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Sample records for aged 6-24 months

  1. Oral zinc supplementation positively affects linear growth, but not weight, in children 6-24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Abdollahi; Zahra Abdollahi; Fereshteh Fozouni; Dolly Bondarianzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Me...

  2. Oral Zinc Supplementation Positively Affects Linear Growth, But not Weight, in Children 6-24 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    ABDOLLAHI, Morteza; Zahra ABDOLLAHI; Fozouni, Fereshteh; Bondarianzadeh, Dolly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood zinc deficiency is a common problem in many developing countries where people rely mainly on plant based diets with low zinc contents. Zinc supplementation is one of strategies to combat zinc deficiency and its consequences in children. The aim of this community trial was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on the linear growth of children 6-24 months of age and to examine the feasibility of its implementation in the context of primary health care (PHC). Method...

  3. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  4. The Relationship between Protein, Zinc and Phosphorus Consumption to IGF-1 Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months in Timur Tengah Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province

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    Matius Rantesalu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Status of malnutrition in children should watch out because it can lead to immunological suppression, impaired growth, increased morbidity from infectious diseases, developmental disorders and the presence of locomotor coordination in infants and children, inhibition of learning progress and speaking, a deficit of intelligence quotient (IQ permanently 5 points below normal, as well as developmental disorders and cognitive behavior. This study aimed to examines the relationship between protein intake, Zink and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status in Timur Tengah, Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. This study was an observational study with cross-sectional design. The experiment was conducted in nine sub-district of South Central Timur. Children's levels of IGF-1 are determined using Elisa Quantikine Human IGF-1 Immunoassay. Other data that food consumption in children 6-24 months of age is obtained through consumption recall, while other supporting data obtained through questionnaires by enumerators power. Analysis of nutrients content in foods used a food processor 2 (FP2. The statistical test used was t-test. The results showed that the father work mostly farmers while the mother does not work. Mother's education and father respectively 51 people (70.8% and 48 (66.7% 9 years of basic education. IGF-1 levels below the average in children aged 6-24 months by 59 (81.9%. Statistical test between nutrient consumption of protein, Zinc and Phosphorus with a confidence level of 95% indicates that there is a is significant correlation between protein intake Zinc and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status.

  5. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

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    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  6. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality. PMID:21519743

  7. Methodology of infant and young child feeding index for children aged 6-24 months in China%6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数评价方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玲; 曾果; 孙要武; 李增宁; 董文兰; 潘丽莉; 王玉英; 赖建强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) in China to comprehensive evaluate the feeding of children aged 6-24 months. Methods Based on the feed index concept defined by Ruel and Menon in 2002, and according to the feeding principle by WHO and Chinese dietary guidelines for children aged 0-6 years,the feed index for infants and young children was built and the variables were scored. Then using WAZ, HAZ and WHZ, the correlation between ICFI and Z score for children in urban and rural of three provinces (Sichuan, Hebei and Heilongjiang) was evaluated. Results The ICFI was constituted by 7 parts; continued breast-eeding, bottle-feeding, dietary diversity for the past 24h, frequency of feeding solids/semisolids for the past 24h, food frequency for the past 7d, the supplementary time of the formula milk and other foods. The difference of ICFI score between urban and rural group was significant ( P < 0.05). In urban, the ICFI score of children aged 6 ~ 8months was lower than that of children aged 9-24 months. In urban, the negatively correlation between ICFI and WAZ WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . In rural , the negatively correlation between ICFI and WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) , while the positively correlation between ICFI and HAZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion ICFI is effective to evaluate the infant feeding in China.%目的 建立6 ~ 24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数,为综合评价婴幼儿喂养提供有效的工具.方法 以2002年Ruel和Menon提出的喂养指数概念为基础,根据世界卫生组织(WHO)喂养建议和中国0~6岁儿童膳食指南,建立喂养指数确定各变量分类及分值,利用四川、河北、黑龙江三地区城乡6 ~ 24月龄共1738名婴幼儿年龄别体重( WAZ)、年龄别身长(HAZ)和身长别体重(WHZ),分析喂养指数与婴幼儿Z评分之间的相关性.结果 喂养指数由持续母乳喂养、奶瓶使用、过去24小时膳食摄入种类和膳食摄入频

  8. Growth and development and its related factors among rural children aged 6 - 24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西农村6~24月龄婴幼儿生长发育及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶群; 王惠珊; 宫丽敏; 韦萍; 赵晶; 张丽晋; 许慧琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth and development and its related factors among the rural children aged 6-24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to provide reference for the improvement of the children's health. Methods A questionaire survey was conducted among the parents of 1 198 children aged 6-24 months selected randomly with stratified cluster sampling form eight towns in two counties of Guangxi. The height and weight of the children were measured by nuiformly trained personnel and were evaluated based on the study of nine cities in China,2005. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 21. 9% among the children and was lower than the average level of the nine cities. The prevalences of underweight and stunting were 16. 2% and 13. 5% ,and increased with the age among the children. There were significant differences in malnutrition and stunting among the young children of different month of age. The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that aged 12 months or more, second or late parity, and drinking unboiled water were the risk factors and normal delivery was a protective factor for malnutrition among the children. Conclusion The prevalences of low weight and stunting are relative high and preterm infants and children of second or late parity are at a high risk of malnutrition among the children in rural areas of Guangxi.%目的 了解广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的生长发育现状及其影响因素,为改善当地儿童生长发育水平提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取广西横县、宾阳县和灵山县8个乡的1 198名6 ~ 24月龄婴幼儿家长进行问卷调查,并由经过统一培训的人员测量婴幼儿的身长、体重.结果 广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿体重和身长均低于中国9市标准人群,且随年龄增加,儿童身长、体重差距逐渐增大;广西农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿营养不良发生率为21.9

  9. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption. The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  10. Continuity and discontinuity in maternal sensitivity at 6, 24, and 42 months in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianta, R C; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    1989-04-01

    Continuity and discontinuity in maternal sensitivity from 6 and 24 months to 42 months were examined in a sample of 135 disadvantaged mothers and their firstborn children. Sensitivity at 6 and 24 months accounted for 18% of the variance in 42-month maternal sensitivity for boys, 14% for girls. Discontinuity was examined using residual scores. Less maternal sensitivity than predicted was related to stressful environmental and child characteristics for both boys and girls, while greater sensitivity than predicted was related to mothers' experiences of emotional support, girls' positive individual characteristics, and boys who were seen as unengaged. PMID:2924663

  11. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile. PMID:21519742

  12. Distributional Phonetic Learning at 10 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Pons, Ferran; Maye, Jessica; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Infant phonetic perception reorganizes in accordance with the native language by 10 months of age. One mechanism that may underlie this perceptual change is distributional learning, a statistical analysis of the distributional frequency of speech sounds. Previous distributional learning studies have tested infants of 6-8 months, an age at which…

  13. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    OpenAIRE

    Luabeya Kany-Kany A; Van den Broeck Jan; Chhagan Meera K; Mpontshane Nontobeko; Tomkins Andrew; Bennish Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding z...

  14. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Gomes, J; Fernandes, Marcellino Christian

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  15. Preventive health behaviours among parents of infants aged four months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, S; Booth, P; Smyth, H; Paul, C

    1992-06-01

    Six preventive health behaviours have been frequently identified as having the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity during infancy: breast-feeding until the age of six months; no solid food until after four months of age; immunisation against whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis and tetanus; the use of a baby capsule to restrain the infant when travelling in a motor vehicle; regular attendance at a health care provider for preventive health checks; and no maternal smoking. This study surveyed 191 primiparous women four months after the birth of their babies to explore the proportion of parents who perform the recommended preventive health behaviours and the association among the behaviours. Thirty-nine per cent of the women reported that they were no longer breast-feeding by the time their infant was four months old; 35 per cent had introduced solids before 16 weeks of age; 35 per cent did not always use a baby capsule when travelling with their baby in their car, 25 per cent did not regularly attend the early childhood health centres and 22 per cent smoked. Forty-eight per cent of the sample were performing four or fewer of the six preventive health behaviours and 21 per cent were performing three or fewer. The relationship between performing each preventive health behaviour and a range of demographic variables was investigated. A logistic regression indicated that performing three or fewer of the health behaviours was associated with lower levels of education, having public health insurance and being born in a country other than Australia. PMID:1391160

  16. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old) and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60%) altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs. PMID:27330854

  17. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  18. Evaluation of Vitamin D Levels by Months, Sex and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Öğüş, Elmas; Sürer, Hatice; Kılınç, Aytün Şadan; Fidancı, Vildan; Yılmaz, Gülsen; Dindar, Nermin; Karakaş, Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D is effective in calcium absorbtion and bone metabolism.  Also, decreased vitamin D levels are associated with most of the chronic diseases such as DM, HT, cancer and otoimmune diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate vitamin D levels that is carried out in our laboratory between January and December in 2012.Materials and Methods: A total of 4168 patients between January and December in 2012 were evaluated and age, sex and vitamin D levels classified by month.Results: In...

  19. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old) and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P < 0.05 and identification in each rat of the high-abundance group, 33 proteins were found to be changed (15 increased and 18 decreased in old rats). By adding a more stringent standard (protein spectral counts from every rat in the higher group greater than those in the lower group), eight proteins showed consistent changes in all rats of the groups; two of these proteins are also altered in the urinary proteome of aging humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60%) altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs. PMID:27330854

  20. Variation of Serum Protein Level in Xiang Piglets at Different Month of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChiYujie; GaoXuejung; 等

    1995-01-01

    Usual clinieal methods were used to determine the concentrations of serum protein,albumin and globulin in Xiang piglets from the lst month to the 6th month of age.Thirteen piglets(eight males and five females)born is Spring were selected from the Livestock Experimental Station of NEAU.The results showed that the serum protein level was different at different month of age.The lowest level was found at the 1st month of age,and the highest at the 4th month of age.The difference in serum protein concentration was significant between different months of age.There was ,however,no significant difference between sexes at the same month of age.

  1. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

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    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  2. High-dose vitamin A supplementation administered with vaccinations after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Bale, Carlito; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul;

    2013-01-01

    WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated.......WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after six months of age. The effect of this recommendation on mortality has not been evaluated....

  3. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and child size at 24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; McGuinness, Bridget M; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may result in decreased child growth, though the critical window(s) are unclear. We investigated the association between PCBs and child size at age 24 months (n=44). PCBs were measured in 1st trimester serum, breast milk, and child serum at age 24 months, and dichotomized at the median. Age- and gender-specific z-scores were calculated for anthropometric measures. Using linear regression, we observed no significant changes in...

  4. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    compared in Cox proportional-hazards models overall, and by gender and vaccine. RESULTS: Between August 2007 and November 2010, 7587 children were enrolled. Within 6 months of follow-up 80 nonaccident deaths occurred (VAS: 38; placebo: 42). The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing VAS versus placebo......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  5. Implemented psychomotor activity for very pre-term children aged from 18 to 36 months

    OpenAIRE

    Jidovtseff, Boris; DUTILLEUX, Benjamine; IGLESIAS-GIL, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Premature infants are more susceptible to motor development impairment when compared to full term infants. From this perspective a psychomotor program has been implemented for very-term children aged from 18 to 36 month.

  6. [Histological and histochemical studies on mouthpart of Whitmania pigra at different months age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Wang, Jia; Li, Yan-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Mouthpart developmental histology of Whitmania pigra at different month of age were studied by paraffin section, HE staining combined alcian blue and periodic acid schifts reaction procedure (AB-PAS). The following results was obtained: Change ranges: oral width 0.6 mm (1-3 month), 1.2 mm (34 month); oral diameter 0.3 mm (1-3 month); 1.2 mm (34 month), the oral size reached maximum during 4-6 months and unchanged thereafter. Oral lip had a thin protective film located in the front of the mouthpart. The W. pigra possessed three jaws in oral cavity, the big one was in dorsum, the other two separated on both side of abdomen respectively. Jaws and muscular pharynx were interrelated closely. The jaws were composed by cuticle, epithelial layer, muscularis and jaw cavity from outside to inside. In the front of jaws had mastoid abdomen with function of secreting acidophilic granule from 2 month age. Oral cavity was composed by mucosa, submucosa and muscularis inside and outside. Oral cavity was rich of peristomial nerves. And pharynx was composed of mucosa, muscularis, adventitia from inside to outside. The folds height and width become heighten and thicken. Mucosa epithelium from complex flat epithelium changed into columnar epithelium, muscularis gradually developed into thickened along with growing. Muscular thickness reached maximum at 4 months. Mucous cells of W. pigra were classified into I-IV types based on different staining and two mainly morphological shapes (Tubular, Pear-shaped). Jaws, oral cavity, pharynx by AB-PAS staining showed little changes at different month of age. Mucous cells were few at 1 month age, and type II cells were increased rapidly in 2-3 month age in oral lip. Oral cavity contains more mucous gland cells type I. Under the muscularis there were connective tissues which distributed a few of mucous cells type II. PMID:25244755

  7. Functional connectivity in the developing brain: A longitudinal study from 4 to 9 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Damaraju, E; Caprihan, A.; Lowe, J R; Allen, E A; Calhoun, V D; Phillips, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the development of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from 4 to 9 months of age with resting state magnetic resonance imaging performed on sleeping infants without sedative medication. Data is analyzed with independent component analysis (ICA). Using both low (30 components) and high (100 components) ICA model order decompositions, we find that the functional network connectivity (FNC) map is largely similar at both 4 and 9 months. However at 9 months the connectivity stre...

  8. Early Television Exposure and Children’s Behavioral and Social Outcomes at Age 30 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shunyue; Maeda, Tadahiko; Yoichi, Sakakihara; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; ,

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that television (TV) viewing may be associated with increased behavioral and emotional problems in children. However, there are few prospective studies targeted for its association with outcomes of children under 3 years old. The purpose of this study was to exam the association between children’s early TV exposure at ages 18 and 30 months and the behavioral and emotional outcomes at age 30 months. Methods We analyzed data collected prospectively in ...

  9. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Jingqiu Ma; Shanshan Geng; Junli Wang; Jinrong Liu; Jie Zhang; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chil...

  10. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  11. Alimentação complementar e estado nutricional de crianças menores de dois anos atendidas no Programa Saúde da Família em Acrelândia, Acre, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira Complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6-24-month-old children in Acrelândia, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tarricone Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de investigar o estado nutricional e alimentação complementar em crianças de 6 a 24 meses, residentes na Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira, um estudo transversal foi realizado na área urbana do Município de Acrelândia, Estado do Acre, com 164 crianças. As prevalências de déficit de estatura/idade e anemia foram de 12% e 40%, respectivamente, e de deficiência de ferro isolada, de 85%. Os níveis séricos das vitaminas A e B12 estavam baixos em 15% e 12% das crianças, respectivamente. Houve baixo consumo alimentar dos seguintes nutrientes (% de crianças abaixo das recomendações: ácido fólico (33%, vitamina C (40%, vitamina A (42%, zinco (46% e ferro (71%. A biodisponibilidade de ferro da dieta foi de 8%. Observou-se baixo consumo de frutas, hortaliças e carnes, com consumo excessivo de leite de vaca e mingau.Our objective was to investigate nutritional status and complementary feeding practices in children from 6 to 24 months of age living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted within an urban area of Acrelândia, Acre State. A total of 164 children were studied. Prevalence rates for stunting and anemia were 12% and 40%, respectively, and overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 85%. Vitamin A and B12 serum levels were below normal thresholds in 15% and 12% of children, respectively. Low intake was observed for the following nutrients (% of children: folic acid (33%, vitamin C (40%, vitamin A (42%, zinc (46%, and iron (71%. Iron bioavailability in the diet was approximately 8%. Very low dietary intakes of fruits, vegetables, and meats were observed, in contrast with excessive consumption of cow's milk and porridge.

  12. Asymptomatic Celiac Disease in Children with Trisomy 21 at 26 Months of Age or Less

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    Nancy J. Roizen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age.  These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.

  13. A 3-month age difference profoundly alters the primary rat stromal vascular fraction phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Andersen, Ditte Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    such as age is demanded. Here we report that even a short age difference has an impact on the phenotype of primary SVF cells. We observed that a 3-month difference in relatively young adult rats affects the expression pattern of several mesenchymal stem cell markers in their primary SVF. The younger...

  14. Breastfeeding exclusively and iron deficiency anemia during the first 6 months of age

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    Rosa F.S.V. Marques

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among exclusively breastfed infants from one to six months of life and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This is a cohort study of the hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of 102 healthy full-term infants, weighing more than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds at birth, evaluated for growth development and supported to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels were measured in the first, fourth, and sixth months of life. The hemoglobin and ferritin levels of the mothers were also measured in the first month postpartum. Results At four months, 5.7% presented iron deficiency and 3.4% had iron deficiency anemia. At six months, the percentage of children with iron deficiency increased more than four times, reaching 26.1%, while iron deficiency anemia was present in 23.9% of the infants studied. Iron deficiency at six months of age was significantly correlated to growth velocity. Conclusion According to the results of this study, exclusive breastfeeding protects infants from iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia for the first four months of life. After this age, in accordance with the literature, the findings of this study demonstrated an increase in anemia and iron deficiency rates, adding to evidence that supports the monitoring of iron levels in exclusively breastfed children presenting higher weight gains beginning at four months of age.

  15. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age

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    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.

  16. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 15 MONTHS

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    Fysal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to lack of iron is the most important hematological disorder of infancy and childhood. According to India’s third National Family Health Survey ( NFHS - 3 of 2005 - 6 , 70 % of children between 6 months and 59 months are anemic. So it is very important to screen children for anemia early. The first 2 years of life is a critical window of opportunity to intervene in children since anemia can impair psychomotor development. A cross sectional study involving 260 apparently healthy children between 6 months and 15 months of age , showed the prevalence of anemia to be 60.7%. Only 9.2% of them were having Protein Energy Malnutrition. Introduction of animal milk at an early age and the amount of animal milk consumed were found to be the two important risk factors significantly associated with anemia. KEY WORDS: Hemoglobin , Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM , Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia , Exclusive Breast Feeding ( EBF

  17. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 60 MONTHS WITH LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

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    Bharath Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailments. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI has quite a high morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries 1 ARI is responsible for about 30 - 50 percent of visits to health facilities and for about 20 - 40 percent of hospital admissions. Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. Because mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries is attributable mainly to bacterial etiology , IM NCI strategy recommends the use of antibiotics when a child presented with tachypnea as defined previously . AIMS : To re - define or refine tachypnea as a specific indicator of bacterial pneumonia. To identify other clinical predictors for identifying bacteri al pneumonia. DESIGNS : The study was designed to be done in two phases . In the first phase it is to be carried out as a descriptive study of children presenting with fever and respiratory distress in the OPD to identify the specific markers for bacterial p neumonia. In the second phase presenting clinical features in children with radiological pneumonia will be analysed to validate the findings from Phase I. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This was a hospital based study and was conducted in Sri Manakula V inayagar Me dical College and Hospital , Puducherry . The study included 100 Children in the age group 6 months to 5 years presenting in the out patients department with fever and respiratory distress Children attending the out - patient department on a fixed day of the w eek (Monday and who come under this study population during the study period were admitted and recruited in the study and informed verbal consent for participation was taken from the parents. Their clinical profiles were recorded as in phase I. All childr en coming under this study population were given antibiotics and supportive treatment. The cases were monitored for any worsening or improvement every 6 th hourly on day 1 and

  18. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    OpenAIRE

    Torabi, Fatemeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Amiri, Saba; Soleimani, Farin; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4-60 months.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4-60 months) who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2...

  19. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jingqiu; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Junli; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g) or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g) for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g), 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g), 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g), 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g) and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g), respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years. PMID:25742018

  20. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  1. Iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 12-15 months in Ahwaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Monajemzadeh Seyed; Zarkesh Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Infants aged between 4 and 24 months are among the population groups that are most affected by iron deficiency (ID). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ID and IDA in infants aged 12-15 months, living in Ahwaz, southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six infants participated in the study. The mean corpus...

  2. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in Nigerian children aged 0-25 months

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA; Jackson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in children aged 0?25 months and to identify the associated risk factors for Ascaris lumbricoides infections. The study was conducted in three villages outside Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria in May/June 2005. Stool samples (369) were processed by formol-ether concentration. Ascaris lumbricoides (12.2%) was the dominant infection. Age, father's occupation an...

  3. Impact of Population Ageing on Education Level and Average Monthly Salary: The Case of Slovenia

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    Ziga Cepar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is a contemporary problem, which does not only mean changing demographic structures, but also affects economy. Based on our research we cannot reject our main research thesis that population ageing has a significant impact on human capital in Slovenia. Using multiple regression analysis, on cross-section data of Slovenian municipalities, we cannot reject our first hypothesis that population ageing in Slovenia leads to lower education level and our second hypothesis that population ageing leads to lower average net monthly salary. Main contribution of this research therefore is the finding and empirical confirmation of the specific impact that population ageing has on human capital based on specific case of Slovenian cross section data. Results of the research imply that some measures have to take place in order to mitigate the unfavourable effects of population ageing on human capital.

  4. [Nutritional intakes in a group of infants aged six to fourteen months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasraoui, A; Hamdaoui, M; Achour, A; Nagati, K

    1999-03-01

    Infant feeding poses many challenges, such as the rapid growth of the child and the immature nature of his or her body¿s systems. Foods that are poorly suited to such immaturity can lead to functional problems and even sometimes-serious allergies. Infant nutritional intake is also influenced by environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Of these factors, the eating habits of Tunisians, with a tendency to overconsume cereal- and sugar-based products, is of particular concern. The authors examined the nutritional intakes of 342 healthy infants aged 6-14 months from the Tunis region. The 180 boys and 162 girls were recruited in 5 primary health centers in Tunis, as well as from several suburbs. These centers were chosen at random from among the region¿s 144 centers. Energy intakes are close to those recommended for infants aged 8-14 months, yet low for those aged 6-8 months. Protein supply is about 2.5 g/kg weight/day. Lipids consumed cover more than 35% of the energy supply for infants aged 6-8 and 12-14 months. Glucidic consumption is slightly higher for babies aged 8-12 months who have an energy supply covered sometimes by more than 60% of glucid. With regard to key vitamin and mineral supplies, there are deficits in vitamins C and D, as well as in calcium. There is a good supply of iron. The observed disequilibria in nutritional intake are not alarming, but parents need to be aware of them in order to reduce the risks of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. PMID:10392033

  5. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  6. Iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 12-15 months in Ahwaz, Iran

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    Monajemzadeh Seyed

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Infants aged between 4 and 24 months are among the population groups that are most affected by iron deficiency (ID. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ID and IDA in infants aged 12-15 months, living in Ahwaz, southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-six infants participated in the study. The mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin (Hb, serum ferritin and hematocrit levels were measured. Anemia was defined when Hb < 11g/dL and ID when ferritin < 12µg/mL. Results: The prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.7 and 26.2%, respectively. The tendency to have IDA in infants fed with cow′s milk and infants who did not receive ferrous sulfate was higher than in the other subjects. Conclusion: ID and IDA are common among infants aged 12-15 months living in Ahwaz, Iran. Maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding up to the 4-6th month of life and iron supplementation for the target group is needed.

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

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    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  8. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low.

  9. Parental Age and Autism Spectrum Disorders Among New York City Children 0-36 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Carol A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Driver, Cynthia R; Govind, Prashil; Karpati, Adam

    2015-08-01

    We examined trends in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the association of ASD with parental age among young New York City (NYC) children. Children born in NYC to resident mothers from 1994-2001 were identified through vital statistics records (N = 927,003). Records were linked to data from NYC Early Intervention (EI) Program through 2004. The independent parental age-specific odds of having an ASD before 36 months of age were estimated using multiple logistic regression controlling for risk factors. The increase in ASD attributable to changes in parental age at birth was examined. Births to mothers and fathers 35 years or older increased 14.9 and 11.5 %, respectively, between 1994 and 2001. ASD prevalence in EI increased significantly from 1 in 3,300 children born in 1994 to 1 in 233 children born in 2001. Children born to mothers ages 25-29, 30-34 and 35 or older had significantly greater odds of being diagnosed with ASD than children of mothers younger than 25 years (OR 1.5, 1.6, and 1.9, respectively). Children born to fathers ages 35 or older (OR 1.4) had greater odds of ASD than children of fathers younger than 25. The change in parental age accounted for only 2.7 % of the increase in ASD prevalence. Older paternal age and maternal age were independently associated with increased risk of ASD. However, while parental age at birth increased between the 1994 and 2001 birth cohorts in NYC, it did not explain the increase in number of ASD cases. PMID:25776271

  10. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupinus albus L, para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificación de productos. En el presente trabajo se determinó la composición de los porcentajes de cada harina en la mezcla mediante Programación Lineal empleando la planilla Solver de la hoja de cálculo Excel. Se determinaron las prolaminas en las harinas de quinua y lupino por el método ELISA y se empleó la técnica del HPLC en los dos productos obtenidos, denominados "mezcla dulce" y "mezcla postre", para definir la cantidad de aminoácidos con la finalidad de suplementar alrededor del 15% de las proteínas requeridas en el día. Las mezclas de harina seleccionadas como óptimas, mezcla dulce, apropiada para la preparación de queques, así como para la mezcla postre, que por adición de agua o leche, da origen a un postre, se evaluaron después de tres meses de almacenamiento, siendo aceptables sus requisitos microbiológicos, bromatológicos y sensoriales, corroborándose los resultados, con la buena aceptación de los productos preparados a partir de las mezclas formuladas, por parte de los menores de 2 Jardines Infantiles de la Ciudad de Antofagasta-Chile.The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupin (Lupinus albus L., to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of

  11. Familial Mediterranean Fever: Diagnosing as Early as 3 Months of Age

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    Gonca Keskindemirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive disease. Major symptoms of disease are recurrent fever accompanied by serositis attacks. The disease is usually diagnosed before 20 years of age. Symptoms related to FMF are noted when children become more verbal, usually after 2 years of age. In this case report, the youngest patient with the diagnosis of FMF is presented. She was consulted to pediatric rheumatology for the high acute phase response and fever. It was learned that her mother had recurrent swelling of her ankle joints. Mutation analysis was performed and two homozygous mutations (M694V and R202Q were identified. She was diagnosed as FMF at 3 months of age and colchicine was started. She responded to colchicine. Her uncontrolled acute phase response declined gradually. This case was reported to point out the importance of early remembrance of autoinflammatory diseases even at very early ages especially at endemic countries.

  12. Control of ascariasis through age-targeted chemotherapy: impact of 6-monthly chemotherapeutic regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Thein-Hlaing; Than-Saw; Myat-Lay-Kyin

    1990-01-01

    A field trial of 6-monthly ascariasis chemotherapeutic regimens targeted at 1-19-, 1-14-, and 5-19-year-olds was carried out in three communities in rural Myanmar to observe the effects on the prevalence, intensity, and morbidity indicators over 2 years. After periodic chemotherapy, the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection in age-targeted and non-age-targeted groups fell in all the study areas, more markedly among the 1-19- and 1-14-year-olds. There was also a decrease in the frequen...

  13. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes.Results:A total of 17721 (63.7%) children...... overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047).Conclusions:Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.International Journal of Obesity...

  14. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.; Danebod, K.; Nielsen, J.; Ravn, Henrik; Martins, C.L.; Bale, C.; Aaby, P.; Lisse, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated......OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in...... with BCG in the preceding 4 weeks before inclusion into the study had larger thymuses. Children who had malaria or had been treated with chloroquine or Quinimax in the previous week before inclusion had smaller thymuses. Controlled for background factors associated with thymus size and mortality, small...

  15. Relationship between mid upper arm circumference and weight changes in children aged 6–59 months

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, Paul; Dale, Nancy; Hoq, Monsurul; Banda, Chrissy; Myatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to (i) describe the relationship between weight changes and MUAC changes in children aged between 6 and 59 months during treatment for SAM in CMAM programmes in three country contexts (Malawi, Ethiopia and Bangladesh) admitted using MUAC and (ii) describe the sensitivity of both MUAC and weight to episodes of disease experienced during the SAM treatment episodes in CMAM programmes in three country contexts (Malawi, Ethiopia and Bangladesh) admitted...

  16. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  17. Mumps Seroprevalence in not Vaccinated Children Aged Between 0-59 Months in Adana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgun Yaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims to find out the mumps seroprevalence in 0-59 month old children who were not vaccinated for mumps in the duty area of Dogankent Health Center where people of low socio-economic level lives. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was made on 331 children aged between 0-59 months who were not vaccinated with rubella vaccine. RESULTS: Mumps seropositivity was found as 35.3%. Mumps seropositivity was significantly high in 24-35 month old boys, and fathers who haven’t incame/occupation (p0.05. CONCLUSION: In the present study, mumps seropositivity is low in children aged 0- 59 months. In order to eradicate mumps, it is necessary that use of MMR vaccine should be expanded nationwide rapidly by the Ministry of Health; the regulation should be revised to include the children born before 2005. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 29-36

  18. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  19. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children's early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children's responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children's awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children's DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children's early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  20. A 3-month age difference profoundly alters the primary rat stromal vascular fraction phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaade, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2016-06-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous population obtained from collagenase digestion of adipose tissue. When cultured the population becomes more homogeneous and the cells are then termed adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs). Both the freshly isolated primary SVF population and the cultured ASC population possess regenerative abilities suggested to be mediated by paracrine mechanisms mainly. The use of ASCs and SVF cells, both in animal studies and human clinical studies, has dramatically increased during recent years. However, more knowledge regarding optimal donor characteristics such as age is demanded. Here we report that even a short age difference has an impact on the phenotype of primary SVF cells. We observed that a 3-month difference in relatively young adult rats affects the expression pattern of several mesenchymal stem cell markers in their primary SVF. The younger animals had significantly more CD90+/CD44+/CD29+/PDGFRα+primary cells, than the aged rats, suggesting an age dependent shift in the relative cell type distribution within the population. Taken together with recent studies of much more pronounced age differences, our data strongly suggest that donor age is a very critical parameter that should be taken into account in future stem cell studies, especially when using primary cells. PMID:27265810

  1. A radiographic study of the development of the sheep carpus from birth to 18 months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osseous development of the carpus of six clinically normal lambs was studied radiographically from birth to 18 months of age with the aim of forming a standard radiographic evaluation and reference for the sheep carpus. Radiographic data consisted of 200 radiographs. Dorsopalmar and lateromedial projections were made daily during the first week, then weekly until the sixth month, and finally monthly until 18 month of age. Ten radiographs were selected to illustrate normal development of the carpus. The distal ulnar epiphysis reached the ulnar carpal bone at the third week, but remained separate from the ulnar diaphysis until six months of age. The ulnar epiphysis was radiographically fused with the ulnar diaphysis at thirteen months of age

  2. [Food consumption Brazilian children by 6 to 59 months of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food consumption in Brazilian children 6 to 59 months of age by region of the country and area of residence. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 4,322 children in the National Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007). The data showed low daily consumption of leafy vegetables (12.7%), vegetables (21.8%), and meat (24.6%) and high consumption (1-3 times a week) of soft drinks (40.5%), fried foods (39.4%), salty snacks (39.4%), and sweets (37.8%). Comparing the regions of Brazil, children in the South, Southeast, and Central-West consumed more rice, bread, potatoes, beans, greens, vegetables, and meat, but they also ate more foods not recommended for their age, like sweets and soft drinks (soda). Rural children showed lower consumption of foods recommended for their age and also those not recommended for their age, as compared to their urban counterparts. According to this study, food consumption in these young children fails to meet the recommendations for healthy eating in this age bracket. PMID:23033190

  3. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised. (orig.)

  4. Barium meal examination of infants under four months of age presenting with vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Ziervogel, M.A.; Azmy, A.F.

    1984-02-01

    One hundred barium meal examinations performed on infants of less than 4 months of age are reviewed. All the infants presented with vomiting as a major symptom and the diagnosis remained in doubt following the initial clinical assessment. Fifty seven per cent of the examinations showed an abnormality of which 45% were throught to be significant. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis was demonstrated in 23 infants. Other abnormalities included hiatus hernia, gastrooesophageal reflux, and duodenal abnormalities. The value of barium meal examinations in this group of infants is emphasised.

  5. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalen...

  6. Congenital esophageal stenosis diagnosed in an infant at 9 month of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Tarasco, V; Viola, S; Locatelli, E; Sorrenti, M; Barabino, A

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal stenosis is a relatively uncommon condition in pediatrics and requires an accurate diagnostic approach. Here we report the case of a 9-month old female infant who presented intermittent vomiting, dysphagia and refusal of solid foods starting after weaning. She was treated for gastroesophageal reflux. At first, radiological investigation suggested achalasia, while esophagoscopy revelaed a severe congenital esophageal stenosis at the distal third of the esophagus. She underwent four endoscopic balloon dilatations that then allowed her to swallow solid food with intermittent mild dysphagia. After 17 months of esomeprazole treatment off therapy impedance-pH monitoring was normal. At 29 months of follow-up the child is asymptomatic and eats without problems.Infants with dysphagia and refusal of solid foods may have undiagnosed medical conditions that need treatment. Many disorders can cause esophageal luminal stricture; in the pediatric age the most common are peptic or congenital. Careful assessment with endoscopy is needed to diagnose these conditions early and referral to a pediatric gastroenterologic unit may be necessary. PMID:26444666

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositivity in Children Aged Six-Eighty-four Months at Kenyatta National Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of the HIV sero positivity in general paediatric emergency admissions at Kenyatta National Hospital, 552 children were studied systematically for four months in 1991. A clinical history was taken and physical examination conducted. The HIV status was determined by use of organon Teknika's Vironostika viral lysate assay for initial two screenings and then a Behring's enzygnost and anti HIV synthetic peptide assay as a confirmatory assay. Seventy (12.7%) of all the children studied were HIV positive, the mean age of the HIV -positive children was 17.5 months while that of total study population was 23.5 months. HIV seropositivity was not associated with history or parental injections. No haemophilia patient was recruited during the study period, and of all the 18 sicklers recruited, none was HIV positive despite multiple blood transfusions. The WHO paediatric Aids Case definition criteria had moderately low sensitivity (55.7%), high specificity (85.9%) and low positive predictive value (36.4%). This was in agreement with observations noted in earlier studies in East and Central Africa

  8. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  9. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  10. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B.B. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374 of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  11. Gastrointestinal tract development in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves from 1 to 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K J; Hoskin, S O; Jopson, N B; Mackintosh, C G; Hofstra, G; Thompson, B R; Stevens, D R

    2013-11-01

    This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same

  12. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  13. PEMBERIAN MP-ASI DAN STATUS GIZI BAYI USIA 6-24 BULAN BERDASARKAN INDEKS BB/U DI DESA BAN KECAMATAN KUBU TAHUN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akmal Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available THE PROVISION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF BABY AGE 6-24 MONTH BASED ON WEIGHT/AGE INDEX IN BAN VILLAGE, KUBU DISTRICT ABSTRACT The provision of complementary foods (solids early or too late will cause the baby susceptible to infectious diseases, allergies, nutritional deficiencies, and excess nutrients, which can lead to malnutrition and impaired growth. This research is to know the description the provision of complementary feeding and nutritional status of infants aged 6-24 months.This study was a cross sectional study in Public Healthcare Centre (Puskesmas Kubu II with a sample of 81 people were selected by convenient sampling. As the sample is domiciled in infants Puskesmas Kubu II, and the exclusion criteria are infants with chronic infections, chronic diseases, congenital abnormalities and neurological defects. Data collection using questionnaires to a sample of parents selected as responders and weight measurements of the samples. Data analysis was performed univariate and bivariate. The result is from 81 samples obtained 59 samples were not given timely complementary feeding. Malnutrition status was found in 1 sample and 80 samples with good nutrition. Judging from the trend level of education and the provision of complementary feeding accuracy, the lower the level of research increasingly imprecise provision of complementary feeding. From the group of mothers with a high education level, 88.1% did not provide timely complementary feeding. In granting the accuracy of the distribution of complementary feeding on the nutritional status, the provision of timely complementary feeding not found one case of malnutrition (1.7% and 58 well-nourished (98.3. While the provision of timely complementary feeding found 22 cases of good nutrition (100%. Keywords: breast milk complementary feeding, bad nutrition, good nutrition

  14. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Importance A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. Objective To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. Design This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992–2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Setting Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. Participants A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6–59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80–200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Exposures Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Results Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10

  15. Productivity and reproductive performance of grazing beef heifers bred at 18 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and body development of beef heifers reared from 15 to 18 months of age on Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, Alexandergrass pasture (Urochloa plantaginea or native pasture invaded by Annoni-2 grass (Eragrostis plana Nees. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, with three treatments and two replications. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate in order to maintain the sward height at 40 cm. Masses of leaf, stem and dead material, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were similar between Pearl millet and Alexandergrass. Average daily gain, stocking rate, live weight gain per hectare, body weight, body condition score, weight-to-height ratio and reproductive tract score of the heifers kept on annual summer pastures (Pearl millet or Alexandergrass were superior, compared with the heifers on Annoni-2 grass pasture.

  16. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2015-01-01

    responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  17. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  18. Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: A follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cebrián, Mariano E; Hernández, María del Carmen; Valencia, Erika Osorio; Hernández, Rosa María García; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the persistency of the association between DDE and infant neurodevelopment we assessed mental and psychomotor development between 12 and 30 months of age in an ongoing cohort in Mexico.

  19. Infants aged 12 months can mount adequate serotype-specific IgG responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Balloch, Anne; Licciardi, Paul V.; Russell, Fiona M.; Edward K Mulholland; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study examining serotype-specific IgG responses following immunization with the polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax® in infants aged 12 months in the absence of prior pneumococcal conjugate vaccine priming.

  20. Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders at 12 and 24 months of age: a prospective, longitudinal comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, Carly; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Eadie, Patricia; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-03-01

    Prospective questionnaire data from a longitudinal population sample on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), developmental delay, specific language impairment, or typical development (TD), were collected at ages eight, 12 and 24 months, via the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale Developmental Profile (CSBS) - Infant Toddler Checklist, and the Actions and Gesture section of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI):Words and Gestures. The four groups were compared at four years of age to identify whether any early behaviours differentiated the groups. While children with ASD differed from TD children on most social communicative measures by 12 months of age, the only social communication characteristic which could differentiate the children with ASD from the other groups were gesture scores on the CDI at 12 months and the CSBS at 24 months. Significant markers of ASD were identifiable in this community sample at an early age, although discrimination between clinical groups was rarely evident. PMID:21733958

  1. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusia Usha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61 mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age.

  2. The benefits of influenza vaccine in pregnancy for the fetus and the infant younger than six months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Noni E; McDonald, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a serious problem for infants <6 months of age, whose hospitalization rates for influenza and associated illness are comparable with rates in the elderly. Because influenza vaccines are not effective in this age group, the optimal evidence-based strategy is to administer trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines during pregnancy. Immunizing with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in the second and third trimester is well studied and safe, not only providing protection for the pregnant woman and her infant <6 months of age, but also for the fetus by decreasing the risk for low birth weight. PMID:25587237

  3. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  4. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4 cell response in West African HIV-infected children. METHODS: All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4 cell count...... measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. RESULTS: Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrolled at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4 cell gains compared with children less...

  5. Breastfeeding Performance Index at Age of 6 Months in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many indicators for breastfeeding assessment. The breastfeeding performance index (BPI as a composite index to describe overall breastfeeding performance among infants under six months of age. Objectives: To describe the breastfeeding practice using BPI and to identify factors associated with low breastfeeding performance. Methods: A total of 528 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features, obstetric history, and the seven components of the BPI. Results: The proportions of infants belonging to low, average and high BP categories were 27.1%, 41.7% and 31.3%, respectively. The regression analysis revealed that significant predictors of low BPI are (in order: private clinic/hospital delivery (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=3.6; working mothers (AOR=2.0, and cesarean section delivery (AOR=1.7. Conclusion: Factors identified will help to target mothers for breastfeeding promotion interventions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 225-230

  6. Reasons for Drop out of Immunization in Children Aged Between 0-12 Months in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulhan Yigitalp

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, vaccination dropout reasons in children aged between 0-12 months was investigated. METHODS: A survey was carried out at eight primary health centers in the city center of Diyarbakir and also at three primary health centers, each in separate village. In collecting data, the records of “the form 012 records” (the card for the registration of vaccination that were available at eight primary health centers. The children who were droped out vaccination were accepted as the cases of the survey. Through those records, 350 children aged between 1,5 and 5 years, who remained droped out, were reached by-house-to-house visits. As the control group, for each droped out child one fully immunized child selected by the same method. The children were selected from the neighborhood of the same medical center and also of the same age group. Information about the mothers were collected by face-to-face- interviews. The features of underimmunized and fully immunized children were compared through the charts of frequency. Chi-square analysis was applied for the comparisons of the two group. For the factors that were considered to have effect on droping out, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: In the survey, it was seen that 62,3% of the mothers and 13,4% of the fathers of the underimmunized children were illiterate. It was also found that being the eighth child increased the risk of the underimmunization 6,07 (%95 CI:2,85-13,09 folds in comparison to the first child. In fully immunized children, vaccination card application was better than droped out children. Having vaccination at home increases the risk of underimmunization . CONCLUSION: We concluded that mother’s education level, order of child, consoling after vaccination, giving vaccine card, home visits for vaccination were the factors related with vaccination dropout. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 277-284

  7. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu; Melike Evim Sezgin; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory) and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessme...

  8. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  9. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Rusia Usha; Faridi MMA; Raj Shashi; Singh Om

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured...

  10. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  11. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  12. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine Huini Lim; Jia Ying Toh; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ai-Ru Chia; Wee Meng Han; Seang Mei Saw; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Yap-Seng Chong; Fabian Yap; Yung Seng Lee; Kramer, Michael S.; Mary Foong-Fong Chong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using mult...

  13. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  14. Postpartum Depression Frequency and Quality of Life Among a Group of Mothers Having a Child Aged 2 Weeks-18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Durukan, Elif; Mustafa N. İlhan; Mehmet Ali BUMIN; Sefer AYCAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the frequency of postpartum depression (PPD), its correlates and the effect on the quality of life. Material and Methods: This study was conducted among 708 mothers having a child aged 2 weeks-18 months. A questionnaire on descriptive features and PPD risk factors; Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF quality of life scale were used for the data collection. Results: The rate of PPD frequency was 15%. The gestational age,...

  15. Postpartum Depression Frequency and Quality of Life Among a Group of Mothers Having a Child Aged 2 Weeks-18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Durukan; Mustafa N. İlhan; Mehmet Ali Bumin; Sefer Aycan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the frequency of postpartum depression (PPD), its correlates and the effect on the quality of life.Material and Methods: This study was conducted among 708 mothers having a child aged 2 weeks-18 months. A questionnaire on descriptive features and PPD risk factors; Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF quality of life scale were used for the data collection. Results: The rate of PPD frequency was 15%. The gestational age, mental problems and ...

  16. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Šeděnková; Pavel Stejskal; Jaroslav Šimíček; Milan Elfmark; Tereza Bušinová; Barbora Raníková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took par...

  17. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  18. Early Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders at 12 and 24 Months of Age: A Prospective, Longitudinal Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, Carly; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Eadie, Patricia; Cini, Eileen; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Prospective questionnaire data from a longitudinal population sample on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), developmental delay, specific language impairment, or typical development (TD), were collected at ages eight, 12 and 24 months, via the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale Developmental Profile (CSBS)--Infant Toddler…

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months. PMID:24625341

  20. Electrophysiological assessment of retinal function during 6 months of bevacizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karen Bjerg; Møller, Flemming; Sjølie, Anne Katrin;

    2010-01-01

    previously treatment-naïve patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving intravitreal injections with 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Patients were examined with multifocal electroretinography, full-field electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity. Follow-up was......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the alteration of retinal function by multifocal electroretinography and full-field electroretinography in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with bevacizumab. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study of 26 eyes of 26...... performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. RESULTS: Mean multifocal electroretinography P1 amplitudes were significantly improved at 1 week in the central zone and after 3 and 6 months, improvement was seen in all 6 concentric rings corresponding to +/-25 degrees of the central visual field. Full...

  1. Behaviour of captive Ostrich chicks from 10 days to 5 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Freire Amado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared, the behaviours which presented significant differences were walking, running, drinking water, eating ration, litophagia, coprophagia, dancing, sand bathing, whose occurrence was the highest during dusk. It was observed that the behaviour of young ostriches diverge according to the age and to day period.

  2. Perception and management of fever in infants up to six months of age: A survey of US pediatricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markson Leona E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fever is an increase in the body's temperature above normal. This study examined how US pediatricians perceive and manage fever generally versus fever occurring after vaccination in infants up to six months of age. Methods A web-based survey of 400 US pediatricians subscribing to the Physician Desk Reference was conducted in December 2008. Data were collected on the respondents' socio-demographics, number of years in practice, type of practice, their definition of fever severity in infants, and their recommendations for managing fever. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the odds of a pediatrician recommending an emergency room visit (ER or a hospital admission, office visits, or other treatment option, as a function of infant's age, temperature, whether the infant has recently received a vaccine, and whether the fever was reported during or after office hours, adjusting for practice type and socio-demographic variables. Results On average, the 400 responding pediatricians' (64% were female, average age of 49 years, years in practice = 20 years threshold for extremely serious fever was ≥39.5°C and ≥ 40.0°C for infants 0-2 month and >2-6 month of age respectively. Infants were more likely to be referred to an ER or hospital admission if they were ≤ 2 months of age (Odds Ratio [OR], 29.13; 95% Confidence interval [95% CI], 23.69-35.82 or >2-4 months old (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.99-3.81 versus > 4 to 6 months old or if they had a temperature ≥ 40.0°C (OR 21.06; 95% CI 17.20-25.79 versus a temperature of 38.0-38.5°C. Fever after vaccination (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.25-0.33 or reported during office hours (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.15-0.20 were less likely to result in referral to ER or hospital admission. Conclusion Within this sample of US pediatricians, perception of the severity of fever in infants, as well as the response to infant fever are likely to depend on the infant's age. Recommendations for the management

  3. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of ...... age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria...

  4. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J.S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Resp...

  5. Mouthing behaviour of children aged between 3 and 36 months in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Groot, M.E.; Lekkerkerk, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Aim of this study (part of a larger project to determine if PVC softened toys with phthalates could possibly cause health risks for children due to mouthing) was to quantify duration of mouthing in infants of 3 to 36 months, to specify on what products they mouth and to determine differences between

  6. Better Processing of Consonantal over Vocalic Information in Word Learning at 16 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Previous research using the name-based categorization task has shown that 20-month-old infants can simultaneously learn 2 words that only differ by 1 consonantal feature but fail to do so when the words only differ by 1 vocalic feature. This asymmetry was taken as evidence for the proposal that consonants are more important than vowels at the…

  7. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  8. Infants' Attention to Patterned Stimuli: Developmental Change from 3 to 12 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Courage, Mary L.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the developmental course of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14-to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material and achromatic patterns for 20 seconds of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and attention termination phases of attention. Infants' peak look durations indicated that prior to 26 weeks there was a linear decrease with age f...

  9. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...... months. Therefore, the promotion of healthy complementary feeding might be beneficial for the prevention of health implications, such as obesity, later in life for these infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.258....

  10. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahama Saaka; Shaibu Mohammed Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS)...

  11. Breastfeeding exclusively and iron deficiency anemia during the first 6 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa F.S.V. Marques; José A. A. C. Taddei; Fábio A Lopez; Josefina A.P. Braga

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among exclusively breastfed infants from one to six months of life and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This is a cohort study of the hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of 102 healthy full-term infants, weighing more than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds) at birth, evaluated for growth development and supported to promote exclusive breastfeeding. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels were meas...

  12. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales....

  13. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months in India

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh Kapil; GS Toteja; Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major public health problem among children under 5 years of age in India. Cobalamin and folate deficiencies play an important role in the etiology of anemia. This study was done to assess the prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies among children in the age group of 12-59 months. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 470 children were included. Non-fasting venous blood samples were collected from each child for the estima...

  14. Progressive and extensive ulcerations in a girl since 4 months of age: The difficulty in diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum

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    Nilendu Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A female child developed multiple, progressive, therapy-resistant, painful large ulcers, vesicles, and pustules since her 4 months of age. The ulcers were large, some even measured more than 8 cm; most had violaceous undermined margin with surrounding erythematous halo, raw and crusted surface and were distributed extensively over scalp, face, ear, trunk, buttocks, thigh, legs, dorsum of hands, and feet without any mucosal involvement. After detail clinical examination and investigation, it was diagnosed as a case of pyoderma gangrenosum. Extensive search did not reveal any systemic abnormality or detect any infective etiology. The case highlights the problems of diagnosis of multiple ulcers at very early age.

  15. The influence of maternal attachment and postpartum depression on abnormal development of the child until the age of 18 months

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    Andrea Beetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the psychological or physical development of children seem to increase in Western Societies, probably also due to suboptimal interactions with caregivers and insecure attachments, and can be observed already in early childhood. In the present study, the association of children’s abnormal development until the age of 18 months with attachment representation, prenatal attachment and postpartum depression of their 161 primiparae mothers with a relatively high educational background were investigated. A high level of maternal attachment disorganization and even medium levels of postpartum depression were significantly linked to noticeable problems with physical and behavioral development in the regular child screening exams (at 6 and 12 months and with the problem behaviour reported by the mothers. This suggests that also mothers without obvious and known risk factors, who are usually not targeted by early interventions, would profit from professional support. A simple indicator for a screening would be maternal depression at 6 months postpartum.

  16. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  17. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  18. The Effect of Violation Prevention Program by Developing Social Skill on 6 Age (60-72 Months Old) Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Tülay; Cimete, Güler

    2012-01-01

    This research is a quasi-experimental study which was developed for the purpose of determining the effect of child and parent program for preventing violation behaviors of children at the age of 6 (60-72 months old) by developing their social skills. The sample is comprised of 67 children and parents (36 experiments, 31 controls). As data collection tool, Social Skill Rating Scale’s Interpersonal Skills, Anger Behavior Control and Adaptation to Alterations Skill, Coping With Peer Pressure Ski...

  19. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Happy; Kimanya, Martin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits were made at 1, 3 and 5 months of age. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to estimate flour intake of infants who had been introduced to maize foods. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the flours were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Exposure to aflatoxins or fumonisins was estimated using the deterministic approach. By the age of 3 months, 98 infants had started taking food; 67 of them, maize flours at levels ranging from 0.57 to 37.50 g per infant per day (average 8 g per infant per day). Fifty-eight per cent of 67 maize flour samples contained detectable aflatoxins (range 0.33-69.47 μg kg(-1) ; median 6 μg kg(-1) ) and 31% contained detectable fumonisins (range 48-1224 μg kg(-1) ; median 124 μg kg(-1) ). For infants who consumed contaminated flours, aflatoxin exposure ranged from 0.14 to 120 ng kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day (all above the health concern level of 0.017 ng kg(-1) BW per day as recommended by the European Food Safety Agency) and fumonisin exposure ranged from 0.005 to 0.88 μg kg(-1) BW per day. Insignificant association was observed between exposure to fumonisins or aflatoxins and stunting or underweight. Reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize and dietary diversification can prevent infants and the public, in general, from exposure to the toxins. PMID:25422038

  20. Correlation between anthropometric indices at birth and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari, S Amir Ali; S Montazeri; F. Torabi; Amiri, S.; F Soleimani; Majd, H Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in medical knowledge and treatment modalities have resulted in an increased survival rate for high-risk infants. This increased number of survivors enables study of the future development of these children. Other than infection and trauma, developmental and behavioral problems are the most common medical problems among such children. This study sought correlations between anthropometric indices at birth and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months who visited healt...

  1. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 24-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Giustolisi; Fernanda Pacella; Olga Mastrangelo; Gabriella Cirigliano; Francesca Arienzo; Simone De Gaetano; Elena Pacella

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined therapy with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin (PDT-V) and intravitreal ranibizumab same-day compared with monotherapy with ranibizumab (three monthly injections ) for the treatment of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Type of study : open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Materials and Methods: 17 eyes of 17 patients were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned ...

  2. Progressive and Extensive Ulcerations in a Girl Since 4 Months of Age: The Difficulty in Diagnosis of Pyoderma Gangrenosum

    OpenAIRE

    Nilendu Sarma; Syamal Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Anup Kumar Boler; Medhatithi Barman

    2012-01-01

    A female child developed multiple, progressive, therapy-resistant, painful large ulcers, vesicles, and pustules since her 4 months of age. The ulcers were large, some even measured more than 8 cm; most had violaceous undermined margin with surrounding erythematous halo, raw and crusted surface and were distributed extensively over scalp, face, ear, trunk, buttocks, thigh, legs, dorsum of hands, and feet without any mucosal involvement. After detail clinical examination and investigation, it w...

  3. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and...

  4. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants. PMID:26858144

  5. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  6. Dietary iron intake, serum ferritin and haemoglobin levels, and cognitive development scores of infants aged 6–8 months

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    Dian Kusumadewi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency during infancy may lead to negative effect on cognitive function and psychomotor development. This study aimed to investigate serum ferritin, haemoglobin level and its relation to cognitive development score in infants aged 6–8 months.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 76 infants recruited from several selected community health center in Kampung Melayu Village, Jatinegara Jakarta who had fulfilled the study criteria. Data collected consist of age, weight, height, head circumference, energy, protein and iron intake, serum feritin levels, haemoglobin levels and cognitive development score using Capute Scales method (Cognitive Adaptive Test/ Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scales/ CAT-CLAMS.Results: Among 74 infants aged 6-8 months, 73% had less dietary iron intake as compared to its RDA (7 mg/d, 18.9% were with serum ferritin less than normal value (20 μg/L, and 56.7% with haemoglobin levels less than normal value (11 mg/dL. In relation to cognitive development score, this study revealed that the CAT score was significantly lower among subjects with hemoglobin value less than 11 mg/dL (p = 0.026.Conclusion: Early prevention of impaired cognitive development is urgently needed by providing iron-rich complementary foods to infants since 6 months (mo old to maintain the normal level of hemoglobin. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:46-9Keywords: cognitive score, ferritin, hemoglobin, infants

  7. Bone measurements of infants in the first 3 months of life by quantitative ultrasound: the influence of gestational age, season, and postnatal age

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    Liao, Xiang-peng [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wuxi Hospital for Maternal and Children' s Health Care, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Wei-li; He, Jiamin [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jian-hua; Huang, Ping [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai (China)

    2005-09-01

    There are a few quantitative ultrasound (QUS) studies of bone status for Chinese children. To evaluate the clinical application and to investigate the bone status of neonates and young infants with QUS. An ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 542 neonates within 3 months of birth. At birth, no significant difference of SOS was found between boys and girls, but there was a significant difference of SOS between premature infants and full-term infants. The SOS in neonates born during spring and summer was significantly lower than those born during autumn and winter. There were significant correlations between SOS and gestational age, and between bone SOS and birth weight in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Multiple regression analysis found that gestational age and infant birth season were two important factors influencing SOS. During the first 3 months, there was no significant difference in SOS between sexes. The SOS of infants showed an inverse correlation with postnatal age, and the decrease of bone SOS with age in premature infants was more marked than in full-term infants. QUS is suitable for evaluating bone status in infants with high precision. The study offers some basic data for neonates and young infants. (orig.)

  8. Bone measurements of infants in the first 3 months of life by quantitative ultrasound: the influence of gestational age, season, and postnatal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a few quantitative ultrasound (QUS) studies of bone status for Chinese children. To evaluate the clinical application and to investigate the bone status of neonates and young infants with QUS. An ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 542 neonates within 3 months of birth. At birth, no significant difference of SOS was found between boys and girls, but there was a significant difference of SOS between premature infants and full-term infants. The SOS in neonates born during spring and summer was significantly lower than those born during autumn and winter. There were significant correlations between SOS and gestational age, and between bone SOS and birth weight in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Multiple regression analysis found that gestational age and infant birth season were two important factors influencing SOS. During the first 3 months, there was no significant difference in SOS between sexes. The SOS of infants showed an inverse correlation with postnatal age, and the decrease of bone SOS with age in premature infants was more marked than in full-term infants. QUS is suitable for evaluating bone status in infants with high precision. The study offers some basic data for neonates and young infants. (orig.)

  9. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  10. HbA1c in Nondiabetic Dutch Infants Aged 8–12 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Hanneke; Huiting, Haika G.; Scholtens, Salome; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Stolk, Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An international committee of experts recommended using HbA1c for diagnostic testing for diabetes. Little is known about normal values of HbA1c in infants. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of HbA1c in 8- to 12-month-old nondiabetic infants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS HbA1c was measured in 86 infants participating in the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO)-Drenthe birth cohort study. Anthropometric measurements were performed at Well Baby Clini...

  11. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

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    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  12. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61-84 months old in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%-93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%-41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. PMID:26433329

  13. Histological Study of the Caecal Tonsil in the Cecum of 4- 6 Months of Age White Leghorn Chicks

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    M. Rezaian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s large intestine, has an important role in liquid absorption and cellulose digestion. It acts as a defensive organ as well due to the presence of large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue in lamina propria and sub mucosa. The cecal tonsil activity has been proved to be depended on the activity of bursa of fabricious and thymus. As the bursa of fabricious and the thymus are exposed to involution through these ages, finding the changes (if any occur in the caecal tonsil has been our aims. Eighteen (18 healthy white leghorn chickens of 16, 20 and 24 weeks old were selected and fixed the samples of their caecal tonsils, thymuses and bursas of fabricious in 10% buffered formalin, immediately after slaughter. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm sections were stained with hematoxylin- eosin staining method and studied under light microscope. The nodular units (ND width and height, ND fossulae’s lumen width, distribution areas of the lymphatic nodules and crypts of lieberkuhn /mm2 in the caecal tonsils, cortices and medullas diameters of the thymuses and the cortices and medullas diameters of lymphatic nodules, heights of plicas and No of nodules/ plica in the bursas of fabricious of all ages were measured and then analyzed with one way ANOVA test. In the cecal tonsils, the most important changes regarding with involution process was significant decline of lymphatic nodules/ mm2 of mucosal wall and nodular evacuation at 6 months ones, while thymuses decrease the cortical diameter at 5 months. No significant changes in regarding with involution process were shown in the bursas of fabricious through these ages and no changes in the sub epithelial lymphoid tissues of the cecal tonsils as well. By the results of this study, we come to know that the cecal tonsil growth can be depended on thymus and bursa of fabricious activity, since involution process is first begun in thymus at 5

  14. Atypical object exploration skills in infants at-risk for autism between 6 to 15 months of age

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    Maninderjit eKaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed after the second year of life. Early signs of ASD within the first year of life are still unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to compare object exploration skills between infants at-risk for ASD and typically developing (TD infants to determine early markers for autism within the first year of life. Sixteen at-risk infants and 16 TD infants were longitudinally followed from 6 to 15 months of age during an object exploration task involving three objects with distinct size, shape, and texture, i.e., a long rattle, a rigid circular ball, and a soft circular koosh ball. All sessions were videotaped for coding of manual, oral, and visual exploration. We also obtained follow-up outcomes using various developmental questionnaires at 18 months and email follow-up on developmental delays/ASD diagnoses after the infants’ second birthdays. Our results showed object-based differences in exploration patterns that extend across both groups. We also noticed group differences for various object exploration behaviors across objects and ages. Specifically, at 6 months, at-risk infants showed less grasping of the rigid ball as well as less mouthing and greater looking at the rattle compared to TD infants. At 9 and 12 months, at-risk infants demonstrated significantly lower levels of purposeful dropping of all objects. Lastly, at 15 months, at-risk infants looked longer at the rattle and showed persistent mouthing of the rigid ball and rattle compared to TD infants. In addition, 10 out of 16 at-risk infants developed various motor, social, and language delays or ASD diagnoses at follow-up. Taken together, early context-dependent delays/abnormalities in object exploration could be markers for future developmental delays in infants at-risk for autism. Moreover, promoting early object experiences through socially embedded object play could have implications for

  15. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

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    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  16. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

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    Lai CL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Liang Lai,1,2 Han-Yu Chen,3 Shiuan-Yu Tseng,1,2 Wan-Chun Liao,2 Bing-Tang Liu,2 Meng-Chih Lee,1,4,* Hsin-Shui Chen5,6,* 1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Therapy, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Family Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Yunlin, Taiwan; 6School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results: After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side, but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups

  17. Food and Nutrition Surveillance System/SISVAN: getting to know the feeding habits of infants under 24 months of age

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    Luciola de Castro Coelho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN is to monitor the food intake of individuals attended by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. The objective of this research was to identify the feeding practices of children under 24 months of age who were attended at Primary Healthcare Units (UBS, using SISVAN, and to assess the relationship with maternal sociodemographic profiles. A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to evaluate 350 children using the Food Consumption Marker Form of SISVAN, and maternal demographic data to identify sociodemographic profiles by exploratory factor analysis. Of the children assessed, 41.1% were under 6 months of age and 98.7% of those between 6 and 23 months had an inadequate intake. Two sociodemographic profiles were found: Profile 1 (mothers with lower income, less education, and recipients of the 'Bolsa Família' conditional family grant program associated with the consumption of water/tea, cow's milk and salty baby food; and Profile 2 (older mothers with many children and with a larger number of residents in the household associated with breast milk consumption (p = 0.048. The use of SISVAN made it possible to identify that children had inadequate feeding practices, and Profile 1 appears to be a risk profile for weaning.

  18. Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Magnus

    Full Text Available The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs by 36 months (n = 47,905 and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26 per standard deviation (SD increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19 per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19 per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.

  19. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  20. A dissociation between recognition and reactivation: The renewal effect at 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Learmonth, Amy E; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Extinction allows organisms to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Despite its theoretical and applied significance, extinction has never been systematically studied with human infants. Using the operant mobile task, we examined whether 3-month-olds would exhibit evidence of original learning following extinction. In a recognition paradigm, infants exhibited renewal when tested in the acquisition context (ABA renewal) or a neutral context (ABC and AAB renewal) 1 day following extinction (Experiment 1a) and spontaneous recovery 3 days following extinction (Experiment 1b). In Experiments 2a-2b, we used a reminder paradigm to examine whether the extinguished response could be reinstated after the operant response had been forgotten. We failed, however, to find reinstatement of extinguished responding after spontaneous forgetting, regardless of the reminder and test contexts. We attributed this retention failure to competing responses at test. Although extinguished responding is recovered during infancy, this effect is elusive after the response has been forgotten. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 159-175, 2016. PMID:26394803

  1. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  2. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  3. Diagnostic Endoscopy in Children of Two Months to 15 Years of Age

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    Seddiqe Amini-Ranjbar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering high prevalence of gastrointestinal complaints in children and the important role of endoscopy in the diagnosis of such complaints, this study was designed to characterize the clinical, endoscopic and pathologic features of Iranian children undergoing upper Gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy. Approach: This prospective study was performed in an office-based setting in a private medical centre in Kerman, Iran, between December 2004 to January 2008. Three hundred forty pediatric patients who underwent upper endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms or other reasons were enrolled into this study and data were gathered concerning age, sex, reason of endoscopy, endoscopy report and pathologic report. Upper GI endoscopy was performed using Pentax video endoscope. Results: The most prevalent reason of performing endoscopy (43.1% was abdominal pain. More than half of the cases with abdominal pain (54% were in the age range of 5-10 year old of whom 80% had an abnormal pathologic finding such as esophgitis and active chronic gastritis associated with helicobacter pylori. The most common endoscopic finding (31.2% and pathologic finding (40.3% was esophagitis. More than half of the children with esophagitis (56.6% had some degrees of hiatal hernia. In 35.5% of children with nodular gastritis, simultaneous esophagitis was observed. The rate of normal endoscopies and pathologies were respectively 10.8 and 19.4%. Conclusion: Considering low rate of normal endoscopic and pathologic reports in the studied subjects and also the variety of gastrointestinal complaints in them, it seems that proper selection of patients for undergoing upper GI endoscopy can have a significant directive role in the diagnosis of pediatric problems.

  4. Knowledge on practice of weaning among the mothers with infant below six months of age in Salem, Tamilnadu

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    N Dhanasekaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Weaning is essential to child nutrition, which reduce infant mortality rate and related malnutrition with healthy feeding practice. Hence the mothers are expected to be knowledgeable on weaning.Objectives: To assess the knowledge on practice of weaning, to compare the knowledge on practice and to find out association between the knowledge scores of mothers with infant below 6 months with selected demographic variables.Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with cross sectional survey approach was undertaken to assess the knowledge on practice of weaning mothers with infant below 6 months of age in selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fifty mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using structured interview schedule from 06/11/14 to 20/11/14.Results: Demographic characteristics reveal that highest percentage (84 % of them belongs to the Hindu religion and had one child below the 6 months of the age. Comparisons of the knowledge score with demography highest mean and SD in relation to family income Rs 4001 - 6000 shows that (14.7 ± 1.16. The Overall Mean knowledge score was (11.5 ± 3.26and (50 % revealing average knowledge. However there was significant association between knowledge score and education & type of family (P = 0.0151 & P = 0.0091 revealing that maximum demographic variables do not affected the level of knowledge.Conclusion: The overall knowledge is average. However lowest percentage in the areas of “principles of feeding and storage” and “age of introducing on weaning” were attention seeking, implying the necessity to improve the knowledge in regard to prevent malnutrition.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(1: 12-16

  5. Selection of Blood (Packed RBCs for Transfusion in Newborn Baby up to the Age of 4 Months

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    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper selection of donor’s blood group is essential to prevent transfusion hazards. It is known that ABO antigen is fully developed at birth but the newborn baby does not produce ABO antibodies until 3 to 6 months of age. The ABO antibodies present in the serum of newborn babies are derived from mother’s blood due to placental transfer. So the blood group of the newborn baby is done by ABO antigen grouping (forward grouping only, antibody grouping (reverse grouping is not required. In case of transfusion of blood in newborn under 4 months of age, cross-matching of donor’s blood is done with the mother’s blood if it is available. We know, recipient’s same group of blood is always preferable in case of transfusion in adults or older children. But selection of blood for transfusion in the infants under 4 months of age depends on the mother’s blood group as well. If the mother’s blood group differs from the infant’s blood group, the infant’s same group of blood may not be selected for transfusion. For example, if the mother’s blood group is “O” and the newborn blood group is “A” or “B”, infant’s same group “A” or “B” group blood could not be transfused, because the anti-A & anti-B antibodies can be derived in the infant’s serum from mother’s blood which may react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the donor’s blood. In this case “O” group packed RBCs should be selected for transfusion. “O” group whole blood may contain IgG anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma which can react with the “A” or “B” antigen of the infant’s blood. So to avoid anti-A & anti-B antibodies in “O” group, plasma should be discarded and the packed RBCs should be transfused.In case of Rh-negative mother with Rh positive baby, Rh antibody may develop in mother’s blood and Rh antibody may enter into baby’s circulation, in this case the infant should be transfused with Rh-negative blood to avoid Rh

  6. Selection of Blood (Packed RBCs) for Transfusion in Newborn Baby up to the Age of 4 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2011-01-01

    Proper selection of donor’s blood group is essential to prevent transfusion hazards. It is known that ABO antigen is fully developed at birth but the newborn baby does not produce ABO antibodies until 3 to 6 months of age. The ABO antibodies present in the serum of newborn babies are derived from mother’s blood due to placental transfer. So the blood group of the newborn baby is done by ABO antigen grouping (forward grouping) only, antibody grouping (reverse grouping) is not required. In case...

  7. A randomized trial of an early measles vaccine at 4½ months of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After measles vaccine (MV), all-cause mortality is reduced more than can be explained by the prevention of measles, especially in females. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the biological mechanisms underlying the observed non-specific and sex-differential effects of MV on mortality. METHODS......: Within a large randomised trial of MV at 4.5 months of age blood samples were obtained before and six weeks after randomisation to early MV or no early MV. We measured concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors from plasma (interleukin-1 receptor agonist (IL-1Ra), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis...

  8. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ilknur Kahriman; Murat Topbas; Gamze Can

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a...

  9. An improved vitamin A carrier for children 6 months-3 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), is strongly linked to blindness in addition to presenting an increased risk of death and morbidity from gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. An edible sponge, fulfilling the criteria as a viable micronutrient carrier, would answer and facilitate the delivery of a logical control to this situation. The authors propose creation of a new technology to be carried out in the Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This novel and innovative approach will focus on hydrocolloid matrices to which oil has been added by homogenization followed by a gelation process. The ensuing gel will be freeze-dried to yield a crunchy chewable cellular solid (edible sponge), designed as packaging for vitamin A and minerals. The product will be studied for mechanical (textural) properties to allow customized, affordable stable packaging for minerals and vitamins together. In parallel, the two research teams will examine sponge digestibility, stability and efficiency through intake experiments on animals and children. The advantages of the proposed technology include containment of water and oil-soluble ingredients in one package, ease of production, low price and availability of raw materials in addition to the possible adaptability for different age groups. Since the sponge is fibrous, it is void of flavor, odor, and color. Hence, it is possible to control and incorporate these characteristics during processing, thus ensuring broad acceptance by the targeted subjects. The proposed methodology provides a fortified, stable and affordable food product successfully comprising more than one micronutrient. (author)

  10. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.; Bale, C.; Andersen, A.; Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Ravn, H.; Lisse, I.M.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Whittle, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at...... 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes...

  11. Household food insecurity is not associated with BMI for age or weight for height among Brazilian children aged 0-60 months.

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    Gilberto Kac

    Full Text Available We examined the association between Household Food Insecurity (HFI, weight for height z-score (WHZ and Body Mass Index for age z-score (BMI-Z in a representative sample of children 0-60 months of age (n = 3,433 in five Brazilian geographical regions. Data were derived from the 2006-07 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. HFI was measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Associations were estimated using multiple linear regression models (β coefficients and 95% CI taking into account the complex sampling design. Interaction terms between HFI and geographical region and HFI and child sex and child age were assessed. The weighted prevalence of any level of HFI was 48.6%. Severe food insecurity was more prevalent among children from the North region (16.8%, born from mothers with <4 years of schooling (15.9% and those from families with ≥3 children (18.8%. The interaction between HFI and geographical region was non-significant for BMI-Z (P = 0.119 and WHZ (P = 0.198. Unadjusted results indicated that HFI was negatively associated with BMI-Z (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.35 - -0.03, P = 0.047, and WHZ (moderate to severe HFI: β = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.42 - -0.09, P = 0.009. Estimates lost significance after adjustments for key confounders such as mothers' skin color, mothers' years of schooling, place of household, household income quartiles, mothers' smoking habit, mothers' marital status, number of children 0-60 months in the household, and birth order. HFI is unrelated to weight outcomes among Brazilian children 0-60 months.

  12. Curative effects of probing alone and probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital duct obstruction of children from 3-12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sun; Sui-Fang Chen; Jing Li; Huan-Huan Zhao; Su-Zhen Xie; Xue-Lin Huang; Shu-Ke Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the 1-time success rate of probing alone and nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in young children. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on 494 cases (647 eyes) of 3–12 month-old children with CNLDO between July 2014 and July 2015. Material obtained from the lacrimal sac was cultured to isolate infectious agents. Susceptibility testing was done. Children from 3–12 months of age who were found to be sensitive to Levofloxacin (n=493 eyes) were separated into two groups: 3–6 months of age (276 eyes) and 7–12 months of age (217 eyes). Each of the groups were then randomized into group A (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 102 eyes of 7–12 months of age) and group B (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 115 eyes of 7–12 months of age). Children in group A underwent nasolacrimal duct probing alone; those in group B underwent nasolacrimal duct probing plus nasolacrimal duct injection of levofloxacin and the efficacy of probing was evaluated. Results: The average detection rate of pathogenic bacteria in dacryocystitis was 75.1%, andStaphylococcus aureuswas found to be the main pathogenic bacteria (42.59%, 106 cases). Among children from 7–12 months of age, the 1-time success rate of nasolacrimal duct probing alone was 88.24% and the 1-time success rate of probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin ophthalmic gel was 96.52% (statistical signiifcance, P=0.02<0.05). Conclusions: Most pathogenic bacteria (96.81%) were sensitive to levofloxacin. Nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin may improve the success rate of probing in children older than 6 months of age.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR RECURRENCE OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 6 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS OF AGE ADMITTED TO DR. PUNJABRAO DESHMUKH MEDICAL COLLEGE, AMRAVATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Febrile seizures (FS occur in 2% to 5% of all children and are most common convulsive event in children younger than 60 month. Recurrence of FS ranges from 21–43% in different studies and are associated with various risk factors like age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration and grade of fever, parental consanguinity, family history of FS and epilepsy, male gender and complex FS as initial seizure. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and their association for recurrences of febrile seizures in children aged between 6 months to 5 years of age. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was prospective observational study in which 63 children (6 months to 5 years presenting with the first episode of FS to Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Medical College, Amravati between 1st November 2013 to 31st October 2014 were enrolled in the study. These subjects were followed up for a period of 1 year from the date of 1st episode of FS. RESULTS: In present study 46 out of 63 subjects had recurrence of FS. Male: female ratio in the recurrence group was 0.76:1. Family history of FS and epilepsy was present in 34.9% and 12.6% respectively. Total 67.34% subjects with simple FS and 92.85% with complex FS had recurrence. 69.69% subjects had FS within 24 hours of onset of fever. Parental consanguinity was found in 14 (22.2% subjects with p value of 0.013. No association between the number of risk factors and recurrence was found. 22 (34.9% out of total 63 subjects were on intermittent FS prophylaxis during the febrile illness and 15 subjects still had recurrence of FS and hence no significant association between recurrence of FS and intermittent prophylaxis for FS was seen. CONCLUSION: Parental consanguinity and age less than one year for 1st episode of FS were the only significant risk factors indentified for the recurrence of FS. Age of onset of 1st episode of FS less than 1 year, duration of fever, grade of

  14. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

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    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  15. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

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    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment were used for evaluating psychosocial development and social emotional status respectively. Spending time with play, peer groups and physical activity were evaluated twice and investaged with respect to possible relationship with psychosocial development.Results: According the current study results; six months after the diagnosis of ALL, children’s social emotional problems were increased, competence was decreased, fine motor and social development-self care ability were regressed.Conclusions: In early develomental stage, even 6 months after the diagnosis, ALL is a risk factor for psychosocial development and emotional state. Social isolation due to neutropenia seems to have important side effect on the behaviour. In the future studies there is a great need of longidutional research as if that side effect will be permanent. In the mean time during the hospitalization and isolation process, children need environmental stimulations. Care givers should be informed and guided about the ways which support development. If needed, children should be directed to special education programs. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 13-6

  16. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; V. Urtuvia Gatica; V. Ramírez Quintanilla; R. Arcos Zavala

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  17. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  18. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2014-02-01

    Calfhood disease is an important problem on many dairy operations that can have substantial effects on heifer survival and productivity, and has economic and welfare impacts. Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point of 5.7 g/dl was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=40%, specificity=69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV=18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV=87%). A cut-point of 5.2g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=27%, specificity=89%, PPV=5%, NPV=98%). Serum total protein during the first week of life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among children aged between 6 months and 14 years in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ngesa

    Full Text Available Anaemia is one of the significant public health problems among children in the world. Understanding risk factors of anaemia provides more insight to the nature and types of policies that can be put up to fight anaemia. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey.Blood samples from 11,711 children aged between 6 months and 14 years were collected using a single-use, spring-loaded, sterile lancet to make a finger prick. Anaemia was measured based on haemoglobin concentration level. The generalized linear model framework was used to analyse the data, in which the response variable was either a child was anemic or not anemic.The overall prevalence of anaemia among the children in Kenya was estimated to be 28.8%. Across each band of age within which the definition of anaemia remained constant (0–4, 5–11, and 12–14 years old, the prevalence of anaemia declined with each year of age. [corrected]. The risk of anaemia was significantly higher in male than female children. Mothers with secondary and above education had a protective effect on the risk of anaemia on their children. Malaria diagnosis status of a child was positively associated with risk anaemia.Controlling co-morbidity of malaria and improving maternal knowledge are potential options for reducing the burden of anaemia.

  20. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  1. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Šeděnková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took part in the study. The experimental group (n = 21 participated in dance aerobics lessons combined with strength training three times a week for 6 months, during exercise heart rate was monitored by heart rate monitors. The control group (n = 19 did not change their lifestyle during the observed period. All participants passed an all-out bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and anthropometric measurement (bioelectrical impedance analysis method before and after this six month program. RESULTS: In the experimental group, after finishing the intervention programme, positive changes were perceptible in almost all monitored parameters; specifically an increase of fat free mass in the lower limbs, peak oxygen consumption, and the duration of the exercise test was statistically significant. Although, in the control group, some monitored parameters changed almost identically; the amount of fat free mass decreased and the duration of the exercise test diminished. Analysis of variance at repeated measurements confirmed that the intervention programme had a statistically significant and positive effect on the duration of the exercise test and on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb. CONCLUSIONS: Physical intervention had a statistically important positive influence on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb and on the duration of the exercise test (also logically significant. The results were affected by the women's poor

  2. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. PMID:26364789

  3. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  4. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  5. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

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    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  6. A xeroradiographic study of the developing equine foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region from birth to six months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the project was to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the developing equine foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region. Using xeroradiographic techniques, both foredigits and meta-carpophalangeal regions of six Quarter Horse foals were radiographed at one day of age and at two-week intervals until the foals were six weeks old. The foals were then radiographed at four-week intervals until they were 12 months old. This report deals specifically with the first six months of postnatal development. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar xeroradiographs of each foredigit and metacarpophalangeal region and a dorsal 65° proximal-palmarodistal oblique view of the distal part of the digit were made for each examination. The foals were weighed and measured at the withers immediately prior to each examination. Representative xeroradiographs were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radio-graphic anatomy of these regions. First radiographic appearance of distal epiphyseal ossification in metacarpal 2 and metacarpal 4 was extremely variable and ranged from four to 38 weeks. Radiographic closure of the proximal physis of the middle phalanx ranged from 18 to 30 weeks (mean = 26 weeks). Radiographic closure of the proximal physis of the proximal phalanx ranged from 22 to 38 weeks (mean = 30 weeks). Radiographic closure of the distal physis of metacarpal 3 ranged from 18 to 38 weeks (mean = 29 weeks). When xeroradiographic physeal closure times were compared with scintigraphic closure times from a companion study, results correlated very well. A crena marginis solearis was observed in ten of 12 forelimbs (83.3%); its first radiographic appearance ranged from four to 22 weeks (mean = 11–12 weeks). A consistent groove in the hoof wall, which formed near the time of birth and moved distally at about 3 mm per week, was noted. The groove's distance from the proximal hoof border may be useful in age estimation of foals less than 18–20 weeks old

  7. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

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    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  8. Slow clearance of Plasmodium vivax with chloroquine amongst children younger than six months of age in the Brazilian Amazon

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    André M Siqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread parasite causing malaria, being especially prevalent in the Americas and Southeast Asia. Children are one of the most affected populations, especially in highly endemic areas. However, there are few studies evaluating the therapeutic response of infants with vivax malaria. This study retrospectively evaluated the parasitaemia clearance in children diagnosed with vivax malaria during the first five days of exclusive treatment with chloroquine (CQ. Infants aged less than six months old had a significantly slower parasitaemia clearance time compared to the group of infants and children between six months and 12 years old (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; Wilcoxon test; p = 0.004. The impaired clearance of parasitaemia in younger children with vivax malaria is shown for the first time in Latin America. It is speculated that CQ pharmacokinetics in young children with vivax malaria is distinct, but this specific population may also allow the detection of CQ-resistant parasites during follow-up, due to the lack of previous immunity.

  9. Maternal determinants of complete child immunization among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Okoro, Anselm O

    2012-01-17

    This study was conducted to identify determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria. The World Health Organization cluster survey was used to evaluate immunization coverage of infants. Mothers of 525 children selected by the two-stage sampling method and interviewed using an adapted questionnaire responded. Completion of the immunization schedule was verified by an immunization card or by reported history indicating that the child had received full doses of four of the antigens included in the Nigeria routine immunization schedule. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with completion of immunization. Only 32.4% of children had completed the immunization schedule. Determinants of complete immunization status included a maternal age less than 30 years (AOR=2.26, 95% CI:1.27-4.03), availability of an immunization card at first contact (AOR=7.72, 95% CI:4.43-13.44), fewer than three children (AOR=2.22, 95% CI:11.1-4.42), completion of post secondary education (AOR=2.34, 95% CI:1.12-4.47) and maternal unemployment (AOR=1.71, 95% CI:1.01-2.89). Identifying mothers whose children are at risk of not completing the immunization schedule and educating them is an important strategy to improve antigen coverage and prevent early childhood deaths from diseases like tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles. PMID:22137878

  10. Perinatal multiple exposure to neurotoxic (lead, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and aluminum) substances and neurodevelopment at six and 24 months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied neurodevelopment in infants from two communities. Children living in the vicinity of tin-ore kilns and smelters – TOKS; n = 51) were compared to children from a fishing village (Itapuã; n = 45). Mean hair-Hg (HHg) concentrations were significantly higher in Itapuã children which received significantly (p = 0.0000001) less mean ethylmercury (88.6 μg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) than the TOKS children (120 μg). Breast-milk Pb concentrations were significantly higher in the TOKS mothers (p = 0.000017; 10.04 vs. 3.9 μg L−1). Bayley mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) were statistically significant (respectively p < 0.0000001, p = 0.000007) lower for the TOKS children only at 24 months of age. Multivariate regression analysis showed that MDI was negatively affected by breast-milk Pb and by HHg. PDI was positively affected by breastfeeding and negatively affected by ethylmercury. Milestone achievements were negatively affected by breast-milk Pb (age of walking) and by HHg (age of talking). - Highlights: • Maternal MeHg and Pb, and iatrogenic EtHg (plus Al) exposures are real life scenarios. • Multiple exposures in early life are a dominant cause of neurodevelopmental delays. • Aggravation and/or reversibility of outcomes followed identifiable exposure patterns. - Distinct patterns of metal exposures showed significant differences in neurodevelopmental outcomes. Pb and EtHg showed a dominant cause of neurodevelopmental delays

  11. The Validity of the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) with children aged 6–7 years, 11 months: A brief report

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, George; Murray, Aja Louise

    2013-01-01

    We examined the performance of the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire with 103 young children aged 6–7 years, 11 months referred to mental health services. Sensitivity and specificity were both over 80% and convergent validity with IQ scores was found, suggesting it could be useful for screening with this age group.

  12. Community volunteers can improve breastfeeding among children under six months of age in the Democratic Republic of Congo crisis

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    Balaluka Ghislain B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries and exclusive breastfeeding is an efficient strategy that can be used to prevent malnutrition and reduce child mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of community volunteers in promoting exclusive breastfeeding from birth in an area of endemic malnutrition. Methods This evaluation analyzed the impact of the community-based nutrition project in Katana health district of the Democratic Republic of Congo from 2004 to 2006. Each of the villages in this sector had a nutritional village committee made up of five members responsible for continuously working to raise awareness of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding from birth among pregnant women and community leaders in their respective villages. The program worked with community volunteers with a mean age of 37 years, most of whom were married (86%. Eighty percent of the community volunteers had completed secondary school or a higher level of education. Data related to the period of exclusive breastfeeding and to the number of visits made to the health services for 208 children. The data were compared with data from 178 infants collected from another health sector, which had never developed a community-based nutrition program. Results The duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth (median, range was 6 months (2 to 7 in the intervention area compared with 4 months (1 to 6 in the comparison area (p Conclusions The promotion of breastfeeding by community volunteers in an area of endemic malnutrition in rural Democratic Republic of Congo increased the duration of exclusive breastfeeding from birth.

  13. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine (OKA strain) in healthy seronegative subjects age 10 months to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinegoro, S R H; Hindra, I S; Han, H H; Gatchalian, S; Bock, H L

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a live-attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain), Varilrix in Indonesian children age 10 months to 12 years. A total of 300 seronegative subjects were stratified into three age subgroups (10 months to 39 degrees C) was infrequent. No grade 3 unsolicited events and no serious adverse events were reported. The vaccine proved to be immunogenic in all age groups; all but one subject seroconverted for anti-varicella antibodies 43-days post-vaccination. This study demonstrated that the live-attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) was well tolerated and immunogenic with no safety issues when administered as a single dose primary vaccination to healthy, seronegative Indonesian subjects age 10 months to 12 years. PMID:19842382

  14. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E vaccine against malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Lusingu, John; Olotu, Ally;

    2008-01-01

    . We evaluated the efficacy of RTS,S given with a more immunogenic adjuvant system (AS01E) in children 5 to 17 months of age, a target population for vaccine licensure. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial of RTS,S/AS01E vaccine as compared with rabies vaccine in children in Kilifi...... vaccine or the control (rabies) vaccine. Among the 809 children who completed the study procedures according to the protocol, the cumulative number in whom clinical malaria developed was 32 of 402 assigned to receive RTS,S/AS01E and 66 of 407 assigned to receive the rabies vaccine; the adjusted efficacy...... rate for RTS,S/AS01E was 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28 to 69; P<0.001) on the basis of Cox regression. Overall, there were 38 episodes of clinical malaria among recipients of RTS,S/AS01E, as compared with 86 episodes among recipients of the rabies vaccine, with an adjusted rate of efficacy...

  15. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

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    Ruiz-Beltran Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.

  16. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

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    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  17. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control...

  18. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti, T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P=0.56. At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants (P<0.001. Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P=0.001. Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract fewer infections than other healthy infants. This finding along with fewer infections in exclusively breastfed infants compared to formula-fed infants supports the beneficial effect of human milk on the immune system. We suggest, when breastfeeding is not possible, that providing human donor milk to vulnerable groups of infants will be beneficial for their maturing immune system.

  19. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  20. Time-series analysis of monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of active tuberculosis in Japan from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohei, Y; Sumi, A; Kobayashi, N

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0-9, 10-19, …, 70-79, and ⩾80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q 1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q 1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10-39 years) and old age (⩾70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ⩾70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1-2 months behind the peaks for the 10-39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10-39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ⩾70 years age group. PMID:26979927

  1. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation plus oral rehydration salts for diarrhoea in infants aged less than 6 months in Haryana state, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmila Mazumder; Sunita Taneja; Nita Bhandari; Brinda Dube; RC Agarwal; Dilip Mahalanabis; Olivier Fontaine; Robert E. Black

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if educating caregivers in providing zinc supplements to infants < 6 months old with acute diarrhoea is effective in treating diarrhoea and preventing acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs), and whether it leads to a decrease in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS). METHODS: In this retrospective subgroup analysis of infants aged < 6 months, six clusters were randomly assigned to intervention or control sites. Care providers were trained to give zinc and ORS to ...

  2. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  3. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  4. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    -Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea...

  5. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tutik Ernawati; Saptawati Bardosono; Rini Sekartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, ...

  6. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.;

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat to...

  7. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    OpenAIRE

    Gatica Giovanna; Barros Aluisio J D; Madruga Samanta; Matijasevich Alicia; Santos Iná S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were i...

  8. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit May-Mederake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP, and Listening Progress Profile (LiP. Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK, reception of grammar test (TROG-D and active vocabulary test (AWST-R. The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation.

  9. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiejun; Liu, Zhenyin; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Gang; Li, Haibo; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. Methods We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed. Results The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9–12.9 weeks). These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group A (n = 0), B (n = 2), C (n = 0), D (n = 9), or E (n = 2). A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2–4 cycles). After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9–65 months), tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies. Conclusions Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. PMID:27504917

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  11. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal poverty level had lower estimated coverage for almost all of the vaccinations assessed, compared with children living at or above the poverty level. Significant variation in coverage by state¶ was observed for several vaccinations, including HepB birth dose

  12. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  13. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  14. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  15. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  16. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  17. Do interactions speak louder than words? Dialogic reading of an interactive tablet-based e-book with children between 16 months and three years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Rasmussen, Niklas Ammitzbøl; Boldreel, Kasper;

    2014-01-01

    the effect of interactive elements on speech production of 12 children between the ages of 16 and 33 months when engaged in individual dialogic reading sessions with a tablet-based e-book. Interaction with interactive elements did not reduce the children’s responses to dialogic reading prompts...

  18. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  19. PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA 6-24 BUL AN DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS ANDALAS KECAMATAN PADANG TIMUR PADANG

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Gemala; Delmi Sulastri; Azrimaidaliza Azrimaidaliza

    2008-01-01

    Prevalensi gizi kurus dan sangat kurus berdasarkan indeks berat badan menurut tinggi badan pada balita masih cukup tinggi di Kota Padang. Status gizi kurang pada balita terutama usia kritis, yaitu 6-24 bulan berdampak pada perkembangan balita. Perkembangan anak juga dipengaruhi oleh pola asuh, status kesehatan dan pekerjaan ibu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuiperkembangan anak usia 6-24 bidan dan faktor paling dominan berhubungan dengan perkembangan anak tersebut. Studi cross sectio...

  20. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow’s milk in Irish children (aged 12-24 months)

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growing up milks (GUM) are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12-36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children.Objective: To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 1224-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM). Design: Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2...

  1. Adverse Events from a Randomized, Multi-Arm, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mebendazole in Children 12-24 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serene A; Montresor, Antonio; Casapía, Martín; Pezo, Lidsky; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale deworming interventions, using anthelminthic drugs, are recommended in areas where the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high. Anthelminthic safety has been established primarily in school-age children. Our objective was to provide evidence on adverse events from anthelminthic use in early childhood. A randomized multi-arm, placebo-controlled trial of mebendazole, administered at different times and frequencies, was conducted in children 12 months of age living in Iquitos, Peru. Children were followed up to 24 months of age. The association between mebendazole administration and the occurrence of a serious or minor adverse event was determined using logistic regression. There was a total of 1,686 administrations of mebendazole and 1,676 administrations of placebo to 1,760 children. Eighteen serious adverse events (i.e., 11 deaths and seven hospitalizations) and 31 minor adverse events were reported. There was no association between mebendazole and the occurrence of a serious adverse event (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47, 3.09) or a minor adverse event (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.41, 1.72). Results from our trial support evidence of safety in administering mebendazole during early childhood. These results support World Health Organization deworming policy and the scaling up of interventions to reach children as of 12 months of age in endemic areas. PMID:27139441

  2. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  3. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7-24 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yang; Yue-Hui Liu; Ming-Fu Fu; Chun-Lin Li; Li-Yan Wang; Qi Wang; Xi-Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early auditory and speech development in home-based early intervention of infants and toddlers with hearing loss younger than 2 years are still spare in China.This study aimed to observe the development of auditory and speech in deaf infants and toddlers who were fitted with hearing aids and/or received cochlear implantation between the chronological ages of 7-24 months,and analyze the effect of chronological age and recovery time on auditory and speech development in the course of home-based early intervention.Methods:This longitudinal study included 55 hearing impaired children with severe and profound binaural deafness,who were divided into Group A (7-12 months),Group B (13-18 months) and Group C (19-24 months) based on the chronological age.Categories auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating scale (SIR) were used to evaluate auditory and speech development at baseline and 3,6,9,12,18,and 24 months of habilitation.Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic features and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance.Results:With 24 months of hearing intervention,78% of the patients were able to understand common phrases and conversation without lip-reading,96% of the patients were intelligible to a listener.In three groups,children showed the rapid growth of trend features in each period of habilitation.CAP and SIR scores have developed rapidly within 24 months after fitted auxiliary device in Group A,which performed much better auditory and speech abilities than Group B (P < 0.05) and Group C (P < 0.05).Group B achieved better results than Group C,whereas no significant differences were observed between Group B and Group C (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development.Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children.The development of auditory

  4. Human Breast Milk Contamination with Phthalates and Alterations of Endogenous Reproductive Hormones in Infants Three Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Katharina M.; Mortensen, Gerda K.; Kaleva, Marko M.; Boisen, Kirsten A; Damgaard, Ida N.; Chellakooty, Marla; Schmidt, Ida M.; Suomi, Anne-Maarit; Virtanen, Helena E.; Petersen, Jørgen H.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis. Design We obtained biologic samples from a prospective Danish–Finnish cohort study on cryptorchidism from 1997 to 2001. We analyzed individual breast milk samples collected as additive aliquots 1–3 months postnatally (n = 130; 62 c...

  5. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than

  6. Communication Impairments in Early Term and Late Preterm Children: A Prospective Cohort Study following Children to Age 36 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of communication impairments at age 18 and 36 months in children born early term (gestational weeks 37-38) and late preterm (gestational weeks 34-36). STUDY DESIGN A total of 39 423 children and their mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample included 7109 children (18%) born early term and 1673 (4.2%) born late preterm. Information on gestational age and prenatal and postnatal risk factors was obtained from the Medica...

  7. Stripping Voltammetric Determination Of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead And Copper In Blood Samples Of Children Aged Between 3 Months And 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.

  8. Development of cortical shape in the human brain from 6 to 24months of age via a novel measure of shape complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Lyu, Ilwoo; Fonov, Vladimir S; Vachet, Clement; Hazlett, Heather C; Smith, Rachel G; Piven, Joseph; Dager, Stephen R; Mckinstry, Robert C; Pruett, John R; Evans, Alan C; Collins, D Louis; Botteron, Kelly N; Schultz, Robert T; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin A

    2016-07-15

    The quantification of local surface morphology in the human cortex is important for examining population differences as well as developmental changes in neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. We propose a novel cortical shape measure, referred to as the 'shape complexity index' (SCI), that represents localized shape complexity as the difference between the observed distributions of local surface topology, as quantified by the shape index (SI) measure, to its best fitting simple topological model within a given neighborhood. We apply a relatively small, adaptive geodesic kernel to calculate the SCI. Due to the small size of the kernel, the proposed SCI measure captures fine differences of cortical shape. With this novel cortical feature, we aim to capture comparatively small local surface changes that capture a) the widening versus deepening of sulcal and gyral regions, as well as b) the emergence and development of secondary and tertiary sulci. Current cortical shape measures, such as the gyrification index (GI) or intrinsic curvature measures, investigate the cortical surface at a different scale and are less well suited to capture these particular cortical surface changes. In our experiments, the proposed SCI demonstrates higher complexity in the gyral/sulcal wall regions, lower complexity in wider gyral ridges and lowest complexity in wider sulcal fundus regions. In early postnatal brain development, our experiments show that SCI reveals a pattern of increased cortical shape complexity with age, as well as sexual dimorphisms in the insula, middle cingulate, parieto-occipital sulcal and Broca's regions. Overall, sex differences were greatest at 6months of age and were reduced at 24months, with the difference pattern switching from higher complexity in males at 6months to higher complexity in females at 24months. This is the first study of longitudinal, cortical complexity maturation and sex differences, in the early postnatal period from 6 to 24months

  9. High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Norovirus Mixed Infections Among Children 12-24 Months of Age Living in the Suburban Areas of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambruni, Mara; Luna, Giannina; Silva, Maria; Bausch, Daniel G; Rivera, Fulton P; Velapatino, Grace; Campos, Miguel; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-01

    In an active diarrhea surveillance study of children aged 12-24 months in Lima, Peru, norovirus was the most common pathogen identified. The percentage of mixed (bacterial and noroviral) infections was significantly higher among norovirus-positive samples (53%) than among norovirus-negative samples (12%). The combination of norovirus with the most common bacterial pathogens was associated with increased clinical severity over that of either single-pathogen norovirus or single-pathogen bacterial infections. PMID:27534674

  10. Factors affecting the benefits of a six-month supervised exercise program on community-dwelling older adults: interactions among age, gender, and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya, Tuna Donat; Sevi, Yeşilyaprak Subasi Sevgi; Serap, Acar; Ayse, Ozcan Edeer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of age, gender, and participation on the benefits of a 6-month supervised exercise program on older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-five (37 women, 48 men) community-dwelling older adults participated. The chair sit-and-reach test, the 8-foot up-and-go test, the 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, balance, metabolic rate, muscle strength, and position sense were evaluated. Rep...

  11. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kikelomo Adebanke Kolawole; Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan; Hakeem Olatunde Agbaje; Titus Ayodeji Oyedele; Elizabeth Obhioneh Oziegbe; Nneka Kate Onyejaka; Nneka Maureen Chukwumah; Olusegun Victor Oshomoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Os...

  12. Six-month effects of the Groningen active living model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Stevens, Martin; de Greef, Mathieu H.G.; Rispens, Pieter; King, Abby C.; Mulder, Theo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects on energy expenditure, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary older adults aged 55-65 after 6-month participation in the GALM program. Methods: In three Dutch communities, subjects from matched neighbourhoods were assigned to an intervention (n = 79) or a waiting-list control group (n = 102). The GALM program consisted of fifteen 60 min sessions once a week emphasising moderate-intensity recreational sports activities. Results: The intervention group show...

  13. Expanded program of immunization coverage and associated factors among children age 12 – 23 months in Arba Minch town and Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Animaw, Worku; Taye, Wondimagegn; Merdekios, Behailu; Tilahun, Marilign; Ayele, Gistane

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunization averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year globally. In Ethiopia only quarter of children are fully immunized; the rest are remained at risk for vaccine-preventable mortality. To increase the immunization, its coverage and predictors has to be identified. This study has measured immunization coverage and identified the predictors. Methods Cross-sectional community based study has been conducted within 630 age 12–23 months children in 15 districts of Arba Minc...

  14. Parental separation: a risk for the psychomotor development of children aged 28 to 32 months? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kacenelenbogen, Nadine; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Schetgen, M; Roland, M; Godin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background In Western countries, about a quarter of children are affected by parental separation and a number of authors have previously investigated how familial structure impacts children’s health. The purpose of the work: to analyze the psychomotor development of children aged 28 to 32 months based on family structure (parents together or separated), independently of the influence of socio-economic environment that is well documented. To analyse the psychomotor development of children youn...

  15. Effect of daily iron supplementation on health in children aged 4–23 months: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sant-Rayn Pasricha, PhD; Emily Hayes, MBBS; Kongolo Kalumba, FRACP; Prof. Beverley-Ann Biggs, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background: About 47% of preschool children worldwide are anaemic. Daily oral iron supplementation is a commonly recommended intervention for treatment and prevention of anaemia, but the efficacy and safety of iron supplementation programmes is debated. Thus, we systematically reviewed the evidence for benefit and safety of daily iron supplementation in children aged 4–23 months. Methods: We searched Scopus and Medline, from inception to Feb 5, 2013, WHO databases, theses repositories, gre...

  16. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely

    OpenAIRE

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) show greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA), however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm, and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationshi...

  17. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Behavioral Stability and Change in Children 6-36 months of Age Using Louisville Twin Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Finkel, Deborah; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William

    2015-11-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development has been used to study behavioral development since the 1960s. Matheny (1983) examined behavioral development at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from the Louisville Twin Study (LTS). The extracted temperament scales included Task Orientation, Affect-Extraversion, and Activity. He concluded that monozygotic twins were more similar than same-sex dizygotic twins on these dimensions. Since this seminal work was published, a larger LTS sample and more advanced analytical methods are available. In the current analyses, Choleksy decomposition was applied to behavioral data (n = 1231) from twins 6-36 months. Different patterns of genetic continuity vs genetic innovations were identified for each IBR scale. Single common genetic and shared environmental factors explained cross-age twin similarity in the Activity scale. Multiple shared environmental factors and a single genetic factor coming on line at age 18 months contributed to Affect-Extraversion. A single shared environmental factor and multiple genetic factors explained cross-age twin similarity in Task Orientation. PMID:26477572

  18. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars; Trolle, Ellen; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  19. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Erin M.; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe indicates that the mean amount of corneal astigmatism is higher than reported for non–Native American populations and increases from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  20. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  1. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz;

    2004-01-01

    as length and/or height. Serum and urinary cortisol concentrations showed a statistically significant suppression of 10% and 14%, respectively, but the number of patients with serum cortisol levels below the lower normal limit was reduced during the trial. Both treatments were well tolerated. The...... most common drug-related adverse events were cough (2% FP vs 1% SCG) and hoarseness (1% FP vs 0% SCG). One incident of cataract was observed at baseline and 1 after FP treatment; the latter had resolved after 12 months. The efficacy of FP was superior to SCG with fewer cases of symptom worsening...

  2. Effectiveness of nutrition interventions about infants aged 6~24 months in Ningqiang county affected by Wenchuan earth quake%地震灾区宁强县6~24月龄婴幼儿营养干预效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增康; 王林江; 常锋; 付萍; 张坚; 张汉沛; 李建莉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the nutrition status of infants before and after nutrition interventions in Ningqiang county. [Methods] The project provided nutrition interventions which feed infants aged 6-24 months one packet Yingyangbao per day and educated babysitter how to feed infants properly in Ningqiang county. Before and after the 18 months nutrition interventions,327 and 300 infants aged 6~24 months were sampled respectively to complete the investigation. Effectiveness of nutrition interventions was evaluated by analyzing the differences of infants' length,body weitht,hemoglobin concentration,WAZ,HAZ,WHZ,underweight rate,stunting rate, wasting rate and anemia rate between two samples. [Results] After the interventions,average weight and length of infants aged 6~24 months increased 0. 90 kg(t=-9. 94, P<0. 01)and 3. 40 cra(t=-7. 74,P<0. 01)respectively,and there were significant differences between before and after interventions. WAZ(-0. 48 vs 0. 09,t=-6. 95,P<0. 01),HAZ (-0.73 vs -0. 25,t=-4. 63 ,P<0. 01) and WHZ(-0. 15 vs 0.30, i = -4. 90,P<0. 01) also increased significantly. Through the nutrition interventions infants' hemoglobin concentration increased from 10.94 g/dL to 11.70 g/dL(t=-7. 97,P<0. 01),anemia rate decreased from 49.5% to 23. 9%(x2 =43. 72,P <0. 01) ,and the results of statistical analysis showed that significant differences exist. [Conclusion] Through 18 months nutrition interventions the nutrition status of infants aged 6~24 months could be improved significantly.%[目的]评价发放辅食营养包和开展健康教育对地震灾区宁强县婴幼儿营养状况的改善效果.[方法]对宁强县所有6~24月龄婴幼儿添加辅食营养包、对婴幼儿看护人开展婴幼儿喂养健康教育,在干预措施实施18个月前后,分别抽取327名和300名6~24月龄婴幼儿进行调查,对比干预前后婴幼儿的身高、体重、血红蛋白、WAZ(Weight-for-age Z-score)、HAZ (Height-for-age Z-score)、WHZ(Weight-for -Height Z

  3. Child-directed teaching and social learning at 18 months of age: evidence from Yucatec Mayan and US infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneidman, Laura; Gaskins, Suzanne; Woodward, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In several previous studies, 18-month-old infants who were directly addressed demonstrated more robust imitative behaviors than infants who simply observed another's actions, leading theorists to suggest that child-directed interactions carried unique informational value. However, these data came exclusively from cultural communities where direct teaching is commonplace, raising the possibility that the findings reflect regularities in infants' social experiences rather than responses to innate or a priori learning mechanisms. The current studies consider infants' imitative learning from child-directed teaching and observed interaction in two cultural communities, a Yucatec Mayan village where infants have been described as experiencing relatively limited direct instruction (Study 1) and a US city where infants are regularly directly engaged (Study 2). Eighteen-month-old infants from each community participated in a within-subjects study design where they were directly taught to use novel objects on one day and observed actors using different objects on another day. Mayan infants showed relative increases in imitative behaviors on their second visit to the lab as compared to their first visit, but there was no effect of condition. US infants showed no difference in imitative behavior in the child-directed vs. observed conditions; however, infants who were directly addressed on their first visit showed significantly higher overall imitation rates than infants who observed on their first visit. Together, these findings call into question the idea that child-directed teaching holds automatic or universal informational value. PMID:26072667

  4. Relationship Between Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Growth and Semen Quality Parameters in Guzerat Breed Bulls, from Puberty to 36 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Pérez Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between scrotal circumference size and sperm characteristics in 194 males of Guzerat breed. Methods: The bulls were divided by age groups from 12 to 36 months of age. The length and width of the testicle and scrotal circumference were measured. Semen was collected from the animals that showed a circumference ≥ 19 cm through transrectal electrostimulation in order to induce ejaculation. The characteristics assessed in the semen were motility, speed, sperm concentration and presence of rounded cells. Results: the correlation between the scrotal circumference with the sperm motility by group of age was positive (r = 0.94; p < 0.005. The present study showed that the presence of proximal cytoplasmic droplet, the rounded cells in the semen and the defects on the head of the spermatozoids are objective evaluation features, which can be used for early selection of sperm production in Guzerat males. Conclusions: The production of sperm with normal rates in the Guzerat breed is achieved when males reach the age of 28 months and a scrotal circumference close to 30 cm.

  5. Mortality-related factors disparity among Iranian deceased children aged 1-59 months according to the medical activities in emergency units: National mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine disparity in mortality-related factors in 1-59 months children across Iran using hospital records of emergency units. Materials and Methods: After designing and validating a national questionnaire for mortality data collection of children 1-59 months, all 40 medical universities has been asked to fill in the questionnaires and return to the main researcher in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Age and sex of deceased children, the type of health center, staying more than 2 h in emergency unit, the reason of prolonged stay in emergency, having emergency (risk signs, vaccination, need to blood transfusion, need to electroshock and so on have also been collected across the country. There was also a comparison of children based on their BMI. Chi-square test has been applied for nominal and ordinal variables. ANOVA and t-student test have been used for measuring the difference of continuous variables among groups. Results: Mortality in 1-59 months children was unequally distributed across Iran. The average month of entrance to hospital was June, the average day was 16 th of month, and the average hour of entrance to hospital was 14:00. The average of month, day and hour for discharge was July, 16, and 14:00, respectively. The hour of discharge was statistically significant between children with and without risk signs. More than half (54% of patients had referred to educational hospital emergency units. There were no statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs. There were statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs in age less than 24 months (0.034, nutrition situation ( P = 0.031, recommendation for referring ( P = 0.013, access to electroshock facilities ( P = 0.026, and having successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study is one of the first to show the distribution of the disparity of early

  6. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orivuori, L.; Mustonen, K.; de Goffau, M. C.; Hakala, S.; Paasela, M.; Roduit, C.; Dalphin, J. -C.; Genuneit, J.; Lauener, R.; Riedler, J.; Weber, J.; von Mutius, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Vaarala, O.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundGut microbiota and intestinal inflammation regulate the development of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies. Fecal calprotectin is a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. ObjectiveWe evaluated the association of early-age fecal calprotectin levels to the later development of allergi

  7. Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. O...

  8. Hospital Based Prospective Observational Study to Audit the Prescription Practices and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients (6 months to 5 years age group) Presenting with Acute Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondekar, Santosh; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9% of all deaths among under-five children worldwide. WHO protocol deviation in management of diarrheas in children is likely due to various reasons. Aim To study the prescription practices, regarding adherence to WHO protocol and deviations, in the management of acute diarrhea in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and its impact on the outcome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational hospital based study at a tertiary care carried out over a 12-month period including all cases of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more loose stools in last 24 hours) in children belonging to the age group of 6 months to 5 years. Patients were followed up on day 3,7,14 and 28 from the day of presentation. Software SPSS Version 17.0 was used for analysis. Correlation regression analysis was used to study predictiveness of different variables affecting outcome. Results In this study, 447 children aged between 6 months and 5 years were enrolled, of which 45 cases were lost in follow-up and excluded. The median age was 14 months. Some deviation from WHO protocol was noted in 78.4% of the cases. Most common deviations from WHO protocol were addition of probiotics (78.1% of cases) and addition of race cadotril (15.9% of cases). Inadvertent use of antibiotics in diarrhea was noted in 12.2% of cases. Presence of fever was strong predictor for use of antibiotics. Cases of early recovery within 3 days of presentation were higher in WHO protocol deviation group. Use of probiotics had statistically significant association with early recovery. Conclusion In diarrhea management, WHO protocol deviation is common. Probiotics are likely to help in early recovery. PMID:27437317

  9. [ACOUSTIC FEATURES OF VOCALIZATIONS, REFLECTING THE DISCOMFORT AND COMFORT STATE OF INFANTS AGED THREE AND SIX MONTHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlikova, M I; Makarov, A K; Lyakso, E E

    2015-08-01

    The paper presented the possibility of recognition by adult the comfort and discomfort state of 3 and 6 months old infant's on the base of their vocalizations. The acoustic features of the vocalizations that are important for the recognition of the infant state of the characteristics of voice was described. It is shown that discomfort vocalizations differ from comfort ones on the basis of the average and maximum values of pitch, pitch values in the central and final part of the vocalization. A mathematical model is proposed and described a classification function signal of discomfort and comfort. Was found that the vocalizations of infants attributable adults with a probability of 0.75 and above the categories of comfort and discomfort with high reliability are recognized by the mathematical model based on a classification function. PMID:26591591

  10. Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov, S; Vestergaard, C; Iriso, Esther Babirekere;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a life-threatening condition. It can be associated with severe skin changes, first properly described by Williams in 1933. The aetiology of these skin changes is still unknown and their character has never been systematically described in dermatological...... objective was to identify the skin changes characteristic of children with severe acute malnutrition and to develop a clinical score that describes the morphology and severity in dermatological terms. We also investigated if any of the different skin changes were connected to prognosis. MATERIALS AND...... METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Mwanamugimu (Department of Paediatrics and Child Health), Uganda, 120 children were included over a period of six months and observed when treated for severe acute malnutrition. Skin changes were registered through clinical examination and photo documentation and associated to...

  11. Role of ondansetron in decreasing vomiting and duration of hospitalization in children aged 6 months to 14 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramat Allah Jahanshahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of vomiting in acute gastroenteritis can increase the rate of successful oral rehydration therapy (ORT and lower the need for intravenous fluid administration. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ondansetron in decreasing vomiting and duration of hospitalization in 6 month to 14 year old children.Methods: In 2010, a double blind randomized controlled trial was carried out based on 100 children between six months and 14 years old with acute gastroenteritis and vomiting. Each child satisfied the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study after receiving a complete explanation about the study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to either receive intravenous ondansetron (single dose of 0.15mg/kg or an intravenous placebo (5% dextrose water. The duration of hospitalization and number of vomiting episodes were compared between the two groups 4 hours after treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.Results: Duration of hospitalization was 38.30±18.62 hours in those receiving ondansetron and 45.10±25.79 hours in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.352. The number of vomiting episodes was 0.06±0.23 in the ondansetron group and 0.58±0.90 in the control group. This difference is statistically significant (P=0.000. No adverse effects were seen in either group relating to the drug.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that intravenous ondansetron can effectively reduce the frequency of vomiting associated with acute gastroenteritis. We recommend administration of ondansetron for management of children with acute gastroenteritis but further studies with a larger sample size would be beneficial.

  12. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  13. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau Yun Chong

    Full Text Available Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044. Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85 for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32 when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53 but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53 when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

  14. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  15. Associations of serum haptoglobin in newborn dairy calves with health, growth, and mortality up to 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Windeyer, M C; Duffield, T F; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L; Waalderbos, K M; Leslie, K E

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate factors associated with serum haptoglobin (Hp) levels in newborn calves. In addition, the associations between serum Hp levels in newborn calves with growth, morbidity, and mortality in calves heifer calves from 15 dairy farms were enrolled in this study from January to December, 2008. Following calving, a birth record was completed, including information on the calving event, colostrum administration, and other details. During weekly farm visits, each calf was assessed at 1 to 8 d, 15 to 21 d, 36 to 42 d, and 90 to 120 d of age. At these sampling times, each calf was assessed using a standardized clinical score for general health, and height and weight were measured. At 1 to 8 d of age, a blood sample was collected to measure serum total protein and Hp concentrations. Treatment events and death loss were recorded throughout the study by the farm staff. Serum Hp concentration in the first week of life was not significantly associated with the degree of calving difficulty. However, serum Hp was higher in calves with a higher rectal temperature and depressed attitude at the first sampling time. Furthermore, the association between serum Hp and the severity of nasal discharge varied by age at first sampling time. Calves with higher Hp in their first week of life had significantly higher total health scores throughout the entire sampling period. Haptoglobin was not significantly associated with average daily gain or treatment for bovine respiratory disease. Yet, for every 1 g/L increase in serum Hp in the first week of life, the odds of being treated for any other disease during the study period increased by 7.6 times. Treatment for bovine respiratory disease, diarrhea, or any other disease resulted in increased odds of calf mortality. In addition, Hp concentration in the first week of life was associated with mortality in calves <4 mo of age. The optimal cut point for Hp was determined to be 0.13 g/L for the prediction

  16. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  17. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Angus, Hereford, Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate breeds) than for Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  18. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. PMID:27082752

  19. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  20. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  1. Factors affecting the benefits of a six-month supervised exercise program on community-dwelling older adults: interactions among age, gender, and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulya, Tuna Donat; Sevi, Yeşilyaprak Subasi Sevgi; Serap, Acar; Ayse, Ozcan Edeer

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of age, gender, and participation on the benefits of a 6-month supervised exercise program on older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-five (37 women, 48 men) community-dwelling older adults participated. The chair sit-and-reach test, the 8-foot up-and-go test, the 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, balance, metabolic rate, muscle strength, and position sense were evaluated. Repeated-measures of analysis of variance was performed including dependent variables of age, gender, and participation in the exercise program as dependent inter-subject factors and time of assessment as an intra-subject factor. [Results] Mean exercise participation was 29.88 ± 1.29 sessions. Flexibility, balance, position sense, and strength showed a significant main effect of time. There was a significant gender interaction for right shoulder flexion strength and knee extension strength, a significant gender-participation interaction for pre-/post-intervention measures of functional mobility, and a significant age-participation interaction for flexibility. [Conclusion] Exercise training improved outcomes after 6 months of supervised exercise, but the changes were similar regardless of participation level. Changes in strength were more pronounced in men than women. PMID:26157233

  2. Compliance to micronutrient supplementation in children 3 to 24 months of age from a semi-rural community in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Flores

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify associated factors to compliance for multiple micronutrient (MM or iron and vitamin A (IVITA supplementation, in children (3 to 24 months old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database (n=465 children from a randomized, controlled, clinical trial, carried out in a semi-rural setting in Mexico, was analyzed. The compliance rate of MM and IVITA supplements was calculated. Adequate compliance rate (AC>80%, and its association with children and households characteristics, was determined. RESULTS: The compliance mean was high (MM:78.2%, IVITA:80.1%; pOBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos con micronutrimentos múltiples (MM o con hierro y vitamina A (FEVITA en niños (80% y su asociación con varias características. RESULTADOS: El cumplimiento fue alto (MM: 78.2%, FEVITA: 80.1%; p<0.05. Los momios de CA fueron 59% mayores en niños del grupo FEVITA que en MM (p=0.052. Escolaridad materna (p<0.001, peso al nacer del niño (p=0.003, porcentaje de tiempo con tos (p<0.001 y con fiebre (p=0.024 y marginalmente, la condición indígena materna (p=0.071 se asociaron con el CA. CONCLUSIONES: La alta tasa de cumplimiento fue consistente con otros estudios. Es necesaria mayor investigación sobre factores fisiológicos, culturales, sociales y operativos relacionados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos.

  3. Investigating early semantic priming : Event-related potentials as a window into the organization of word meaning in children at age 24 months.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Only at the onset of the second year are children able to form stable word-object associations and this point marks the beginning of a protracted period of semantic language development of which we know relatively little. The present event-related potential study aims to establish whether the language-related N400 component can be employed as an index of semantic priming in children at age 24 months. If so, the N400 component could potentially be of great value in investig...

  4. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6–24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day−1 per kilogram bodyweight (mg day−1 kgbw−1) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2–2.5 mg day−1 for children 6–24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this...

  5. Variation of Meat Quality Parameters Due to Conformation and Fat Class in Limousin Bulls Slaughtered at 25 to 27 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    GUZEK, Dominika; Głąska, Dominika; POGORZELSKI, Grzegorz; Kozań, Karolina; Pietras, Jacek; Konarska, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Anna; Głąski, Krzysztof; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age of animal, hot carcass weight, pH, conformation and fat class on basic beef quality attributes (tenderness, sarcomere length, basic chemical composition, marbling and colour) in a group of purebred animals. The object of the study was beef of Limousin bulls (25 to 27 months, hot carcass weight - 432±31 kg, “U” conformation class, “2”–“3” fat class). Analysed cuts were Infraspinatus muscle from the blade and Longissimus dorsi m...

  6. Predictors of Abnormal Neuroimaging of the Brain in Children With Epilepsy Aged 1 Month to 2 Years: Useful Clues in a Resource-Limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmaneechai, Oranee; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda; Likasitwattanakul, Surachai

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging should be performed on infants with seizure. However, there are economic limitations in performing neuroimaging in a resource-limited setting. The younger the age, the higher the risk of having abnormal neuroimaging. The aim was to determine frequency and predictors of abnormal neuroimaging in children with epilepsy aged 1 month to 2 years. History, physical examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging were reviewed. Thirty-seven of 49 (76%) had neuroimaging studies; 19 computed tomography (CT), 14 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 4 had both. Abnormal neuroimaging was found in 19 (51%). Predictors of abnormal neuroimages are developmental delay, abnormal head circumference, and abnormal neurologic examination. Eight children (21%) had lesions on neuroimaging studies that altered or influenced management. Of 8 patients with normal examination and EEG, 1 had a brain tumor and another had arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging should be considered as an essential aid in the evaluation of infants with epilepsy, even in a resource-limited setting. PMID:25792429

  7. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  8. Circumcision Complications Associated with the Plastibell Device and Conventional Dissection Surgery: A Trial of 586 Infants of Ages up to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dissection surgery (CDS or using the Plastibell device (PD is the method most frequently employed for circumcision. The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods in terms of the incidence of complications in infants of ages up to 12 months. In a prospective study, 586 infants equal to or less than 12 months were studied from 2002 to 2008, and complications between the two groups were assessed. The overall rates of complications in CDS and PD groups were 1.95% and 7.08%, respectively. In each group, the rate of complications was not different among children who had a normal weight, compared to those of a lower or upper (10% weight. There was a significant positive correlation between the age and weight of subjects within the time of ring separation (<.001. The results of this study suggest the PD method for neonates and low-weight infants with thin prepuce and the CDS for other infants.

  9. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  10. Pharmacokinetic study of once-daily versus twice-daily abacavir and lamivudine in HIV type-1-infected children aged 3-<36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once-daily dosing of abacavir and lamivudine has been approved for adults, but paediatric data are insufficient. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study of once-daily and twice-daily abacavir and lamivudine in children aged 3-<36 months. METHODS: Children with stable HIV type-1 (HIV-1) RNA...... levels after 12 weeks treatment with twice-daily abacavir (8 mg/kg) with or without lamivudine (4 mg/kg) underwent plasma pharmacokinetic sampling. Children then switched to once-daily abacavir (16 mg/kg) with or without lamivudine (8 mg/kg), and sampling was repeated 4 weeks later. The area under the...... 24-<36 month age ranges, respectively) provided pharmacokinetic data for abacavir (17 for lamivudine). The GMR of AUC(0-24), once-daily versus twice-daily, was 1.07 (90% CI 0.92-1.23) for abacavir and 0.91 (90% CI 0.79-1.06) for lamivudine. C(max) almost doubled on once-daily versus twice...

  11. Long-term (60-month results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available David Boyer,1 K Bailey Freund,2 Carl Regillo,3 Marc H Levy,4 Sumit Garg5 1Retina-Vitreous Associates Medical Group, Beverly Hills, CA, 2Vitreous-Retina-Macula Consultants of New York, New York, NY; 3Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA, 4Sarasota Retina Institute, Sarasota, FL, 5The Gavin Herbert Eye Institute (University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800 resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127], with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA, quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD. Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months.Results: Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76, with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10% and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%; and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%, corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%, and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%. Significant

  12. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age Biometria corporal e testicular de javalis do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, investigar o desenvolvimento testicular e corporal de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, avaliando-se, em cada faixa etária, o peso corporal, o desenvolvimento biométrico dos testículos e o índice gonadossomático (IGS. Utilizaram-se 52 javalis machos, provenientes de um criatório comercial, devidamente regulamentado pelo IBAMA. Os animais foram pesados e divididos em 13 grupos experimentais; os testículos foram coletados por orquiectomia unilateral e, em seguida, pesados em balança analítica e mensurados comprimento, largura e espessura. Os valores de peso corporal e as medidas testiculares foram crescentes, após o nascimento, sendo sua variação mais acelerada no primeiro mês e aos nove meses. Inicialmente, o padrão de crescimento testicular, do nascimento

  13. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  14. Study of complementary feeding practices among mothers of children aged six months to two years – A study from coastal south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInfants and young children are at an increased risk ofmalnutrition from six months of age onwards, when breastmilk alone is no longer sufficient to meet all their nutritionalrequirements and complementary feeding should bestarted. Hence this study was undertaken to assess thepractices of complementary feeding.MethodThis hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted attwo private hospitals – Dr TMA Pai Hospital Udupi and DrTMA Pai Hospital Karkala and a public hospital, RegionalAdvanced Paediatric Care Centre, Mangalore, of coastalsouth India for a two-month period from August 2010 toOctober 2010. Two-hundred mothers of children betweensix months and two years attending the paediatricoutpatient departments of the above-mentioned hospitalsfor growth monitoring, immunisation and minor illnessessuch as upper respiratory tract infections were selected forthe study. The subjects were selected for the study by theorder of their arrival to the outpatient department duringthe study period.ResultsIn the present study 77.5% mothers had startedcomplementary feeding at the recommended time of sixmonths. Only 32% of mothers were giving an adequatequantity of complementary feeds. The association ofinitiation of complementary feeding with socio-economicstatus, birth order, place of delivery and maternal educationwas found to be statistically significant. However thepractice of giving an adequate quantity of complementaryfeeds was significantly associated only with the place ofdelivery.ConclusionIn the present study, initiation of complementary feeding atthe recommended time of six months was seen in themajority of children. However the quantity ofcomplementary feeding was insufficient. Advice aboutbreast feeding and complementary feeding during antenatalcheck-ups and postnatal visits might improve feedingpractices.

  15. Vitamin A-first dose supplement coverage evaluation amongst children aged 12-23 months residing in slums of Delhi, India

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    Sachdeva Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine vitamin A-first dose supplement coverage in children aged 12-23 months and to find out its correlates with selected variables . Materials and Methods: The 30-cluster sampling technique based on probability proportional to size advocated by the World Health Organization was used to assess vitamin A-first dose supplement amongst 210 children in the age group of 12-23 months residing in slums of a randomly selected municipal zone of Delhi during October to November 2005. Results: Only 79 (37.6% children out of 210 had received vitamin A-first dose supplement. Further analysis of 79 children was carried out with regard to selected variables like religion, gender, birth order, place of birth, immunization status and literacy of mother. These analyses showed that 71 (89.9% were Hindu and eight (10.1% were non-Hindu ( P = 0.04. Nearly 44 (55.7% males and 35 (44.3% females had received vitamin A ( P = 0.74. The proportion of children born in a health institution who received first dose (57% of vitamin A supplementation was significantly higher than of those who were born at home (43% ( P 0.001. Similarly, higher proportion of children with birth order-one (48.1% in comparison to birth order-three or above (26.6% received vitamin A ( P 0.001. Thirty children though fully immunized for vaccine-preventable disease up to the age-of-one year had not received vitamin A-first dose supplement, suggesting that an opportunity had been missed. The association between receipt of vitamin A by the child and literacy status of mother was found to be significant ( P 0.001. Conclusion: The study reflects low coverage of Vitamin A supplement.

  16. PERKEMBANGAN ANAK USIA 6-24 BUL AN DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS ANDALAS KECAMATAN PADANG TIMUR PADANG

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    Indah Gemala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalensi gizi kurus dan sangat kurus berdasarkan indeks berat badan menurut tinggi badan pada balita masih cukup tinggi di Kota Padang. Status gizi kurang pada balita terutama usia kritis, yaitu 6-24 bulan berdampak pada perkembangan balita. Perkembangan anak juga dipengaruhi oleh pola asuh, status kesehatan dan pekerjaan ibu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuiperkembangan anak usia 6-24 bidan dan faktor paling dominan berhubungan dengan perkembangan anak tersebut. Studi cross sectional dilakukan pada 96 anak sebagai sampel. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur dan pengukuran antropometri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perkembangan anak meragukan masih cukup tinggi, 29,2% dengan kondisi gizi kurus. Pola asuh kurang baik dan ibu bekerja meningkatkan risiko perkembangan meragukan pada anak, dengan OR masing-masing 4,8 dan 4,7. Untuk itu perlu diperhatikan pola asuh anak terutama ibu yang bekerja untuk mencegah perkembangan anak yang kurang baik.

  17. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

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    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  18. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Andersen, Anders D; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-03-14

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (PIGF-1 in the total population, but a sex × group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95% CI 0·4, 21·8; P=0·04) higher after FO compared with SO supplementation among boys only. The sex × group interaction was borderline significant in the model of IGFBP-3 (P=0·09), with lower IGFBP-3 with FO compared with SO among girls only (P=0·03). The results were supported by sex-specific dose-response associations between changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both PIGF-1 was sex specifically associated with BMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body composition should be investigated further. PMID:26758502

  19. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST-FEEDING OF INFANTS AGED 0-6 MONTHS BY URBAN REFUGEE WOMEN IN KIGALI

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    Gedeon Jino Bahemuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee women’s knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EBF and to determine EBF practice rate among these women. This is a descriptive crosssectional study. It involves 90 urban refugee women who had children aged six months to two years during the period of the study. The study was conducted between January 2011 and mid-February of the same year.The main results are the following: 74.4% of the mothers have correct knowledge about the EBF, and the health facilities are reported to at 90 % their main source of the information 71.1% of the mothers have positive attitude towards EBF, but 34.4 % practised EBF up to 6 months. There is no significant correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (p > 0.05.The factors leading the mothers in the study to such low practice of EBF, which are not captured by this study, might be anchored in their cultural or traditional practices. For almost all of the mothers come from the same country: the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mainly from the East of the country.Therefore, as a recommendation, a qualitative research should diligently be conducted in order to dig up the reasons for these women’s failure in practising EBF to six months. In addition, the women’s sensitisation for EBF practice should continue and be enhanced.

  20. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

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    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  1. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. PMID:26806089

  2. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M.; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  3. Performance of motor sequences in children at heightened vs. low risk for ASD: A longitudinal study from 18 to 36 months of age

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    VALENTINA eFOCAROLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR. Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD.

  4. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  5. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  6. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6-23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldie, Haile; Kebede, Yigzaw; Tariku, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6-23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60-5.81)), 9-11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61-25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35-7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20-6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63-14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26-5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08-30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01-8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6-23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and

  7. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia

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    Haile Woldie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81, 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47, poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38, stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05, diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59, no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27, early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31, and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88 were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as

  8. Combining Information from Multiple Sources for the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background Purpose of this study was to systematically examine combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) for children under age 4 using newly developed and revised diagnostic algorithms. Methods Single and combined use of the ADI-R and ADOS algorithms were compared to clinical best estimate diagnoses for 435 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 113 children with non-spectrum disorders, and 47 children with typical development from 12 to 47 months of age. Sequential strategies to reach a diagnostic decision by prioritizing administrations of instruments were also evaluated. Results Well-balanced sensitivities and specificities above 80% were obtained for ASD diagnoses using both instruments. Specificities significantly improved when both instruments were used compared to one. Scores that can be used to systematically prioritize administrations of instruments were identified. Conclusions The ADI-R and ADOS make independent, additive contributions to more accurate diagnostic decisions for clinicians evaluating toddlers and young preschoolers with ASD. Sequential assessment strategies using the scores identified may be appropriate for some children. PMID:21883205

  9. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 5 YEARS WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA ADMITTED IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Leela Kumari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Iron deficiency is the commonest micronutrient deficiency worldwide. It is preventable and treatable. Iron deficiency in a child can affect the physical growth as well as the cognitive functions since Iron is essential for growing brain. So early detection and correction of Iron deficiency is very essential. This descriptive study was conducted in 155 anemic children of age 6months to 5 years admitted in a tertiary care centre. Objective was to study the clinical and laboratory profile. This study showed high prevalence of anemia in male children compared to females. Higher grades of anaemiawas found in those taking diet deficient in Iron rich food and those not having periodic deworming. Mild anemia was noted in 34.2%, Moderate in 52.9% severe in 12.9%.47.5 % were in the age group 3-5 years. Significant association was found between Iron deficiency and Febrile seizures.18.7% of study participants had under nutrition and 11% had first degree stunting.

  10. Consumo alimentar entre crianças brasileiras com idade de 6 a 59 meses Food consumption Brazilian children by 6 to 59 months of age

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    Gisele Ane Bortolini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o consumo alimentar em crianças brasileiras de 6-59 meses de idade, por região e zona de residência. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal com 4.322 crianças investigadas na Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde (2006/2007. Observou-se baixo consumo diário de verduras (12,7%, legumes (21,8%, carnes (24,6% e elevado consumo de refrigerantes (40,5%, alimentos fritos (39,4%, salgadinhos (39,4%, doces (37,8%, na frequência de uma a três vezes na semana. Comparando-se as regiões, as crianças residentes no Sul, Sudeste e Centro-oeste consumiram com mais frequência arroz, pão, batata, feijão, verdura de folha, legumes e carne, mas também consumiram, mais frequentemente, alimentos não recomendados para a idade, como doces e refrigerantes. Crianças da zona rural apresentaram menor consumo dos alimentos recomendados para a idade e, também, dos não recomendados, quando comparadas às crianças da zona urbana. O consumo alimentar evidenciado neste estudo não está de acordo com recomendações de alimentação saudável para crianças.The aim of this study was to assess food consumption in Brazilian children 6 to 59 months of age by region of the country and area of residence. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 4,322 children in the National Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007. The data showed low daily consumption of leafy vegetables (12.7%, vegetables (21.8%, and meat (24.6% and high consumption (1-3 times a week of soft drinks (40.5%, fried foods (39.4%, salty snacks (39.4%, and sweets (37.8%. Comparing the regions of Brazil, children in the South, Southeast, and Central-West consumed more rice, bread, potatoes, beans, greens, vegetables, and meat, but they also ate more foods not recommended for their age, like sweets and soft drinks (soda. Rural children showed lower consumption of foods recommended for their age and also those not recommended for their age, as compared to their urban

  11. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  12. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal......-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate cell function 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12...... months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p

  13. Distribution of anti-HAV IgM positivity according to age and months of a year in Van region,Turkey

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    Mehmet Parlak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we investigated the anti-HAVIgM positivity rates and their distribution according to ageand season of a year in Van region of Turkey.Materials and methods: During five-year period between2006-2010, the presence of anti-HAV IgM weredetermined in the serum samples sent to our laboratorythat have prediagnosis of hepatitis A by ELISA test, usingAxSYM (Abbott Diagnostics, Germany and i2000SR Architect(Abbott Diagnostics, Germany analyzers. For statisticalanalyze of Anti-HAV IgM positivity rates, patients’age and gender and time of year when specimen wasobtain were compared.Results: The presence of anti-HAV IgM was investigatedin a total of 8851 patients, including 5303 (60% childrenand 3548 (40% adults. Anti-HAV IgM in children and adultpatients were determined as 9.8% and 2.6%, respectively,and this difference was found statistically significant (p<0.01. Anti-HAV IgM positivity rate began to rise in August,reached the highest level in November-Decemberand decreased to the initial level in January. The highestfrequency detected during the November-December periodwas statistically significantly higher than rates foundduring other months.Conclusions: The prevalence of Hepatitis A was found tobe similar with previous studies performed in our country.The prevalence of disease was significantly increased especiallybetween November and December.Key words: Anti-HAV IgM, seasonal distribution, seroprevalence,age

  14. Prevalence of caries in Brazilian children with cleft lip and∕or palate, aged 6 to 36 months

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    Agda Maria de Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children with cleft lip and∕or palate aged 6–36 months of life. This study was conducted at the University of São Paulo School of Dentistry, Brazil. A total of 143 children were selected (73 male, 70 female, all of whom had at least two erupted teeth. The children were distributed as follows: 88 had cleft lip and palate, 35 had cleft palate, 20 had cleft lip. Dental caries disease was diagnosed according to criteria set by the World Health Organization. It was observed that 18.9% of the study children had caries. No correlation between prevalence of caries and gender or type of cleft was observed. Mean dmf-t was 0.47. The prevalence of caries was higher in the upper arch, and the most affected tooth was the central incisor (p = 0.001. Children with cleft lip and∕or palate did not have high caries indices.

  15. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  16. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (pshort-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended. PMID:25919428

  17. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    risk factors has potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  18. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  19. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  20. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  1. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice. PMID:26388172

  2. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  3. Twelve-month effects of the Groningen active living model (GALM) on physical activity, health and fitness outcomes in sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Johan de; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; King, Abby C.; Huisman, Mark; Stevens, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects on energy expenditure, health and fitness outcomes after 12 months of GALM. Methods: Subjects from matched neighbourhoods were assigned to an intervention (IG) (n = 79) or a waiting-list control group (CG) (n = 102). During the 12 months the IG attended two series of 15 moderately intensive GALM sessions once a week and the CG attended one series after a 6-month waiting-list period. Results: Significant time effects were found for energy expenditure for rec...

  4. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modifications aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was significantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules. PMID:21219984

  7. Influence of age on radioinduced cognitive disorders: Experimental studies with cerebral irradiation of 30 Gy in 10 sessions and 12 days in the Wistar rat at 1.5, 4 and 18 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age on the learning and memory dysfunction induced by cranial radiation in the male Wistar rat. Ninety-six 45-day-old, 70 4-month-old, and 78 18-month-old male rats were divided in two equal groups: (i) irradiated and (ii) control. A course of whole-brain radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 12 days) was administered to the irradiated group, while the control group received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one and two-way avoidance tests were undertaken before and after the 7 months following radiation. The results suggest that radiation induced progressive and irreversible memory dysfunction in elderly (18-month-old) rats, but this effect was partial or almost reversible in the 4-month-old and 45-day-old rats, respectively. In return, the learning dysfunction was age non-dependent despite the fact that is occurs more rapidly in the young (45 days, 4 months) rats. (author)

  8. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition was def...

  9. Feeding practices of mothers and/or caregivers of infants below the age of 6 months in South Africa / Linda Precious Siziba

    OpenAIRE

    Siziba, Linda Precious

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding is widely recognised as the ideal approach for improving child survival and feeding new-born babies and young infants. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life with timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 months and continued breastfeeding for up to two years and beyond. The feeding practices of mothers are widely influenced by different factors which may be embedded within different contexts ...

  10. Manejo de novilhas prenhes aos 13/15 meses de idade em sistemas a pasto Pregnant heifers management at 13/15 months of age in grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2008-07-01

    de vaca.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the development of 32 primiparous beef heifers Aberdeen Angus and Angus crossbred raised and mating from 13 to the 15 months of age. The experiment had beginning in the pregnancy diagnosis of using ultra-sound technique, realized at 28 days after the ending of the reproductive period. The initial average weight and body condition (BC was 288 kg LW and 3.2 points, respectively. In this occasion, the beef heifers were uniformly distributed by genetic group, LW and conception order in two grazing systems. Grazing systems were: PMI - pregnant beef heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum, L.; PNA - pregnant heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on natural pasture. Grazed period was 67 days in pearl millet pasture. At end of the treatments the beef heifers were maintained as a unique group: on natural pasture at pre calving period, on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture at post calving period and on natural pasture at second reproductive period. In the initial pregnancy phase, the average daily gain (ADG of 0.899 kg and body condition gain (BCG, 0.34 points of the PMI heifers were higher then the ADG of 0.377 kg and BC lost of -0.15 for PNA heifers. The PMI beef heifers had post calving live weight (PCW and post calving body condition of 301 kg and 2.9 points, respectively, higher values than of PNA beef heifers, 267 kg and 2.7 points. Calving, dystocia, birth and weaning rates were not different between the feeding treatment. The PMI beef heifers were 31 kg heaviest and with more 0.30 point of BC at initial second reproductive period. The pregnancy rate (PR and estimations of calving productive efficiency (CPEE and weaning productive efficiency at 100 days of age (WPEE were not different between feeding treatments. Mean PR was 77%. Mean CPEE was 30.3 and WPEE 28.1 kg of weaning calf/100 kg of cow.

  11. Cord blood IgE. III. Prediction of IgE high-response and allergy. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S; Holmskov, A; Husby, S; Lassen, L B; Storm, K; Osterballe, O

    E was superior to the originally suggested 0.5 kU/l. Significantly more infants with elevated cord blood IgE had developed specific IgE antibodies at 18 months. The most frequent specific IgE antibody was towards cow's milk. Specific IgE antibodies were very rarely found when total IgE was not elevated...

  12. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoJung Kim, Michael G. Bemben, Allen W. Knehans, Debra A. Bemben

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM, areal bone mineral density (aBMD and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16 or a control group (CON, n = 18. Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS. Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT, respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005 decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002 group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%. No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this

  13. Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy with Child Weight at Birth, Age 12 Months and 5 Years – A Population-Based Electronic Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Kelly; Rahman, Mohammed; Atkinson, Mark; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Hill, Rebecca; Khanom, Ashrafunnesa; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brophy, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. Methods A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs). Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offs...

  14. Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study

    OpenAIRE

    Grydeland, May; Bjelland, Mona; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Bergh, Ingunn Holden; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Lien, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based interventions that target prevention of overweight and obesity in children have been tested with mixed results. Thus, successful interventions are still called for. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a multicomponent school-based intervention programme targeting physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours on anthropometric outcomes. Methods A 20-month intervention was evaluated in a cluster randomised, controlled study of 1324 11-year-ol...

  15. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    SoJung Kim, Michael G. Bemben, Allen W. Knehans, Debra A. Bemben

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either ...

  16. A Randomized Trial of a Standard Dose of Edmonston-Zagreb Measles Vaccine Given at 4.5 Months of Age: Effect on Total Hospital Admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesario L.; Benn, Christine S.; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non–measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine ...

  17. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.;

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...... LCPUFA intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (P<0·001). There were no effects of FO compared with SO on IGF-1 in the total population, but a sex×group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95 % CI 0·4, 21·8;P......=0·04) higher after FO compared with SO supplementation among boys only. The sex×group interaction was borderline significant in the model of IGFBP-3 (P=0·09), with lower IGFBP-3 with FO compared with SO among girls only (P=0·03). The results were supported by sex-specific dose–response associations...

  18. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, ...

  19. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  20. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months Prevalência de cárie e fatores de risco em crianças de 0 a 36 meses

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Pires dos Santos; Vera Mendes Soviero

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...

  1. Measles vaccine efficacy during an outbreak in a highly vaccinated population: incremental increase in protection with age at vaccination up to 18 months.

    OpenAIRE

    De Serres, G.; Boulianne, N.; Meyer, F; Ward, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    During a large measles outbreak in Quebec City in 1989, two investigations conducted in parallel evaluated the relative risk of measles and measles vaccine effectiveness with respect to age at vaccination. The study was a school-based case-control study including 563 cases and 1126 classmate controls. The second was a cohort study of the siblings of school cases including 493 siblings aged between 1 and 19 years. The relative risks (RR) of measles were similar in both settings and the trend t...

  2. Situation of the supplementary diet of children between 6 and 24 months attended in the Primary Care Network of Macaé, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Leticia Maia Forte; Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Rocha, Camilla Medeiros Macedo da; Bouskela, Alice; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; de Freitas, Silvia Eliza Almeida Pereira; Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher; Pontes, Juliana da Silva

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the supplementary nutritional situation of children aged 6-24 months attended by the Primary Care unit of Macaé/RJ. It was conducted as a cross-sectional study, and data was obtained from the SISVAN Web website, including and analyzing all of the records (n=218) of children between 6-24 months in the year 2013. In infants between 6-12 months, the consumption of 72.3% of vegetables, 75.3% of fruits, and 63.4% of meats was detected, considered indicators of healthy supplementary nutrition. In contrast, 23.8% were already consuming sugar-based food sources (honey, molasses, simple sugar, and unrefined cane sugar), 34.7% industrialized juice, and 17.8% soft drinks. The consumption of industrialized juice was significantly greater in boys (p-value soft drinks. Between 18-24 months, it was recorded that 89.9% of children consumed vegetables, 83.1% fruits, and 96.7% meat. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 33.9%, 69.5% for industrialized juices, and 55.5% for soft drinks. We conclude that the indicators of healthy complementary nutrition come close to the target set by the Ministry of Health (80%). PMID:26960109

  3. Long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release in children 5-11 years of age: results from a 12-month, open-label study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijman, Rien J M; Borgstein, Niels G; Ellsworth, Pamela; Siggaard, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI...

  4. Association between early childhood caries, streptococcus mutans level and genetic sensitivity levels to the bitter taste of, 6-N propylthiouracil among the children below 71 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Pidamale

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children who had higher level S. mutans had ECC and were non tasters. The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. Age and low socio-economic status of pre-school children suggest a complex multifactorial relationship between S. mutans colonization, ECC and taste perception.

  5. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7–24 Months

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    Ying Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development. Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children. The development of auditory and speech in hearing impaired children may be relatively crucial in thefirst year's habilitation after fitted with the auxiliary device.

  6. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age. PMID:25912868

  7. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

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    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  8. IGF-I at 9 and 36 months of age — relations with body composition and diet at 3 years — the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Larnkjær, A.; Pedersen, D.;

    2014-01-01

    Objective High infancy levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have been associated with increased linear growth and fat-free mass (FFM) but also with risk of obesity. This paper examines how IGF-I at 9 and 36 months relates to diet and body composition. Design Healthy term infants from the...... FFM and FFM index but not BMI, FM and FM index. No associations were seen between IGF-I and current intake of milk, meat or protein energy percentage, but both fat and saturated fat energy percentage were negatively associated with IGF-I. Conclusion IGF-I concentrations were positively associated with...... FFM index (FFM/height (kg/m2)). Although there also was a positive association with predicted fat mass (FM) there was no association with FM index (FM/height (kg/m2)). Further, a negative association with skin fold thickness was observed. A change in IGF-I from 9–36 months was positively related to...

  9. Mutans Streptococci Colonization in Relation to Feeding Practices, Age and the Number of Teeth in 6 to 30-Month-Old Children: An in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rajesh; Prabhakar, AR; Gaur, Anupama

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Early childhood caries has been characterized as first affecting the primary maxillary anterior teeth, followed by the involvement of the primary molars. Other terms for dental caries in preschool children, which inappropriately may imply cause for the disease, includes baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, milk bottle syndrome, baby bottle caries, nursing bottle mouth and nursing mouth. Aim: To explore the relationships of feeding practices, age and number of teeth pr...

  10. Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye Fikru; Alem Atalay; Dewey Michael; Hanlon Charlotte; Medhin Girmay; Worku Bogale; Tomlinson Mark; Prince Martin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in low income countries. Prospective studies of predictors of infant growth in rural low-income country settings are relatively scarce but vital to guide intervention efforts. Methods A population-based sample of 1065 women in the third trimester of pregnancy was recruited from the demographic surveillance site (DSS) in Butajira, south-central Ethiopia, and followed up until the infants were one year of age. After stand...

  11. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigated whether musculoskeletal fitness of school children aged 8–10 years was affected by frequent intense PE sessions. Design and participants 295 Danish school children aged 8–10 years were cluster randomised to a small-sided ball game group (SSG) (n=96, four schools, five...... mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean body mass (LBM). Flamingo balance, standing long jump and 20-m sprint tests were used to determine muscular fitness. Results Analysis of baseline-to-10 months change scores showed between-group differences in favour of the interventions in whole...... improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8–10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children. Trial registration number NCT02000492, post results....

  12. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

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    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  13. Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study

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    Azam Iqbal S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety/depression, the rate of recurrence and the interval preceding recurrence in women during first two and a half years after childbirth. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, community women from two under-privileged communities were trained in data gathering, teaching healthy child-rearing practices, basic counseling skills, and screening for anxiety/depression by using an indigenously developed questionnaire, the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. The diagnosis was further confirmed by a clinical psychologist using DSM IV criteria. After obtaining consent, 420 women were screened and 102 were identified as having anxiety/depression. Screening was carried out after 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of a live birth. Only 62 out of 102 agreed to be counseled and received eight weekly sessions. AKUADS was re-administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the beginning of counseling; this was followed by the clinical psychologist's interview for confirmation of response. After recovery, screening was continued every 3 months for detection of recurrence throughout the study period. Out of the women who had declined counseling 12 agreed to retake AKUADS after 4 and 8 weeks of diagnosis. Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measures ANOVA and Kaplan Meier technique were used for the analysis. Results A significant decline in level of anxiety/depression was found in both the counseled and the non-counseled groups at 4 and 8 weeks (p-value Conclusions As our results cannot be generalized; further studies need to be

  14. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity. PMID:22877892

  15. Researches on Rumination Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

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    Iulian Tripon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the rumination behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: number of rumination periods, the length of rumination periods and the total length of rumination periods. Results showed that calves spent ruminating, on average, only 96.4 minutes in the morning, 176 minutes in the afternoon and 262.6 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 124.2 minutes during the morning, 173.6 minutes during the afternoon and 243.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 106.2 minutes during the morning, 134.2 minutes during the afternoon and 286.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent ruminating by calves was 535 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 541 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 527 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 for total time spent ruminating by calves between the three experimental variants.

  16. Influencing factors of breastfeeding of infants aged 0-18 months in Guangdong%广东省0~18月龄婴幼儿母乳喂养的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍; 钱兴国; 苏宜香

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the subjective and objective influencing factors of breastfeeding ( BF ) of infants aged 0-18 months in Guangdong so as to provide evidence for guiding scientific feeding. Methods Cluster sampling method was used to collect all the infants aged 0-18 months from urban, suburb and rural areas of Guangdong Province, and feeding patterns and relevant factors were investigated with questionnaires. Results Altogether 3 844 infants were recruited. The BF rate was 75. 6% ( 1 548/2 048 ) in 4-month infants and 65. 8% ( 878/1 335 ) in 6-month infants. The mean duration of BF was 6. 06 ±3. 37 months, and the differences in urban, suburb and rural areas were statistically significant ( F = 57. 602, P < 0. 01 ). The major subjective factors of influencing BF included "too little milk" , "not suitable to breastfeed" , and "babies not liked to taking milk" considered by mothers. For objective factors, infants' born place, sex, fosters, birth order, age of mother and monthly expenses on foods were significantly related with the selection of BF. Time of food switching, infants age, monthly income of family, age of mother and maternity leave were significantly correlated with the duration of BF. Conclusion The BF rate is relatively low. Measures should be taken including strengthening popularizing of BF knowledge, pertinent guiding on postpartum BF, changing the concept of food switching too early and extending maternity leave for occupational mothers.%目的 了解影响广东省0~18月龄婴幼儿母乳喂养的主观及客观因素,为指导婴幼儿的科学喂养提供依据.方法 采取整群抽样的方法,抽取代表广东省城市、城镇、农村3个地区的所有0~18月龄婴幼儿,对其喂养方式及相关因素进行问卷调查.结果 共收集3 844名婴幼儿.4、6月龄母乳喂养率分别是75.6%(1 548/2 048)、65.8%(878/1 335),母乳喂养平均持续时间为6.06±3.37个月,在城市、城镇、农村婴幼儿中

  17. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  18. Predictive factors for neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months in very low birth weight premature infants Fatores preditivos para anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida em prematuros de muito baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in survival of premature newborns has sparked growing interest in the prediction of their long-term neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months and to identify the predictive factors associated with altered neuromotor development in very low birth weight premature infants. METHOD: Cohort study. The sample included 100 premature infants. The outcome was neuromotor development at 12 months classified by Bayley Scale (PDI and neurological assessment (tonus, reflexes, posture. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. Neonatal variables and neuromotor abnormalities up to 6 months of corrected age were selected by bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Mean birth weight was 1126g (SD: 240. Abnormal neuromotor development was presented in 60 children at 12 months corrected age. CONCLUSION: According to the model, patients with a diagnosis including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hypertonia of lower extremities, truncal hypotonia showed a 94.0% probability of neuromotor involvement at 12 months.INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento na sobrevida de recém-nascidos prematuros tem suscitado interesse crescente na predição do seu neurodesenvolvimento a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência de anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida e identificar os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado em prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte. A amostra incluiu 100 crianças prematuras.O desfecho foi o desenvolvimento neuromotor aos 12 meses. Modelo de regressão logística multivariado foi construído. Variáveis neonatais e anormalidades neuromotoras até os 6 meses de idade corrigida foram selecionadas por análise bivariada. RESULTADOS: O peso de nascimento médio foi 1126g (DP:240. Aos 12 meses 60% das crianças apresentaram desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com o modelo, pacientes com diagn

  19. Vibrio vulnificus MO6-24/O Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Superoxide Anion, Thromboxane B2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokine and Chemokine Release by Rat Brain Microglia in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Alejandro M.S.; Hall, Mary L.; Michael Holland; Cristina Castro; Antonio Molinaro; Monica Aldulescu; Jeffrey Frenkel; Lauren Ottenhoff; David Rowley (4); Jan Powell

    2014-01-01

    Although human exposure to Gram-negative Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported to result in septic shock, its impact on the central nervous system’s innate immunity remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS might activate rat microglia in vitro and stimulate the release of superoxide anion (O2 −), a reactive oxygen species known to cause oxidative stress and neuronal injury in vivo. Brain microgli...

  20. Use of technology in follow-up of HIV positive pregnant women and their babies till 18 months of age- an innovation by Maharashtra State AIDS Control Society (MSACS), India

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Radhay Shyam; Yewale, Kiran; Hegde, Asha S.; Mulik, Tejas; Bamrotiya, Manish; Yadav, Surendra; Rane, Tushar; Pardeshi, Kushalsinh; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Reddy, D.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of web-based mobile technology monitoring tool, for ensuring linkages, and tracking of HIV-exposed child until 18 months of age. Methods The ‘early infant diagnosis (EID) Follow-up System’ was designed as a tool for reminding the field level staff for follow-up of HIV-exposed babies. Using Java Swing Framework, software was developed which generates automatic advance SMS alerts regarding patient information to the Counsellor of the ...

  1. Maternal immune markers in serum during gestation and in breast milk and the risk of asthma-like symptoms at ages 6 and 12 months: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Ramírez Nelís

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of breast milk on the risk of childhood asthma is in dispute. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the relationship of immune markers in maternal serum during gestation and breast milk to asthma-like symptoms (AS in infancy. Methods Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median: three weeks before delivery and breast milk (three weeks after delivery samples were collected. Concentrations of interferon (IFN-γ, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10, CCL11, interleukin (IL 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12(p70, IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, and immunoglobulin (Ig A in both maternal serum and milk whey were determined via immunoassays. Asthma-like symptoms (AS of the infant were ascertained at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Generalized estimating equations assessed relative risks (RRs of immune markers for repeated measurements of AS, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. To provide comparable risk estimates, quartiles of the immune markers were used, except for IL-5 in whey and IgA in serum, which were dichotomized. Results Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, and CCL11 in serum and in whey were not further considered for the statistical analyses since the proportion of non-detectable values was high. Most immune markers in serum and milk whey were moderately or highly correlated; however, IgA was negatively correlated. Infants in the highest quartile of IL-13 in both serum and whey were at a higher risk of AS (RR = 3.02 and 4.18; respectively compared to infants in the first quartile. High levels of IL-5 in serum and whey was also identified as a risk. In addition, increased secretory IgA and TGF-β1 in breast milk reduced the risks of AS. Conclusions Maternal serum and whey levels of IL-5 and IL-13 are risk markers for AS; whey IgA and TGF

  2. Investigation on breastfeeding for the infants within four months of age in Tongling City%铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红琼; 胡冬香; 冯雪; 陈尚徽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of breastfeeding for the infants not older than four months of age in Tongling City so as to provide scientific evidence for health policy-making.Methods Infants, who were four months of age or younger and took their first medical examination in child health clinic of Tongling Maternal and Child Health Hospital from June 2009 to December 2010, were enrolled as subjects of the study , and a cross-section analysis was conducted after interviewing their guardians on spot .Results Breastfeeding rate for the infants younger than four months in Tongling was 82.2%, with the exclusive breastfeeding rate of 54.6%.The breastfeeding rate dropped down as the months of age increased .The rate of breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery was 29.3%.The popularity of the breastfeeding varied according to delivery mode , time of breastfeeding start , month of age , living area and educational level of mother and father (χ2 value was 27.20, 25.38, 29.43, 20.67, 10.62 and 15.14, respectively, all P<0.05).Conclusion Breastfeeding is the principle feeding way for the infants not older than four months of age in Tongling City .The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding is low . It is suggested that both the management of child health hospitals and the health education be promoted to increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate and improve children ’ s health condition .%目的:了解铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养情况,为制定干预措施提供参考依据。方法采用横断面调查分析方法,以2009年6月至2010年12月在铜陵市妇幼保健院儿童保健科门诊初次体检,月龄在4个月内的婴儿作为调查对象,通过现场询问获得母乳喂养情况,并进行相关因素分析。结果①铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养率占82.2%,纯母乳喂养率占54.6%,随着婴儿月龄的增长,母乳喂养率有所下降,母亲产后半小时内开奶率为29.3%;②不同的

  3. High increments of overweight along with low length-for-age growth during the first 24 months of life Aumento de sobrepeso con bajo crecimiento de talla-para-edad durante los primeros 24 meses de vida

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    M. Bacardí-Gascón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that children nursed in orphanages loose one month of lineal growth for every three months they spend in the orphanage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily variation of weight- for- length and length-for-age among infants under 24 months of age, living in a temporary public orphanage in Mexico. Methods: Ninety children from 0 to 24 months of age, who were institutionalized at an orphanage, were assessed during a three month period. Upon arrival their height and weight were measured daily, Monday through Friday. Daily growth velocity for weight and length was calculated. Length-for age (LAZ and weight-for-length (WHZ age z- scores were calculated based on WHO criteria. Risk of overweight (ROW and overweight (OW were classified using the WHO criteria. Results: The increments of daily weight were lower than the normal range (9 g daily, but the ROW and OW increased from 10% and 3% at the beginning of the study to 14% and 11% at the end. At the end of the follow-up, WHZ was inversely associated to length (cm/day velocity (r = -302, p Antecedentes: Se ha descrito que los niños de orfanatorios pierden un mes lineal por cada tres meses que residen en un orfanatorio. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la variación diaria de peso-para-talla y talla-para edad, entre infantes de menos de 24 meses de edad, que residen en un orfanatorio público temporal de México Métodos: Se valoraron durante un período de tres meses, noventa niños de 0 a 24 meses de edad, institucionalizados en un orfanatorio. Desde su ingreso se midieron diariamente la estatura y el peso de manera estandarizada, del lunes al viernes. Se calculó la velocidad de crecimiento diario del peso y la estatura. Las puntuaciones del z-score de la talla-para-edad y del peso-para-talla (zPT, se calcularon basados en los criterios de la OMS. El riesgo de sobrepeso (RSP y el sobrepeso (SP se clasificó de acuerdo a los

  4. Crescimento de crianças até seis meses de idade, segundo categorias de aleitamento Growth of children up to six months of age and breast feeding practices

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    Giana Zarbato Longo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a relação das velocidades de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos com categorias de aleitamento em crianças até seis meses de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado em Centros de Saúde de 12 cidades, nas cinco regiões do Brasil, com 3172 crianças. As variáveis estudadas foram: índices antropométricos (peso/idade, comprimento/idade, peso/comprimento, peso ao nascer, peso atual, comprimento ao nascer, comprimento atual, velocidade média de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento; categorias de aleitamento exclusivo, predominante, materno e sem aleitamento. RESULTADOS: verificou-se uma associação positiva na velocidade do ganho de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos nas categorias de aleitamento materno exclusivo e predominante nos primeiros meses de vida, ajustados com os fatores idade, peso e comprimento ao nascer, sexo e escolaridade da mãe. CONCLUSÕES: o tipo de amamentação, principalmente nos primeiros meses, influencia positivamente para um crescimento adequado, juntamente com os fatores nível de escolaridade da mãe no estrato maior que cinco anos e peso de nascimento.OBJECTIVES: to determine daily weight and lenght gain plus anthropometric rates increment with breast feeding regime in children up to six months of age. METHODS: cross-cutting study conducted in the Healthcare Clinics of 12 cities in the five regions of Brazil using a sample of 3172 children. Variables were: anthropometric rates (weight for age, weight for height, height for age, birth weight, birth length, current length, velocity of average daily increment of weight and length; regimes of exclusive and predominant breast feeding and the use of formulas. RESULTS: it was found a positive association of velocity in weight and height gains and of anthropometric rates in children fed in an exclusive and predominant breastfeeding regime in the first months of life, adjusted

  5. Comparison of the effects of educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point

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    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding plays a pivotal role in the promotion of health and prevention of psychological problems in children. This study aimed to compare the effects of breastfeeding educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the model of Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 150 pregnant women (gestational age: 36-41 weeks receiving care in the educational clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Subjects were divided into two intervention groups (educational and acupressure and one control group. In intervention groups, in addition to routine prenatal care, pregnant women received training based on the BASNEF model and instructed acupressure. Mothers in the control group received only standard care during pregnancy. After the intervention, data were collected using Denver developmental screening test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Among developmental gross motor skills, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding the ability to breast lift by relying on the arm (P=0.016. In terms of fine motor skills, a significant difference was observed in holding the rattle by infant (P=0.034. Moreover, time of acquiring individual and social developmental skills was higher in intervention groups compared to the control group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. Therefore, no significant differences were observed between the two interventional groups in this regard (P≥0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, instructed acupressure on the GB-21 pointcould improve some gross motor and fine motor skills in infants. Therefore, it is recommended that the developmental indicators in infants aged 1-3 months be evaluated in

  6. Vegetative development of cultivars of palm oil from 14 to 34 months of age in ecosystems Roraima = Desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade em ecossistemas de Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development of cultivars oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq from 14 to 34 months of age in the field in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two experiments were conducted, one in another area of savanna and forest area changes in the assessment of BRS C-2528, C-3701 and BRS BRS C-2301, in experimental design of randomized blocks with six replications. 18 reviews were conducted monthly from August 2008 to April 2010, the number of sheets issued, four leaf length (cm and girth circumference (cm. Analyses of variance individual and joint. For the statistical analysis of the characteristics evaluated test was used Scott-Knott at 5% probability. By comparing the averages of the characteristics evaluated in two environments, we found that, at 34 months old, the forest ecosystem plants had a higher number of leaves, leaf length greater than 4 and greater girth circumference, differing significantly the results obtained in the savanna ecosystem. In forest area changes, independent of cultivar evaluated, plants showed, 3.0 leaves emitted / month, four leaf growth of 8.9 cm / month and girth circumference of 9.6 cm / month, while in savanna, issued 2.5 leaves / month, 4 leaf length of 7.5 cm / month and girth circumference of 6.1 cm / month. It is concluded that changes in forest environment, cultivars have vegetative growth higher than in the environment of savanna. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo Elaeis guineensis Jacq dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade no campo, em dois ecossistemas de Roraima. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em área de savana e outro em área de floresta alterada com a avaliação das cultivares BRS C-2528, BRS C-3701 e BRS C-2301, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. Foram realizadas 18 avaliações mensais, no período de agosto de 2008 a abril de 2010, quanto ao número de folhas

  7. A quantitative study of peripheral nerve fibres in the mouse following the administration of drugs. 1. Age changes in untreated CBA mice from 3 to 21 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanmore, A; Bradbury, S; Weddell, A G

    1978-01-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of changes which occur in peripheral nerves of normal mice from the onset of maturity to old age. The parameters chosen were total fibre area and axon area. Size distributions of these were expressed in the form of histograms. From the area data notional fibre and axon diameters were calculated, together with the thickness of the myelin sheath. The notional diameters were contrasted with the comparable myelin sheath thickness in the form of scatter diagrams. These results are intended to provide a reference scale for subsequent assessment of changes induced by drugs administered throughout life. The are in general accord with previous observations, but were obtained quickly, and with less margins of error, by using a Quantimet 720. Images Fig. 1 PMID:701188

  8. Desenvolvimento do olhar e do contato ocular em lactentes de zero a quatro meses de idade The development of looking behavior and eye-contact in breast feeding children aged between 0 and 4 months

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    Aline Elise Gerbelli Belini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar o desenvolvimento do contato ocular e do comportamento visual de bebês entre zero e quatro meses. MÉTODOS: dezessete bebês típicos foram filmados mensalmente por 30 minutos, sendo transcritas 11 categorias de observação do olhar, quantificadas e tratadas estatisticamente através dos testes de Friedman (α = 0,050 e dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon (α de Bonferroni = 0,010. RESULTADOS: houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas frequências das categorias: "olhar para os olhos da mãe" (pOBJECTIVES: to investigate the development of eye-contact and visual behavior in babies aged between 0 and 4 months. METHODS: sixteen normal babies were filmed monthly for 30 minutes, and 11 eleven visual behavior categories observed and transcribed. These were then quantified and treated statistically using the Friedman test (α = 0.050 and Wilcoxon's Signed Rank test (Bonferroni's α = 0,010. RESULTS: there were statistical differences in frequency between the various categories: "looking mother in the eye" (p<0.001, "looking mother in the face" (p<0.001, "looking at an object" (p<0.001, "looking at the researcher" (p<0.001, "actively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "passively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "looking at own body" (p=0.001 and "eyes closed" (p=0.005. Eye-contact was detected in the third week of life in 64.7% and developed during the first five months of life (p=0.010 in 50% of the intervals between data collection. CONCLUSIONS: eye-contact can be detected from the neonatal period onwards and develops over the first few months of life. The frequency of the baby's eye-contact with its mother increases longitudinally in the first four months. Other focuses of attention, apart from the mother's eyes, are also fundamental during the early stages of development outside the womb.

  9. Comparative humoral and cellular immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18–45 years: Follow-up through Month 48 in a Phase III randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Mark H.; Levin, Myron J.; Chatterjee, Archana; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Takacs, Peter; Catteau, Grégory; Dessy, Francis J; Moris, Philippe; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported higher anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine compared with HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine at Month 7 (one month after completion of full vaccination series) in women aged 18–45 y in an observer-blind study NCT00423046; the differences of immune response magnitudes were maintained up to Month 24. Here we report follow-up data through Month 48. At Month 48, in according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative for HPV type a...

  10. Phonological Specificity of Tones in Early Lexical Representation at 16 Months of Age%不同母语环境下16个月婴儿词汇表征中声调的语义特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶冶; 徐琴美; Kim Plunkett

    2012-01-01

    采用跨通道注视偏好范式(IPLP)下的声调错读任务,探究16个月中英婴儿熟悉词汇表征中普通话声调的音位语义特性(phonological specificity).结果发现在先正确命名再声调错读的任务顺序下,中英婴儿均在正确命名时表现出命名效应,在错读时不能再认目标图片,表现出错读效应,说明普通话声调对16个月中英婴儿而言都具备语义特性.%By about 14 months of age, English infants show sensitivity to mispronunciations of consonants and vowels of familiar and newly learnt words when asked to identify a referent. They are also capable of learning two similar-sounding words. These findings suggest that infants possess phonologically detailed representations of words. However,very little is known about the role that tones play in early lexical representations. Wotd meaning is also distinguished by tones, which consist primarily of pitch level or contour variations in tonal language, like Chinese. While in English, a typically non-tonal language, pitch change only plays a role in the phrasal level as intonation. This study aims to answer the question: Do 16-month-old Chinese and English infants treat tones as phonological information in their lexical representations. Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm with the mispronunciation task, study 1 examined whether Chinese infants at 16 months were sensitive to mispronunciations of tones in monosyllabic, familiar words. 15 infants were separated into two groups. For group 1, the familiar words were pronounced correctly in block 1, while mispronounced with the falling tone in Mandarin (T4) in block 2. The block order was reversed for the infants in group 2. Using a similar task to study 1, study 2 investigated whether English infants at 16 months were sensitive to tonal change in familiar English words when asked to identify a referent. In contrast with study 1, all the 12 infants received one kind of block order. In block 1, the

  11. The use of insecticide-treated nets for reducing malaria morbidity among children aged 6-59 months, in an area of high malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire

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    Nsanzabana Christian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are an important tool for controlling malaria. Much attention has been devoted to determine both the effect of LLINs on the reduction of Plasmodium infection rate and on clinically-confirmed malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out an epidemiological study to investigate whether LLINs impact on Plasmodium prevalence rate and the proportion of clinically-confirmed malaria cases, in five villages in the district of Toumodi, central Côte d'Ivoire. Methods From April 2007 to November 2008, a community-based malaria control programme was implemented in the study villages, which involved large-scale distribution of LLINs, and training and sensitization activities within the community. We determined the effect of this programme on Plasmodium prevalence rate, clinically-confirmed malaria cases and proportion of high parasitaemia rates in children aged 6-59 months through a series of cross-sectional surveys starting in April 2007 and repeated once every 6 months. Results We observed a significant decrease in the mean P. falciparum prevalence rate from April 2007 to April 2008 (p = 0.029. An opposite trend was observed from November 2007 to November 2008 when P. falciparum prevalence rate increased significantly (p = 0.003. Highly significant decreases in the proportions of clinical malaria cases were observed between April 2007 and April 2008 (p Conclusions Large-scale distribution of LLINs, accompanied by training and sensitization activities, significantly reduced Plasmodium prevalence rates among young children in the first year of the project, whereas overall clinical malaria rates dropped over the entire 18-month project period. A decrease in community motivation to sleep under bed nets, perhaps along with changing patterns of malaria transmission, might explain the observed increase in the Plasmodium prevalence rate between November 2007 and November 2008.

  12. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants: assessment of pulmonary function at 9 months of corrected age. HiFi Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    In a comparison of the outcome of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) and conventional mechanical ventilation (intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV] in newborn infants, the degree of late pulmonary damage in these infants was assessed in a multicenter trial by examining their pulmonary status, including pulmonary function test results at 9 months of corrected age. A total of 432 infants were followed, 222 in the IMV group and 210 in the HFO group. Two-hundred twenty-three infants had their pulmonary mechanics measured, 118 in the IMV group and 105 in the HFO group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in conditions known to predispose infants to chronic lung disease. At 9 months of age, both groups has similar growth and a similar incidence of respiratory tract infections and hospital readmissions, and of retractions and episodes of wheezing. None of the pulmonary mechanics measurements differed. Forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity was decreased (132 +/- 86 vs 135 +/- 92 ml/sec in the IMV and HFO groups, respectively), peak-to-peak esophageal pressure change was elevated (14.4 +/- 5.7 vs 13.5 +/- 5.7 cm H2O), dynamic compliance was in the low normal range (1.2 +/- 0.5 vs 1.3 +/- 0.6 ml/cm H2O/kg), and total pulmonary resistance was elevated (63 +/- 43 vs 57 +/- 34 cm H2O/L/sec) when the measurements were compared with normal values. The results indicate that in both groups, 30% to 40% of infants survived with chronic pulmonary changes similar to those described in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The use of high-frequency ventilation, in comparison with IMV, did not improve long-term pulmonary outcome. PMID:2112188

  13. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Acellular Pertussis-Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine / Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Combination Vaccine Administered to Taiwanese Infants at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

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    Tzou-Yien Lin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined vaccines are urgently needed to ensure compliance with theincreasing number of recommended vaccines for children. We evaluated thesafety and antibody response to a diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussisinactivatedpoliovirus vaccine / Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaPIPV/ Hib combination vaccine administrated to infants at 2, 4, and 6 monthsof age.Methods: Sixty healthy infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age were enrolled. Onegroup of vaccines received the DTaP-IPV/Hib in a single injection, whileanother group concurrently received DTaP-IPV and Hib at separate injectionsites. Solicited adverse events were monitored by parental observation andwere recorded on a diary card. Levels of serum antibodies to DTaP andpolyribosyl-ribitolphosphate-tetanus (PRP-T antigens were collected beforethe first vaccine dose and 1 month after the third vaccine dose.Results: The combined-injection group tended to have lower local reactions, andthere was no increase in reactogenicity when compared with the separateinjectiongroup. Seroconversion rates were 100% in both groups for all antigens,except for the anti-polio 2 antibody in the combined-injection group(96.4%. The combined-injection group had lower antibody levels of PRP(8.45 μg/ml than did the separate-injection group (20.61 μg/ml. However,the percentage of vaccines achieving protective levels of antibody to PRP(≥ 0.15 μg/ml or ≥ 1.0 μg/ml was similar in both groups.Conclusions: DTaP-IPV/Hib may be safely and effectively administered to healthy infants,using a 2-, 4-, and 6-month vaccination schedule. This combined vaccine iscost-effective, more acceptable to parents and physicians, and minimizes distressto infants.

  14. Comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no primeiro trimestre da vida Behavior of full term infants small for gestational age in the first three months of life

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    Bernadete Balanin A. Mello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar o comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo com peso adequado (AIG a lactantes pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG, no primeiro trimestre de vida. A amostra foi de 20 lactentes, avaliados no 1º, 2º e 3º meses. Foram utilizadas as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil - II, com ênfase na Escala de Classificação do Comportamento (ECC. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no 2º mês, com maior número de lactentes PIG classificados como alterados na ECC. O Fator Qualidade Motora demonstrou valores da mediana significativamente menores no grupo PIG, nos itens Motricidade Axial, Controle de Movimentos e Hipertonia Muscular. O Fator Atenção/Vigília não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Entretanto, quando analisados os itens Exploração de Objetos e de Ambiente e Interação com o Examinador, houve diferença significativa no 2º mês, com valores da mediana menores no grupo PIG.The objective was to compare the behavior of full-term infants small-for-gestational age (SGA with full-term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA. The sample considered 20 infants in the 1st, 2nd and in the 3rd months of life. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were used, with attention to items related to Behavior Rate Scale (BRS. It was found that SGA infants showed lower average values in the BRS in the 2nd month. The Motor Quality Factor displayed significantly lower average values in SGA group, in the items Gross-motor Movement Required by Tasks, Control of Movements and Hypertonicity. The Attention/Arousal Factor in the items Exploration of Objects/Surroundings and Orientation to Examiner displayed significantly lower average values in the SGA group.

  15. An analysis on the status and influencing factors of breastfeeding among infants within six months of age%6个月内婴儿母乳喂养现状及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕; 邱丽倩

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解永康市6个月内婴儿的母乳喂养现状及影响因素。方法采用随机整群抽样方法对永康市9个镇(街道)667名0~6个月婴儿的母亲进行调查。结果婴儿在出生7 d、1个月、3个月和4~6个月时纯母乳喂养率分别为69.72%、77.66%、58.32%和27.97%;几乎纯母乳喂养率分别为1.95%、0.45%、0.60%和1.69%;部分母乳喂养率分别为13.34%、14.39%、30.13%和47.46%;人工喂养率分别为14.99%、7.50%、10.95%和22.88%。各组之间比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。经非条件 Logistic 回归分析显示,母亲年龄<30岁、初中及以下文化程度、非全职者均是母乳喂养的保护因素,其 OR 值及95%CI 分别为0.464(0.315~0.682)、0.507(0.305~0.842)和0.517(0.352~0.758);家庭月收入>6000元是母乳喂养的危险因素,其OR 值及95%CI 为1.923(1.306~2.833)。结论永康市 3个月内婴儿纯母乳喂养率较高,4~6个月时纯母乳喂养率急剧下降,母亲年龄≥30岁者、全职者、家庭收入较高者和受教育程度越高者,其母乳喂养率相对较低。%Objective To understand the status of breastfeeding and to explore the influencing factors among infants within six months of age in Yongkang City.Methods A total of 667 infants aged 0 -6 months from 9 towns in Yongkang City was selected by random cluster sampling method and their mothers were interviewed by self -designed questionnaire .Results By 7 days,1 month,3 months and 4 -6 months,the rate of pure breastfeeding was 69.72%,77.66%,58.32% and 27.97% respectively;the rate of almost pure breastfeeding was 1.95%,0.45%,0.60% and 1.69% respectively;the rate of partial breastfeeding was 13.34%,14.39%,30.13% and 47.46% respectively;the rate of artificial feeding was 14.99%,7.50%,10.95% and 22.88% respectively.There were statistical

  16. Effect of locally made Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (Mushpro Health Drink Powder – MHDP for Treatment of Malnutrition on Children Aged 6 to 72 Months in Tribal area of Amravati District of Maharashtra, India: A Randomized Control Trial

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    Vinod R. Wasnik,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM in children is a significant public health problem in India with associated increased morbidity and mortality. The current WHO recommendations on management of SAM are based on facility based treatment. Given the large number of children with SAM in India and the involved costs to the care-provider as well as the care-seeker, incorporation of alternative strategies like home based management of uncomplicated SAM is important.Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a locally made ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF Mushpro Health Drink Powder in decreasing malnutrition in Tribal area. Methods/Study Design: Open-labeled Randomized Controlled trial Eligibility criteria for participants: Children aged 6—72 months but not requiring hospitalization for severe malnutrition (SAM and Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM were considered eligible for study. Children less than 6 months were excluded as several of them were receiving breast milk. Also children having other diseases incriminated as a cause of severe malnutrition, including cerebral palsy, chromosomal malformation, known metabolic diseases, malignancies, congenital heart disorders, hemolytic anaemia, known malabsorption syndrome, or hepatic disorder were excluded. Study Setting: Anganwadi centers’ run by ICDS program in tribal areas of Amravati District of Maharashtra. Interventions: Children with Severe acute malnutrition (SAM and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in 26 Intervention Anganwadi centre received RUTF (MHDP 3 gm/kg/per day (SAM & 2 gm/kg/day MAM two times a day from October to December 2011. Children in the 27 Noninterventional Anganwadi centers’ did not receive Mushpro supplementation. For both the groups the supplementations as per ICDS protocol were given & both arms included continuation of family diets. Main outcome measures: Mean Weight gain and Mean Height gain. Results / Findings: The Mean weight gain at 2

  17. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE STUDY ON COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS FACTORS INFLUENCING AGE OF COMPLIMENTARY FEEDS AND EFFECT ON GRO W TH OF CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge & attitude regarding complimentary feeds among mothers with children 6 - 24 months of age. To know various factors influencing age of complimentary feeds. Age of complimentary feeds started and its effect on growth of the child. METHODS: 500 mothers were interviewed with children 6 - 24 months of age attending OPD . Data was collected using a self - administered, semi - stru ctured questionnaire with the mothers regarding knowledge, attitude of complimentary feeds and factors influencing age of complimentary feeds like, education, occupation, socio - economic status, religion and residence. The growth of child was assessed by re cording weight and length, and classified according to WHO criterion by using WHO Anthro software. RESULTS: Knowledge and attitude were assessed in 500 mothers. The m ean age of complimentary feeds wa s 8.24±2.79 months. 23% of mothers started complimentary feeds at 6 months of age . I lliterate mothers, low socio - economic group and rural mothers tend to wean late (p0.05. 34.1%, 34.5% and 23.8% of children were under weight, stunt ed and wasted respectively. There wa s significant association between delayed complimentary feeds and malnutrition of the child. CONCLUSION: Mothers knowledge rega rding complimentary feeds time wa s inadequate and practices i nappropriate, majority of them w e re not aware of current recommendations. M ean age of complimentary feeds wa s delayed due to improper information, false beliefs and attitudes, illiteracy, low socio - economic status and rural mothers, thus leading to malnutrition of the child. Hence, accurate information and education should be given to mothers and caregivers about timely complimentary feeds, complimentary feeds foods, preparation and practice to prevent malnutrition and improve the health status of the children KEYWORDS: Complimentar y feeds; Attitude; Practices; Complementary feeding; Mothers knowledge; Malnutrition.

  18. 6~48月龄儿童睡眠问题与喂养关系的研究%Study on the sleep problems among children aged 6~48 months and the relationship with feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周虹; 张佩; 王晓莉; 张敬旭; 王粉燕; 方凯; 王真真; 聂东升

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the current situation of the sleep problems among children aged 6 ~ 48 months, and to analyze the influencing factors in the feeding of children. [Methods] In this study, the international criteria of sleep disorders were used as the diagnostic criteria of children's sleep problems. The parents were investigated with "The Questionnaire of the Children's Sleep". [Results] The prevalence of the sleep problems was 57. 8% among the children aged 6~48 months, it decreased with age's increasing. The prevalence of the sleep problems was influenced by breast-feeding, feeding in midnight, food no meat, no fish, no shrimp, and drinking too much before the sleep(P<0. 05). [Conclusion] The prevalence of the sleep problems among children is quite high, and the problems are associated with the feeding factors, then the situation could be improved by good feeding behaviors.%[目的]了解6~48月龄儿童睡眠问题的现状,探索儿童喂养可能对睡眠产生的影响. [方法]研究采用对6~48月龄儿童家长进行调查,并按照国际睡眠障碍分类作为儿童睡眠问题的诊断标准.[结果]6~48月龄儿童睡眠问题发生率为57.8%;发生率随年龄升高而呈下降趋势;未断母乳、未断夜奶、未添加辅食肉和鱼虾及睡前饮水量较多的儿章睡眠问题的发生率均高于没有这些因素的儿童差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]儿童睡眠问题的发生率较高,且与喂养因素有关,改变不良的喂养行为可以改善儿童的睡眠状况.

  19. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  20. Práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses e fatores maternos associados Feeding habits of children aged 6 to 12 months and associated maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina D. M. Saldiva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar as práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses de idade e sua associação com fatores maternos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de delineamento transversal, no qual foram analisados os dados do Projeto Amamentação e Municípios de 2004, conduzido em 136 municípios do estado de São Paulo com 24.448 crianças. O padrão de consumo de alimentos foi avaliado segundo a freqüência de crianças que receberam leite materno e outros alimentos nas últimas 24 horas, e a probabilidade de consumo dos alimentos, nas faixas de idade, foi estimada por meio da análise de probitos. RESULTADOS: O consumo de alimentos revelou que 50% receberam leite materno, 77% outros tipos de leite, 63% mingau, 87% frutas, 78% sopas, 64% comida de panela, 58% comida com feijão e 36% sopa ou comida com carne. A probabilidade de a criança, aos 6 meses de idade, consumir sopas é elevada (78%, comida de panela é baixa (39%, e a probabilidade dela receber leite materno é de 59%, inferior aos outros leites (70% e mingau (63%. Encontrou-se associação entre consumo de refeições lácteas e mães primíparas, que trabalhavam fora e com maior escolaridade. Semelhantes achados foram observados para consumo de sopas, acrescido à idade da mãe superior a 20 anos. O consumo de comida de panela associou-se a mães com menos de 20 anos, que não trabalhavam fora, com menor escolaridade e multíparas. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se consumo excessivo de alimentos líquidos e semi-sólidos e a necessidade do aconselhamento adequado em alimentação complementar, considerando idade, primiparidade, escolaridade e trabalho materno.OBJECTIVE: To identify the feeding practices of children aged 6 to 12 months of age and associated maternal factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the 2004 Breastfeeding and the Municipalities Project, which was implemented in 136 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 24,448 children

  1. Vibrio vulnificus MO6-24/O Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Superoxide Anion, Thromboxane B2, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Cytokine and Chemokine Release by Rat Brain Microglia in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although human exposure to Gram-negative Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been reported to result in septic shock, its impact on the central nervous system’s innate immunity remains undetermined. The purpose of this study was to determine whether V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS might activate rat microglia in vitro and stimulate the release of superoxide anion (O2−, a reactive oxygen species known to cause oxidative stress and neuronal injury in vivo. Brain microglia were isolated from neonatal rats, and then treated with either V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS or Escherichia coli O26:B6 LPS for 17 hours in vitro. O2− was determined by cytochrome C reduction, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 by gelatinase zymography. Generation of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α/chemokine (C-C motif ligand 3 (CCL3, MIP-2/chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-2alpha/beta (CINC-2α/β/CXCL3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, were determined by specific immunoassays. Priming of rat microglia by V. vulnificus MO6-24/O LPS in vitro yielded a bell-shaped dose-response curve for PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated O2− generation: (1 0.1–1 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS enhanced O2− generation significantly but with limited inflammatory mediator generation; (2 10–100 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS maximized O2− generation with concomitant release of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and several cytokines and chemokines; (3 1000–100,000 ng/mL V. vulnificus LPS, with the exception of TXB2, yielded both attenuated O2− production, and a progressive decrease in MMP-9, cytokines and chemokines investigated. Thus concentration-dependent treatment of

  2. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine: Follow-up from months 12–24 in a Phase III randomized study of healthy women aged 18–45 years

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Mark H.; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J.; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), sero...

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red under visible light irradiation using Pd–Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aazam, E.S., E-mail: eaazam@yahoo.com

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Pd–Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanocomposites were used for photocatalytic degradation of Congo red under visible light. • Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red under visible light was dependent on wt.% of Pd. • Catalyst re-use revealed the present photocatalyst remain effective and active after five cycles. - Abstract: A hydrothermal method was used to prepare Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles, and a photo-assisted deposition method was used to deposit palladium into the surface of Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles. BET, XRD, XPS, Pl, UV–Vis and TEM measurements were used to characterize the Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} and Pd/Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles. The photocatalytic oxidation of Congo red under visible light irradiation was used to determine the photocatalytic performance of the prepared nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that the palladium was well dispersed on the surface of the Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles. Additionally, the surface area of the Pd/Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles was smaller than that of the Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles because some of the pores of the Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles were blocked by the deposited Pd metal. The Pd/Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles (0.3 wt.%) exhibited the lowest band gap and the highest photocatalytic activity for the oxidation of Congo red. The photocatalytic performance of the 0.3 wt.% Pd/Bi{sub 3.84}W{sub 0.16}O{sub 6.24} nanoparticles was stable after the nanoparticles were reused five times for the oxidation of Congo red.

  4. Sex Differences in Social Responsiveness between Six Months and Twelve Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Donahue, Margaret

    1980-01-01

    This study of mother-infant pairs investigates sex differences and age differences (infants of 6, 9, and 12 months of age) in mother and infant initiations of interactions and responses to the other's initiations. (SS)

  5. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and exploratory analysis on anti-circumsporozoite antibody titres and protection in children aged 5-17 months in Kenya and Tanzania: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Leach, Amanda;

    2011-01-01

    RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine. We recently showed efficacy against clinical falciparum malaria in 5-17 month old children, during an average of 8 months follow-up. We aimed to assess the efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E during 15 months of follow-up....

  6. Dietary status of 336 infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province%陕西农村0~18月龄婴幼儿膳食状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛媛; 刘黎明; 孙晓勉; 杨文方; 张水平; 王懿; 贾梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解陕西部分农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿膳食状况,为提高西北地区家庭养育理念提供理论依据及干预措施.方法 采用整群分层抽样的方法 抽取0~18月龄婴幼儿336名,按月龄分为5组,并采用称重法入户对婴幼儿进行连续3天(72小时)膳食调查和血红蛋白检测,分析婴幼儿膳食情况,并比较贫血和非贫血婴幼儿的膳食摄入情况.结果 该地区0~18月龄的婴幼儿蛋白质、脂肪和碳水化合物摄入量占推荐摄入量的74.90%、85.35%和43.01%;能量摄入在4个月内接近膳食营养素参考摄入量的80%,4个月以后基本保持在60%左右;自婴幼儿6个月以后,除膳食镁和维生素B2的摄入较为充足之外,其它各元素均不能满足推荐摄入量或适宜摄入量.贫血组的多数营养素摄入均低于正常组,包括能量、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、维生素A、维生素B2、维生素C,钠、钙、镁、铁、锌等,但两组的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 陕西农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿能量摄入普遍不足,且表现出不均衡性,蛋白质来源较差.采取有效措施加强健康教育对改善当地婴幼儿膳食营养状况具有重要意义.%Objective To understand the dietary status of infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province , so as to provide theory basis and intervention measures for family rearing in northwest China . Methods Totally 336 infants aged 048 months were chosen by stratified cluster sampling , and they were divided into 5 groups according to age. With weighing method, dietary was recorded and hematoglobin was detected at objects 'home for 3 continuous days to analyze infants 'dietary and compare the nutrients intake between anemia infants and non-anemia infants. Results Intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate of these infants accounted for 74. 90% ,85. 35% and 43. 01% of the recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) respectively. Energy intake was nearly 80

  7. Efficacy of sorghum peanut blend and corn soy blend plus in the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in children aged 6–59 months in Karamoja, Uganda: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegovu AK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Kiri Amegovu,1 Sophie Ochola,1 Patrick Ogwok,2 Peter Yiga,2 Juliet Musalima,2 Mandha Juliana2 1Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of Food Technology, Kyambogo University, Kampala, Uganda Abstract: More than half of the world's deaths in children below 5 years of age are caused by under nutrition. Early management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM is necessary to avoid deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. Corn soy blend plus (CSB+ mixed with vegetable oil and sugar is the traditional treatment for MAM but is too expensive for poor countries. The effectiveness of affordable and available local food materials are currently being studied as alternative food supplements to treat malnutrition. In this trial, the efficacy of sorghum peanut blend (SPB mixed with ghee and honey for the treatment of MAM was compared to that of CSB+ among children 6–59 months old in Karamoja, Uganda. This was a single-blind randomized parallel trial in which two health centers were assigned on a 1:1 ratio to the two study groups. The participants (mothers and their moderately malnourished children were recruited at the health centers and assigned to the groups depending on the health facility attended. Each child received a daily ration of either CSB+ or SPB for a maximum period of 3 months. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken on a bi-weekly basis. The primary outcomes were the recovery rate and duration on the program before recovery. Of the recruited 440 participants, 392 completed the study and were included in the analysis (SPB group 194; CSB+ group 198. Analysis was by intention to treat. The recovery rates were not significantly different for the SPB group and the CSB+ group (82.3% and 76.8%, respectively; chi-square test P=0.093. Duration of recovery was significantly shorter for the SPB+ group, with a median of 43 days compared to 57 days for the SPB group (Kaplan

  8. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  9. Taxas de prenhez em novilhas de corte acasaladas aos 18 e 24 meses de idade Differences in pregnancy rate of beef heifers mating at 18 and 24 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O.J. Barcellos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da idade de acasalamento e classe de peso sobre a taxa de prenhez (TP de novilhas de corte Hereford (n=119 acasaladas aos 18 (18M ou 24 meses (24M e classificadas em leves (18ML = 260kg; 24ML = 280kg e pesadas (18MP = 300kg; 24MP = 330kg. O período de monta foi de 05/04 a 21/05/01 (outono e de 04/11 a 20/12/01 (primavera para 18M e 24M, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do peso no início do acasalamento (PIA, escore da condição corporal (CCI e ganho de peso (GDM. Não ocorreram diferenças (P>0,05 na TP entre os grupos 18MP (73,3%, 24ML (72,4% e 24MP (83,3%, mas a TP foi mais baixa entre as novilhas 18ML (26,7%. O GDM foi maior para novilhas 24M (0,664 vs 0,537kg/d (PThe effects of the mating age and weight class on the pregnancy rate (PR of Hereford heifers (n=119 at 18 (18M or 24 months (24M of age were evaluated. The heifers were divided into classes as light (18ML=260kg; 24ML=280kg or heavy (18MP=300kg; 24MP=330kg. The breeding seasons were: 18M: 04/05 - 05/21 (fall and 24M: 11/04 - 12/21 (spring. The traits analyzed were live weight (LW and body condition score (BCS at the beginning of the mating season and the average daily gain (ADG on the pregnancy rate (PR. The PR were 73.3% (18MP, 72.4% (24ML, 83.3% (24MP (P>0.05 and the 18ML heifers have shown lower PR (26.7% (P<0.05. The 24M heifers showed higher ADG (0.664 vs 0.537kg/d than the 18M heifers and in this group the open heifers had lower ADG (0.429 vs 0.621kg/d than the pregnant heifers. The BCS were higher (P<0.10 for the pregnant heifers (3.50 than the open (3.24 heifers. A quadratic effect of LW on the PR (Y= -993.03 + 6.4543LW - 0.0097LW²; R²=0.98 was observed.

  10. Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Forns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education. Methods: We prospectively studied a population-based birth cohort, which forms part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood Project. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Cattell and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire-12 respectively. Results: We observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included. The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile. In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. Conclusions: The association between maternal intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual occupational social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.Objetivos: Este estudio exploró la relación entre inteligencia y salud mental materna y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad en población normal, teniendo en cuenta la clase social basada en la ocupación y el nivel educativo maternos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de cohortes de nacimiento englobado dentro del proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. El

  11. Qualidade da carne de novilhos terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 ou 26 meses de idade Meat quality of non-castrate or castrated males feedlot finished and slaughtered at 16 or 26 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais da carne de novilhos não-castrados ou castrados terminados em confinamento e abatidos aos 16 (superjovens ou 26 (jovens meses de idade. A dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado de 50:50 continha 11,8% de proteína bruta e 2,83 Mcal de energia digestível/kg de matéria seca. A maior amplitude do pH final da carne foi observada nos novilhos jovens e a menor, nos superjovens. A carne dos animais não-castrados, independentemente da idade de abate, foi mais escura, mais grosseira e com menor grau de marmorização em comparação à dos castrados. A carne dos animais castrados teve maior perda de líquidos durante o processo de descongelamento em relação à dos não-castrados (8,55 vs 4,99%. Ocorreu interação entre categoria e sexo do animal para perda de líquido durante a cocção, palatabilidade e suculência. Novilhos jovens não-castrados apresentaram maior quebra à cocção, carne menos palatável e menos suculenta em relação aos jovens castrados e aos superjovens castrados e não-castrados. A redução da idade de abate de 26 para 16 meses de idade, independentemente da condição sexual, melhora a maciez da carne avaliada pelo painel de degustadores.It was evaluated in this work the sensorial characteristics of the meat of non-castrate or castrated males feedlot finished and slaughtered at 16 (young steers or 26 (steers months old. The diet with 50 roughage: 50concentrate contained 11.8% of crude protein and 2.83 Mcal of digestible energy/kg of dry matter. The highest amplitude of the final pH of the meat was noted on the steers, and the lowest on the young steers. The meat of the non-castrate males, regardless to the age at slaughter, was darker, coarser and showed lower marbling degree than the meat of the castrated animals. Thawing loss was higher for the meat of the castrated animals(8.55 vs 4.99%. There was interaction among categories and sex for cooking loss, palatability and

  12. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with conventional intermittent mechanical ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants: neurodevelopmental status at 16 to 24 months of postterm age. The HIFI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The High-Frequency Intervention Trial was a 10-center randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) in the treatment of neonates weighing 750 to 2000 gm; 327 infants were assigned to HFO and 346 to conventional intermittent mechanical ventilation (IMV). Survival and lung morbidity rates were the same in the two groups. Bayley psychometric evaluations and CNS examination were performed at 16 to 24 months of postterm age in 77% of the survivors (185 HFO and 201 IMV). There was no difference in growth or respiratory status at follow-up. Cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 19 (10%) HFO-treated infants and 23 (11%) IMV-treated infants. There was no difference in severity between the two groups. A significantly higher incidence of hydrocephalus (12% vs 6%) was present in the HFO group (p less than 0.05). Bayley index scores greater than 83 were scored in 57% of HFO-treated infants compared with 66% of IMV-treated infants. The proportion of children at follow-up with a normal neuro-developmental status (i.e., Bayley score greater than 83 and no major CNS defect) was significantly less in the HFO than in the IMV group (54 vs 65%; p less than 0.05). Both treatment groups showed a strong association between the presence of grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage and the development of major CNS or cognitive defects. No significant long-term beneficial or deleterious effects were demonstrated in the use of HFO versus IMV for the treatment of respiratory failure in low birth weight premature infants, except that there were slightly more neurologic deficits in the HFO group related to the higher proportion of survivors with major intraventricular hemorrhage. PMID:1701005

  13. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life. PMID:27547395

  14. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Parents with Children between 24–72 Months of Age and Their Knowledge and Attitudes about Self-Paid Vaccines: Comparison of East vs. West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ziya Gençer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate comparatively socio-demographic characteristics and information level about self-paid vaccines of parents who have children aged 24-72 months in two socioeconomically different regions. Methods: Total 300 parents from which 149 patients applied to Istanbul Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital and 151 patients applied to Bingöl-Adakli District Integrated Hospital between May 2014 and July 2014 were surveyed with the face to face interview method. Influences of regional disparities (East-West, socio-demographic and socio-economic factors over parents' knowledge, attitude and behavior were examined. Results: 190 (63% of total 300 participants in the survey were aware of self-paid vaccines. Although 75 (39% parents who are aware of the self-paid vaccines had their children vaccinated with self-paid vaccines, three (14% parents who are aware of self-paid vaccines through the media had their children vaccinated with self-paid vaccines. It was found that mothers’ education level and household income level increased the rate of self-paid vaccinations. In Bingol number of vaccinated children with self-paid vaccines were 25 (17% for rotavirus, 10 (7% for Hepatit A and 4 (3% for Varicella. In İstanbul, the numbers of vaccinated children with self-paid vaccines were 13 (9% for rotavirus, 31 (21% for Hepatit A and eight (5% for Varicella. Conclusion: In our study, self-paid vaccine preferences are observed to differ according to the regions they live in. In Istanbul, Hepatitis A and Varicella vaccines, in Bingöl rotavirus vaccine was found to be vaccinated more.

  15. Influence of age on radioinduced cognitive disorders: Experimental studies with cerebral irradiation of 30 Gy in 10 sessions and 12 days in the Wistar rat at 1.5, 4 and 18 months; Influence de l'age sur les troubles cognitifs radioinduits : etudes experimentales avec irradiation cerebrale de 30 Gy en 10 seances et 12 jours chez le rat Wistar de 1 1/2, 4 et 18 mois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I. [Lab. de Chimie et Biophysique des Traceurs, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Paris (France); Baillet, F.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J. [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Delattre, J.Y. [Dept. of Neurology and Inst. National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age on the learning and memory dysfunction induced by cranial radiation in the male Wistar rat. Ninety-six 45-day-old, 70 4-month-old, and 78 18-month-old male rats were divided in two equal groups: (i) irradiated and (ii) control. A course of whole-brain radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 12 days) was administered to the irradiated group, while the control group received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one and two-way avoidance tests were undertaken before and after the 7 months following radiation. The results suggest that radiation induced progressive and irreversible memory dysfunction in elderly (18-month-old) rats, but this effect was partial or almost reversible in the 4-month-old and 45-day-old rats, respectively. In return, the learning dysfunction was age non-dependent despite the fact that is occurs more rapidly in the young (45 days, 4 months) rats. (author)

  16. Stopping powers of havar for 0.63 5.9 MeV protons and 2.6 24 MeV alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, L. E.; Trzaska, W. H.; Räisänen, J.; Lyapin, V.

    2004-11-01

    A transmission experiment utilizing thin foil targets has been conducted in order to establish the stopping powers of the cobalt-base alloy, havar, for 0.6-5.9 MeV protons and 2.6-24 MeV alpha particles. The basic technique of the novel experimental method used was to record both the projectile energy and the time of flight while alternating measurements with and without the target in place. The uncertainties of the proton and alpha particle data sets ranged from 1.4 to 2.3% and 1.1 to 1.5%, respectively. Modified Bethe-Bloch theory was applied to the measurements in order to ascertain values of the target mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b) for each projectile. The extracted values were I = 304.3 ± 2.4 eV and b = 1.37 ± 0.04 for the case of protons, and I = 306.3 ± 2.3 eV and b = 1.47 ± 0.03 for the case of alpha particles. The I-values are somewhat higher than the additivity-based expectation of 295.7 eV, whereas the b-values are clearly consistent with the expected range of 1.4 ± 0.1. The parameter values extracted from the measurements are appraised for compatibility with recently observed trends in values of I and of b with increasing projectile atomic number.

  17. Neurodesenvolvimento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no segundo mês de vida Neurodevelopment of full-term small-for-gestacional age infants in the second month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura M. Fukujima Goto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar o neurodesenvolvimento de lactentes nascidos a termo, com peso adequado (AIG ou pequeno para a idade gestacional (PIG, no 2º mês de vida. Avaliaram-se 67 lactentes: 43 AIG e 24 PIG, utilizando as Bayley Scales of Infant Development. O Index Score (IS nas Escalas Mental e Motora foi significativamente menor no grupo PIG. Considerando a proporcionalidade corporal (Grupos Controle, Assimétrico e PIG-Simétrico, houve diferença significativa na Escala Motora (p=0,003, com menores pontuações no grupo PIG-Simétrico. Comparados aos percentis de IS do grupo Controle, na Escala Mental, houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico X PIG-Simétrico; na Escala Motora, houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico X Controle (p=0,039 e PIG-Simétrico X Controle (p=0,0007; não houve diferença entre os grupos Assimétrico e PIG-Simétrico, ambos apresentando menores pontuações que o grupo Controle.The objective of the present study was to assess and to compare the neurodevelopment of full-term adequate (AGA or small-for-gestational age (SGA infants in the second month of life. Sixty-seven infants were evaluated: 43 AGA and 24 SGA, making use of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The SGA group Index Score (IS was significantly lower in Mental and Motor Scales. Considering the body proportionality (Asymmetric, Symmetric-SGA and Control group there was difference in Motor Scale (p=0.003 with lower scores in the Symmetric-SGA group. Comparing to the Control group IS percentiles, in Mental Scale there was difference between Asymmetric X Symmetric-SGA; in Motor Scale, there was difference between the Asymmetric X Control (p=0.039 and Symmetric-SGA X Control (p=0.007 groups; there was no difference between Asymmetric and Symmetric-SGA although both exhibited lower scores than the Control group.

  18. Survey and research on feeding behavior of infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months in Shanghai%上海地区2~36个月婴幼儿进食行为调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琼; 徐秀; 刘静; 鲁萍; 燕东雍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To obtain a systematic insight into feeding behavior of infants and toddlers in Shanghai. Main indicators included feeding behaviors, feeding activities by feeders and development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers.[Methods] The research adopted a cluster sampling method to conduct the questionnaire survey on 960 healthy infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months at several neighborhoods in six districts. The study recouped 873 com-pletely-filled-in and effective questionnaires and used the SPSS 11. 5 software for analysis. [Results] 42. 7% of responding parents believed that their children had feeding problems. The main feeding problems of infants included eating too little (38.0%), picky eating and finicky eating (21. 4%) as well as nausea and vomiting (19. 8%). The main feeding problems of children included picky eating and finicky eating (39. 5%), eating too little (34. 3%) and eating too slowly (32. 8%). The main feeding problems included longer mealtimes, high frequency of meals, inappropriate feeding position as well as feeders' poor feeding techniques. Meanwhile, the research also found out that infants and toddlers of all ages lagged in acquiring feeding skills than those listed on the textbook. In terms of skills such as finger feeding, feeding self with help, drinking from cup with help, drinking from cup without assistance, infants and toddlers admitted in this study apparently lagged their counterparts listed on the textbook. The differences featured statistical significance (P<0. 05). [Conclusion]Changing the unreasonable frequency of meals, duration of meals and feeding behaviors while promoting development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers in a proper manner will help reduce the occurrence of feeding problems and boost normal development of feeding behavior of infants and toddlers.%[目的]了解目前上海地区婴幼儿的进食行为状况:主要进食行为问题,喂养人的喂养行为,婴幼儿

  19. 0~24月龄婴幼儿家庭养育情况调查%A survey of family nurture environment for infants aged 0-24 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩虹; 朱宗涵; 戴耀华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of family nurture environment and its influencing factors on infants aged 0 to 24 months, so as to provide references for family rearing. Methods Beijing, Changzhi, Huanggang, Suzhou and Nanning were selected as study areas. The structured questionnaires were accomplished by caregivers of infants aged 0-24 months, and the results were analyzed by using SPSS. Results Altogether 1 036 cases participated in the study. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in study areas was low, and further efforts were needed to reinforce complementary feeding. The complementary feeding rates of fruits, vegetables, meet and fish were significantly higher in urban than those in rural area (χ2 value was 4. 366, 6. 562, 10. 812 and 20. 208, respectively, all P <0. 05 ). The rate of vaccination was high, and 89. 9% of infants had regular physical examination. Prevalence of respiratory tract infection ( RTI ) was the highest, and the awareness rates of fever and cough were higher than other symptoms. Parents knowledge on disease was related to previous health status. Of 1 036 infants, 377( 36. 4% ) had accident injuries. Diapers were still used in 66. 5% of infants, and 32. 7% used both cloth and disposable diapers. For skin cleaning, water was most frequently used ( 67. 5% ). The average sleep time of studied infants at night was 9. 7 hours. Conclusion Infants development is significantly associated with parents care and their nurture environment. Under family nurture environment, it is necessary to enhance scientific infant-rearing conception and skills, so that the early development of infants can be promoted.%目的 了解0~24月龄婴幼儿家庭养育情况及其影响因素,为家庭育儿提供参考.方法 选择北京、长治、黄冈、苏州和南宁为研究地点,对0~24月龄婴幼儿养育人进行问卷调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 参加本次调查的婴幼儿共1 036人.纯母乳喂养率较低,辅食添加状况有待改

  20. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  1. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1807 - Monthly payment day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1807 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... 20th of the month will be paid on the third Wednesday of each month. Insured individuals born after the 20th of the month will be paid on the fourth Wednesday of each month. See paragraph (c) of this...

  3. Infant Responses to Maternal Still Face at 9 Months Predict Social Abilities at 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Yato, Yuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Tong, Lian; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie; Kawai, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tadahiko; Japan, Children's Study Group

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study investigated developmental change and stability in infant responses to the still-face (SF) situation, as well as predictive validity at age 18 months, focusing on autonomy and responsiveness.Methods: A total of 231 children (117 boys and 114 girls) and their Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF situation at two infant ages (4 and 9 months), as well as a caregiver-child teaching interaction at age 18 months. Each infant’s facial expression, gaze direction,...

  4. Infant Responses to Maternal Still Face at 9 Months Predict Social Abilities at 18 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Yato, Yuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Tong, Lian; Yamakawa, Noriko; Anme, Tokie; Kawai, Masatoshi; Maeda, Tadahiko; ,

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated developmental change and stability in infant responses to the still-face (SF) situation, as well as predictive validity at age 18 months, focusing on autonomy and responsiveness. Methods A total of 231 children (117 boys and 114 girls) and their Japanese mothers were observed in a face-to-face SF situation at two infant ages (4 and 9 months), as well as a caregiver-child teaching interaction at age 18 months. Each infant’s facial expression, gaze direction, ...

  5. Padrão e ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida Pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants during the first four months corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Raniero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o padrão e o ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes nascidos pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida, comparando-os com um grupo de lactentes a termo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 12 lactentes pré-termo saudáveis, (MD=33,6 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 1,25 e 10 lactentes a termo saudáveis (MD=39,1 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 0,73. Eles foram avaliados mensalmente (zero a quatro meses de idade com o Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP. RESULTADOS: O padrão de desempenho motor aumentou ao longo dos meses em ambos os grupos, constatando variabilidade nos escores totais em todas as idades. O grupo pré-termo apresentou escore médio mais elevado do que o a termo entre um e quatro meses de idade. Nesse grupo, o ritmo de aquisição motora foi maior de zero a um do que de três a quatro meses. Verificou-se também que os cuidadores desses lactentes iniciaram a estimulação com brinquedos anteriormente aos cuidadores do grupo a termo. Ambos os grupos apresentaram escores médios inferiores aos do TIMP. CONCLUSÕES: Os lactentes pré-termo apresentaram padrão de desenvolvimento motor semelhante aos típicos quanto à sequência de habilidades adquiridas e ritmo acelerado no período de recém-nascido (RN a um mês de idade. Sugere-se que lactentes pré-termo com essas características não necessitam de correção do grau de prematuridade e que programas de acompanhamento orientem os pais e cuidadores a estimulá-los, desde o primeiro mês, com brinquedos, propiciando a exploração precoce de diversos padrões motores.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants from newborn to four months corrected age, in comparison with a group of full-term infants. METHODS: Twelve healthy preterm infants (mean gestational age=33.6 weeks ± 1.25 and 10 healthy full-term infants (mean

  6. Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en lactantes y preescolares del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia Community acquired neumonia in chil- children dren aged 2-60 months in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Arango

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 110 niños entre los 2 y los 60 meses de edad, con diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, en el Hospital Francisco Valderrama del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia, pertenecientes al programa Vida Infantil de la Universidad de Antioquia. Los criterios de inclusión fueron la taquipnea y el tiraje de acuerdo con las normas de la OMS para el diagnóstico de la infección respiratoria baja en lactantes y preescolares en países en vías de desarrollo. Los pacientes se estudiaron microbiológicamente mediante hemocultivos, prueba de látex para antígenos bacterianos en la orina, prueba de Elisa para Micoplasma pneumoniae y panel respiratorio para los virus que causan más frecuentemente dicha enfermedad. Se hicieron además hemoleucogramas y radiografías pulmonares. Todas las muestras se tomaron bajo criterios protocolizados y se trasladaron por vía aérea a la ciudad de Medellín bajo normas estrictas de conservación, para ser procesadas en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Infectología Pediátrica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Los exámenes más adecuados para la comprobación del diagnóstico fueron las radiografías de tórax con 77%; los hemocultivos con una positividad de 11.1%, el panel respiratorio con 3.7%, la prueba de látex para los antígenos bacterianos con 7.4% y la prueba de ELISA con 0.9%. Los hemoleucogramas tuvieron un amplio margen de variabilidad. No se encontró relación estadística entre las variables epidemiológicas estudiadas y la gravedad de la infección. El estudio confirma la escasa sensibilidad de los exámenes paraclínicos y reafirma la importancia del diagnóstico clínico temprano como base para iniciar la terapia. One hundred and ten children aged between 2 and 60 months with the diagnosis of communityacquired pneumoniae, were studied at Francisco Valderrama Hospital in the city of Turbo, Colombia; they belonged to the University of Antioquia Child Life program. Admission

  7. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  8. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  9. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly Weather Observations (Form 1001) is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. In order to fill in the observation gap prior to the...

  10. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  11. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts(air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 106Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  12. Monthly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts (air at ground level, high altitude air), rainwater, surface water, underground water, irrigation water, drinking water, food chain (milk, plants, cattle, fish), sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 95Zr and 95Nb, 103Ru, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La, 90Sr, 106Ru and 104Rh, 226Ra, 54Mn, U and T). A monthly bibliographic selection is also presented

  13. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  14. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  15. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  16. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  17. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin, Devasya; KE, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5.

  18. Antibody persistence at 18-20 months of age and safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a combined DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine compared to separate vaccines (DTaP, PRP∼T and IPV) following primary vaccination of healthy infants in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-11-21

    This study assessed the antibody persistence, and the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T (Pentaxim®, Sanofi Pasteur's AcXim family) combined vaccine and of standalone vaccines one year after primary vaccination in the People's Republic of China. Participants (N=719) previously primed with DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T at 2, 3, 4 months (Group A, N=255), 3, 4, 5 months (Group B, N=233), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib®) and IPV (Imovax® Polio) at 3, 4, 5 months (Group C, N=231) received boosters of the same vaccines at 18-20 months of age. Seroprotection (SP) and seroconversion (SC) were determined before and 1 month after the booster. Safety was monitored from parental reports. In all groups 87.6-100% of participants had pre-booster protective anti-PRP, -diphtheria, -tetanus and -poliovirus antibody titers; post-booster, all SP rates were 100% and SC was ≥ 80.4% for anti-pertussis titers ≥ 4-fold increase. Reactogenicity was low for each group. These data support the use of the DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine in the People's Republic of China compared to separate DTaP, IPV, and PRP∼T administration in terms of both safety and immunogenicity. PMID:22001281

  19. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  20. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  1. Monthly Cooton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After two months of range-bound trading, cotton prices shifted lower in late November. The March New York futures contract fell through important support near 94 cents/Ib and briefly dropped below 88 cents/ Ib before appearing to have established a new range between 90 and 94 cents/lb. An Index values also declined and fell below 100 cents/Ib for the first time since September 2010.

  2. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  3. AN EXPERIENCE OF FACILITY-BASED MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0-59 MONTHS ADOPTING THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS AT NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTRE, ANANTHAPURAMU

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Deen Kumar; Praveena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) increases significantly the risk of death in children under five years of age. It can be an indirect cause of child death by increasing the case fatality rate in children suffering from common illness such as diarrhoea, pneumonia. AIMS The aim of this study is to know the effectiveness of facility based management of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition at Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs). SETTINGS AND DESIGN The stud...

  4. CPM模型优化饲粮对7~15月龄后备荷斯坦母牛生长发育和血液生化指标影响%Effects of Diets Optimized by CPM Model on Growth, Development and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Holstein Replacement Heifers at 7 to 15 Months of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 曲永利; 王志博; 刘立成; 刘翔; 赵鑫; 邢伟明

    2014-01-01

    本文利用CPM模型优化规模化奶牛场7~15月龄后备母牛饲粮,研究优化后饲粮对后备母牛生长发育和血液生化指标的影响。选用相同月龄(7月龄),胎次、体高和体重相近的健康后备荷斯坦母牛40头,按照配对试验设计把试验奶牛随机分为2组,每组20头,对照组采用奶牛场现有的饲粮配方,试验组采用 CPM模型优化后的饲粮配方。试验期为270 d。结果表明:饲喂CPM模型优化饲粮极显著提高了后备母牛8、10、11、13和15月龄的管围( P<0.01);试验组后备母牛血清中钙含量在8月龄时显著高于对照组( P<0.05);优化后7月龄、8~9月龄、10~12月龄、13~15月龄饲粮成本比调整前分别降低了1.02、0.78、0.62和0.52元/(头·d)。由此可见,饲喂CPM模型优化饲粮可提高后备母牛的管围,促进后备母牛的生长,促进血钙的吸收,降低饲养成本,CPM模型可用于评价和优化后备荷斯坦母牛的饲粮配方。%Diets of Holstein replacement heifers in scaled farm was optimized by CPM model, and the effects of optimized diets on growth, development and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in this study. For-ty Holstein replacement heifers with the same months of age ( 7 months of age) , and similar body height and weight were randomly divided into control and test groups according to paired experimental design, and each group had 20 heifers. Heifers of control group were fed original diets of the farm, while those of test group were fed diets optimized by CPM model. The experimental period was 270 days. The results showed as fol-lows: replacement heifers fed optimized diets had significantly higher cannon circumference at 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 months of age ( P<0.01);serum calcium content of replacement heifers fed optimized diets was signifi-cantly higher than that of heifers fed original diets ( P<0.05);cost of optimized diets of 7

  5. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  6. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  7. The monthly sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ridpath, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In full colour throughout, the seventh edition of Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion's famous guide to the night sky is fully revised and updated for planet positions and forthcoming eclipses up to the end of the year 2011. The book contains a chapter on the main sights visible in each month of the year, and is an easy-to-use companion to the night sky. It will help you to identify prominent stars, constellations, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, to watch out for meteor showers, and to follow the movement of the four brightest planets. Most of the sights described are visible to the naked eye and

  8. Children's Gestures from 18 to 30 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Mats

    2010-01-01

    This thesis concerns the nature of the gestures performed by five Swedish children. The children are followed from 18 to 30 months of age: an age range which is characterized by a rapid succession of developmental changes in children's abilities to communicate by means of both spoken language and gesture. There are few studies of gesture in children of these ages, making it essential to ask a number of basic questions: What sort of gestural actions do the children perform? How does the us...

  9. CPM模型优化饲粮对16~24月龄后备荷斯坦母牛生长发育和血清生化指标的影响%Effects of Diets Optimized by CPM Model on Growth Development and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Holstein Replacement Heifers at 16 to 24 Months of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云胜; 曲永利; 袁雪; 王志博; 王洋; 刘立成; 李伟; 殷溪瀚

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究应用CPM模型优化规模化奶牛场16~24月龄后备母牛饲粮对该阶段母牛生长发育及血清生化指标的影响. 选择体重和体高相近的相同月龄( 16月龄)荷斯坦后备母牛40头,将试验奶牛随机分为对照组和试验组,每组各20头,对照组后备母牛饲喂牛场当前饲粮,试验组后备母牛饲喂CPM模型优化后的饲粮,试验期从16月龄开始止于24月龄,共270 d.结果表明:饲喂经CPM模型优化的饲粮显著提高了17月龄后备母牛的管围( P<0.05);试验组后备母牛的管围指数在17、18、20、21、23和24月龄时显著高于对照组(P<0.05),胸围指数在17和18月龄时显著高于对照组( P<0.05). 试验组后备母牛血清中钙的含量在17、23、24月龄时显著高于对照组( P<0.05) ,血清中磷的含量在16月龄时极显著地高于对照组( P<0.01). 经CPM模型优化后,16~22 月龄和23~24 月龄的饲粮成本分别降低了1. 03、0. 32 元/d. 饲喂CPM模型优化的饲粮在一定的范围内促进了后备母牛的生长发育,同时降低了饲养成本. 因此,CPM模型可用于16~24月龄荷斯坦后备母牛饲粮配方的评价和优化.%The objective of this study was conducted to determine the effects of diets optimized by CPM model on growth development and serum biochemical parameters of replacement heifers at 16 to 24 months of age. Forty 16-month-old Holstein replacement heifers with similar body weight and body height were selected and randomly divided into control and test groups, and each group included 20 Holstein replacement heifers. The heifers of control group were fed the present diet in farm, and those of test group were fed diets optimized by CPM model. The experimental period was 270 d during 16 to 24 months of age of Holstein replacement heifers. Results: the replacement heifers fed optimized diets significantly increased the cannon circumference at 17 month of age ( P<0.05) . The replacement heifers of test group

  10. Predictive value of qualitative assessment of general movements for adverse outcomes at 24 months of age in infants with asphyxia%全身运动质量评估对窒息新生儿24月龄时不良结局的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠; 温晓红; 黄金华; 王水云; 祝月娥

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the predictive value of the qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) for adverse outcomes at 24 months of age in full-term infants with asphyxia.MethodsA total of 114 full-term asphyxiated infants, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 2009 and 2012 and took part in follow-ups after discharge were included in the study. All of them received the qualitative assessment of GMs within 3 months after birth. The development quotient was determined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 24 months of age.ResultsThe results of the qualitative assessment of GMs within 3 months after birth showed that among 114 infants, 20 (17.5%) had poor repertoire movements and 7 (6.1%) had cramped-synchronized movements during the writhing movements period; 8 infants (7.0%) had the absence of fidgety movements during the fidgety movements period. The results of development quotient at 24 months of age showed that 7 infants (6.1%) had adverse developmental outcomes:6 cases of cerebral palsy and mental retardation and 1 case of mental retardation. There was a poor consistency between poor repertoire movements during the writhing movements period and the developmental outcomes at 24 months of age (Kappa=-0.019;P>0.05). There was a high consistency between cramped-synchronized movements during the writhing movements period and the developmental outcomes at 24 months of age (Kappa=0.848;P0.05)。痉挛性同步运动与24月龄时患儿发育结局的一致性较高(Kappa=0.848, P<0.05),其对24月龄发育结局的预测效度为98.2%,敏感度为85.7%,特异度为99.1%,阳性预测值为85.7%,阴性预测值为99.1%。不安运动阶段不安运动缺乏与24月龄时患儿发育结局的一致性较高(Kappa=0.786, P<0.05),其对24月龄发育结局的预测效度为97.4%,敏感度为85.7%,特异度为98.1%,阳性预测值为75.0%,阴性预测值为99.1%。结论 GMs评估示痉挛性同步

  11. State and influencing factors for anemia of infants aged 0-18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province%陕西农村0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血状况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛媛; 刘黎明; 杨文方; 张水平; 王懿

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the state and influencing factors for anemia of infants aged 0-18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province and provide scientific basis for preventing from anemia .Methods; 336 infants aged 0-18 months were selected from 19 village by stratified sampling.Questionnaire survey was done and hemoglobin was analyzed by blood routine examination.Results: The anemia prevalence rate of infants aged 0-18 months was 35.10% and increased with the age increasing.The anemia prevalence rate of infants aged 13 -18 months was highest (50.82% ).Low birth weight ( <2 500 g) was the risk factor of suffering anemia, longer mother's school years and higher family's average month income were protective factors of anemia.Conclusion: Compared to the nationwide and most other provinces and cities, the prevalence rate of anemia of infants aged 0 - 18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province is higher.It is advised to develop health education widely since duration of pregnancy, improve the feeding techniques of the people who take care, especially mother's feeding methods to decrease prevalence rate of infantile anemia.%目的:了解陕西农村贫血状况及其影响因素,为合理防止提供科学依据.方法:采取整群分层抽样的方法对陕西省19个自然村336名0 ~18月龄婴幼儿进行问卷调查和血红蛋白的测定.结果:该地区0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血患病率为35.12%,0~18个月婴幼儿中0~3月龄组贫血患病率最低,为13.33%,随月龄增大贫血患病率逐渐增高,至13 ~18月龄组达最高(50.82%).出生时低体重(<2500g)、家庭经济状况差以及母亲的教育程度低均为婴幼儿患贫血的危险因素.结论:陕西农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血患病率明显高于全国水平和大多数省市婴幼儿的贫血患病率,处于较高的水平,应广泛开展健康教育,加强孕期保健,提高母亲的喂养技术,预防和改善婴幼儿贫血.

  12. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  13. Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions (varepsilon)=(varepsilon)1 + i(varepsilon)2 in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd0.9Zn0.1 dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of ∼ 1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively

  14. Biodisponibilidade do ferro como fator de proteção contra anemia entre crianças de 12 a 16 meses Iron bioavailability as a protective factor against anemia among children aged 12 to 16 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2007-02-01

    iron intake according to recommendations. METHODS: The study included 369 children from a cohort of inhabitants of São Leopoldo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, who were randomized at birth into an intervention group and into a control group. The intervention group had nutritional guidance in the first year of life, with monthly follow-up home visits, whereas the control group was visited at 6 and 12 months, without nutritional intervention. At the end of the first year of life, a 24-hour recall was used. Anemia was diagnosed based on a hemoglobin level less than 11 g/dL. The children's diets were classified according to iron bioavailability. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia amounted to 63.7% in this study. The proportion of children with adequate iron intake relative to the recommendations was statistically higher in the nonanemic group (26.8% than in the anemic one (17.7%. Nonanemic children had a greater intake of iron (p = 0.019, vitamin C (p = 0.001, energy density at dinner (p = 0.006, iron density per 1,000 calories (p = 0.045; and 16.3% of them had a diet with high iron bioavailability (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with high iron bioavailability protects children from anemia and can be used as an intervention measure by basic health services and by the municipal departments of children's education.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Poor dietary diversity and low nutrient density of the complementary diet for 6- to 24-month-old children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria; Berti, Cristiana

    2016-07-01

    Infants and toddlers have high nutritional requirements relative to body size but consume small amounts of food and therefore need nutrient-dense complementary foods. A cross-sectional study included children aged 6-24 months, stratified in three age categories (6-11 months, 12-17 months and 18-24 months) and randomly selected from an urban (n = 158) and a rural (n = 158) area, both of low socio-economic status, in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Dietary diversity and nutrient density of the complementary diet (excluding breast milk and formula milk) based on a repeated 24-h dietary recall was assessed. For breastfeeding children, nutrient density of the complementary diet was adequate for protein, vitamin A and vitamin C; and inadequate for 100% of children for zinc, for >80% of children for calcium, iron and niacin; and between 60% and 80% of children for vitamin B6 and riboflavin. Urban/rural differences in density for animal and plant protein, cholesterol and fibre occurred in 18-24-month-old children. Fewer than 25% of children consumed ≥4 food groups, with no urban/rural differences. Higher dietary diversity was associated with higher nutrient density for protein and several of the micronutrients including calcium, iron and zinc. The poor nutrient density for key micronutrients can probably be ascribed to lack of dietary variety, and little impact of mandatory fortification of maize meal/wheat flour on infants/toddlers' diet. Targeted strategies are needed to enable mothers to feed their children a more varied diet. PMID:25138429

  19. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  1. 75 FR 68790 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible Beginning January 1, 2011 AGENCY: Centers for... actuarial rates for aged (age 65 and over) and disabled (under age 65) beneficiaries enrolled in Part B of... certain threshold amounts. The monthly actuarial rates for 2011 are $230.70 for aged enrollees and...

  2. 77 FR 69850 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible Beginning January 1, 2013 AGENCY: Centers for... actuarial rates for aged (age 65 and over) and disabled (under age 65) beneficiaries enrolled in Part B of... certain threshold amounts. The monthly actuarial rates for 2013 are $209.80 for aged enrollees and...

  3. 78 FR 64943 - Medicare Program; Medicare Part B Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Monthly Actuarial Rates, Premium Rate, and Annual Deductible Beginning January 1, 2014 AGENCY: Centers for... actuarial rates for aged (age 65 and over) and disabled (under age 65) beneficiaries enrolled in Part B of... certain threshold amounts. The monthly actuarial rates for 2014 are $209.80 for aged enrollees and...

  4. Attention to Faces Expressing Negative Emotion at 7 Months Predicts Attachment Security at 14 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Mikko J; Forssman, Linda; Puura, Kaija; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes. PMID:26011101

  5. Fatores socioeconômicos e dietéticos de risco para a anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade Socioeconomic and dietary risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. A. Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, utilizando modelagem estatística, os fatores de risco da anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade no estado de Pernambuco, contemplando aspectos socioeconômicos e da dieta. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 746 crianças de 6 a 59 meses do estado de Pernambuco, nas quais foram realizados dosagem de hemoglobina e inquérito dietético recordatório de 24 horas. Foi analisado o risco de anemia em relação às variáveis socioeconômicas e de consumo alimentar, utilizando modelos de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco para a anemia foram: alta proporção de calorias do leite de vaca, baixa densidade de ferro não-heme, baixa idade e baixa escolaridade materna, destacando-se que as crianças com menos de 24 meses apresentaram risco 3,61 vezes maior de serem anêmicas em relação às demais. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo reforça a importância de se conhecer o consumo alimentar das crianças no país para melhor estabelecer a sua associação com a ocorrência da anemia. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores que mais explicaram o risco de anemia foram, com relação à dieta, a maior proporção de calorias do leite de vaca e menor densidade de ferro não-heme, além de idade menor de 24 meses e baixa escolaridade materna.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use statistical modeling to identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in the state of Pernambuco, covering socioeconomic and dietary aspects. METHODS: The sample comprised 746 children aged between 6 and 59 months from the state of Pernambuco. Their hemoglobin was assayed and a 24-hour dietary recall performed. Risk of anemia was analyzed with relation to socioeconomic variables and to dietary intakes, using multivariate analysis models. RESULTS: The risk factors for anemia were: a high proportion of calories from cow's milk, low density of nonheme iron, low age and low maternal

  6. 灾后陕西宁强农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿营养状况调查%Analysis on nutrition of infants aged 6~24 months after Wenchuan earthquake in Ningqiang, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鹏坤; 满青青; 常锋; 徐增康; 付萍; 张坚; 孙静

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyse the nutrition and growth status of infants aged 6~24 months lived in rural area of Ningqiang after Wenchuan earthquake. [Method] Total 327 infants aged 6~24 months lived in fourty-five villages in eight towns of Ningqiang were investigated using the questionnaires, anthropometric and hemoglobin concentration measurements. [ Results] The prevalence of anemia, stunting, underweight and wasting was 49.9 %, 9.8 %, 6.4 %, 4.6 %,respectively. The proportion of breast feeding was 89.9%, but only 7.1% infants got breast feeding within one hour after delivery. Cereal foods were timely added while soybean and aquatic products were much insufficient. [Conclusions] The results indicate that the nutrition and health status of infants aged 6~24 months old living in the disaster area is not ideal.The dietary structure is not appropriate. It is necessary to take effective nutrition intervention and to strengthen nutrition education in order to improve health status of these infants lived in disaster area.%[目的]分析陕西受灾县宁强农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的营养与生长发育状况.[方法] 以宁强县8个乡45个村327名婴幼儿作为研究对象,进行问卷调查、体格指标测定和指血血红蛋白检测.[结果]婴幼儿贫血检出率为49.9%,生长迟缓率为9.8%,低体重率为6.4%,消瘦率为4.6%;母乳喂养率达89.9%,但仅7.1%的婴儿在出生后1 h内开奶;已添加辅食的婴幼儿主要以谷类食物为主,但豆类、鱼类的添加较少.[结论]宁强县农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的营养状况较差,生长发育水平较低,辅食添加食物较单一,需要对婴幼儿采取必要的营养干预措施,对其看护人加强营养知识教育,以改善婴幼儿的健康状况.

  7. 78 FR 66617 - National Family Caregivers Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9053 of October 31, 2013 National Family Caregivers Month, 2013 By the... Family Caregivers Month, we thank these tireless heroes for the long, challenging work they perform... cases caring for both young children and aging parents, our Nation's caregivers need and deserve...

  8. 双侧单蒂瓣法加提肌吊带成形术修复6~12个月婴儿完全性腭裂畸形%Bilateral unipedicle flaps combined with levator sling plate for the repair of complete cleft palate at the age of 6~12 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄巍; 冯兰云; 许海华; 游静

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨修复婴儿完全性腭裂畸形的最佳时机.方法 应用双侧单蒂瓣法(Bardach法)加双侧腭帆提肌吊带成形术.于婴儿6~12个月时完成腭裂修复术,并应用计算机辅助FFT(快速博立叶变换)元音声学对婴儿术前、后的发音进行分析比较.结果 本组26例婴儿腭裂伤口均一期愈合,无腭瘘等并发症发生,术后发音经计算机辅助FFT声学分析结果显示:所有患儿腭咽闭合功能均有明显改善.结论 应用双侧单蒂瓣法加双侧腭帆提肌吊带成形术,于婴儿6~12个月时完成腭裂修复术,技术安全可靠.术后发音效果良好.%Objective To repair the complete cleft palate with the most popular technique at optimal time. Methods Bilateral unipedicle flaps (Bardach method) eombined with levator sling plasty were employed to repair complete cleft palate at the age of 6~12 months. Computer-aided FFT vocal analysis was performed before and after surgery. Results All patients had primary wound healing without any complication. The vocal analysis showed great improvement in velopharyngeal incompetence after surgery. Conclusions It is technically safe and feasible to repair the complete cleft palate at the age of 6~12 months with bilateral unipedicle flaps. Encouraging speech improvement can be expected with this method.

  9. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  10. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  11. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  12. Regurgitation and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Six to Nine Months Old Indonesian Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hegar, Badriul; Satari, Debora Hindra I.; Sjarif, Damayanti R.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Regurgitation is known to peak at the age of 3-4 months, with a sharp decrease around the age of 6 months. Little is known about the natural evolution of infants who still regurgitate after the age of 6 months. Methods Hundred thirty-one infants older than 6 months regurgitating more than once a day were followed for a period of 3 months. Results According to our data, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is seldom at this age. Most of the infants regurgitated 3 or more times/day an...

  13. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  14. U.S. Monthly Extremes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GIS U.S. Monthly Extremes is a web based product that is extracted from the U.S. COOP Summary of the Month dataset (DSI-3220). This is meteorological data from the...

  15. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  5. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  6. Sweat gland carcinoma in a two-month old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is presented of a two-month old child, female, with a sweat gland carcinoma of the left palm. The rarity of this tumor in this age is commented and the national and international literature are reviewed. It is concluded that this is probably the first case in the age group. (M.A.)

  7. Análise genético-quantitativa de pesos aos 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses de idade em um rebanho da raça Guzerá Quantitative and genetic analysis of weights at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months of age in a Guzerat breed herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Buttarello Mucari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter estimativas de herdabilidades, correlações genéticas, tendências genéticas e correlações de "rank" dos touros, para os pesos aos 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses de idade, no rebanho Guzerá do Campus da UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP. As herdabilidades e os valores genéticos dos animais foram estimados por modelo animal, usando o programa computacional MTDFREML. As correlações genéticas (Pearson e de "rank" dos touros (Spearman foram obtidas pelo procedimento CORR do SAS, utilizando os valores genéticos dos animais, enquanto as tendências genéticas foram calculadas pelo procedimento REG do SAS, utilizando a média anual dos referidos valores genéticos. O modelo estatístico para a análise genética incluiu os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo e a covariável idade da vaca ao parto (efeitos linear e quadrático, e os efeitos aleatórios genético aditivo direto, genético aditivo materno, de ambiente permanente da vaca e residual. As estimativas obtidas para a herdabilidade direta foram 0,14; 0,08; 0,08 e 0,13 e para materna, 0,01; 0,02; 0,02 e 0,05, respectivamente, para os pesos aos 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses de idade. As estimativas dos coeficientes de correlação genética foram positivas e de alta magnitude entre todos os pesos estudados. As tendências genéticas anuais foram baixas e significativas apenas para os pesos aos 8 e 18 meses de idade. As correlações de "rank" dos touros foram moderadas e significativas, implicando em razoável manutenção de posição de classificação dos touros, quando se comparam, dois a dois, os pesos estudados.The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities, genetic correlations, genetic trends and rank correlations of the bulls, for weights at 8, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, in the Guzerat herd from UNESP Campus, Ilha Solteira, SP. The heritabilities and the breeding values were estimated by animal model, using the MTDFREML computational program. The genetic

  8. Inquérito sorológico de sarampo em crianças de 5 a 15 meses de idade, em Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, 1983 Serological survey on measles in children of five to fifteen months of age, in Curitiba and S. José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil - 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Lino Rodriguez

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito sorológico, realizado para avaliar os motivos da alta incidência e surtos freqüentes de sarampo nas cidades de Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais - Paraná (Brasil, revela que entre 7 e 10 meses de idade só 44% das crianças vacinadas estão protegidas e que entre o 11º e 15º mês o índice de proteção se eleva para 65,1%. As não vacinadas, ao 5º, 6º e 7º mês de idade apresentaram percentuais de proteção de 56,7, 28,6 e 14,8, respectivamente. As crianças que foram vacinadas ao 7º e 8º mês apresentaram percentuais de proteção de 50,8 e as vacinadas a partir do 9º mês, de 75,75%. As médias geométricas dos títulos de anticorpos também foram menores nas vacinadas antes dos 9 meses, em relação às vacinadas a partir desta idade.A serological survey intended to evaluate the causes of the high incidence of frequent outbreaks of measles in the cities of Curitiba and S. José dos Pinhais, Paraná, shows that of children vaccinated between 7 and 10 months of age, only 44% are protected, whereas in those vaccinated between the 11th and 15th months, the level of protection rises to 65.1%. Samples taken in non-vaccinated children at the 5th, 6th and 7th months of age showed protection level of 56.7%, 28.6% and 14.8% respectively. The children vaccinated during the 7th and 8th months of age had a percentage of protection of 50.8, and those vaccinated from the 9th month on, a percentage of 75.75. The geometric averages of antibody titers are also lower in those vaccinated before 9 months of age as compared to those vaccinated after this age.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for certain months before the employee or spouse attains retirement age, or the employee becomes... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... month in which the spouse attains retirement age: (1) Months in which the spouse O/M benefit...

  12. Monthly energy review, May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a monthly report of Energy Information Administration on production, consumption, stocks, imports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. International energy data is also presented. 47 figs., 67 tabs

  13. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  14. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  16. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  19. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information

  1. Electric Power Monthly, March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and state level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data are presented on generation, fuel consumption, stockpiles, costs, sales, and unusual occurrences. Fuels considered are: coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectric power. 4 figs., 48 tabs

  2. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Carcaça de borregos Ile de France inteiros ou castrados e Hampshire down castrados abatidos aos doze meses de idade Carcass of intact or castrated Ile de France and castrated Hampshire down lambs slaughtered at twelve months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 24 borregos, sendo oito Ile de France inteiros, oito Ile de France castrados e oito Hampshire Down castrados, foram utilizados com o objetivo de avaliar características qualitativas e quantitativas da carcaça. Os animais foram mantidos exclusivamente em pastagem de grama Coast-Cross, sendo abatidos aos 12 meses de idade. As carcaças provenientes de animais inteiros da raça Ile de France apresentaram significativamente maior percentagem de pescoço do que as de animais castrados da mesma raça, sendo essa a única diferença encontrada entre esses dois grupos. Porém, foram observadas diferenças na composição tecidual da paleta entre as raças, sendo que os animais da raça Ile de France (inteiros ou castrados apresentaram maior percentual de músculo e maior relação músculo/osso do que os animais da raça Hampshire Down. Os resultados indicam que, por não haver diferenças importantes entre carcaças e carnes de animais inteiros e castrados abatidos aos 12 meses de idade, o uso da castração pode ser dispensado em sistemas intensivos de produção de carne ovinaA total of 24 lambs, eight intact Ile de France, eight castrated Ile de France and eight castrated Hampshire Down, were used in this experiment with the main objective of evaluating quantitative and qualitative carcass traits. The animals were raised on a Coast-Cross pasture and slaughtered at 12 months of age. Carcasses from intact Ile de France lambs had significantly more neck than carcasses from castrated Ile de France lambs. No other differences were observed between carcasses from intact or castrated Ile de France. However, differences between breeds were observed for tissue composition of the shoulder. Shoulders from Ile de France carcasses (intact or castrated presented greater percentage of muscles and greater relation of muscles/bones than shoulders from Hampshire Down lambs. Results indicate that intact males can be recommended for sheep meat production

  6. Avaliação do neurodesenvolvimento de prematuros de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre 18 e 24 meses de idade corrigida pelas escalas Bayley III Neurodevelopmental assessment of very low birth weight preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months by Bayley III scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Volpiano Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de atraso e fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento em crianças nascidas prematuras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal para avaliar o desenvolvimento por escalas Bayley III, incluindo-se prematuros de muito baixo peso de 18 a 24 meses de idade corrigida, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Prematuros da instituição. Excluíram-se: malformação congênita, síndrome genética, infecção congênita sintomática ao nascimento, surdez e cegueira. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas por teste t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, e as categóricas, por qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Para análise dos fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento, utilizou-se a regressão linear, considerando-se significante p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of delay and factors associated with neurodevelopmental scores in premature infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional study to assess the development by Bayley Scales III, including very low birth weight preterm infants aged 18 to 24 months who were under follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants. Congenital malformation, genetic syndrome, symptomatic congenital infection at birth, deafness, and blindness were excluded. Numerical variables were compared by Mann-Whitney or Student t test and categorical variables by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Factors associated with developmental scores were analyzed by linear regression, and statistical significance level was established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 58 children included, four (6.9% presented cognitive delay, four (6.9% motor, 17 (29.3% language, 16 (27.6% social-emotional and 22 (37.0% adaptive-behavior delay. By multiple linear regression, the variables: social classes CDE (-13.27; 95%CI: -21.23 to -5.31, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of corrected age (-8.75; 95%CI: -17.10 to -0.39 decreased the cognitive developmental score. Periventricular leukomalacia decreased the cognitive (-15.21; 95%CI

  7. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  8. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  9. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  11. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. Nutritional Status and Influencing Factors of Infants aged 12 to 18 Months in Rural Areas of Yunnan%云南省边远农村12~18月龄小儿营养状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙晶; 李燕; 王俊瑛; 胡海梅; 韦芳琴; 杨海霞; 崔文龙; 徐世红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解云南贫困农村小儿营养状况及影响因素,为制定改善小儿营养状况措施提供依据.方法 选取云南省农村12~18月龄的小儿家庭进行调查.采用自制调查问卷对照顾者进行询问,并测量小儿身长、体重.结果 (1)小儿生长迟缓率为35.3%,低体重率为4.4%,消瘦率为2.5%; (2)4月龄时和6月龄时的纯母乳喂养率分别为70.59%和36.77%;小儿 4月龄时的辅食添加率为29.41%,6月龄时辅食添加率为77.21%,至小儿满1岁,仍有4.4%的小儿未添加辅食.至调查时,小儿还未添加动物肝脏、大豆制品和蛋类的比例分别为54.41%、38.24/%和24.27%; (3)多因素非条件Logistic回归分析结果显示,父亲外出打工时间短、主要照顾者不是母亲、家庭人均肉蛋奶消费低、肉类添加频率少是发生小儿生长迟缓的危险因素.结论 云南边远农村小儿的生长发育仍然处于相对较低水平,儿童营养不良与喂养不合理和家庭食品消费水平低有关,应加强开展有针对性的喂养指导及对贫困家庭小儿的营养救助.%Objective To understand the nutrition status and influencing of infants in rural areas of Yunnan, so as to provide scientific bases to make up measure of improving infants' nutrition status. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to the caregivers of infants aged 12~18 months and the height and weight of infants were measured in rural areas of Yunnan. Results (1) The prevalence rates of stunting, under-weight and wasting were 35.3%, 4.4% and 2.5% respectively. (2) The rate of exclusive breast feeding by the age of 4 month and 6 month were 70.59% and 36.77% respectively. The proportion of no complementary feeding in infants at 1 year old was 4.4% . The rates of feeding without liver, bean products and eggs were 54.41% , 38.24% and 24.27% respectively. (3) Non- conditional multiple logistic regression model indicated that father working shorter time out of home, not-mother as

  13. Avaliação nutricional de crianças de seis a sessenta meses Evaluación nutricional de niños en edades de seis a sesenta meses Nutritional evaluation of children aged from six to sixty months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Georgina Macedo de Sousa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar a situação nutricional de crianças na faixa etária de seis a sessenta meses. Foram utilizadas duas metodologias para definir a condição de nutrição das crianças: critérios de Waterlow e a Curva Peso/Idade do Cartão da Criança. A prevalência de problemas nutricionais foi de 42,9% segundo critérios de Waterlow e 35,6% quando utilizado o critério da Curva Peso/Idade. Propõe-se ações educativas para que a família adote comportamentos e estilos de vida visando reduzir os riscos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança.Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar la situación nutricional de niños en edades entre seis a sesenta meses. Se utilizaron dos metodologías para definir la condición de nutrición de los niños: criterios de Waterlow y la Curva Peso/Edad de la Tarjeta del Niño. La predominancia de los problemas nutricionales fue de 42.9% según criterios de Waterlow y 35.6% cuando se utiliza el criterio de la Curva Peso/Edad. Se propone acciones educativas para que la familia adopte comportamientos y estilos de vida buscando reducir los riesgos para el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño.This study aims at identifying the nutritional situation of children aged between six and sixty months. Two methodologies were used to determine the children's nutritional status: Waterloo criteria and the weight/age curve on the Child's Card. The prevalence of nutritional problems was of 42.9%, according to Waterloo criteria, and 35.6% when the weight/age curve was used. Educational actions are proposed so that the family may adopt behaviors and life styles aiming at reducing the risks on the child's growth and development

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  16. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Electric power monthly, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  18. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  20. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. 2010年拉萨市农村6~35月龄婴幼儿喂养指数分布与体格发育的关联%Association between the distribution of feeding index and physical development of infants and young children aged 6-35 months in rural areas of Lhasa in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 颜虹; 康轶君; 党少农; 曾令霞; 裴磊磊; 张超

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to evaluate the relationship between infant feeding and physical development indicators in rural areas of Lhasa.Methods In July and August 2010 in the rural areas of Lhasa,the multi-stage cluster random sampling method was adopted to select 540 Tibetan children who were between 6 to 35 months of age.There were 70,79 and 391 cases in 6 to 8,9 to 11 and 12 to 35-month-old group respectively.The basic status of infants,information about breastfeeding and complementary feeding were collected by using designed questionnaires.Their height and weight were measured to calculate the childen' s weight for age Z-score (WAZ),height for age Z-score (HAZ) and weight for height Z-score (WHZ) and assess feeding index score (out of 17 scores) and analyze the relationship between feeding index and HAZ,WAZ and WHZ.Results The mean ICFI score of 540 cases was 8.90 ±2.82.It was 6.84 ±3.16,8.16 ±2.78 and 9.41 ±2.55 for 6 to 8,9 to 11 and 12 to 35-month-old infants respectively.There was significant difference between the different month group (F =30.99,P <0.05).For the three month groups,the scores of WAZ were 0.10 ± 1.18,-0.09 ± 1.20 and -0.38±0.96; HAZ were-0.60±1.68,-1.02±1.72 and-1.30±1.30; WHZ were 0.62 ± 1.23,0.69 ±0.96 and 0.43 ± 0.95 respectively.The ICFI scores of 9 to 11,12 to 35 and 6 to 35-month-old infants were positively correlated with HAZ (correlation coefficients were 0.25,0.12 and 0.09 respectively,all P values <0.05).There was no correlation with WAZ (correlation coefficients were 0.15,0.08 and 0.03 respectively,all P values >0.05) and WHZ (correlation coefficients were-0.08,-0.02,and-0.07 respectively,all P values > 0.05).There were no correlation between ICFI score with HAZ,WAZ and WHZ for 6 to 8 month-old infants (correlation coefficient were 0.06,0.16 and-0.07 respectively,all P values > 0.05).Conclusion To some extent,the feeding index can effectively reflect the growth status of these

  6. Study on the sleep quality and associated factors of infants aged 6-12 months in Qingdao%青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠质量及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔秀英; 张风华; 傅平

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠质量及影响因素,为开展婴儿睡眠问题防治提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的6~12个月对2012年7至8月来青岛市儿童医院儿保科健康体检的6~12个月婴儿进行调查,在严格质量控制下由婴儿母亲进行问卷填写,应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠总时间为(12.57±1.29)小时,比我国婴儿睡眠时间需求标准少约1小时,睡眠时间的减少主要由夜间睡眠时间减少引起,且男、女间无显著性差异(t=-0.810,P=0.420).随着年龄的增长,白天睡眠次数及夜间觉醒次数逐渐减少,但总睡眠时间无显著变化.睡眠问题检出率为31.7%,常见的睡眠问题为夜醒、入睡困难及睡眠节律紊乱,发生率分别为9.9%、8.9%、7.9%,不同年龄组睡眠问题检出率比较无显著性差异(χ2=0.830,P=0.480).婴儿白天睡眠时光线的强度、入睡前的情绪、睡床的情况为睡眠问题的主要影响因素.结论 青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠问题发生率较高,有必要及早为家长提供婴儿睡眠健康知识,预防睡眠问题的发生.%Objective To understand the sleep quality and associated factors of infants aged 6-12 months in Qingdao and provide basis for carrying out prevention and treatment of sleep problems. Methods A survey with self-designed Infant Sleep Health Questionnaire was conducted strictly among the mothers of infants aged 6-12 months who took healthy physical examination in child health care department of the Affiliated Women and Children Hospital of Qingdao University from July to August 2012. All of the data were analyzed with SPSS 17. 0 statistical software. Results The overall sleep time was 12. 57 ± 1. 29 hours, which was one hour less than that required by Child Health Care. The reducing of sleep time was mainly caused by shortening of nocturnal sleep time. There was no significant difference between boys and girls ( t = -0

  7. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices and...... elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities in their...... socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  8. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  9. Monthly energy review, February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  10. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  12. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  13. Monthly energy review, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  14. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  15. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  16. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  17. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  20. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  1. STD Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-19

    April is National STD Awareness Month. STDs can affect anyone. Many STDs don't have symptoms so it's important to get tested.  Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 4/19/2011.

  2. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  3. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy

  4. Monthly energy review, December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes a market assessment of alternative-fuel vehicles in the Atlanta private fleet for 1994

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  6. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  7. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  8. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons

  11. Monthly energy review, November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monthly publication contains statistical data on energy resources in the United States. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy are covered. Additional sections include an energy overview, energy consumption, oil and gas resource development and energy prices. This issue includes features on energy-related housing characteristics and the propane-provider fleet

  12. Monthly energy review, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  14. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  15. Study on the risk factors of measles among the 8-month-olds and children≥15 years of age in Gansu province%甘肃省<8月龄及≥15岁人群麻疹发病危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁静; 张晓曙; 付鸿; 安靖; 陈瑛; 金娜; 张秉玲; 李慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the risk factors of measles among babies under 8-months-old and people ≥15 years old,in Gansu province. Methods Laboratory-confirmed measles cases were divided into two groups among children below 8-months-old and those≥15 year olds. Descriptive epidemiology and 1∶3 case control study were conducted to find out those related risk factors as:hospital exposure,contact with measles cases,vaccination,history of measles etc. so as to determine the risk factors and appropriate control measures. Results Histories of hospital exposure,contact with measles cases and travelling to other cities were risk factors for measles among babies younger than 8-months and people≥15 year olds. Vaccination appeared a protective factor for people ≥15 years of age. From 42 cases and 126 controls,through multivariate analysis,results showed that hospital exposure was the only significant factor(OR=29.23,95%CI:2.82-302.89)for those babies younger than 8-months. Factors as hospital exposure and travelling among cities for 7-21 days before being infected,were with significant importance(OR=5.15,95%CI:2.28-11.63;OR=5.48,95%CI:1.38-21.69)for people ≥15 years of age,according to the observation from 74 cases and 222 controls. Conclusion In order to reduce the incidence of measles among babies under 8-month-old and people ≥15 years old, efforts on control of nosocomial infection should be strengthened,while the routine immunization coverage need to be increased for the children at higher risks,to reduce the source of infection.%目的:了解甘肃省<8月龄及≥15岁人群麻疹发病危险因素,为制定针对性控制措施提供依据。方法选择<8月龄及≥15岁实验室确诊麻疹病例,采用1∶3病例对照研究方法,分别研究病例组和对照组在医院暴露史、与发热出疹病例接触史、患病史、疫苗接种史、人口流动情况等因素的差异,从而分析患病的危险因素和

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in infants in a rural population: longitudinal data over the first six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storms Michelle R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing numbers of infants are receiving prescription medications for symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Our aim was to prospectively measure reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in healthy term infants for the first six months of life. Methods In a prospective cohort study in the rural Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 128 consecutive maternal-infant pairs were followed for six months and administered the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire Revised (I-GERQ-R at the one-month, two-month, four-month, and six-month well-child visits. Results The I-GERQ-R scores decreased with age. Average scores were 11.74 (SE = 5.97 at one-month, 9.97(4.92 at two-months, 8.44(4.39 at four-months, and 6.97(4.05 at six months. Symptoms associated with colic were greatest at one month of age. Conclusion Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux as measured by the I-GERQ-R decrease with age in the first six months of life in otherwise healthy infants; however the I-GERQ-R may have difficulty differentiating gastroesophageal reflux disease from colic in those under 3 months of age.

  17. 安徽省380例8~11月龄麻疹病例含麻疹成分疫苗及时接种情况分析%Analysis on Timely Inoculation of Measles-containing Vaccine for 380 Cases from the Age of 8-11 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志坚; 丁旭; 唐继海; 苏颖; 沈永刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the timely inoculation rate of Measles cases by the data of measlescontaining vaccine (MCV) inoculation information from the measles surveillance system (MSS) and Childhood Immunization Information Management System(CIIMS),and to provide reference for developing strategies of measles elimination.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the MCV inoculation information.Results Timely inoculation rate is less than 5% for 380 measles cases from the Age of 8-11 months.The inoculation rate of the children of 11 months is 32.37%.Most cases occurred in 1-2 weeks(10%) after vaccination,while 35.26% of them had immunization history after onset Measles.There is significant difference of inoculation information between MSS and CIIMS.Conclusion It is very important to inoculate vaccine timely,distinguish the general reaction after inoculation,implement interrogation system,reduce incidence after inoculation,improve the MSS basic information and accurate vaccination information.%目的 通过麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)和儿童预防接种信息管理系统(Childhood Immunization Information Management System,CIIMS)中,含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)预防接种的信息研究,分析病例的及时接种率,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对MCV预防接种信息进行统计分析.结果 380例8~11月龄麻疹病例MCV及时接种率<5%,11月龄累计预防接种率为32.37%,接种后1、2周内发病最多(10%),发病后有免疫史的占35.26%,MSS和CIIMS的预防接种信息的免疫史记录差异有统计学意义.结论 及时接种MCV尤为重要,应区分预防接种后的一般反应,落实问诊制度,减少发病后的预防接种,提高MSS和CIIMS的基本信息和预防接种信息采集准确性.

  18. Sex differences in social responsiveness between six months and twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, M R; Donahue, M

    1980-03-01

    14 male and 14 female infants were observed interacting with their mothers for 4 min in a free-play situation at 6, 9, and 12 months, using a cross-sectional design. Both mother and infant initiations of interaction and responses to the other's initiations were recorded using an observational technique similar to that used by Clarke-Stewart. There were no age or sex differences in either maternal responsiveness or the number of attempts the mothers made to initiate interaction with the infants. Although no sex difference in responsiveness was observed when the mother used toys to elicit the infant's attention, girls were significantly more responsive when the mother merely spoke to them (vocal initiations). The frequency of social initiations made by the infants increased significantly from 6 to 9 months, but at all 3 ages girls initiated more interactions than did boys. These sex differences in sociability did not reflect differences in the amount of time spent manipulating toys, nor did they reflect sex differences in the frequency of vocalizations, although between 6 and 9 months there was a significant increase for both sexes in the percentage of vocalizations which were used to initiate interactions. PMID:7363740

  19. 深圳6~36月龄儿童营养状况与微营养素摄入情况分析%Analysis of nutritional status and micronutrient intake among infants aged 6-36 months in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一心; 蒋雪明; 李海飞; 邓文娇; 陈杰生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the physical development , nutritional status and the micronutrients intake of infants aged 6-36 months in Shenzhen , and to analyze the relationship among them .Methods From March to September 2012 318 caregivers were investigated on infants’ dietary during the past 24 hours with 24 hour dietary questionnaire designed by Capital Children Institute .Meanwhile, weight, height, hemoglobin and trace elements including zinc , copper, magnesium, calcium and iron in peripheral blood of infants were measured . Results The prevalence of mild underweight , growth retardation, overweight and obesity was 5.97%, 1.89%, 14.47% and 5.35%, respectively.The prevalence of mild anemia was 16.04%, and moderate anemia was found in one case .The prevalence of zinc deficiency and iron deficiency was 78.1%and 13.5%, respectively, and the trace elements of copper , calcium and magnesium were in normal level . Blood zinc and hemoglobin levels increased with age (F value was 9.938 and 28.543, respectively, both P<0.05), and the incidence of zinc deficiency and anemia in infants aged 6-12 months was higher (χ2 value was 10.680 and 28.166, respectively, both P<0.05). Dietary intake of zinc and iron was lower than the recommended intakes (RNIs) or adequate intakes (AIs).No timely complementary feeding (OR=1.384,P=0.003) and more snacks intake(OR=1.749,P=0.046)were risk factors of zinc deficiency .Infants with higher stature had significantly more intake of ascorbic acid , calcium and breast milk (t value was 2.10, 1.90 and 2.04, respectively, all P<0.05).Conclusion There are more nutritional problems such as mild anemia , zinc deficiency, obesity and overweight among infants aged 6-36 months in Shenzhen . Insisting on breastfeeding , timely complementary feeding , keeping nutritional balance and reasonable micronutrient intake can prevent nutritional diseases and promote growth and development .%目的:了解深圳6~36月龄儿童体格发育、营养状况、微营

  20. 年龄与发育进程问卷(中文版)评估上海市3~66月龄儿童神经精神发育春夏秋季的差异%Study on the neuropsychological development differences in the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (Chinese version) of Shanghai children aged 3 to 66 months in seasons of spring, summer and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏梅; 徐素香; SQUIRES Jane; 宋魏; 喻茜; 姚国英; 卞晓燕; 张莉; 郑小斐; CHEN Ching-I

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用"年龄与发育进程问卷:父母完成的儿童发育监测系统"的标准化翻译中文版(ASQ-C),研究上海市3~66月龄儿童在春、夏和秋季神经精神发育的差异.方法 于春、夏和秋季,在上海市3~66月龄儿童中分层随机整群抽样.共有8 472名儿童的父母和(或)养育人完成了儿童月龄相应的ASQ-C测试.儿童ASQ-C的量表总分及沟通(CM)、大运动(GM)、精细运动(FM)、解决问题(CG)和个人-社会(PS)能区得分以±s表示;多组样本均数的比较采用完全随机设计的单因素方差分析;两两比较采用SNK法.采用多元线性回归分析以排除混杂因素.结果 ①不同季节测试儿童的ASQ-C量表总分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),从高至低的排序是秋、夏和春季,秋季显著高于夏和春季(P<0.05),夏季与春季间差异无统计学意义;②不同季节测试儿童的ASQ-C 5个能区得分间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01或<0.05),均以秋季最高;其中CM能区得分从高至低的排序为秋、春和夏季,其他4个能区得分从高至低的排序均为秋、夏和春季.两两比较结果显示,CM能区得分秋季显著高于夏季(P<0.05),秋季与春季、春季与夏季间差异无统计学意义;其他4个能区得分均表现为秋季显著高于夏和春季(P<0.05).结论 季节对3~66月龄儿童的神经精神发育有影响;进一步研究季节或气候与儿童发育的关系很有必要;在儿童发育评估量表的研究中,建议考虑季节因素的影响.%Objective To investigate the influences of the three seasons ( I. E. , spring, summer and autumn ) on the neuropsychological development of children aged 3-66 months living in Shanghai, using the developmental screening scales, the standard Chinese translated Ages & Stages Questionnaires( ASQ-C ): A Parent-Completed Child Monitoring System. Methods During the three seasons, using a stratified clustering, random sampling method, children aged