 to 69 years) were analyzed. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to ...

  12. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe. (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim


    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  13. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals. (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina


    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  14. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A


    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  15. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study. (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T


    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  16. Experimental 233U nondestructive assay with a random driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, P.


    Nondestructive assay (NDA) of 233 U in quantities up to 15 grams containing 7 ppM 232 U age 2 years was investigated with a random driver. A passive singles counting technique showed a reproducibility within 0.2% at the 95% confidence level. This technique would be applicable throughout a process in which all of the 233 U had the same 232 U content at the same age. Where the 232 U content varies, determination of 233 U fissile content would require active NDA. Active coincidence counting utilizing a 238 Pu, Li neutron source and a plastic scintillator detector system showed a reproducibility limit within 15% at the 95% confidence limit. The active technique was found to be very dependent on the detector system resolving time in order to make proper random coincidence corrections associated with the high gamma activity from the 232 U decay chain

  17. Physics at a New Fermilab Proton Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, Steve


    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. The Fermilab Director has requested further development of the physics case for a new Fermilab Proton Driver, exploring both its ability to support a World class neutrino program, and the other physics opportunities it would provide. A physics study has been ongoing for the last 6 months. The emerging physics case will be presented.

  18. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles


    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study. (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver


    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  20. Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases. (United States)

    Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moretó, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina


    Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. A qualitative exploration of self-regulation behaviors among older drivers. (United States)

    Donorfio, Laura K M; Mohyde, Maureen; Coughlin, Joseph; D'Ambrosio, Lisa


    While much of the research on aging and driving has focused on sensory and motor changes, little is known about older drivers and the actual self-regulation adjustments they employ to continue driving safely. This research looks at how older drivers have made changes to driving patterns and behaviors that have allowed them to continue to drive without compromising their perceived safety, independence, and quality of life. Nine focus groups were held with older men and women aged 58 to 89 years. Some of the major themes that emerged were the following: older adults are very aware of age-related changes to driving; they perceive that self-regulation behaviors change with age; and they view transportation alternatives as limited or nonexistent. Policy implications include developing functional transit programs for older adults and car manufacturer training workshops to educate older adults on the safety features of newly purchased automobiles.

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension in Professional Drivers (from the RACER-ABPM Study). (United States)

    Platek, Anna E; Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kotkowski, Marcin; Rys, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina


    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 . In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Cognitive Demand on Functional Visual Field Performance in Senior Drivers with Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswa Gangeddula


    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effect of cognitive demand on functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma.Method: This study included 20 drivers with open-angle glaucoma and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Visual field performance was evaluated under different degrees of cognitive demand: a static visual field condition (C1, dynamic visual field condition (C2, and dynamic visual field condition with active driving (C3 using an interactive, desktop driving simulator. The number of correct responses (accuracy and response times on the visual field task were compared between groups and between conditions using Kruskal–Wallis tests. General linear models were employed to compare cognitive workload, recorded in real-time through pupillometry, between groups and conditions.Results: Adding cognitive demand (C2 and C3 to the static visual field test (C1 adversely affected accuracy and response times, in both groups (p < 0.05. However, drivers with glaucoma performed worse than did control drivers when the static condition changed to a dynamic condition [C2 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: median difference (Q1–Q3 3 (2–6.50 vs. controls: 2 (0.50–2.50; p = 0.05] and to a dynamic condition with active driving [C3 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: 2 (2–6 vs. controls: 1 (0.50–2; p = 0.02]. Overall, drivers with glaucoma exhibited greater cognitive workload than controls (p = 0.02.Conclusion: Cognitive demand disproportionately affects functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma. Our results may inform the development of a performance-based visual field test for drivers with glaucoma.

  4. Modeling safety risk perception due to mobile phone distraction among four wheeler drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Rajesh


    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing trend in the use of information and communication technology devices in new vehicles. Due to these increasing service facilities, driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety. To reduce safety risks, it is crucial to understand how distracting activities affect driver behavior at different levels of vehicle control. The objective of this work is to understand how the vehicle and driver characteristics influence mobile phone usage while driving and associated risk perception of road safety incidents. Based on literature review, a man–machine framework for distracted driving and a mobile phone distraction model is presented. The study highlights the findings from a questionnaire survey conducted in Kerala, India. The questionnaire uses a 5-point Likert scale. Responses from 1203 four-wheeler drivers are collected using random sampling approach. The questionnaire items associated with three driver-drive characteristics are: (i Human Factors (age, experience, emotional state, behavior of driver, (ii Driver space (meter, controls, light, heat, steering, actuators of vehicle, (iii Driving conditions (speed, distance, duration, traffic, signals. This mobile phone distraction model is tested using structural equation modeling procedure. The study indicates that among the three characteristics, ‘Human Factors’ has the highest influence on perceived distraction due to mobile phones. It is also observed that safety risk perception due to mobile phone usage while driving is moderate. The practical relevance of the study is to place emphasis on behavior-based controls and to focus on strategies leveraging perception of distraction due to mobile phones while driving.

  5. Livestock drivers' knowledge about dairy cow fitness for transport - A Danish questionnaire survey. (United States)

    Herskin, M S; Hels, A; Anneberg, I; Thomsen, P T


    Dairy cows are transported by road to slaughter after their productive life. Cull cows are vulnerable to transport stress, and can only be transported when fit for the intended journey. However, the decision, as to whether a cow is fit is rather subjective and relies on the farmer and the livestock driver. Using a questionnaire survey, we aimed to describe knowledge about, and experiences with, dairy cow fitness for transport among Danish livestock drivers. During nine days of data collection at the three largest Danish cattle slaughterhouses, 66 drivers (55% of the national population of cattle drivers) answered a questionnaire (response rate: 97%). They were Danish males (mean age: 49years), of which 94% stated that they knew the rules regarding fitness for transport. More than half of the respondents said that physical conditions (light, space) before loading animals allowed proper assessment of fitness for transport, and 85% answered that time constraints were not a challenge for this. Thirty-five percent reported to be in doubt regarding fitness for transport of specific cows at least frequently, and given two specific questions on legislation concerning fitness for transport, only 52% of the respondents answered both correctly. The results add new knowledge about livestock drivers' approach to animal welfare. As drivers are held partly responsible for fitness for transport of animals sent to slaughter, and descriptions of fit/unfit are rather vague, livestock drivers seem to need additional education, training, assessment tools or feedback in order to optimize the welfare of animals to be transported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drivers\\' Life Quality, Marital Satisfaction, and Social Support in Cargo Terminal of Yazd City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Morovati Sharifabadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: This is important to consider the health, social support, and marital satisfaction of drivers since they own one of the essential and stressful jobs in society. The purpose of this research was to investigate quality of life, marital satisfaction, and social support of the drivers referring to the cargo terminal of Yazd City. Methods: In order to collect data, 134 drivers in Yazd cargo terminal were selected. The ENRICH questionnaire of marital satisfaction, SF-36 questionnaire, and social support questionnaire (SSQ have been used as data collection tools. The collected data were then analyzed by Independent T test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: According to the results, the drivers' average age was 40.2±9.17 years old. The mean scores of marital satisfaction, quality of life, and social support were equal to 120.04±20.14 out of 175, 99.69±18.14 out of 149, and 15±4.76 out of 23, respectively. About 60.4 % of drivers were not satisfied with their jobs. There were significant relationships between weight and marital satisfaction (P=0.02, as well as between job satisfaction (P=0.003 (P=0.015 and income (P=0.047 (P=0.020, to social support and quality of life. Also, a strong significant positive relationship was observed in correlation coefficient between social support and two variables of quality of life and marital satisfaction (P=0.000. Conclusion: This can be argued that marital satisfaction, quality of life, and social support of the drivers are lower than the expected levels. Therefore, it can be concluded that physical and mental health of drivers can be effective on safety of roads; thereby it is necessary to improve their conditions in marital satisfaction, quality of life, and social support

  7. Sleep, Dietary, and Exercise Behavioral Clusters Among Truck Drivers With Obesity: Implications for Interventions. (United States)

    Olson, Ryan; Thompson, Sharon V; Wipfli, Brad; Hanson, Ginger; Elliot, Diane L; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B; Hohn, Elliot; Perrin, Nancy A


    The objectives of the study were to describe a sample of truck drivers, identify clusters of drivers with similar patterns in behaviors affecting energy balance (sleep, diet, and exercise), and test for cluster differences in health safety, and psychosocial factors. Participants' (n = 452, body mass index M = 37.2, 86.4% male) self-reported behaviors were dichotomized prior to hierarchical cluster analysis, which identified groups with similar behavior covariation. Cluster differences were tested with generalized estimating equations. Five behavioral clusters were identified that differed significantly in age, smoking status, diabetes prevalence, lost work days, stress, and social support, but not in body mass index. Cluster 2, characterized by the best sleep quality, had significantly lower lost workdays and stress than other clusters. Weight management interventions for drivers should explicitly address sleep, and may be maximally effective after establishing socially supportive work environments that reduce stress exposures.

  8. Evolutionary Origins of Cancer Driver Genes and Implications for Cancer Prognosis. (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Yi; Jiang, Ling-Han; Zhou, Xiong-Hui; Cui, Ze-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Yu


    The cancer atavistic theory suggests that carcinogenesis is a reverse evolution process. It is thus of great interest to explore the evolutionary origins of cancer driver genes and the relevant mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis. Moreover, the evolutionary features of cancer driver genes could be helpful in selecting cancer biomarkers from high-throughput data. In this study, through analyzing the cancer endogenous molecular networks, we revealed that the subnetwork originating from eukaryota could control the unlimited proliferation of cancer cells, and the subnetwork originating from eumetazoa could recapitulate the other hallmarks of cancer. In addition, investigations based on multiple datasets revealed that cancer driver genes were enriched in genes originating from eukaryota, opisthokonta, and eumetazoa. These results have important implications for enhancing the robustness of cancer prognosis models through selecting the gene signatures by the gene age information.

  9. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno


    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in garage workers and taxi drivers. (United States)

    Bener, A; Galadari, I; al-Mutawa, J K; al-Maskari, F; Das, M; Abuzeid, M S


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of some respiratory symptoms and possible diseases among occupationally-exposed garage workers and taxi drivers. This study involved 158 garage workers and 165 taxi drivers, matched for age, sex, nationality and duration of employment. The mean age of 158 Indian subcontinent garage workers was 34.4 +/- 10.4 years; their mean height and weight were 167.7 +/- 6.6 cm and 72.0 +/- 12.3 kg respectively, and the mean duration of employment garage workers was 8.8 +/- 7.6 years. The mean age of 165 Indian subcontinent male taxi drivers was 34.5 +/- 7.7 years; their mean height and weight were 168.7 +/- 6.1 cm and 71.3 +/- 12.6 kg respectively; and the mean duration of employment was 7.5 +/- 5.4 years. The data on chronic respiratory symptoms showed that garage workers had higher prevalence of symptoms than taxi drivers being significantly greater for chronic phlegm, (p UAE), may be associated with the development of chronic respiratory symptoms and have effects on their daily life and health.

  11. The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact driver aggressiveness. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Cole D; Samuel, Siby; Knodler, Michael A


    Speeding greatly attributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a virtual drive was constructed to evaluate how time pressures, or hurried driving, affected driver speed choice and driver behavior. In particular, acceleration profiles, gap acceptance, willingness to pass, and dilemma zone behavior were used, in addition to speed, as measures to evaluate whether being late increased risky and aggressive driving behaviors. Thirty-six drivers were recruited with an equal male/female split and a broad distribution of ages. Financial incentives and completion time goals calibrated from a control group were used to generate a Hurried and Very Hurried experimental group. As compared to the control group, Very Hurried drivers selected higher speeds, accelerated faster after red lights, accepted smaller gaps on left turns, were more likely to pass a slow vehicle, and were more likely to run a yellow light in a dilemma zone situation. These trends were statistically significant and were also evident with the Hurried group but a larger sample would be needed to show statistical significance. The findings from this study provide evidence that hurried drivers select higher speeds and exhibit riskier driving behaviors. These conclusive results have possible implications in areas such as transportation funding and commercial motor vehicle safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Creating a smart application system to provide a beneficial maintenance service for elderly drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sebin


    Full Text Available As overall population ages, elderly drivers have become a larger percentage of the driving population. With this trend, a lot of vehicle systems have been improved for elderly’s safety and convenience using different advanced technologies. However, elderly drivers have often paid more money than other drivers in a car-repair shop due to their lack of knowledge about vehicle systems with modern technologies. Given this fact, developing a tool to diminish this disadvantage and to help elderly drivers maintain their cars with confidence and with minimal cost is necessary. Therefore, this research work mainly focuses on suggesting a system concept on user-interface application, which is connected to a smart phone or a tablet to provide beneficial services anywhere. For the research outcome, diverse research activities – surveys, interviews with small focus groups, observations of the focus groups, and discussions – has been conducted to understand the elderly driver’s difficulties and behaviours regarding vehicle maintenance, to investigate what specific problems make them uncomfortable in repair shops, and to demonstrate how new system-concepts could be developed for the elderly. Furthermore, we conclude that adequate system-concepts for the elderly would offer elderly drivers convenient vehicle repair and maintenance and provide them a confident driving experience.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary


    Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p < 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p < 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  14. Levitation With a Single Acoustic Driver (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Allen, J. L.


    Pair of reports describes acoustic-levitation systems in which only one acoustic resonance mode excited, and only one driver needed. Systems employ levitation chambers of rectangular and cylindrical geometries. Reports first describe single mode concept and indicate which modes used to levitate sample without rotation. Reports then describe systems in which controlled rotation of sample introduced.

  15. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers. (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  16. Driver electronic device use in 2008 (United States)


    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  17. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report. (United States)

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  18. Compulsory treatment of 50 alcoholic drunken drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 12, 1983 ... Fifty alcoholic drunken drivers receivi~g treatment as part of a suspended ... rehabilitation centres (1 patient died too early to allow for adequate .... Prison sentences were imposed on 10 (of whom 1 subsequently re-attended ...

  19. TMACS Test Procedure TP009: Acromag Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, S.J.


    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Acromag Software Driver (Bridge Code)

  20. Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mayhew


    Full Text Available Although driver education (DE is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives.

  1. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph


    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  2. 29 CFR 782.4 - Drivers' helpers. (United States)


    ... interstate or foreign commerce, because, in the case of an accident or other emergency and in other respects... accidents occur, they help the driver in obtaining aid and protect the vehicle from oncoming traffic. (c) In... commerce within the meaning of the Motor Carrier Act. (Ispass v. Pyramid Motor Freight Corp., 152 F. (2d...

  3. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.


    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  4. Drivers and barriers for bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin; Schouwenberg, Peter Paul; Nikolaisen, Lars; Andrade, Onofre


    There are several drivers responsible for the strong increase in biomass trade over the past decade: concerns regarding the effects of climate change remain unchanged, and policy targets for renewable energy for 2020 have so far remained (largely) intact despite the economic crisis. At the same

  5. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram


    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  6. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram


    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  7. Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Ulrich K


    Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages durin...

  8. Truck drivers as stakeholders in cooperative driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, F.; Terken, J.M.B.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.; Terken, J.M.B.; van Kranenburg, R.; Den Ouden, E.; O'Hare, G.


    Cooperative driving for trucks has been claimed to bring substantial benefits for society and fleet owners because of better throughput and reduced fuel consumption, but benefits for truck drivers are questionable. While most work on cooperative driving focuses on the technology, the current paper

  9. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.


    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  10. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.


    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  11. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.


    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  12. Kernel Korner : The Linux keyboard driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.


    Our Kernel Korner series continues with an article describing the Linux keyboard driver. This article is not for "Kernel Hackers" only--in fact, it will be most useful to those who wish to use their own keyboard to its fullest potential, and those who want to write programs to take advantage of the

  13. Drivers of sustainable future mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna

    This PhD thesis presents three complementary studies that aimed to enhance knowledge of young people’s longitudinal mobility trends and the factors influencing adolescents’ future mobility intentions. First study was an analysis of Danish national travel survey data (TU) from 1995 to 2012....... The sample consisted of young people divided into four age groups: 15-19 year old, 20-24 year old, 25-29 year old and 30-34 year old. The analysis explores the development of gender gaps for rural and urban living location. The mobility indicators analysed were; driving licence status, travel mode, distance...... is still an important subject in transportation research and future development for young people should be monitored closely. The second study was an internet based survey with the aim to explore a range of mediating factors influencing 15 year old adolescents’ intentions to commute by means of car...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task

  15. Effects of personality on risky driving behavior and accident involvement for Chinese drivers. (United States)

    Yang, Jiaoyan; Du, Feng; Qu, Weina; Gong, Zhun; Sun, Xianghong


    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related fatalities in China and pose the most serious threat to driving safety. Driver personality is considered as an effective predictor for risky driving behavior and accident liability. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between personality and risky driving behavior, but only a few of them have explored the effects of personality variables on accident involvement. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of personality on Chinese drivers' risky driving and accident involvement. The present study aimed to examine the effects of personality variables on Chinese drivers' unsafe driving behaviors and accident involvement. Two hundred and twenty-four Chinese drivers aged 20 to 50 were required to complete questionnaires assessing their personality traits (anger, sensation-seeking, altruism, and normlessness), risky driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations), and accident involvement (all accidents, serious accidents, at-fault accidents). Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for gender, age, and overall mileage, were conducted to identify the personality traits related to risky driving behaviors and accident involvement. Participants' personality traits were found to be significantly correlated with both risky driving behavior and accident involvement. Specifically, the traits of anger and normlessness were effective predictors for aggressive violations. The traits of anger, sensation-seeking, normlessness, and altruism were effective predictors for ordinary violations. Moreover, altruism and normlessness were significant predictors for the total number of accidents participants had during the past 3 years. Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident

  16. Phone use and crashes while driving: A representative survey of drivers in two Australian states. (United States)

    McEvoy, Suzanne P; Stevenson, Mark R; Woodward, Mark

    To explore the use and effects of using mobile phones while driving. Cross-sectional survey. New South Wales and Western Australia, 20 October to 7 November 2003. 1347 licensed drivers aged 18 to 65 years. Data were weighted to reflect the corresponding driving population in each state. Mobile phone use while driving (hand-held, hands-free and text messaging); adverse effects of use. While driving, an estimated 57.3% +/- 1.5% of drivers have ever used a mobile phone and 12.4% +/- 1.0% have written text messages. Men, younger drivers and metropolitan residents were more likely to use a phone while driving and to report a higher frequency of use. Enforcement of hand-held phone restrictions was perceived to be low (69.0% +/- 1.5%) and an estimated 39.4% +/- 2.1% of people who phone while driving use a hand-held phone. Half of all drivers (50.1% +/- 1.6%) did not agree with extending the ban to include hands-free phones. Among drivers aged 18-65 years in NSW and WA, an estimated 45 800 +/- 16 466 (0.9% +/- 0.3%) have ever had a crash while using a mobile phone and, in the past year, 146 762 +/- 26 856 (3.0% +/- 0.6%) have had to take evasive action to avoid a crash because of their phone use. Phone use while driving is prevalent and can result in adverse consequences, including crashes. Despite legislation, a significant proportion of drivers continue to use hand-held mobile phones while driving. Enhanced enforcement is needed.

  17. Prevalence of sleep-related accidents among drivers in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    BaHammam, Ahmad S.; Alkhunizan, Muath A.; Lesloum, Rabea H.; Alshanqiti, Amer M.; Aldakhil, Abdulrahman M.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Sharif, Munir M.


    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA) varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. RESULTS: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. CONCLUSION: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents. PMID:25276244

  18. Cognitive functioning differentially predicts different dimensions of older drivers' on-road safety. (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steve W; Dawson, Jeffrey; Uc, Ergun; Rizzo, Matthew


    The extent to which deficits in specific cognitive domains contribute to older drivers' safety risk in complex real-world driving tasks is not well understood. We selected 148 drivers older than 70 years of age both with and without neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease-AD and Parkinson disease-PD) from an existing driving database of older adults. Participant assessments included on-road driving safety and cognitive functioning in visuospatial construction, speed of processing, memory, and executive functioning. The standardized on-road drive test was designed to examine multiple facets of older driver safety including navigation performance (e.g., following a route, identifying landmarks), safety errors while concurrently performing secondary navigation tasks ("on-task" safety errors), and safety errors in the absence of any secondary navigation tasks ("baseline" safety errors). The inter-correlations of these outcome measures were fair to moderate supporting their distinctiveness. Participants with diseases performed worse than the healthy aging group on all driving measures and differences between those with AD and PD were minimal. In multivariate analyses, different domains of cognitive functioning predicted distinct facets of driver safety on road. Memory and set-shifting predicted performance in navigation-related secondary tasks, speed of processing predicted on-task safety errors, and visuospatial construction predicted baseline safety errors. These findings support broad assessments of cognitive functioning to inform decisions regarding older driver safety on the road and suggest navigation performance may be useful in evaluating older driver fitness and restrictions in licensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones. (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng


    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  20. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  1. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior (United States)


    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  2. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech. (United States)


    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  3. 78 FR 26417 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing (United States)


    ... Cook Mr. Cook holds a driver's license from Virginia. He would like to drive a CMV in interstate.... Thomas Prickett Mr. Prickett holds a driver's license from Minnesota. He would like to drive a CMV in...

  4. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus (United States)


    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  5. Development of a statistical method for predicting human driver decisions. (United States)


    As autonomous vehicles enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with : human drivers. One of the challenges for autonomous vehicles is that human drivers do not communicate their : decisions well. However...

  6. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.


    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system

  7. Attitudes of truck drivers and carriers on the use of electronic logging devices and driver harassment. (United States)


    The research contained herein is an examination of managerial harassment experienced by drivers, and whether harassment is associated with the method used to log hours of service (HOS). Similar information was gathered from a sample of carriers. : Tr...

  8. The influence of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes on risky driving behaviour among post-graduate university students in Durban, South Africa. (United States)

    Bachoo, Shaneel; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin


    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a serious global health risk, and evidence suggests that young drivers are significantly overrepresented among those injured or killed in RTAs. This study explores the role of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes as correlates for risky driving practices among drivers, drawing comparisons between age and gender. The study used a cross-sectional survey design, with a sample of 306 post-graduate university students from two universities in Durban, South Africa, who completed the self-administered questionnaire. The results indicate that drivers with higher driver anger, sensation seeking, urgency, and with a lack of premeditation and perseverance in daily activities were statistically more likely to report riskier driving acts. Males reported significantly more acts of risky driving behaviour (RDB) than females. Driver attitudes significantly predicted self-reported acts of RDB on most indicators. Older drivers (25 years and older) had safer driver attitudes and a lower sense of sensation seeking and urgency in life. Interventions targeting young drivers, which focus on impeding the manifestation of anger, impulsivity and sensation seeking are recommended. Also, the empirical support for the attitude-behaviour hypothesis evidenced in this study vindicates the development or continuation of interventions that focus on this dynamic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An evidence-based review: distracted driver. (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex


    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  10. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard


    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  11. Variations in teenage activities with and without a driver's license. (United States)

    Preusser, D F; Leaf, W A; Ferguson, S A; Williams, A F


    High school students were surveyed every 6 months from their freshman through senior years concerning licensing, driving, and transportation to and from their various activities. Students in Delaware (learner's permit can be issued at age 15 years, 10 months; driver's license at age 16) were compared with students in Connecticut and New York (permit at age 16; license at age 16) and in New Jersey (license at age 17). During the junior year, most Delaware students, some New York and Connecticut students, and few New Jersey students were licensed. However, even during the junior year, students in the respective states did not differ significantly with respect to time spent at activities such as a paying job, homework, watching television, dating, parties, being with friends, talking on the phone, or participating in sports or school activities. Graduated licensing systems can delay full-privilege teenage licensure and reduce teenage crash rates. These systems also can increase the number of times parents and others must drive. However, the present study's results indicate that licensing delays of as much as 1 year have minimal effects on the nondriving activities of high school students.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.


    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  13. Prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cintra Lopes1, , , ,


    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related hearing loss is one of the most common occupational illness progresses over the years of noise exposure associated with the work environment, may cause damage to undertake physical activity, the individual's physiological and mental besides causing hearing damage irreversible interfering with communication and quality of life. With high prevalence of male evaluates which is the second leading cause of hearing loss. Since there is no medical treatment for this type of hearing loss, it is evident the importance of preventive and conferences aimed at preserving hearing and health as a whole. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in audiometry admission of drivers. Methods: Retrospective study. By 76 charts of professional drivers in leased transport companies. We analyzed data from specific interview and pure tone audiometry. Results: The prevalence of abnormal tests was 22.36% with the lowest thresholds for tritonal average of 3,000, 4,000 and 6,000 Hz. The higher the age, the higher thresholds. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the occurrence of hearing in the absence of complaints. Considering that PAIR is preventable, justifies the importance of coordinated and multidisciplinary involving not only health teams and safety, but also the institutions involved in preserving the health of workers, as the team SESMET, unions or prosecutors.

  14. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  15. The impact of later trading hours for hotels (public houses) on breath alcohol levels of apprehended impaired drivers. (United States)

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim


    To examine the impact of extended trading permits (ETPs) for licensed hotels in Perth, Western Australia on impaired driver breath alcohol levels (BALs) between July 1993 and June 1997. Forty-three hotels obtained ETPs allowing later closing hours and 130 maintained standard closing time (controls). Impaired driver BALs were linked to 'last place of drinking' hotels. Before and after period BALs of drivers who last drank at ETP or non-ETP hotels were compared by time of day of apprehension and sex, controlling for age. Impaired female drivers apprehended between 10.01 p.m. and 12 midnight (before closing time) had significantly lower BALs after drinking at ETP hotels. Male drivers aged 18-25 years and apprehended between 12.01 and 2.00 a.m. after drinking at ETP hotels had significantly higher BALs than drivers who drank at non-ETP hotels. At peak times for alcohol-related offences, late trading is associated with higher BALs among those drinkers most at risk of alcohol-related harm.

  16. First and second eye cataract surgery and driver self-regulation among older drivers with bilateral cataract: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Agramunt, Seraina; Meuleners, Lynn B; Fraser, Michelle L; Chow, Kyle C; Ng, Jonathon Q; Raja, Vignesh


    Driving a car is the most common form of transport among the older population. Common medical conditions such as cataract, increase with age and impact on the ability to drive. To compensate for visual decline, some cataract patients may self-regulate their driving while waiting for cataract surgery. However, little is known about the self-regulation practices of older drivers throughout the cataract surgery process. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of first and second eye cataract surgery on driver self-regulation practices, and to determine which objective measures of vision are associated with driver self-regulation. Fifty-five older drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed using the self-reported Driving Habits Questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination and three objective visual measures in the month before cataract surgery, at least one to three months after first eye cataract surgery and at least one month after second eye cataract surgery. Participants' natural driving behaviour in four driving situations was also examined for one week using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Two separate Generalised Estimating Equation logistic models were undertaken to assess the impact of first and second eye cataract surgery on driver-self-regulation status and which changes in visual measures were associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of being a self-regulator in at least one driving situation significantly decreased by 70% after first eye cataract surgery (OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7) and by 90% after second eye surgery (OR: 0.1, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4), compared to before first eye surgery. Improvement in contrast sensitivity after cataract surgery was significantly associated with decreased odds of self-regulation (OR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.4). The findings provide a strong rationale for providing timely first and second eye cataract surgery for older drivers with bilateral cataract, in order to improve their mobility and

  17. Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents in Norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010. (United States)

    Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard


    To examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples collected from car and van drivers killed in traffic accidents in Norway during the time period from 2001 to 2010. Blood samples (n = 676, 63% of all killed drivers) were analyzed for alcohol, psychoactive medications, and illicit drugs. The cutoff limits for positive results were set according to the new legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. The results were assessed in relation to sex and age, time of day and day of week, and single- versus multiple-vehicle and all investigated vehicle accidents. Alcohol or one or more drugs was detected in samples from 40.2 percent of all investigated drivers, with 28.7 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. For the investigated female drivers, the total prevalence was 24.0 percent. Among the single-vehicle accidents, alcohol or drugs was found in 63.8 percent of the cases, with 49.1 percent showing blood concentrations of at least 5 times the legislative limits. Alcohol was detected in 25.3 and 49.1 percent of samples from all investigated drivers and among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents, respectively. Psychoactive medications were found in 14.4 and 17.7 percent and illicit drugs in 14.1 and 19.2 percent, respectively. The most commonly detected group of medications was benzodiazepines, and amphetamines and tetrahydrocannabinol were the most commonly detected illicit drugs. The prevalence of alcohol alone was highest among drivers under the age of 25, and the combination of alcohol with other drugs was highest among drivers under the age of 35. Drivers between the ages of 25 and 54 showed the highest prevalence of medications and/or illicit drugs without the presence of alcohol. The highest prevalence of alcohol or drugs was found among drivers killed in single-vehicle accidents on weeknights (83.8%) and on weekend nights (89.3%). The findings confirm that a large number of fatally injured

  18. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk


    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  19. Prediction of vehicle crashes by drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations in Korea using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Ramjan, Lucie M; Mak, Kwok-Kei


    Traffic safety is a significant public health challenge, and vehicle crashes account for the majority of injuries. This study aims to identify whether drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations may predict vehicle crashes in Korea. A total of 500,000 drivers were randomly selected from the 11.6 million driver records of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Records of traffic crashes were obtained from the archives of the Korea Insurance Development Institute. After matching the past violation history for the period 2004-2005 with the number of crashes in year 2006, a total of 488,139 observations were used for the analysis. Zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the incident risk ratio (IRR) of vehicle crashes by past violations of individual drivers. The included covariates were driver's age, gender, district of residence, vehicle choice, and driving experience. Drivers violating (1) a hit-and-run or drunk driving regulation at least once and (2) a signal, central line, or speed regulation more than once had a higher risk of a vehicle crash with respective IRRs of 1.06 and 1.15. Furthermore, female gender, a younger age, fewer years of driving experience, and middle-sized vehicles were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of vehicle crashes. Drivers' demographic characteristics and past traffic violations could predict vehicle crashes in Korea. Greater resources should be assigned to the provision of traffic safety education programs for the high-risk driver groups.

  20. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  2. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  3. Driver's anger state identification by using facial expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...

  4. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang


    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  5. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption (United States)


    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  6. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience. (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others


    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  7. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.


    In this study the authors argue that, in order to sufficiently adapt to task demands in traffic, drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills. There are indications that drivers in general, and novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. The objective of this

  8. Licensing and Other Controls of the Drinking Driver. (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Driver licensing, the only state program with the opportunity for routine personal contact with every driver, has unmatched potential for both general and specific countermeasures to the problem of drunk driving. General countermeasures apply to large groups of drivers prior to the occurrence of any infraction. They may be considered basically…

  9. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers (United States)


    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  10. [Investigation of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in the professional long distance drivers as a risky occupation]. (United States)

    Polat, Yusuf; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Pinar, Ahmet


    Contaminated water sources, reservoirs and systems such as evaporative condensers of air-conditioners are known to be the main transmission routes of Legionella spp. which are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria. By virtue of this point the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in a profession considered as risky due to the direct and prolonged exposure to air-conditioning and air-circulating systems. For this purpose, in the period of February-August 2004 a total of 79 male subjects (63 were bus drivers and 16 were driver assistants) who were continously travelling to two different route (South part as hot climate and Middle/North parts as cold climate of Turkey) from Denizli province coach station (a province located in internal Aegian where accepted as crossroads), were included to the study. The mean age and mean working duration of bus drivers were 43.0 +/- 1.1 years and 20.0 +/- 1.1 years, respectively, while these values were 22.5 +/- 0.9 years and 4.0 +/- 0.6 years, respectively, for the drivers' assistants. The serum samples collected from the subjects were screened by a commercial indirect immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany) using L. pneumophila serogrup 1-14 antigens for the presence of specific antibodies. Additionally, air-conditioners' moisture exhaust samples of the busses in which seropositive subjects travelling with have been examined by culture and 5S rRNA gene targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, for the presence of Legionella spp. The overall L. pneumophila seropositivity rate was detected as 15.2% (12/79). This rate was 19% (12/63) for bus drivers while all of the drivers' assistants were found seronegative. The seropositivity rate was found statistically higher in the personnel who were travelling to the hot climates (10/36, 27.8%) than those who travel to cold climates (2/43, 4.6%), (p travel. Our data indicated that long distance bus drivers were chronically exposed to this

  11. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA. (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa


    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Help-seeking behaviour for pelvic floor dysfunction in women over 55: drivers and barriers. (United States)

    Tinetti, Amy; Weir, Nicole; Tangyotkajohn, Usanee; Jacques, Angela; Thompson, Judith; Briffa, Kathy


    Our aim was to identify drivers of and barriers to help-seeking behaviour of older women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) living independently in Australia . Women aged ≥55 years were recruited to this cross-sectional study during July and August 2016. Bladder, bowel, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and sexual dysfunction were assessed with the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (APFQ). Drivers and barriers were based on the Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire. Univariate analyses were used to assess any significant relationships between PFD, age, education level, self-reported PFD, barriers and drivers. Of the 376 study participants [mean, standard deviation (SD) age 68.6 (10.5) years], 67% reported symptoms of PFD and 98.7% scored >0 on the APFQ. Women were more likely to seek help if they scored higher on the APFQ (p help was the perception that PFD was a normal part of ageing (22.4%). Of those who did seek help (50%), the main factor was increased level of symptom bother (51.4%). There was no difference in age or education level between women who did and did not seek help. Women are more likely to seek help for PFD if scoring higher on the APFQ or symptoms are becoming more bothersome. They are less likely to seek help if they view their symptoms as normal. Future direction should be taken to raise awareness of normal pelvic floor function as well as the availability of help for PFD.

  13. Autonomous emergency braking systems adapted to snowy road conditions improve drivers' perceived safety and trust. (United States)

    Koglbauer, Ioana; Holzinger, Jürgen; Eichberger, Arno; Lex, Cornelia


    This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Current automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction; for example, on snowy roads. Because winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm. Whereas adaption is not legally required for a conventional AEB system, higher automated functions will have to adapt to the current tire-road friction because human drivers will not be required to monitor the driving environment at all times. For automated driving functions to be used, high levels of perceived safety and trust of occupants have to be reached with new systems. The application case of an AEB is used to investigate drivers' evaluation depending on the road condition in order to gain knowledge for the design of future driving functions. In a driving simulator, the conventional, nonadaptive AEB was evaluated on dry roads with high friction (μ = 1) and on snowy roads with reduced friction (μ = 0.3). In addition, an AEB system adapted to road friction was designed for this study and compared with the conventional AEB on snowy roads with reduced friction. Ninety-six drivers (48 males, 48 females) assigned to 5 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years) drove with AEB in the simulator. The drivers observed and evaluated the AEB's braking actions in response to an imminent rear-end collision at an intersection. The results show that drivers' safety and trust in the conventional AEB were significantly lower on snowy roads, and the nonadaptive autonomous braking strategy was

  14. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers. (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drivers' reactions to sudden braking by lead car under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T. W.; van der Horst, A. R. A.; van Arem, B.; Brookhuis, K. A.


    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  16. 78 FR 76757 - Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become... (United States)


    ... limitations for unforeseen reasons, is the driver in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest break provision if more... unforeseen reasons, is not in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest-break requirements if 8 or more hours have... Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become Ineligible for...

  17. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? : different methods lead to different conclusions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.


    In this study the authors argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study

  18. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin


    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum of their indivi......The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  20. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.


    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  1. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers (United States)

    Baganoff, D.


    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  2. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.


    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  3. Geopolitical drivers of future tourist flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Webster


    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the major political and economic changes in the world and the likely impact that these changes will bring to tourism and hospitality industries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a geopolitical perspective on the dynamics of tourist flows, stipulating that geopolitics has a major impact on the size, structure, and direction of these flows. Findings – The paper identifies six geopolitical drivers of tourist flows in the future, namely: the fall of the American Empire, the rise of the BRIC and the PINE countries, increased global political instability, increased importance of regional supranational organisations, greater control of the individuals on a global scale, and the greater importance and power of corporations than national governments. Originality/value – The paper critically evaluates the geopolitical drivers of tourist flows, their likely future development and the impact they have on tourism.

  4. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green


    M. Krishna Moorthy; Peter a/l Yacob; Mahendra Kumar a/l Chelliah; Lawrence Arokiasamy


    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researche...

  5. Review of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) (United States)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Grzechca, Damian; Chruszczyk, Lukas


    New cars can be equipped with many advanced safety solutions. Airbags, seatbelts and all of the essential passive safety parts are standard equipment. Now cars are often equipped with new advanced active safety systems that can prevent accidents. The functions of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are still growing. A review of the most popular available technologies used in ADAS and descriptions of their application areas are discussed in this paper.

  6. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.


    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  7. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen


    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  8. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  9. Young driver education programs that build resilience have potential to reduce road crashes. (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane; Chen, Huei-Yang; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; van Beurden, Eric; Zask, Avigdor


    The research aimed to explore associations between participation in 2 education programs for school-based learner drivers and subsequent road traffic offenses and crashes among a large cohort of newly licensed drivers. DRIVE is a prospective cohort study of 20822 first-year drivers aged 17 to 24 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Participants completed a detailed questionnaire and consented to data linkage in 2003-2004. Questionnaire items included year of participation in 2 specific education programs: a 1-day workshop-only program focusing on driving risks ("driver-focused") and a whole-of-community program also including a 1-day workshop but also longer term follow-up activities and a broader focus on reducing risk-taking and building resilience ("resilience-focused"). Survey data were subsequently linked to police-reported crash and offense data for 1996-2005. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore offenses and crashes as a driver (dichotomized as 0 vs >or=1) after program participation. Offenses did not differ between groups; however, whereas the driver-focused program was not associated with reduced crash risk, the resilience-focused program was associated with a 44% reduced relative risk for crash (0.56 [95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.93]). The large effect size observed and complementary findings from a comparable randomized, controlled trial in the United States suggest programs that focus more generally on reducing risks and building resilience have the potential to reduce crashes. A large, representative, randomized, controlled trial is urgently needed to confirm road safety benefits and ensure evidence-based spending and practitioner recommendations in this field.

  10. Sexual practices, myths and misconceptions among long distance truck drivers in North India. (United States)

    Sawal, N; Hans, G D R; Verma, G


    Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers. This was a retrospective study carried out at apex ART centre. Data were collected retrospectively from ART records of 129 long distance Truck drivers and 68 helpers. Details of socio-demographic characteristics, contact with commercial sex workers (CSW'S), pattern of condom usage with CSW'S and factors influencing it were studied. We found that a significant number of drivers and helpers had sexual contact with CSW's and out of these, 30% of drivers and 50% of helpers reported not using condoms and instead resorting to methods like washing genitalia after sex with battery water/urine to avoid getting HIV. There was no significant relationship between pattern of condom usage and educational status, marital status and age. We also found that certain myths like sex with young CSW's was less likely to cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV were also widespread. Owing to continuing prevalence of such sexual myths, long distance truck drivers and helpers do not use condoms while having sex with CSW's as they feel that they can enjoy sex with CSW's and still stay protected against STD's/HIV. It is imperative that this battery water/urine antiseptic myth be specifically targeted for better HIV control in this high risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes. (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Tremblay, Mathieu; Laurendeau, Denis; Teasdale, Normand


    Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  12. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran


    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  13. Working conditions and illicit psychoactive substance use among truck drivers in Brazil. (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Guidoni, Camilo Molino


    The aim of this study was to identify the role that working conditions play in predicting the consumption of illicit psychoactive substances (IPS) among truck drivers. This cross-sectional study was conducted with truck drivers who transport grains to Paranaguá Port, PR, Brazil. The truck drivers were interviewed, and they completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their sociodemographics, lifestyles, working conditions, and consumption of IPS over the past 30 days. The statistical analysis included logistic regression models progressively adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. A total of 670 male drivers with a mean age of 41.9 (±11.1) years were assessed. The prevalence of IPS consumption over the past 30 days was 10.9% (n=73). The drugs used primarily consisted of amphetamines (n=61). After adjusting for working characteristics, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, the following working conditions were associated with the consumption of IPS: driving mostly at night (OR=3.91; 95% CI 1.75 to 8.74), driving while tired (OR=2.26; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.89), and earning a higher monthly income (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.16 to 3.72). Drivers who were 39 years old or younger (OR=2.11; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.25) and not living with a partner (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.22) were also more likely to consume IPS. Driving mostly at night, being tired, and earning more increase the use of IPS among truck drivers, regardless of other working characteristics, sociodemographic, and lifestyle variables. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Older drivers and rapid deceleration events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study. (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K


    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers aged 67-87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration's rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created driving monitoring system (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDEs), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers drivingRDE's were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more "fit", with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-seatbelt use and associated factors among Thai drivers during Songkran festival (United States)


    Background Road traffic accidents are the second largest cause of burden of disease in Thailand, largely attributable to behavioural risk factors including drinking and driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use seatbelts. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of non-seatbelt use among drivers during Songkran festival in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been performed to determine the prevalence of seatbelt use among Thai drivers (N=13722) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample the population of drivers was consecutively selected from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist on seat belt use. Results An overall prevalence of 28.4% of non-seatbelt use among drivers was found. In multivariable analysis demographics (being male, younger age, coming from the Northern or Southern region in Thailand), environmental factors (earlier during the Songkran festival, in the morning and late evening and on main roads in town), seatbelt use experiences and attitudes (having been in an accident before, never having used a seatbelt, no intention to use a seatbelt, lack of awareness of danger of non-seatbelt use and lower perceived risk of being caught with non-seatbelt use) and lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign (less frequent exposure to RSA campaign, less frequent following of RTI statistics and not talking with others about the RSA campaign) were associated with non-seatbelt use. Conclusion Rates of non-seatbelt use by Thai drivers during Songkran festival was 28.4%. Lower exposure to the RSA campaign was found to be associated with non-seatbelt use among drivers during the Songkran festival. PMID:22863275

  16. Advances of energy drivers at Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Sadao; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.


    The energy driver development at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, comprises three fields; glass, laser, carbon dioxide laser, and relativistic electron beam. The development of reliable glass lasers has been the main program at ILE. The GEKKO 12 module program was carried out in the fiscal years from 1977 to 1979 in order to develop various laser components and subsystems which are necessary to construct a 20 kJ GEKKO 12 glass laser. The measured gain coefficient of the 200 mm disk amplifier was 0.10/cm corresponding to the αD product of 4.0. The expected peak output power of the system was 2 TW at 0.1 ns and 0.9 kJ at 1 ns. The recent advances in coating techniques will enable to operate this system over 1.3 kJ per beam at 3 ns. Carbon dioxide lasers have been developed as efficient high energy lasers to study the wave length scaling of implosion process. The design and construction of the 10 kJ LEKKO 8 laser system are in progress. Relativistic electron beam machines, being the most cost-effective driver, have been studied to control pulsed power and to investigate electron beam plasma interaction. As the future plans of ILE, the construction of a 100 kJ energy driver from 1958 to 1987 for scientific break-even experiments is considered. (Kato, T.)

  17. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention. (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin


    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers. (United States)

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide


    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  19. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection. (United States)

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto


    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  20. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván G. Daza


    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  1. Aging-From molecules to populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Avlund, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin


    of human aging. To foster interactions and collaboration between diverse scientists interested in the biochemical, physiological, epidemiological and psychosocial aspects of aging, The University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences recently organized and co-sponsored a workshop entitled Aging......-From Molecules to Populations. The following questions about human aging were discussed at the workshop: What is the limit of human life expectancy? What are the key indicators of human aging? What are the key drivers of human aging? Which genes have the greatest impact on human aging? How similar is aging...

  2. [An intercept survey on the status of driving after alcohol drinking among motor vehicle drivers in 6 counties of Zhejiang, China]. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Xin-wei; Song, Xiao-chun; Bao, Ping; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Yun


    To investigate the status of driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers and to provide evidence for the development of specific interventions. A 7-day intercept survey on driving after alcohol drinking, having drinking habit or driving after getting drunk, among motor vehicle drivers, was conducted in 6 counties of Zhejiang province, 2010. 16 467 motor vehicle drivers were included in the survey. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol [blood alcohol concentration (BAC) > 0 mg/100 ml], having habit of drinking alcohol (20 mg/100 ml ≤ BAC driving after being drunk (BAC ≥ 80 mg/100 ml), were 1.82%, 1.03% and 0.27% respectively. Rates of driving after drinking alcohol, having habit of drink alcohol and driving and drunk-driving among the drivers from urban areas were significantly higher than those of drivers from rural areas, and those rates of male drivers were significantly higher than female drivers as well. 60.20% of drivers after drinking alcohol, were 35 to 49 year-olds, and the three above said rates all increased along with age. The highest above said three rates were observed at 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Compared with other motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists possessed the highest rates of the three items, as 9.27%, 5.01% and 1.57% respectively. Driving after drinking alcohol among motor vehicle drivers still prevailed in Zhejiang, especially between 23:00 PM and 1:00 AM. Drivers from the cities, being male or motorcyclists were among the high-risk populations that called for special attention to be paid in the future, including law enforcement and health promotion to fight against the problem.

  3. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes. (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely


    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  4. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain). (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís


    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging Parents: 7 Warning Signs of Health Problems (United States)

    ... a car or van service or hiring a driver. Consider home care services. You could hire someone ... 2017 Original article: . Mayo ...

  6. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following (United States)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar


    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  7. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety. (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio


    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.


    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  9. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.


    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  10. Driving with Pets as a Risk Factor for Motor Vehicle Collisions among Older Drivers (United States)

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A.; McGwin, Gerald


    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84 95% CI 0.57–1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89 95% CI 1.10–3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue. PMID:23708755

  11. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  12. Using shadow page cache to improve isolated drivers performance. (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe


    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much.

  13. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K


    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  14. Blood alcohol concentration in drivers of Liege area (Belgium): a 5-year analysis. (United States)

    Deville, M; Charlier, C


    The objective of the study was to describe 'the results of the blood alcohol determinations made on drivers from the Liege area between 2007 and 2012. The results were interpreted according to the sex, to the age, to the circumstances and temporal variation of the test. Statistical analysis was performed using R® software. 2725 determinations were done, mainly after crashes. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was 1.69 g/L, and 2132 drivers were above the legal threshold. A majority of offenders were men, but the mean BAC did not differ significantly between men and women. A correlation between age and mean BAC can be observed on the positive cases. Lowest and highest mean BACs are observed during the daytime and during the night, respectively, but no significant difference can be observed between the week and the weekend. Finally, no significant difference in BAC was observed over years.

  15. Do older drivers with bilateral cataract self-regulate their driving while waiting for first eye cataract surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramunt S


    Full Text Available Seraina Agramunt,1 Lynn B Meuleners,1 Michelle L Fraser,1 Kyle C Chow,1 Jonathon Q Ng,2,3 Vignesh Raja,4 Nigel Morlet2,3 1Curtin-Monash Accident Research Centre (C-MARC, Curtin University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Perth, Australia; 2Eye & Vision Epidemiology Research (EVER Group, Perth, Australia; 3School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; 4Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia Objectives: To analyze the association between visual impairment and driver self-regulation among a cohort of older drivers waiting for first eye cataract surgery.Methods: Ninety-six drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed before first eye cataract surgery. Data collection consisted of a researcher-administered questionnaire, objective visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis, a visual attention test (the useful field of view test and a cognitive test (the Mini-Mental State Examination. Driver self-regulation practices were collected using the Driving Habits Questionnaire and were also measured with an in-vehicle monitoring device. Characteristics of self-regulators and non-self-regulators were compared and a logistic regression model was used to examine the association between 3 objective visual measures and driver self-regulation status.Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, only binocular contrast sensitivity (p=0.01, age (p=0.03 and gender (p=0.03 were significantly associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of participants with better contrast sensitivity scores (better vision self-regulating their driving in at least 1 driving situation decreased (odds ratio [OR]: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28 while those of increasing age reported an increased odds of self-regulating their driving (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.15. The odds of males self-regulating their driving was decreased compared with females (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09

  16. The Alabama VIP older driver study rationale and design: examining the relationship between vision impairment and driving using naturalistic driving techniques. (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Antin, Jonathan F; Wood, Joanne M; Elgin, Jennifer


    Older drivers aged ≥70 years old have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collisions (MVC) compared to other age groups. Driving is a highly visual task, and older adults have a high prevalence of vision impairment compared to other ages. Most studies addressing visual risk factors for MVCs by older drivers utilize vehicle accident reports as the primary outcome, an approach with several methodological limitations. Naturalistic driving research methods overcome these challenges and involve installing a high-tech, unobtrusive data acquisition system (DAS) in an older driver's own vehicle. The DAS continuously records multi-channel video of driver and roadway, sensor-based kinematics, GPS location, and presence of nearby objects in front of the vehicle, providing an objective measure of driving exposure. In this naturalistic driving study, the purpose is to examine the relationship between vision and crashes and near-crashes, lane-keeping, turning at intersections, driving performance during secondary tasks demands, and the role of front-seat passengers. An additional aim is to compare results of the on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to objective indicators of driving performance derived from the naturalistic data. Drivers ≥70 years old are recruited from ophthalmology clinics and a previous population-based study of older drivers, with the goal of recruiting persons with wide ranging visual function. Target samples size is 195 drivers. At a baseline visit, the DAS is installed in the participant's vehicle and a battery of health and functional assessments are administered to the driver including visual-sensory and visual-cognitive tests. The DAS remains installed in the vehicle for six months while the participant goes about his/her normal driving with no imposed study restrictions. After six months, the driver returns for DAS de-installation, repeat vision testing, and an on-road driving evaluation by a certified

  17. Prevalence of drugs in oral fluid from truck drivers in Brazilian highways. (United States)

    Bombana, Henrique Silva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Dos Santos, Marcelo Filonzi; Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Yonamine, Mauricio; Rohlfs, Waldo José Caram; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma


    Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation. Important highways cross through Sao Paulo to other regions from Brazil and to other countries in Latin America. This study aims to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use by truck drivers in the state of Sao Paulo through toxicological analyses of oral fluid. Truck drivers were randomly stopped by police officers on federal roads during morning hours. Oral fluid samples were collected using the Quantisal™ device. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Oral fluid samples were screened for amphetamine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) by ELISA and the confirmation was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 764 drivers stopped, 762 agreed to participate. The participants were driving an average of 614km and 9.4h a day. Of the total samples, 5.2% (n=40) tested positive for drugs. Cocaine was the most frequently found drug (n=21), followed by amphetamine (n=16) and Δ9-THC (n=8). All drivers were men with an average age of 42.5 years. With these results we were able to verify that many truck drivers were still consuming psychoactive drugs while driving, and cocaine was the most prevalent one. This reinforces the need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of illicit drugs by truck drivers in Brazil

  18. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised as a potential screening test for elderly drivers. (United States)

    Ferreira, Inês S; Simões, Mário R; Marôco, João


    Considerable research has shown that neuropsychological tests are predictive of real-world driving ability. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a brief cognitive test that has been commonly used in the assessment of older drivers. However, this test has inherent problems that limit its validity to evaluate cognitive abilities related to driving and to screen for driving impairments in non-demented people. Therefore, it is useful to test new screening instruments that may predict potential unsafe drivers who require an in-depth neuropsychological assessment in a specialised centre. To date, the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) as an indicator of driving ability has not been established. In the current study, fifty older drivers (mean age=73.1 years) who were referred for a psychological assessment, the protocol of which included the ACE-R, underwent an on-road driving test. Using linear discriminant analyses, the results highlighted the higher classification accuracy of the ACE-R compared to the MMSE score, particularly for detecting unsafe drivers. Measures of visuospatial and executive functions, which are not incorporated in the MMSE score, had an incremental value in the prediction of driving ability. This emerging brief cognitive test may warrant additional study for use in the fitness to drive assessment of older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drivers' Visual Characteristics when Merging onto or Exiting an Urban Expressway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cheng

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine drivers' visual and driving behavior while merging onto or exiting an urban expressway with low and high traffic densities. The analysis was conducted according to three periods (approaching, merging or exiting, and accelerating or decelerating. A total of 10 subjects (8 males and 2 females with ages ranging from 25 to 52 years old (M = 30.0 years old participated in the study. The research was conducted in a natural driving situation, and the drivers' eye movements were monitored and recorded using an eye tracking system. The results show that the influence of traffic density on the glance duration and scan duration is more significant when merging than when exiting. The results also demonstrate that the number of glances and the mean glance duration are mainly related to the driving task (e.g., the merging period. Therefore, drivers' visual search strategies mainly depend on the current driving task. With regard to driving behavior, the variation tendencies of the duration and the velocity of each period are similar. These results support building an automated driving assistant system that can automatically identify gaps and accelerate or decelerate the car accordingly or provide suggestions to the driver to do so.

  20. US policies to enhance older driver safety: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Dugan, Elizabeth; Barton, Kelli N; Coyle, Caitlin; Lee, Chae Man


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature related to state policies concerning older drivers and to draw policy conclusions about which policies appear to work to reduce older driver crashes and to identify areas needed for further research. Specific policies examined in this paper concern medical reporting and medical review, license renewal processes, and driver testing. A study was included in the systematic review if it met the following criteria: published in English between 1991and January 2013; included data on human subjects aged 65 and older residing in the United States; included information on at least one policy related to older drivers; and had a transportation-related outcome variable (e.g., crash, fatality, renewal). A total of 29 studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies investigated license renewal and seven articles examined medical reporting. In-person license renewal requirements were associated with reduced risk for fatal crashes. Restricted licenses were associated with reduced number of miles driven per week. More intensive renewal requirements and being the subject of a medical report to the licensing authority was associated with delicensure. Given the importance of driving to mobility, quality of life, and public safety, more research is needed.

  1. Extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. (United States)

    Troglauer, Thomas; Hels, Tove; Christens, Peter Falck


    A substantial body of research has shown that use of mobile phones while driving can impair driving performance and increase the risk of being involved in accidents. Similarly, mobile phone use seems to be an increasing activity thus representing a relevant traffic safety issue. This paper investigates the extent and variations in mobile phone use among drivers of heavy vehicles in Denmark. The data was collected through written questionnaires and had a response rate of 58%. It was found that more than 99% of the drivers used mobile phones while driving. Despite a prohibition of hand-held mobile phone use while driving 31% of the drivers reported to do so. Analysis of the variations in usage found a positive significant relationship between driving hours and phone use. A negative linear effect was found between age and phone use. Similarly, a positive significant association was found between the number of stops and the amount of phone use. 0.5% reported that their use of mobile phones had contributed to an accident, while 6% had experienced their mobile phone use causing a dangerous situation. However, 66% reported experiencing dangerous situations because of others road users' mobile phone use. Various implications of the findings are discussed particularly in relation to the drivers with high exposure.

  2. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe. (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G


    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  3. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics. (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC


    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  4. Rectangular waveform linear transformer driver module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Xie Weiping; Zhou Liangji; Chen Lin


    Linear Transformer Driver is a novel pulsed power technology, its main merits include a parallel LC discharge array and Inductive Voltage Adder. The parallel LC discharge array lowers the whole circuit equivalent inductance and the Inductive Voltage Adder unites the modules in series in order to create a high electric field grads, meanwhile, restricts the high voltage in a small space. The lower inductance in favor of LTD output a fast waveform and IVA confine high voltage in secondary cavity. In recently, some LTD-based pulsed power system has been development yet. The usual LTD architecture provides damped sine shaped output pulses that may not be suitable in flash radiography, high power microwave production, z-pinch drivers, and certain other applications. A more suitable driver output pulse would have a flat or inclined top (slightly rising or falling). In this paper, we present the design of an LTD cavity that generates this type of the output pulse by including within its circular array some number of the harmonic bricks in addition to the standard bricks according to Fourier progression theory. The parallel LC discharge array circuit formula is introduced by Kirchhoff Law, and the sum of harmonic is proofed as an analytic result, meanwhile, rationality of design is proved by simulation. Varying gas spark discharge dynamic resistance with harmonic order and switches jitter are analyzed. The results are as following: The more harmonic order is an approach to the ideal rectangular waveform, but lead to more system complexity. The capacity decreases as harmonic order increase, and gas spark discharge dynamic resistance rises with the capacity. The rising time protracts and flat is decay or even vanishes and the shot to shot reproducibility is degenerate as the switches jitter is high. (authors)

  5. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk. (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G


    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  6. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calza, Elisa; Goedhuys, Micheline; Trifkovic, Neda


    Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological...... international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption...... is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation....

  7. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  8. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Fuchs


    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  9. Evaluating public education messages aimed at monitoring and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones among young drivers. (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni; White, Katherine M; Fleiter, Judy J; Watson, Barry


    Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones. Participants (n=288; 199F, 89M) were drivers aged 17-25 years who resided in the Australian state of Queensland. Message acceptance (i.e., intention and effectiveness) and message rejection were both assessed using a self-report survey. Multivariate analyses found that, overall, the messages targeting monitoring/reading behaviour were considered more effective than those targeting responding behaviour. The message that challenged the underlying motivation that believing you are a good driver makes it easier to monitor/read social interactive technology while driving was considered particularly effective by young male drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H


    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over 4 weeks. Nine healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 9 drivers between the ages of 68 and 82 years diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) participated in the study. Within the 4 weeks, groups completed 12 consecutive sessions (10 with ADAS and 2 without ADAS) in a driving simulator. Results indicate an effect of ADAS use on performance. Removing ADAS after short-term exposure led to deterioration of performance in all speed measures in the group of drivers diagnosed with PD. These results suggest that provision of traffic information was utilized by drivers diagnosed with PD in order to control their speed.

  11. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.


    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  12. Driver's mental workload prediction model based on physiological indices. (United States)

    Yan, Shengyuan; Tran, Cong Chi; Wei, Yingying; Habiyaremye, Jean Luc


    Developing an early warning model to predict the driver's mental workload (MWL) is critical and helpful, especially for new or less experienced drivers. The present study aims to investigate the correlation between new drivers' MWL and their work performance, regarding the number of errors. Additionally, the group method of data handling is used to establish the driver's MWL predictive model based on subjective rating (NASA task load index [NASA-TLX]) and six physiological indices. The results indicate that the NASA-TLX and the number of errors are positively correlated, and the predictive model shows the validity of the proposed model with an R 2 value of 0.745. The proposed model is expected to provide a reference value for the new drivers of their MWL by providing the physiological indices, and the driving lesson plans can be proposed to sustain an appropriate MWL as well as improve the driver's work performance.

  13. Real-time driver fatigue detection based on face alignment (United States)

    Tao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Guiying; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yi


    The performance and robustness of fatigue detection largely decrease if the driver with glasses. To address this issue, this paper proposes a practical driver fatigue detection method based on face alignment at 3000 FPS algorithm. Firstly, the eye regions of the driver are localized by exploiting 6 landmarks surrounding each eye. Secondly, the HOG features of the extracted eye regions are calculated and put into SVM classifier to recognize the eye state. Finally, the value of PERCLOS is calculated to determine whether the driver is drowsy or not. An alarm will be generated if the eye is closed for a specified period of time. The accuracy and real-time on testing videos with different drivers demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust and obtain better accuracy for driver fatigue detection compared with some previous method.

  14. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K


    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  15. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation (United States)

    Palmer, Fred


    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  16. Microcontroller based driver alertness detection systems to detect drowsiness (United States)

    Adenin, Hasibah; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo


    The advancement of embedded system for detecting and preventing drowsiness in a vehicle is a major challenge for road traffic accident systems. To prevent drowsiness while driving, it is necessary to have an alert system that can detect a decline in driver concentration and send a signal to the driver. Studies have shown that traffc accidents usually occur when the driver is distracted while driving. In this paper, we have reviewed a number of detection systems to monitor the concentration of a car driver and propose a portable Driver Alertness Detection System (DADS) to determine the level of concentration of the driver based on pixelated coloration detection technique using facial recognition. A portable camera will be placed at the front visor to capture facial expression and the eye activities. We evaluate DADS using 26 participants and have achieved 100% detection rate with good lighting condition and a low detection rate at night.

  17. Driver behaviour in motorway car-following transitions and driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.; Horst, A.R.A. van der


    Co-operative driving with speed adaptation functionality has great potential to improve traffic-throughput, traffic-safety, and environmental-impact on heavily used traffic-infrastructures. A driving-simulator study was performed to investigate the driver behaviour with respect to such

  18. Smart driver monitoring : when signal processing meets human factors : in the driver's seat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghaei, A.S.; Donmez, B.; Liu, C.C.; He, D.; Liu, G.; Plataniotis, K.N.; Chen, H.Y.W.; Sojoudi, Z.


    This article provides an interdisciplinary perspective on driver monitoring systems by discussing state-of-the-art signal processing solutions in the context of road safety issues identified in human factors research. Recently, the human factors community has made significant progress in

  19. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie


    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  20. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors


    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.


    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  1. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management


    Oškrdal Václav; Pavlíček Antonín; Jelínková Petra


    This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR) management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes ...

  2. SSCL DD2 driver port and project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestad, S.L.


    A paper previously published in the 1992 ICHEP proceedings outlined the SSC's need for a high speed, high capacity tape drive to store detector data. Also described were stages and lessons learned while developing a custom device driver for the Ampex DD2 tape drive on a Silicon Graphics 4D/310. This paper updates the work on the SGI driver and describes the efforts in porting the driver to a Sun Microsystems 670 server

  3. SSCL DD2 driver port and project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestad, S.L.


    A paper previously published in the 1992 ICHEP proceedings outlined the SSC's need for a high speed, high capacity tape drive to store detector data. Also described were stages and lessons learned while developing a custom device driver for the Ampex DD2 tape drive on a Silicon Graphics 4D/310. This paper updates the work on the SGI driver and describes the efforts in porting the driver to a Sun Microsystems 670 server

  4. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games. (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard


    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems. (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja


    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers


    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf


    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  7. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.


    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (∼1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design

  8. Theoretical models of drivers behavior on the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Biernacki


    Full Text Available Understanding of mechanisms and factors responsible for the driver behavior on the road is the subject of ongoing interest to transportation psychologists, occupational doctors and engineers. Models of driver behavior are a key point for the understanding the mechanisms and factors which may cause limitations to the optimal functioning on the road. They also systematize knowledge about the factors responsible for the behavior of the driver and thus constitute a starting point for formulating empirical or diagnostic hypotheses. The aim of this study is to present models of driver behavior from the descriptive and functional perspectives. Med Pr 2017;68(3:401–411

  9. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus (United States)


    ...-2011-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The...). [[Page 10608

  10. The Effects of Vehicle Redesign on the Risk of Driver Death. (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Lund, Adrian K


    This study updates a 2006 report that estimated the historical effects of vehicle design changes on driver fatality rates in the United States, separate from the effects of environmental and driver behavior changes during the same period. In addition to extending the period covered by 8 years, this study estimated the effect of design changes by model year and vehicle type. Driver death rates for consecutive model years of vehicle models without design changes were used to estimate the vehicle aging effect and the death rates that would have been expected if the entire fleet had remained unchanged from the 1985 calendar year. These calendar year estimates are taken to be the combined effect of road environment and motorist behavioral changes, with the difference between them and the actual calendar year driver fatality rates reflecting the effect of changes in vehicle design and distribution of vehicle types. The effects of vehicle design changes by model year were estimated for cars, SUVs, and pickups by computing driver death rates for model years 1984-2009 during each of their first 3 full calendar years of exposure and comparing with the expected rates if there had been no design changes. As reported in the 2006 study, had there been no changes in the vehicle fleet, driver death risk would have declined during calendar years 1985-1993 and then slowly increased from 1993 to 2004. The updated results indicate that the gradual increase would have continued through 2006, after which driver fatality rates again would have declined through 2012. Overall, it is estimated that there were 7,700 fewer driver deaths in 2012 than there would have been had vehicle designs not changed. Cars were the first vehicle type whose design safety generally exceeded that of the 1984 model year (starting in model year 1996), followed by SUVs (1998 models) and pickups (2002 models). By the 2009 model year, car driver fatality risk had declined 51% from its high in 1994, pickup driver

  11. Pre-licensed driving experience and car crash involvement during the learner and restricted, licence stages of graduated driver licensing: Findings from the New Zealand drivers study. (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy J; Langley, John D; Brookland, Rebecca L; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gulliver, Pauline


    The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-licence driving experiences, that is driving before beginning the licensing process, increased or decreased crash risk as a car driver, during the learner or the restricted licence stages of the graduated driver licensing system (GDLS). Study participants were 15-24 year old members of the New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) - a prospective cohort study of newly licensed car drivers. The interview stages of the NZDS are linked to, the three licensing stages of the GDLS: learner, restricted and full. Baseline demographic (age, ethnicity, residential location, deprivation), personality (impulsivity, sensation seeking, aggression) and, behavioural data, (including pre-licensed driving behaviour), were obtained at the learner licence interview. Data on distance driven and crashes that occurred at the learner licence and restricted licence stages, were reported at the restricted and full licence interviews, respectively. Crash data were also obtained from police traffic crash report files and this was combined with the self-reported crash data. The analysis of the learner licence stage crashes, when only supervised driving is allowed, was based on the participants who had passed the restricted licence test and undertaken the NZDS, restricted licence interview (n=2358). The analysis of the restricted licence stage crashes, when unsupervised driving is first allowed, was based on those who had passed the full licence test and completed the full licence interview (n=1428). After controlling for a range of demographic, personality, behavioural variables and distance driven, Poisson regression showed that the only pre-licence driving behaviour that showed a consistent relationship with subsequent crashes was on-road car driving which was associated with an increased risk of being the driver in a car crash during the learner licence period. This research showed that pre-licensed driving did not reduce crash risk among learner or

  12. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.


    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  13. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of 2 or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US heavy-ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historial anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. (orig.)

  14. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  15. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius


    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  16. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of two or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US Heavy Ion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historical anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.


    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  18. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers. (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M


    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers. (United States)

    Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y


    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc.

  20. Data and methods for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue, highway safety and long-term driver health. (United States)

    Stern, Hal S; Blower, Daniel; Cohen, Michael L; Czeisler, Charles A; Dinges, David F; Greenhouse, Joel B; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; Krueger, Gerald P; Mallis, Melissa M; Pain, Richard F; Rizzo, Matthew; Sinha, Esha; Small, Dylan S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wegman, David H


    This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described. Statistical methods that can be used to improve understanding of the relevant relationships from observational data are also described. The recommendations for enhanced data collection and the use of modern statistical methods for causal inference have the potential to enhance our understanding of the relationship of fatigue to highway safety and to long-term driver health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.