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Sample records for aged 12-23 months

  1. Antenatal and neonatal visits increase complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in rural area of Indonesia

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2015-01-01

    months in rural area of Indonesia.Methods: The assessment used a part data of the 2013 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas. The sub- samples consisted of children aged 12-23 months livedin rural area. Out of the 8747 children aged 12-23 months who lived in rural area, 5452 children had complete data for the analysis. Complete basic immunization status based on record on immunization card and mother’s recall. Cox regression analysis with constant time was used for the analysis.Results: Out of 5452 children, 52.8% (2880/5452 had completed the basic immunization. Dominant factors related to basic complete immunization status were antenatal and neonatal visit, wealth index, mother’s education, and mother’s occupation. Compared with those who did not antenatal visit, those who had antenatal visit had 38% to be more complete basic immunization [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.27 - 1.50; P = 0.000]. In term of neonatal visit, those who had neonatal visit had 37% to be more complete basic immunization compare to those who did not have neonatal visit (RRa = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.29 - 1.46; P = 0.000.Conclusion: In Indonesia rural areas the children who had antenatal and neonatal visits tend to have more complete basic immunization status. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:73-7Key words: complete basic immunization, antenatal and neonatal visits, rural

  2. A community-based iron supplementation program, "Iron-Like Turkey", and the following prevalence of anemia among infants aged 12-23 months.

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    Yalçın, S Songül; Tezel, Başak; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Pekcan, Gülden; Ozbaş, Sema; Köksal, Eda; Tunç, Bahattin; Sahinli, Selvi; Altunsu, A Tanju; Köse, M Rifat; Buzgan, Turan; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-01-01

    During the second year of the "Iron-like Turkey" Project, in which all children aged 4-6 months in Turkey receive iron supplementation for 5 months, we aimed to assess the utilization of iron supplementation in the field, as well as the prevalence of anemia in healthy infants aged 12-23 months, while determining a variety of sociodemographic and nutritional factors for anemia in three of the 12 NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions (regions with the highest, lowest and middle under-5 malnutrition levels). In a community-based, cross-sectional survey using a multi-staged, weighted, cluster-selected sample, children aged 12-23 months with birthweight ≥2500 g, no chronic illness, no history of blood disease, and from term and singleton pregnancy were enrolled; 1589 children met the criteria. The mean±SD age of children surveyed was 17.8±3.6 months. Of the parents, 72.4% claimed that their physician had recommended iron supplementation, and 68.8% had given supplementation to their children. Overall prevalence of anemia was 7.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the frequency of anemia decreased significantly in older infants, when supplementation was recommended by health providers, when an infant was breastfed longer than 6 months, and when the mother received iron supplementation during pregnancy. However, anemia prevalence increased when the infant received iron supplementation at a later age (³9 months), lived in a crowded family (³6 persons), and when the mother had a history of iron deficiency anemia. Anemic infants had significantly lower z scores of weight for age than non-anemic ones. This survey suggests that iron supplementation during pregnancy, initiation of iron supplementation in infants at 4-6 months of age, effective counseling on supplementation, subsequent compliance, support of breastfeeding, and effective training of health care personnel are effective strategies for prevention of anemia in the community.

  3. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

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    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  4. Complementary feeding practices and dietary intake among children 12-23 months in Mwingi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.; Brouwer, I.D.; Mwangi, A.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 children (12-23 months), Mwingi district, Kenya. Complementary foods were introduced at age 2.5 ± 1.7 months and the mean duration of breastfeeding was 10.5 ± 4.1 months. An unfortified maize porridge was the main complementary food. At least 60% of

  5. The influence of compositional and contextual factors on non-receipt of basic vaccines among children of 12-23-month old in India: a multilevel analysis.

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    Daouda Sissoko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children unreached by vaccination are at higher risk of poor health outcomes and India accounts for nearly a quarter of unvaccinated children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate compositional and contextual determinants of non-receipt of childhood vaccines in India using multilevel modelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied characteristics of unvaccinated children using the District Level Health and Facility Survey 3, a nationally representative probability sample containing 65 617 children aged 12-23 months from 34 Indian states and territories. We developed four-level Bayesian binomial regression models to examine the determinants of non-vaccination. The analysis considered two outcomes: completely unvaccinated (CUV children who had not received any of the eight vaccine doses recommended by India's Universal Immunization Programme, and children who had not received any dose from routine immunisation services (no RI. The no RI category includes CUV children and those who received only polio doses administered via mass campaigns. Overall, 4.83% (95% CI: 4.62-5.06 of children were CUV while 12.01% (11.68-12.35 had received no RI. Individual compositional factors strongly associated with CUV were: non-receipt of tetanus immunisation for mothers during pregnancy (OR = 3.65 [95% CrI: 3.30-4.02], poorest household wealth index (OR = 2.44 [1.81-3.22] no maternal schooling (OR = 2.43 [1.41-4.05] and no paternal schooling (OR = 1.83 [1.30-2.48]. In rural settings, the influence of maternal illiteracy disappeared whereas the role of household wealth index was reinforced. Factors associated with no RI were similar to those for CUV, but effect sizes for individual compositional factors were generally larger. Low maternal education was the strongest risk factor associated with no RI in all models. All multilevel models found significant variability at community, district, and state levels net of

  6. An investigational tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with Infanrix™ hexa is immunogenic, with an acceptable safety profile in 12-23-month-old children.

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    Knuf, Markus; Pantazi-Chatzikonstantinou, Anna; Pfletschinger, Ulrich; Tichmann-Schumann, Irmingard; Maurer, Hartwig; Maurer, Lothar; Fischbach, Thomas; Zinke, Henrike; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-06-06

    Tetravalent meningococcal serogroups ACWY conjugate vaccines will provide an advantage to those at most risk of invasive meningococcal disease; namely young children. Co-administration of ACWY-TT with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib was assessed in a randomized trial in 793 children aged 12-23 months. Pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority of immunogenicity following co-administration versus separate ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib administration were reached. One month post-vaccination, ≥ 97.3% of ACWY-TT vaccinees had rSBA titres ≥ 1:8 (all serogroups). Seroprotection/seropositivity rates against DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens were ≥ 98.2%. The safety profile of co-administration was similar to that of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib alone. ACWY-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib co-administration during the second year would facilitate introduction of ACWY-TT into routine toddler vaccination schedules.

  7. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

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    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  8. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

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    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  9. High-dose vitamin A with vaccination after 6 months of age

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    Fisker, Ane B; Bale, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccines, and 21% (1610/7587) received both live and inactivated vaccines. The effect of VAS did not differ by vaccine group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the policy on overall mortality. VAS had no overall effect......BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at routine vaccination contacts after 6 months of age based on the assumption that it reduces mortality by 24%. The policy has never been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for its effect on overall...... mortality. We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of VAS with vaccines. METHODS: We randomized children aged 6 to 23 months 1:1 to VAS (100000 IU if aged 6-11 months, 200000 IU if aged 12-23 months) or placebo at vaccination contacts in Guinea-Bissau. Mortality rates were...

  10. Distributional Phonetic Learning at 10 Months of Age

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    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Pons, Ferran; Maye, Jessica; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Infant phonetic perception reorganizes in accordance with the native language by 10 months of age. One mechanism that may underlie this perceptual change is distributional learning, a statistical analysis of the distributional frequency of speech sounds. Previous distributional learning studies have tested infants of 6-8 months, an age at which…

  11. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use...

  12. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

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    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  13. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats

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    Xundou Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P < 0.05 and identification in each rat of the high-abundance group, 33 proteins were found to be changed (15 increased and 18 decreased in old rats. By adding a more stringent standard (protein spectral counts from every rat in the higher group greater than those in the lower group, eight proteins showed consistent changes in all rats of the groups; two of these proteins are also altered in the urinary proteome of aging humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60% altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs.

  14. Breastfeeding and infant temperament at age three months.

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    Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & METHODS: To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of temperament derived from 14 subscales. Infant temperament scores were related to mode of infant milk feeding at age 3 months (breast only; formula milk only; or mixed with adjustment for infant's age at assessment and an index of deprivation. RESULTS: Infant temperament dimension scores differed across the three infant feeding groups, but appeared to be comparable between exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. Compared to formula milk-fed infants, exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants were rated as having lower impulsivity and positive responses to stimulation (adjusted mean [95% CI] "Surgency/Extraversion" in formula-fed vs. mixed-fed vs. breast-fed groups: 4.3 [4.2-4.5] vs. 4.0 [3.8-4.1] vs. 4.0 [3.9-4.1]; p-heterogeneity = 0.0006, lower ability to regulate their own emotions ("Orienting/Regulation": 5.1 [5.0-5.2], vs. 4.9 [4.8-5.1] vs. 4.9 [4.8-5.0]; p = 0.01, and higher emotional instability ("Negative affectivity": 2.8 [2.6-2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.8-3.1] vs. 3.0 [2.9-3.1]; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Breast and mixed-fed infants were rated by their mothers as having more challenging temperaments in all three dimensions; particular subscales included greater distress, less smiling, laughing, and vocalisation, and lower soothability. Increased awareness of the behavioural dynamics of breastfeeding, a better expectation of normal infant temperament and support to cope with difficult infant temperament could potentially help to promote successful breastfeeding.

  15. Variation of Serum Protein Level in Xiang Piglets at Different Month of Age

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    ChiYujie; GaoXuejung; 等

    1995-01-01

    Usual clinieal methods were used to determine the concentrations of serum protein,albumin and globulin in Xiang piglets from the lst month to the 6th month of age.Thirteen piglets(eight males and five females)born is Spring were selected from the Livestock Experimental Station of NEAU.The results showed that the serum protein level was different at different month of age.The lowest level was found at the 1st month of age,and the highest at the 4th month of age.The difference in serum protein concentration was significant between different months of age.There was ,however,no significant difference between sexes at the same month of age.

  16. Efficacy and safety of the anti-IL-12/23 p40 monoclonal antibody, ustekinumab, in patients with active psoriatic arthritis despite conventional non-biological and biological anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy: 6-month and 1-year results of the phase 3, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised PSUMMIT 2 trial

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    Ritchlin, Christopher; Rahman, Proton; Kavanaugh, Arthur; McInnes, Iain B; Puig, Lluis; Li, Shu; Wang, Yuhua; Shen, Yaung-Kaung; Doyle, Mittie K; Mendelsohn, Alan M; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess ustekinumab efficacy (week 24/week 52) and safety (week 16/week 24/week 60) in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) despite treatment with conventional and/or biological anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents. Methods In this phase 3, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial, 312 adults with active PsA were randomised (stratified by site, weight (≤100 kg/>100 kg), methotrexate use) to ustekinumab 45 mg or 90 mg at week 0, week 4, q12 weeks or placebo at week 0, week 4, week 16 and crossover to ustekinumab 45 mg at week 24, week 28 and week 40. At week 16, patients with <5% improvement in tender/swollen joint counts entered blinded early escape (placebo→45 mg, 45 mg→90 mg, 90 mg→90 mg). The primary endpoint was ≥20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology (ACR20) criteria at week 24. Secondary endpoints included week 24 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) improvement, ACR50, ACR70 and ≥75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI75). Efficacy was assessed in all patients, anti-TNF-naïve (n=132) patients and anti-TNF-experienced (n=180) patients. Results More ustekinumab-treated (43.8% combined) than placebo-treated (20.2%) patients achieved ACR20 at week 24 (p<0.001). Significant treatment differences were observed for week 24 HAQ-DI improvement (p<0.001), ACR50 (p≤0.05) and PASI75 (p<0.001); all benefits were sustained through week 52. Among patients previously treated with ≥1 TNF inhibitor, sustained ustekinumab efficacy was also observed (week 24 combined vs placebo: ACR20 35.6% vs 14.5%, PASI75 47.1% vs 2.0%, median HAQ-DI change −0.13 vs 0.0; week 52 ustekinumab-treated: ACR20 38.9%, PASI75 43.4%, median HAQ-DI change −0.13). No unexpected adverse events were observed through week 60. Conclusions The interleukin-12/23 inhibitor ustekinumab (45/90 mg q12 weeks) yielded significant and sustained improvements in PsA signs/symptoms in a diverse

  17. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

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    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  18. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging.

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    Coubard, Olivier A; Ferrufino, Lena; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Zelada, Oscar; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD) on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND). CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA), recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchange between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  19. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

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    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  20. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

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    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  1. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial in...

  2. Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Tibetan Sheep at Different Months of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mingliang; Jiang Shihai; Chen Minghua; Yang Pinggui; Wu Weisheng; Xie Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    To study the changes in physiological and biochemical indexes of Tibetan sheep from the plateau area at different months of age,we measured the physiological and biochemical indexes of Tibetan sheep reared in Hongyuan County of Sichuan Province according to their growth stages. The results showed that the respiration,body temperature and heart rate of Tibetan sheep at 3- 24 months of age were( 24. 60 ± 6. 33)-( 50. 30 ± 21. 18) times / min,( 39. 14 ± 0. 28) ℃-( 39. 64 ± 0. 17) ℃ and( 91. 00 ± 13. 27)-( 112. 00 ± 8. 69) times/min,respectively. The blood physiological indexes of Tibetan sheep including white blood cell count( WBC),hematocrit( HCT) and red blood cell distribution width coefficient of variation( RDW- CV) at 3,6,15 and 18 months of age were relatively lower than those at 9,12,21 and 24 months of age. The blood physiological indexes including red blood cell count( RBC),mean corpuscular capacity( MCV),mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration( MCHC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin( MCH) at 3,6,15 and 18 months of age were relatively higher than those at 9,12,21 and 24 months of age,while hemoglobin( HGB) and platelet count( PLT) did not vary with months of age. For blood biochemical indexes,alanine aminotransferase( ALT),albumin( ALB),globulin( GLO) and total cholesterol( CHOL) reached the maximum values at 21 months of age; alkaline phosphatase( ALKP),lactate dehydrogenase( LDH),blood glucose( GLU) and pseudocholinesterase( PCHE) reached the maximum values at 3 months of age;and total calcium( CA),total protein( TP),aspartate aminotransferase( AST) reached the maximum values at 9,18 and 24 months of age,respectively.

  3. [Regularities of the egocentric spatial memory development in children aged 24-60 months].

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    Dashniani, M G; Chkhikivishvili, N Ts; Naneĭshvili, T L; Burdzhanadze, M A; Maglakelidze, G A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess development of the egocentric system of the spatial short-term memory in children (n=66) of different ages (24-60 months) the Inverted Delayed Reaction test has been used. It was found that in the children aged 24-36 months regularities of performance of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test significantly differ in conditions of different loads onto the mechanisms of dead reckoning; the children aged 36-60 months do not show sensitivity to different loads. In children aged 42+/-4 months functional elimination of any of the sensory system (visual, kinesthetic, vestibular) during rotation significantly deteriorated results of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test performance, while in children aged 60+/-4 months number of correct responses decreased if two or three sensory systems were eliminated simultaneously. The data obtained permit to conclude that the Inverted Delayed Reaction test is sufficiently sensitive for evaluation development of the egocentric spatial memory system in children and that formation of the dead reckoning mechanisms starts in an age of 24 months and in the period of 24-60 months its further upgrading does occur.

  4. Asymptomatic Celiac Disease in Children with Trisomy 21 at 26 Months of Age or Less

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    Nancy J. Roizen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age.  These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.

  5. Follow-up after infants younger than 2 months of age with urinary tract infection in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, microbiologic and disease recurrence characteristics

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    Evgenia Gurevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2–6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. Objectives To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants <2 months of age. Methods A retrospective study including all infants <2 months of age with urinary tract infection admitted during 2005–2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. Results 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted. The overall incidence of urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2% live births during 2005–2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births. One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively. Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2% patients; 6/23 (26% were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%. No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74% recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim

  6. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP 6 MONTHS TO 60 MONTHS WITH LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

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    Bharath Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Infections of the respiratory tract are perhaps the most common human ailments. Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI has quite a high morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries 1 ARI is responsible for about 30 - 50 percent of visits to health facilities and for about 20 - 40 percent of hospital admissions. Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. Because mortality due to pneumonia in developing countries is attributable mainly to bacterial etiology , IM NCI strategy recommends the use of antibiotics when a child presented with tachypnea as defined previously . AIMS : To re - define or refine tachypnea as a specific indicator of bacterial pneumonia. To identify other clinical predictors for identifying bacteri al pneumonia. DESIGNS : The study was designed to be done in two phases . In the first phase it is to be carried out as a descriptive study of children presenting with fever and respiratory distress in the OPD to identify the specific markers for bacterial p neumonia. In the second phase presenting clinical features in children with radiological pneumonia will be analysed to validate the findings from Phase I. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This was a hospital based study and was conducted in Sri Manakula V inayagar Me dical College and Hospital , Puducherry . The study included 100 Children in the age group 6 months to 5 years presenting in the out patients department with fever and respiratory distress Children attending the out - patient department on a fixed day of the w eek (Monday and who come under this study population during the study period were admitted and recruited in the study and informed verbal consent for participation was taken from the parents. Their clinical profiles were recorded as in phase I. All childr en coming under this study population were given antibiotics and supportive treatment. The cases were monitored for any worsening or improvement every 6 th hourly on day 1 and

  7. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 15 MONTHS

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    Fysal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to lack of iron is the most important hematological disorder of infancy and childhood. According to India’s third National Family Health Survey ( NFHS - 3 of 2005 - 6 , 70 % of children between 6 months and 59 months are anemic. So it is very important to screen children for anemia early. The first 2 years of life is a critical window of opportunity to intervene in children since anemia can impair psychomotor development. A cross sectional study involving 260 apparently healthy children between 6 months and 15 months of age , showed the prevalence of anemia to be 60.7%. Only 9.2% of them were having Protein Energy Malnutrition. Introduction of animal milk at an early age and the amount of animal milk consumed were found to be the two important risk factors significantly associated with anemia. KEY WORDS: Hemoglobin , Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM , Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia , Exclusive Breast Feeding ( EBF

  8. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  9. Fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged 1-18 months.

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    Feng Li

    Full Text Available Fecal calprotectin (FC is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age.Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children's stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors.The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g, 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g, 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g, 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p4 years.

  10. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

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    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  11. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

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    Adetayo Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects’ physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2. 35 (38% patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8% patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3 apnea hypopnea index (AHI was 22.5 (11.3–37.0. Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician’s recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects’ physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32. Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low.

  12. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

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    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. 

  13. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

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    Mulya Safri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:13-7.].

  14. Early allergy symptoms in infants aged 0-6 months on breast milk substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulya Safri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic diseases are common in children and a serious health problem worldwide. Atopic dermatitis, food allergies, asthma and allergic rhinitis, have been described as the natural progression of allergic diseases, also known as the “allergic march”. Cow’s milk protein is known to be a common trigger of food allergies and hypersensitivity reactions during infancy. Objective To give an overview of the breast milk substitutes (BMS and incidence of early allergy onset (allergic march in atopic infants aged 0-6 months. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 40 atopic infants collected by consecutive sampling. A questionnaire was used for interview that inquired information on the type of BMS used, initial allergy complaints, the age of the emergence of early allergic symptoms, and the breakdown for BMS type. Univariate analysis was carried out to describe their characteristics as frequency distributions and percentages of each variables. Results Atopic dermatitis and wheezing were more common in boys (62.5%. Atopic dermatitis was the most common initial symptom to occur in atopic infants (52.5%. Atopic dermatitis and wheezing occurred together in 27.5% subjects. Early allergy symptoms that first occurred at the age of 1 month were seen in 42.9% for atopic dermatitis category, 37.5% for wheezing category, and 63.6% for both symptoms category, respectively. Cow’s milk was the most common type of BMS given to atopic infants in the first 6 months of life (47.5%. Conclusion Early symptoms of allergies, such as atopic dermatitis and wheezing, are more common in boys than girls. Atopic dermatitis is the most common early symptom to arise, but both symptoms occur at an early age, often during the first month of life.

  15. Mumps Seroprevalence in not Vaccinated Children Aged Between 0-59 Months in Adana

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    Akgun Yaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims to find out the mumps seroprevalence in 0-59 month old children who were not vaccinated for mumps in the duty area of Dogankent Health Center where people of low socio-economic level lives. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was made on 331 children aged between 0-59 months who were not vaccinated with rubella vaccine. RESULTS: Mumps seropositivity was found as 35.3%. Mumps seropositivity was significantly high in 24-35 month old boys, and fathers who haven’t incame/occupation (p0.05. CONCLUSION: In the present study, mumps seropositivity is low in children aged 0- 59 months. In order to eradicate mumps, it is necessary that use of MMR vaccine should be expanded nationwide rapidly by the Ministry of Health; the regulation should be revised to include the children born before 2005. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 29-36

  16. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status.

  17. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

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    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (http://ilabs.washington.edu/6-m-templates-atlas.

  18. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

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    Susanne eKristen-Antonow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness towards social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self recognition (MSR and delayed self recognition (DSR. Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze towards social partners during the still-face task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness towards a social partner in the still-face task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness towards being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness towards the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self.

  19. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    completely weaned infants (n 141) of similar age. Furthermore, they had lower intake of energy, both in absolute amount (P,0?0001) and per kilogram of body weight (P50?049). Significantly lower intakes of most energy-yielding nutrients, in absolute amounts and as energy percentages, were seen for the partly...... breast-fed compared with the completely weaned infants. These differences appear to be caused primarily by differences in the type and amount of milk consumed, as the energy derived from sources other than milk was similar except for fatty spread and vegetables as a side dish. Only small differences were......: Healthy term infants (n 312) at 9 months of age (mean 9?1 (SD 0?3) months). Results: The infants partly breast-fed (n 168) at 9 months had significantly lower body weight (P,0?0001), were significantly shorter (P50?0022) and were introduced to complementary foods significantly later (P,0?0001) than...

  20. Defective serum opsonization activity in children aged 6-48 months having acute purulent otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, I; Yilmaz, Y; Oner, F; Yel, L; Sanal, O; Ersoy, F; Onerci, M; Berkel, A I

    1997-01-01

    Serum opsonization of yeast (Saccharomyces) was investigated in 51 patients whose ages were between six and 48 months (median 15 months) with acute purulent otitis media and in an age-matched control group (median 13 months). Opsonization was assessed by measuring yeast particle uptake in an assay based on an electronic count of the unphagocytosed particles in serum by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Despite normal levels of CH50 and serum immunoglobulins, a defective opsonization was determined in 13.7 percent of the patients (7 in 51). The corresponding figure was 2.9 percent in 103 healthy controls (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 218 percent (5 in 23) of the children having a history of recurrent purulent otitis media showed defective opsonization (p < 0.001). Previously, the presence of an opsonization defect has been linked to low levels of mannan binding lectin (MBL), a calcium dependent serum lectin that acts as an opsonin. Therefore, our findings indirectly support the idea that MBL has an important role as host defense, particularly in the earlier period of life when the antibody repertoire is restricted.

  1. Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hamdan, R.; Cooper, W. T.

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar-soil mixtures. After aging, biochars made by pyrolysis of wood and grass at 250, 400 and 650 °C exhibited 5-fold increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), on average; appearance of anion exchange capacity (AEC); and significant decreases in pH, ash content and nanopore surface area. Cross polarization 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses indicated relative increases in O-containing functional groups, including substituted aryl, carboxyl and carbonyl C, and losses of O-alkyl groups. Similar chemical trends were observed for soil-biochar mixtures, suggesting the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. However, there was evidence for a role of soil OM-microbe-biochar interaction during aging. Field aging of soil with biochar resulted in large increases in C and N content (up to 124 and 143%, respectively) and exchange capacity (up to 43%) beyond that calculated by the weighted addition of the properties of biochar and soil aged separately. These beneficial interactive effects varied with soil and biochar type. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of biochar particles aged with soil showed colonization by microbes and widespread OM coatings. Thus, sorption of both microbially produced and soil OM are likely processes that enhanced biochar aging. Thus, biochar's full beneficial effects on soil properties likely increase over time, and proper assignment of C sequestration credits to biochar users will require consideration of soil-biochar interactions.

  2. Relation of Growth Rate from Birth to Three Months and Four to Six Months to Body Mass Index at Ages Four to Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Karp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While rapid early weight gain are common in children who become obese later in life, so is growth faltering in the first 3 months of life. Objective. We seek to determine what relationship weight gain in the first six months of age, separated into two 3-month periods, have with the BMI of children ages 4 to 6 years in an inner-city community. Subjects. A convenience sample cohort of 154 children attending an inner-city clinic. Methods. Consecutive charts were reviewed retrospectively. Age, gender, birth weight and weight change in the first and second 3 months of life were introduced as fixed factors using mixed linear models with BMI in years 4 to 6 as the dependent variable. Results. Weight change quartile in the first 3 months of life did not predict of BMI in years 4 to 6; however, weight changes quartiles during months 4 to 6 were significant predictors for subsequent overweight. Conclusion. The data presented herein suggest that, for this specific population, weight gain can be promoted when it is most essential. It is necessary, however, to identify intermediary variables that could affect outcomes in this and other communities.

  3. Hepatitis B vaccination at three months of age: a successful strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Federica; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Mongillo, Michele; Ferretto, Luca; Nicolli, Annamaria; Trevisan, Andrea

    2013-03-25

    Vaccination of infants, children and adolescents against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in Italy. It is crucial to assess whether vaccinated subjects have protective antibody level during adulthood when the risk of HBV infection increases due to lifestyle or occupational exposure. Two groups of students attending to University of Padova Medical School were enrolled between 2004 and 2011 and HBV antibodies and antigens were measured. The first group (Group A) comprised students vaccinated at three months of age and the second group (Group B) comprised students vaccinated after the first year of life. The follow-up was 18.0 (Group A) and 17.9 (Group B) years. The students vaccinated at three months of age had a higher rate of non-protective antibodies (47.2%) comparing to those vaccinated after the first year of life (17.0%, P<0.0001) with a significantly lower antibody level (P<0.001). The rate of non-protective antibodies was inversely related to vaccination age. The results clearly show that children vaccinated after the first year of life are better protected against HBV. On the other hand, both groups show a good immunological memory as evidenced by the achievement of protective antibody level after the booster dose in 97.8% of subjects.

  4. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Schmidt Morgen, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27 821 children born to mothers......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 17 721 (63.7%) children...

  5. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F;

    2015-01-01

    indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374...... towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...

  6. A 3-month age difference profoundly alters the primary rat stromal vascular fraction phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Andersen, Ditte Caroline;

    2016-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a heterogeneous population obtained from collagenase digestion of adipose tissue. When cultured the population becomes more homogeneous and the cells are then termed adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs). Both the freshly isolated primary SVF population...... and the cultured ASC population possess regenerative abilities suggested to be mediated by paracrine mechanisms mainly. The use of ASCs and SVF cells, both in animal studies and human clinical studies, has dramatically increased during recent years. However, more knowledge regarding optimal donor characteristics...... such as age is demanded. Here we report that even a short age difference has an impact on the phenotype of primary SVF cells. We observed that a 3-month difference in relatively young adult rats affects the expression pattern of several mesenchymal stem cell markers in their primary SVF. The younger animals...

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants less than three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N; Kearns, Gregory L; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation.

  8. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  9. Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Deheeger, M; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Avons, P; Patois, E; Sempé, M

    1987-01-01

    The development of adiposity was followed in 164 subjects from the age of one month to adulthood. The 25th and 75th centiles of the weight/height2 (W/H2) index were chosen as cut-off points to define the lean, medium and fat subjects at both one and 21 years of age. Only 42% of the children remained in their original category, that is 41% of the lean infants at one year stayed lean, 42% of the medium infants stayed medium and 41% of the fat infants stayed fat. Accordingly, most fat infants did not stay fat, but twice as many fat as non-fat infants became fat adults (41 and 20% respectively). The relative risk of being fat adults was 1 for the lean, 1 for the medium and 2 for the fat infants at one year. Several paths of development emerged: they were related to age at the second rise in adiposity, termed adiposity rebound, which usually occurs at about six years, as observed on skinfold thickness and W/H2 charts. The earlier the rebound, the higher the adiposity at adult age, whether this was measured by W/H2 index or subscapular skinfold. The cohorts of children who left the channel they had been following included fat infants with a late rebound who subsequently returned to normal, and lean infants with an early rebound who grew fatter. Other cohorts remained in their original groups, for example, fat infants with an early rebound who stayed fat and lean infants with a late one who stayed lean. Age at rebound provided two indications: the existence of a regulartory process among the transiently fat or lean infants who returned to average after a late or early rebound respectively, and pathological development among the children who became fat or lean after an early or late rebound. Age at rebound is an indicator of the subsequent development of fatness.

  10. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    .Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...... comprising obese mothers (SKOT II, n=184; SKOT, Danish abbreviation of small children's diet and well-being) with a cohort consisting mainly of nonobese mothers (SKOT I, n=329).Subjects/Methods:Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day records, and dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis...... and polyunsaturated fatty acids at 9 months. SKOT II had higher weight-for-age and length-for-age z-scores, but no differences in BMI z-scores, as compared with SKOT I at 9 months.Conclusions:Infants of obese mothers from a lower social class seem to have a less healthy diet and higher weight and length z-scores at 9...

  11. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana Paula Pires dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and gingival bleeding. The data were analyzed by means of the Epi Info program, utilizing the chi-squared test. The children?s mean age was 22.9 months. The prevalence of caries, including white spot lesions, was 41.6%, and the mean def-s was 1.7 (± 2.5. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors, and the most common lesion was the white spot. No significant associations were found between the prevalence of caries and socioeconomic status, frequency of oral hygiene, nocturnal bottle- and breast-feeding or cariogenic food and beverage intake during the day. However, the association between caries and oral hygiene quality (dental biofilm was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The results suggest that the presence of a thick biofilm was the most important factor for the occurrence of early childhood caries in the evaluated sample.

  12. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

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    Aya Hisada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS, which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  13. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

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    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  14. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

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    Louise B.B. Andersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. Design: The two dietary patterns ‘Family Food’ and ‘Health-Conscious Food’ were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374 of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. Results: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score at 9 months, and a higher infant age at diet registration. Conclusions: Associations between infant dietary patterns and maternal, paternal, household, and child characteristics were identified. This may improve the possibility of identifying infants with an increased risk of developing unfavourable dietary patterns and potentially enable an early targeted preventive support.

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA IN CHILDREN AGED 2 MONTHS TO 18 YEARS

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    Ramakrishna Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Suppurative Otitis media (ASOM is one of the diseases that causedeath in children below the age of 5 years. The pathogens causing otitis media (OM vary from region to region. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are responsible f or OM. So this study was conducted to know the aerobic bacterial pathogens causing OM and their susceptibility pattern in children below 18 years attending a rural tertiary health care center in north Kerala . MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 75 patients in pediatric age group 2 months to 18 years clinically havingASOM , were included in the study . Ear discharge was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed accordingly. RESULTS : A total of 75 patients aged 2 months to 18 years with discharging ears wer e included in the study. Among them , forty one (54.7% were males and thirty four (45.3% were females. Forty five children were below years. Sixty five (86.6% had unilateral ear discharge. Among the 75 ear swabs cultured , 66 (88% had aerobic bacteria is olated. S.aureus was themost common isolate accounting to 32(47% followed by P.aeruoginosa 19(27.9%. It was observed that most of the Staphylococcus aureusisolates were resistant to p en i cillins and first generation cephalosporins while Pseudomonas aerugi nosa to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION : Since there is reduced susceptibility of the pathogens isolated to first and second line antibacterials it is necessary to use these antibacterials judiciously and in the right dosage

  16. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  17. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs.

  18. Is tuberculin testing before BCG vaccination necessary for children over three months of age?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, B

    2008-03-01

    In July 2007 Irish national policy changed such that children aged 3 months to 6 years no longer routinely require tuberculin (Mantoux) skin testing prior to BCG vaccination. Previous to that a tuberculin test was required in all children in this age group pre vaccination. While the previous policy was in place this study was conducted to assess the value of this test. The observation that children are frightened by the test (an injection into the skin) prompted the study. The author conducted a retrospective study of the results of 1,854 tuberculin tests performed as a prerequisite to BCG vaccination and found that only 0.7% of children had a positive test result (induration > 5mm). None of 107 children < 6 years of age tested positive. Those > 12 years were more likely to test positive than younger children (1.09% vs 0.4% respectively, p < 0.05). This study suggests that testing young children before BCG vaccination has a low yield of positive results and adds little to the detection of latent or active TB.

  19. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  20. Creatinine related reference ranges for urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid at 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Parker, L; Craft, A W; Bell, S; Dale, G; McGill, A C; Seviour, J A; Smith, J

    1993-03-01

    The relationship between homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and creatinine in the urine of 6 month old babies has been studied and reference ranges in the form of centiles constructed for HVA and VMA against creatinine. Over 10,000 urine samples were collected from babies in four health districts in the north of England. HVA and VMA concentration, either independently or when divided by creatinine concentration, were dependent upon the absolute concentration of creatinine in the sample. After adjustment for creatinine significant differences in the mean concentration of HVA were found between sexes. No such differences were found for VMA. HVA and VMA were also found to be age dependent. Centiles were constructed using a procedure which makes no distributional assumptions about the data. The net effect of utilising these centiles was to increase the predictive value of a positive screening test from 20% to 40% without any increase in the false negative rate.

  1. Association of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with month and season of birth in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Antonio; Casuccio, Alessandra; Pani, Luca; Avitabile, Teresio; Cillino, Salvatore; Uva, Maurizio G.; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Russo, Andrea; Parisi, Guglielmo; Cennamo, Gilda; Furino, Claudio; Parravano, Mariacristina; Xoxi, Entela; Reibaldi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of season and month of birth on the risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD) in Italy, we evaluated the month birth and sex of all patients, recorded in the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monitoring registry of the Italian Medicines Agency, born between 1925–1944, who received intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for n-AMD between January 1, 2013 and July 29, 2015. The numbers of all births in Italy in the same years, extracted from the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were used to calculate the expected number of n-AMD cases. Overall, 45,845 patients (19,207 men, 26,638 women) received intravitreal anti-VEGF for n-AMD; in the same years, 20,140,426 people (10,334,262 male, 9,806,164 female) were born in Italy. Comparing the observed number of n-AMD cases with the expected number of n- AMD cases in each season, we found that the season-specific risk for n-AMD was 2.5% higher for those born in summer (OR=1.03, Bonferroni-corrected P=0.008) and 3% lower for those born in winter (OR=0.96, Bonferroni-corrected P=0.0004). When considering the month of birth, the risk of n-AMD was 5.9% lower for people born in January (OR=0.93, Bonferroni-corrected P=0.0012). The factors causing such differences should be determined. PMID:27997361

  2. EEG asymmetry at 10 months of age: are temperament trait predictors different for boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry patterns represent markers of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with right hemisphere activation linked with withdrawal behaviors/emotions (e.g., fear), and activation of the left hemisphere associated with approach (e.g., joy, anger). In the present study, gender was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG asymmetry patterns recorded during an Arm Restraint procedure at 10 months of age. Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulatory Capacity (ORC) were considered as predictors, with PAS emerging as significant for males; higher levels translating into greater right-frontal activation later in infancy. For females, ORC accounted for a significant portion of the frontal asymmetry scores, with higher ORC being associated with greater right-frontal activation. The moderating influence of gender noted in this study is discussed in the context of implications for discrepancies in rates/symptoms of psychopathology later in childhood.

  3. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  4. Temporal course of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and amyloid accumulation in the aging rat brain from three to thirty months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD and is seen in normal aging. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics are also associated with normal aging and AD. This study analyzed CSF volume, production and turnover rate in relation to amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ accumulation in the aging rat brain. Methods Aging Fischer 344/Brown-Norway hybrid rats at 3, 12, 20, and 30 months were studied. CSF production was measured by ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with blue dextran in artificial CSF; CSF volume by MRI; and CSF turnover rate by dividing the CSF production rate by the volume of the CSF space. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in the cortex and hippocampus were measured by ELISA. Results There was a significant linear increase in total cranial CSF volume with age: 3-20 months (p p p p -1 to 12 months (11.30 day-1 and then a decrease to 20 months (10.23 day-1 and 30 months (6.62 day-1. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in brain increased from 3-30 months (p Conclusions In young rats there is no correlation between CSF turnover and Aβ brain concentrations. After 12 months, CSF turnover decreases as brain Aβ continues to accumulate. This decrease in CSF turnover rate may be one of several clearance pathway alterations that influence age-related accumulation of brain amyloid.

  5. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003...... there was no effect of early MV on anthropometry at 9 months. At 24 months children who had received early MV had a significantly larger mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC/in cm) (Difference = 0.08; 95% CI (0.02;0.14)) compared with children in the control group; this effect was most pronounced among girls (0.12 (0......-2007 including 6,648 children. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months (group C) Data...

  6. Comparative seroprevalence of measles virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in children aged 0–8 months and a control population aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms in selected hospitals in Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AE Olaitan, EE Ella, JB Ameh Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Background: Measles remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality in developing countries, with its greatest incidence in children younger than 2 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of measles virus in children (aged 0–8 months and older children (aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms. Methods: A total of 273 blood samples comprising 200 from children aged 0–8 months and 73 from children aged 9–23 months were collected and analyzed for measles virus IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: An overall prevalence of 21.2% was obtained, with a prevalence of 6.5% in children aged 0–8 months and 61.6% in children aged 9–23 months. The prevalence of measles virus increased with age in children aged 0–8 months and decreased with age in older children (aged 9–23 months, showing a significant association between measles virus and age of the child (P=0.000. A higher prevalence was found in females (27.5% than in males (16.3% and this difference was significant (odds ratio 1.942, P=0.025. There was no significant association with the level of parental education, parental occupation, or number of children in the family (P>0.05. With respect to children's vaccination status and breastfeeding, there was a significant association (P<0.05. The marital status of the family, place of residence, and household size showed no significant association with the prevalence of measles virus. However, a significant association was observed in relation to maternal measles history (odds ratio 2.535, P=0.005 and maternal vaccination status (odds ratio 1.791, P=0.049, as well as between measles virus infection and all presenting symptoms, except for vomiting, malaria, typhoid, and pneumonia, which showed no significant association (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of

  7. Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: A follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Hernández, María del Carmen; Valencia, Erika Osorio; Hernández, Rosa María García; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the persistency of the association between DDE and infant neurodevelopment we assessed mental and psychomotor development between 12 and 30 months of age in an ongoing cohort in Mexico.

  8. A comparison of the carcass and meat quality of Martina Franca donkey foals aged 8 or 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    The effects of slaughter age (8 vs 12 months) were investigated on meat and carcass quality obtained from Martina Franca donkey foals. Sixteen male foals were used, eight were slaughtered at 8 months of age with a mean (±s.e.) final body weight of 101±18kg and the remaining 8 foals slaughtered at 12 months of age with a mean final body weight of 122±13kg. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher (Pdonkeys slaughtered at 8 months of age (54.03N) compared to the same muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) collected in older animals (62.66N). Muscle glycogen content was higher (PDonkey foal meat showed an interesting content of essential amino acids and a notable percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both groups of animals, giving a high nutritional value to this alternative red meat.

  9. Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, M; Nagell, K; Tomasello, M

    1998-01-01

    At around 1 year of age, human infants display a number of new behaviors that seem to indicate a newly emerging understanding of other persons as intentional beings whose attention to outside objects may be shared, followed into, and directed in various ways. These behaviors have mostly been studied separately. In the current study, we investigated the most important of these behaviors together as they emerged in a single group of 24 infants between 9 and 15 months of age. At each of seven monthly visits, we measured joint attentional engagement, gaze and point following, imitation of two different kinds of actions on objects, imperative and declarative gestures, and comprehension and production of language. We also measured several nonsocial-cognitive skills as a point of comparison. We report two studies. The focus of the first study was the initial emergence of infants' social-cognitive skills and how these skills are related to one another developmentally. We found a reliable pattern of emergence: Infants progressed from sharing to following to directing others' attention and behavior. The nonsocial skills did not emerge predictably in this developmental sequence. Furthermore, correlational analyses showed that the ages of emergence of all pairs of the social-cognitive skills or their components were inter-related. The focus of the second study was the social interaction of infants and their mothers, especially with regard to their skills of joint attentional engagement (including mothers' use of language to follow into or direct infants' attention) and how these skills related to infants' early communicative competence. Our measures of communicative competence included not only language production, as in previous studies, but also language comprehension and gesture production. It was found that two measures--the amount of time infants spent in joint engagement with their mothers and the degree to which mothers used language that followed into their infant

  10. A study of malnutrition among children aged 6 months to 2 years from a resettlement colony of Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhar Anita

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of 1661 children aged 6 months to 2 years who attended the Well Baby Clinic of UHC Gokulpuri, Delhi during the year 2000 was studied. 60.7% of them were malnourished. Undesirable practices of discarding the colostrum, not exclusively breast feeding the child till at least 4 months of age, delayed weaning, dilution of top milk, use of bottle and nipple for feeding the children are still widely prevalent.

  11. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  12. Validity and internal consistency of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 60-month version and the effect of three scoring methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) is currently the most used parent-completed developmental screener consisting of different age-specific questionnaires. Psychometric evaluation of the ASQ 60-month version (ASQ-60) is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear which of the available scori

  13. 38 CFR 12.23 - Recognition of valid claim against the General Post Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Congress, December 26, 1941, Amending the Act of June 25, 1910 (24 U.s.c. 136) § 12.23 Recognition of valid claim against the General Post Fund. Effective December 26, 1941, the assets of the estate of a veteran... event of doubt as to entitlement or the necessity of legal proceedings to obtain assets for the...

  14. Single-pass albumin dialysis in a child aged six months with phenobarbital poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıhtır, Hasan Serdar; Yıldırım, Hamdi Murat; Yeşilbaş, Osman; Duramaz, Burcu Bursal; Şevketoğlu, Esra

    2016-12-01

    A girl aged six months was hospitalized because of resistant seizures and was discharged with phenobarbital and carbamazepine therapy. She was admitted to a state hospital with symptoms of inability to waken and difficulty in breathing. It was learned that phenobarbital had been used incorrectly and the patient was sent to our pediatric intensive care unit because of severe phenobarbital overdose. The decision was taken for hemodialysis. Single-pass albumin dialysis was planned because phenobarbital can bind to high levels of plasma protein. The process was undertaken with 1% albumin-containing dialysate, which was prepared manually. After 6 hours of dialysis, the phenobarbital blood level measured 62 mcg/mL (>140 mcg/mL on admission) and the patient's clinical findings were markedly regressed. There are no case reports about phenobarbital overdose treated with single-pass albumin dialysis in the literature. We conclude that single-pass albumin dialysis may be a useful treatment, especially with intoxications of drugs that bind protein at high levels.

  15. Identification of Hearing Loss after Age 18 Months Is Not Early Enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Apuzzo, Mah-rya L.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the development (at 40 months) of 40 deaf and hard-of-hearing infants whose hearing loss was identified either before 6 months or after 18 months. Infants whose hearing loss was identified earlier scored significantly on tests of expressive language and comprehension/concepts. Results support early hearing screening for…

  16. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4 cell response in West African HIV-infected children. METHODS: All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4 cell count...... measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. RESULTS: Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrolled at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4 cell gains compared with children less...

  17. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  18. Four-month enriched environment prevents myelinated fiber loss in the white matter during normal aging of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.

  19. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  20. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Chen Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2 with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age.

  1. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  2. [Clinical and electrophysiological evolution of infants presenting with partial seizures before the age of two months (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isch-Treussard, C; Terrade, E; Bapst-Reiter, J

    1977-01-01

    The study was carried out on 28 children: 18 with partial seizures in the first five days of life, and among them 4 with status epilepticus; 7 had focal seizures between the first and eight week, 3 generalised tonic seizures with assymetrical EEGs. A clinical and electro-physiological study was carried out at the time of onset, 1 month later and again at 4 months. The results of the clinical and EEG examinations showed: -firstly during the seizures, the gravity of neonatal status epilepticus and of certain EEG patterns, the lack of localising value of seizures and of electroencephalographic critical discharges whereas permanent assymetry of background activity can precede by several months the appearance of clinical signs. -at the examination one month later the prognostic importance of definite neurological signs always associated with EEG abnormalities whereas some isolated EEG abnormalities do not have any prognostic value as far cerebral maturation is concerned. -at the final examination: the possibility after 4 months of age, of focal neurological signs not present at the earlier examinations. This study underlines the importance of precise electroclinical correlations at different developmental stages, specifically at one and four months of age in children with neonatal seizures.

  3. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  4. Language and Social Competence in Typically Developing Children and Late Talkers between 18 and 35 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between language and social ability in a sample of 268 preschoolers aged 18-35 months. Expressive language was assessed with the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey (LDS), and Social Competence was assessed with the Questionnaire on Peer Interactions in the Kindergarten (QPI). Results…

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.

  6. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  7. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval...

  8. Behaviour of captive Ostrich chicks from 10 days to 5 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Freire Amado

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of ostrich chicks bred in captivity was studied by using groups with 30 birds in five age groups: from 10 to 40 days of age; from 41 to 60 days of age; from 61 to 90 days of age; from 91 to 120 days of age and from 121 to 150 days of age. Six birds at each age were ringed around one of their feet and observed for four consecutive days for eight hours daily in three periods (in the morning, at noon and in the afternoon, following the "one-zero" method for sampling. The order for observation of behaviour of the six selected birds was performed randomly at every thirty minutes, totalling 16 periods or 80 minutes/bird/day. Fourteen types of behaviour were observed. There were differences among ages for behaviour like standing, walking, running, ingesting stones, ingesting feces, picking and attacking. Non-parametric-tests were used to analyse the behaviour according to age of the bird and to the periods of the day. There was a statistical difference between in the morning and at noon periods on behaviours standing, walking, eating ration and in litophagia, which were observed more frequently at the first hours of the day. When periods of the morning and afternoon were compared, the birds' age had a significant effect on behaviour sand bathing. When the periods noon/afternoon were compared, the behaviours which presented significant differences were walking, running, drinking water, eating ration, litophagia, coprophagia, dancing, sand bathing, whose occurrence was the highest during dusk. It was observed that the behaviour of young ostriches diverge according to the age and to day period.

  9. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development.

  10. Perception and management of fever in infants up to six months of age: A survey of US pediatricans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markson Leona E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fever is an increase in the body's temperature above normal. This study examined how US pediatricians perceive and manage fever generally versus fever occurring after vaccination in infants up to six months of age. Methods A web-based survey of 400 US pediatricians subscribing to the Physician Desk Reference was conducted in December 2008. Data were collected on the respondents' socio-demographics, number of years in practice, type of practice, their definition of fever severity in infants, and their recommendations for managing fever. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the odds of a pediatrician recommending an emergency room visit (ER or a hospital admission, office visits, or other treatment option, as a function of infant's age, temperature, whether the infant has recently received a vaccine, and whether the fever was reported during or after office hours, adjusting for practice type and socio-demographic variables. Results On average, the 400 responding pediatricians' (64% were female, average age of 49 years, years in practice = 20 years threshold for extremely serious fever was ≥39.5°C and ≥ 40.0°C for infants 0-2 month and >2-6 month of age respectively. Infants were more likely to be referred to an ER or hospital admission if they were ≤ 2 months of age (Odds Ratio [OR], 29.13; 95% Confidence interval [95% CI], 23.69-35.82 or >2-4 months old (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.99-3.81 versus > 4 to 6 months old or if they had a temperature ≥ 40.0°C (OR 21.06; 95% CI 17.20-25.79 versus a temperature of 38.0-38.5°C. Fever after vaccination (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.25-0.33 or reported during office hours (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.15-0.20 were less likely to result in referral to ER or hospital admission. Conclusion Within this sample of US pediatricians, perception of the severity of fever in infants, as well as the response to infant fever are likely to depend on the infant's age. Recommendations for the management

  11. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  12. Developmental Changes in Visual Object Recognition between 18 and 24 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined developmental changes in children's visual recognition of common objects during the period of 18 to 24 months. Experiment 1 examined children's ability to recognize common category instances that presented three different kinds of information: (1) richly detailed and prototypical instances that presented both local and…

  13. A Psychobiological Perspective on Working Memory Performance at 8 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fifty 8-month-old infants participated in a study of the interrelations among cognition, temperament, and electrophysiology. Better performance on a working memory task (assessed using a looking version of the A-not-B task) was associated with increases in frontal-parietal EEG coherence from baseline to task, as well as elevated levels of…

  14. Respiratory Movement Patterns during Vocalizations at 7 and 11 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present investigation was designed to study the modulation of abdomen and rib cage movements during vocalization over a period of development associated with rapid decreases in the compliance of the chest wall. Method: Rib cage and abdominal kinematics were recorded during spontaneous vocalizations in 7- and 11-month old infants.…

  15. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months...

  16. Behavioral reactivity to emotion challenge is associated with cortisol reactivity and regulation at 7, 15, and 24 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2014-04-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli have been largely unsuccessful in eliciting cortisol responses in young children. Whether or not emotion challenge will elicit a cortisol response, however, may in part be determined by the extent to which the tasks elicit behavioral reactivity and regulation. We examined relations of behavioral reactivity and regulation to emotional arousal in the context of fear and frustration to the cortisol response at 7, 15, and 24 months of age in a low income, rural population based sample of 1,292 families followed longitudinally from birth. At each age, children participated in fear and frustration inducing tasks, and cortisol samples were taken at three time points (before the tasks began, 20 min following peak emotional arousal or after the series of tasks ended, and 40 min after peak arousal or the tasks ended) in order to capture both increases (reactivity) and subsequent decreases (regulation) in the cortisol response. Using multilevel models, we predicted the cortisol response from measures of behavioral reactivity and regulation. At 7 months of age, cortisol reactivity and recovery were related to behavioral reactivity during a frustration-eliciting task and marginally related to behavioral reactivity during a fear-eliciting task. At 15 and 24 months of age, however, cortisol reactivity and recovery were related only to behavioral reactivity during a fear-eliciting task. Results indicate that while behavioral reactivity is predictive of whether or not infants and young children will exhibit a cortisol response to emotionally arousing tasks, behavioral and cortisol reactivity are not necessarily coupled.

  17. The role of verbal labels on flexible memory retrieval at 12-months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S

    2016-11-01

    The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval.

  18. Creatinine related reference ranges for urinary homovanillic acid and vanillylmandelic acid at 6 months of age.

    OpenAIRE

    M Cole; Parker, L.; Craft, A W; Bell, S.; G. Dale; McGill, A C; Seviour, J. A.; Smith, J

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and creatinine in the urine of 6 month old babies has been studied and reference ranges in the form of centiles constructed for HVA and VMA against creatinine. Over 10,000 urine samples were collected from babies in four health districts in the north of England. HVA and VMA concentration, either independently or when divided by creatinine concentration, were dependent upon the absolute concentration of creatinine i...

  19. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  20. The risk of fever following one dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged ≥6 months to <36 months: a comparison of published and unpublished studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Marlena C; Duong, Uyen T; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Kelly, Heath A

    2013-11-01

    There are limited summary data published on the risk of fever and febrile seizures in children following influenza vaccination. We performed a review of the risk of fever and febrile seizures following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children aged ≥6 months to fever. We reviewed articles and collated results using a standard data extraction template. We identified a total of 909 published papers and unpublished trials from a search conducted on 23 January 2013, 669 from Google Scholar, 114 from PubMed and 126 from the Clinicaltrials.gov online database. After excluding 890 published papers or unpublished trials, 5 published papers and 14 unpublished trials were included in this review. Extracted data on number of events, children at risk and time of follow-up were converted to the risk of fever, which was averaged per week of follow-up (referred to as 'averaged weekly risk'). Following one dose of TIV, the median averaged weekly risk of any fever (≥37.5°C) was 26.0% (range 10.3-70.0%) in unpublished trials compared to 8.2% (range 5.3-28.3%) in published papers (p=0.04). The median averaged weekly risk of severe fever (≥39.0°C) was 3.2% (range 0-10.0%) and 2.0% (range 0.6-17.0%), respectively (p=0.91). Variation in the reporting of fever by participant age groups, time since vaccination and the definition or measurement of fever resulted in a wide range of risk estimates. Reporting of febrile reactions should be standardised to allow comparison between manufacturers and influenza seasons.

  1. Brain growth in Down syndrome subjects 15 to 22 weeks of gestational age and birth to 60 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sidor, B; Wisniewski, K E; Shepard, T H; Sersen, E A

    1990-01-01

    We have found similarities of skull shape, brain growth and brain maturation in 17 DS and 10 non-DS (control) fetuses, ages 15-22 weeks of gestational age (Group A), and differences in 101 DS and 80 non-DS cases, from birth to 60 months (Group B). Postnatally, the gross neuropathological differences between DS and control brains are more distinct after 3-5 months of age. The anterior posterior diameter fronto-occipital length of the brain hemispheres is shortened and that is secondary to reduction of frontal lobe growth. Also flattening of occipital poles, narrowing of the superior temporal gyruses and generalized retardation of brain growth were common findings. Standard morphometric methods indicate changes from birth [Wisniewski et al. 1984, 1986, 1990]. The cerebral cortex of the DS cases had a 20-50% reduction of neurons since birth, mainly in the granular layers [Wisniewski et al. 1984, 1986, 1990]. Changes in brain weight with age were greater in the non-DS than in the DS cases, and greater in males than in females. CHD and GI malformations were associated with less brain weight in both DS and non-DS cases. We suggest that the prenatal retardation of neurogenesis begins after 22 weeks' gestational age. The postnatal retardation of brain growth is secondary to pre- and postnatal abnormalities in synaptogenesis.

  2. Educational outcome in adolescence following pyloric stenosis repair before 3 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G; Pedersen, Jacob K; Henneberg, Steen W

    2013-01-01

    Immature animals exposed to anesthetics display apoptotic neurodegeneration with subsequent long-term cognitive dysfunctions. Young age at anesthetic exposure is believed to be critical, but human studies are scarce. This study investigated the association between exposure to surgery and anesthes...

  3. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  4. Cord blood IgE. II. Prediction of atopic disease. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S;

    1992-01-01

    size with cord blood IgE less than 0.5 kU/l. A total of 762 infants were clinically evaluated at 18 months of age. A diagnosis of definite atopy, probable atopy or no atopy, including both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease was established. Applying different cord blood IgE cut-off values (0.3, 0.5, 0...

  5. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo,Elyonara M.; Rejane V. Gonçalves; Marisa C. Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulat...

  6. Dietary iron intake, serum ferritin and haemoglobin levels, and cognitive development scores of infants aged 6–8 months

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    Dian Kusumadewi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency during infancy may lead to negative effect on cognitive function and psychomotor development. This study aimed to investigate serum ferritin, haemoglobin level and its relation to cognitive development score in infants aged 6–8 months.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 76 infants recruited from several selected community health center in Kampung Melayu Village, Jatinegara Jakarta who had fulfilled the study criteria. Data collected consist of age, weight, height, head circumference, energy, protein and iron intake, serum feritin levels, haemoglobin levels and cognitive development score using Capute Scales method (Cognitive Adaptive Test/ Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scales/ CAT-CLAMS.Results: Among 74 infants aged 6-8 months, 73% had less dietary iron intake as compared to its RDA (7 mg/d, 18.9% were with serum ferritin less than normal value (20 μg/L, and 56.7% with haemoglobin levels less than normal value (11 mg/dL. In relation to cognitive development score, this study revealed that the CAT score was significantly lower among subjects with hemoglobin value less than 11 mg/dL (p = 0.026.Conclusion: Early prevention of impaired cognitive development is urgently needed by providing iron-rich complementary foods to infants since 6 months (mo old to maintain the normal level of hemoglobin. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:46-9Keywords: cognitive score, ferritin, hemoglobin, infants

  7. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

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    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  8. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  9. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M.; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  10. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Wei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Liu, Shuyun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Mei [Hanyang Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ye, Linxiang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: lwq95@126.com [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yikai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  11. Verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 24-month follow-up

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    Rosalia Giustolisi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined therapy with Photodynamic Therapy with Verteporfin (PDT-V and intravitreal ranibizumab same-day compared with monotherapy with ranibizumab (three monthly injections for the treatment of the choroidal neovascularization (CNV due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Type of study : open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT. Materials and Methods: 17 eyes of 17 patients were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to ranibizumab intravitreal injection + PDT compared with a control group of 30 eyes of 30 patients treated with only ranibizumab 0.5mg in three monthly injections. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT on optical coherence tomography were examined before and after treatment. Patients were followed-up for twelve months. Results: in the combined therapy group, the mean baseline BCVA is 32.6 letters, at 24-months after treatment it’s 31.4 letters with a loss of 1.2 letters. The mean central thickness at baseline is 314.6 µm. After twenty four months the mean CMT is 222.5 µm, with mean CMT reduction of 92.1µm. In the ranibizumab-alone group, the mean baseline BCVA is 29.1 letters at 24-months it’s 28.6 letters with a little loss of 0.5 letters. The mean baseline CMT is 297.6 µm, at 24-months it is 235.9 µm, with mean CMT reduction of 61,7µm. Conclusions: the two treatments showed the same efficacy from a functional and anatomic point of view with a less number of retreatments in the combined therapy group. There were no serious ocular adverse events such as retinal detachment, endophthalmitis or ocular hypertone.

  12. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-08-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems.

  13. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F;

    2015-01-01

    towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  14. Survey of 82 cases of meningitis in infants under 2 months of age

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    Fatehi I

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review 82 infants under two months with bacterial meningitis admitted in Tehran University's hospitals during a 14 year period. Male to female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The patterns of predominance among bacterial pathogens changed during the period of study. During the first six years the most common pathogens were Salmonella-SP., but during the later years E.coli became the predominant pathogen, and also meningitis caused by GBS and Staph. epidermidis was observed. The case fatality rate was 37.8 percent. The antibiogram revealed that E.coli were hundred percent resistant to ampicillin and 50% resistant to gentamicin, 40% of all bacteria isolated were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. These findings provide guidelines for the selection of empiric antimicrobial agents in our country

  15. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2015-01-01

    ) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...... towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score...

  16. Bone measurements of infants in the first 3 months of life by quantitative ultrasound: the influence of gestational age, season, and postnatal age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiang-peng [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wuxi Hospital for Maternal and Children' s Health Care, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Wei-li; He, Jiamin [Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jian-hua; Huang, Ping [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai (China)

    2005-09-01

    There are a few quantitative ultrasound (QUS) studies of bone status for Chinese children. To evaluate the clinical application and to investigate the bone status of neonates and young infants with QUS. An ultrasound bone sonometer was used to measure the bone speed of sound (SOS) of the tibia in 542 neonates within 3 months of birth. At birth, no significant difference of SOS was found between boys and girls, but there was a significant difference of SOS between premature infants and full-term infants. The SOS in neonates born during spring and summer was significantly lower than those born during autumn and winter. There were significant correlations between SOS and gestational age, and between bone SOS and birth weight in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Multiple regression analysis found that gestational age and infant birth season were two important factors influencing SOS. During the first 3 months, there was no significant difference in SOS between sexes. The SOS of infants showed an inverse correlation with postnatal age, and the decrease of bone SOS with age in premature infants was more marked than in full-term infants. QUS is suitable for evaluating bone status in infants with high precision. The study offers some basic data for neonates and young infants. (orig.)

  17. Incidence and risk factors of retreatment after three-monthly aflibercept therapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikushima, Wataru; Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kume, Atsuki; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Though anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has become the standard treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retreatment after the initial loading injection is inevitable in most eyes with residual or recurrent exudative changes. In the present study, we studied 140 treatment naïve eyes with typical neovascular AMD (n = 71) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) (n = 69) and investigated the incidence and risk factors of retreatment after 3-monthly intravitreal aflibercept injection for exudative AMD during the 12-month period. At 12 months, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly from 0.45 ± 0.39 to 0.26 ± 0.33 (P = 4.1 × 10−11). Multiple regression analysis revealed that better baseline BCVA (P = 3.6 × 10−14) and thicker subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.039) were associated with better BCVA at 12-months. Retreatment was required in 94 out of 140 (67.1%) eyes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (P = 7.2 × 10−3) and T-allele of ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) variants (P = 1.9 × 10−3) were associated with retreatment. Cox-regression analysis revealed that older age (P = 1.0 × 10−2) and T-allele of the ARMS2 gene (P = 6.0 × 10−3) were associated with retreatment-free period. The number of retreatment episodes was significantly different among the ARMS2 genotypes (P = 8.1 × 10−4). These findings might be helpful for physicians when considering the optimal treatment regimen for exudative AMD. PMID:28266609

  18. Atypical object exploration skills in infants at-risk for autism between 6 to 15 months of age

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    Maninderjit eKaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed after the second year of life. Early signs of ASD within the first year of life are still unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to compare object exploration skills between infants at-risk for ASD and typically developing (TD infants to determine early markers for autism within the first year of life. Sixteen at-risk infants and 16 TD infants were longitudinally followed from 6 to 15 months of age during an object exploration task involving three objects with distinct size, shape, and texture, i.e., a long rattle, a rigid circular ball, and a soft circular koosh ball. All sessions were videotaped for coding of manual, oral, and visual exploration. We also obtained follow-up outcomes using various developmental questionnaires at 18 months and email follow-up on developmental delays/ASD diagnoses after the infants’ second birthdays. Our results showed object-based differences in exploration patterns that extend across both groups. We also noticed group differences for various object exploration behaviors across objects and ages. Specifically, at 6 months, at-risk infants showed less grasping of the rigid ball as well as less mouthing and greater looking at the rattle compared to TD infants. At 9 and 12 months, at-risk infants demonstrated significantly lower levels of purposeful dropping of all objects. Lastly, at 15 months, at-risk infants looked longer at the rattle and showed persistent mouthing of the rigid ball and rattle compared to TD infants. In addition, 10 out of 16 at-risk infants developed various motor, social, and language delays or ASD diagnoses at follow-up. Taken together, early context-dependent delays/abnormalities in object exploration could be markers for future developmental delays in infants at-risk for autism. Moreover, promoting early object experiences through socially embedded object play could have implications for

  19. Histological Study of the Caecal Tonsil in the Cecum of 4- 6 Months of Age White Leghorn Chicks

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    M. Rezaian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cecum, the largest part of chicken’s large intestine, has an important role in liquid absorption and cellulose digestion. It acts as a defensive organ as well due to the presence of large masses of diffuse and nodular lymphatic tissue in lamina propria and sub mucosa. The cecal tonsil activity has been proved to be depended on the activity of bursa of fabricious and thymus. As the bursa of fabricious and the thymus are exposed to involution through these ages, finding the changes (if any occur in the caecal tonsil has been our aims. Eighteen (18 healthy white leghorn chickens of 16, 20 and 24 weeks old were selected and fixed the samples of their caecal tonsils, thymuses and bursas of fabricious in 10% buffered formalin, immediately after slaughter. Routine histological laboratory methods were used and 6 µm sections were stained with hematoxylin- eosin staining method and studied under light microscope. The nodular units (ND width and height, ND fossulae’s lumen width, distribution areas of the lymphatic nodules and crypts of lieberkuhn /mm2 in the caecal tonsils, cortices and medullas diameters of the thymuses and the cortices and medullas diameters of lymphatic nodules, heights of plicas and No of nodules/ plica in the bursas of fabricious of all ages were measured and then analyzed with one way ANOVA test. In the cecal tonsils, the most important changes regarding with involution process was significant decline of lymphatic nodules/ mm2 of mucosal wall and nodular evacuation at 6 months ones, while thymuses decrease the cortical diameter at 5 months. No significant changes in regarding with involution process were shown in the bursas of fabricious through these ages and no changes in the sub epithelial lymphoid tissues of the cecal tonsils as well. By the results of this study, we come to know that the cecal tonsil growth can be depended on thymus and bursa of fabricious activity, since involution process is first begun in thymus at 5

  20. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  1. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rossi

    Full Text Available Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  2. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?

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    Mahama Saaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS, household dietary diversity score (HDDS, and food consumption score (FCS. Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth but not acute malnutrition (wasting with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition (, 95% CI: 0.31–0.94. Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet.

  3. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  4. Food and Nutrition Surveillance System/SISVAN: getting to know the feeding habits of infants under 24 months of age

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    Luciola de Castro Coelho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN is to monitor the food intake of individuals attended by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. The objective of this research was to identify the feeding practices of children under 24 months of age who were attended at Primary Healthcare Units (UBS, using SISVAN, and to assess the relationship with maternal sociodemographic profiles. A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to evaluate 350 children using the Food Consumption Marker Form of SISVAN, and maternal demographic data to identify sociodemographic profiles by exploratory factor analysis. Of the children assessed, 41.1% were under 6 months of age and 98.7% of those between 6 and 23 months had an inadequate intake. Two sociodemographic profiles were found: Profile 1 (mothers with lower income, less education, and recipients of the 'Bolsa Família' conditional family grant program associated with the consumption of water/tea, cow's milk and salty baby food; and Profile 2 (older mothers with many children and with a larger number of residents in the household associated with breast milk consumption (p = 0.048. The use of SISVAN made it possible to identify that children had inadequate feeding practices, and Profile 1 appears to be a risk profile for weaning.

  5. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz;

    2004-01-01

    : There was no significant difference in mean adjusted growth rates between the 2 groups: 84.0 mm/year in the FP group versus 86.4 mm/year in the SCG group (difference FP-SCG: -2.4 mm/year; 95% confidence interval: -6.6 to 1.8). Growth comparisons were independent of age, gender, previous use of steroid, or whether measured......, exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children...

  6. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  7. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days.

  8. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days. PMID:26941560

  9. Impact of low dose prenatal ethanol exposure on glucose homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rats aged up to eight months.

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    Megan E Probyn

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to alcohol prenatally has a myriad of detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. It is unknown whether chronic low-moderate exposure of alcohol prenatally has similar and lasting effects on the adult offspring's health. Using our recently developed Sprague-Dawley rat model of 6% chronic prenatal ethanol exposure, this study aimed to determine if this modest level of exposure adversely affects glucose homeostasis in male and female offspring aged up to eight months. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured in late fetal and postnatal life. The pancreas of 30 day old offspring was analysed for β-cell mass. Glucose handling and insulin action was measured at four months using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin challenge, respectively. Body composition and metabolic gene expression were measured at eight months. Despite normoglycaemia in ethanol consuming dams, ethanol-exposed fetuses were hypoglycaemic at embryonic day 20. Ethanol-exposed offspring were normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic under basal fasting conditions and had normal pancreatic β-cell mass at postnatal day 30. However, during a glucose tolerance test, male ethanol-exposed offspring were hyperinsulinaemic with increased first phase insulin secretion. Female ethanol-exposed offspring displayed enhanced glucose clearance during an insulin challenge. Body composition and hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue metabolic gene expression levels at eight months were not altered by prenatal ethanol exposure. Low-moderate chronic prenatal ethanol exposure has subtle, sex specific effects on glucose homeostasis in the young adult rat. As aging is associated with glucose dysregulation, further studies will clarify the long lasting effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  10. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

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    Geok Lin Khor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119 of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%; (ii minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%; (iii consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%; and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%. While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4% and iron (71.4%, lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3% and energy (56.3%. The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87 (p = 0.000 among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

  11. Beverage Consumption among U.S. Children Aged 0–24 Months: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374

  12. Knowledge on practice of weaning among the mothers with infant below six months of age in Salem, Tamilnadu

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    N Dhanasekaran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Weaning is essential to child nutrition, which reduce infant mortality rate and related malnutrition with healthy feeding practice. Hence the mothers are expected to be knowledgeable on weaning.Objectives: To assess the knowledge on practice of weaning, to compare the knowledge on practice and to find out association between the knowledge scores of mothers with infant below 6 months with selected demographic variables.Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with cross sectional survey approach was undertaken to assess the knowledge on practice of weaning mothers with infant below 6 months of age in selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. Fifty mothers were selected by purposive sampling technique and data was collected by using structured interview schedule from 06/11/14 to 20/11/14.Results: Demographic characteristics reveal that highest percentage (84 % of them belongs to the Hindu religion and had one child below the 6 months of the age. Comparisons of the knowledge score with demography highest mean and SD in relation to family income Rs 4001 - 6000 shows that (14.7 ± 1.16. The Overall Mean knowledge score was (11.5 ± 3.26and (50 % revealing average knowledge. However there was significant association between knowledge score and education & type of family (P = 0.0151 & P = 0.0091 revealing that maximum demographic variables do not affected the level of knowledge.Conclusion: The overall knowledge is average. However lowest percentage in the areas of “principles of feeding and storage” and “age of introducing on weaning” were attention seeking, implying the necessity to improve the knowledge in regard to prevent malnutrition.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(1: 12-16

  13. Prenatal adversities and Latino children's autonomic nervous system reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers' adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13-14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father's absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers' prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring's parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring's heart rate trajectories (pnervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers' prenatal adverse experiences may program their children's physiologic trajectory to dampen their

  14. The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): A Normally Distributed Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits at 18-24 Months of Age--Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Charman, Tony; Richler, Jennifer; Pasco, Greg; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    We report a major revision of the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). This "quantitative" CHAT (Q-CHAT) contains 25 items, scored on a 5 point scale (0-4). The Q-CHAT was completed by parents of n = 779 unselected toddlers (mean age 21 months) and n = 160 toddlers and preschoolers (mean age 44 months) with an Autism Spectrum…

  15. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E vaccine against malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Lusingu, John; Olotu, Ally

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a pressing global health problem. A previous study of the malaria vaccine RTS,S (which targets the circumsporozoite protein), given with an adjuvant system (AS02A), showed a 30% rate of protection against clinical malaria in children 1 to 4 years of age....... We evaluated the efficacy of RTS,S given with a more immunogenic adjuvant system (AS01E) in children 5 to 17 months of age, a target population for vaccine licensure. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial of RTS,S/AS01E vaccine as compared with rabies vaccine in children in Kilifi...... vaccine or the control (rabies) vaccine. Among the 809 children who completed the study procedures according to the protocol, the cumulative number in whom clinical malaria developed was 32 of 402 assigned to receive RTS,S/AS01E and 66 of 407 assigned to receive the rabies vaccine; the adjusted efficacy...

  16. Mother-infant interactions of teen-age mothers as measured at six months in a natural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, S; Clark, C; Schubert, J; Jillings, C

    1983-11-01

    Mother-infant interaction of 14 teen-age mothers and their six-month-old infants was observed in the home and compared with that of 12 women 20 years or older and their infants. A further group was designated a "noncontact" group and was seen only at the beginning and end of the first year and was a control for research intervention or experimenter effects. Teen-agers showed few significant differences from older mothers in their mothering skills as measured by simple frequency distributions of individual behaviors and social interaction. Transitional probabilities and flow of interaction matrixes also revealed few significant differences. Like previous studies, the present study found that teen-age mothers showed high warmth and physical interaction but low verbal interaction with their infants. Support of the mothers through experience in the observational sessions may have influenced the results. The possibility is noted of differences in patterns of mothering as the infant develops.

  17. Postpartum Depression Frequency and Quality of Life Among a Group of Mothers Having a Child Aged 2 Weeks-18 Months

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    Elif Durukan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to determine the frequency of postpartum depression (PPD, its correlates and the effect on the quality of life.Material and Methods: This study was conducted among 708 mothers having a child aged 2 weeks-18 months. A questionnaire on descriptive features and PPD risk factors; Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF quality of life scale were used for the data collection. Results: The rate of PPD frequency was 15%. The gestational age, mental problems and anxiety during pregnancy, emotional changes in the premenstrual period, past depression/PPD history, depression/PPD history in the family, satisfaction with the marriage, thinking that the baby affected the marriage adversely were the factors related with PPD. The quality of life was lower in women with PPD than those without PPD.Conclusion: The frequency of PPD is quite high and PPD is decreasing the quality of life of the mother.

  18. Associations of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy with Offspring Adiposity from Birth Until 54 Months of Age

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    Ling-Wei Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies linking maternal diet with offspring adiposity have focused on single nutrients or foods, but a dietary pattern approach is more representative of the overall diet. We thus aimed to investigate the relations between maternal dietary patterns and offspring adiposity in a multi-ethnic Asian mother–offspring cohort in Singapore. We derived maternal dietary patterns using maternal dietary intake information at 26–28 weeks of gestation, of which associations with offspring body mass index (BMI, abdominal circumference (AC, subscapular skinfold (SS, and triceps skinfold (TS were assessed using longitudinal data analysis (linear mixed effects (LME and multiple linear regression at ages 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 months. Three dietary patterns were derived: (1 vegetables-fruit-and-white rice (VFR; (2 seafood-and-noodles (SfN; and (3 pasta-cheese-and-bread (PCB. In the LME model adjusting for potential confounders, each standard deviation (SD increase in maternal VFR pattern score was associated with 0.09 mm lower offspring TS. Individual time-point analysis additionally revealed that higher VFR score was generally associated with lower postnatal offspring BMI z-score, TS, SS, and sum of skinfolds (SS + TS at ages 18 months and older. Maternal adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of fast food was associated with lower offspring adiposity.

  19. Iron Deficiency and Iron-deficiency Anemia in Toddlers Ages 18 to 36 Months: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carina; Harpaz, Shira; Muklashi, Isam; Lumelsky, Nadia; Komisarchik, Ina; Katzap, Ilia; Abu Hanna, Manhal; Koren, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    In young children, iron deficiency (ID)-the most common cause of anemia-may adversely affect long-term neurodevelopment and behavior. We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in 256 healthy 18- to 36-month-old children in Northern Israel. Complete blood count and ferritin evaluation were performed, and risk factors were assessed. Hemoglobin (Hgb) was compared with first-year routine screening. Complete data were obtained from 208 children: 56.2% were boys; the mean age was 26.1±5.27 months. A prevalence of 5.8% IDA, 16.3% ID without anemia, 9.6% anemia with normal ferritin, and 68.3% normal Hgb and ferritin was found. In nonanemic infants at 1 year of age (n=156), ID/IDA was found in 19.9%, and 12.8% became anemic at study evaluation. Despite iron supplementation in the first year, and normal Hgb at first-year screening, ID and IDA were still prevalent, and might develop during the second year of life. Recognition of this child subset and consideration of iron supplementation are mandatory.

  20. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  1. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

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    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  2. Curative effects of probing alone and probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital duct obstruction of children from 3-12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sun; Sui-Fang Chen; Jing Li; Huan-Huan Zhao; Su-Zhen Xie; Xue-Lin Huang; Shu-Ke Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the 1-time success rate of probing alone and nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in young children. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on 494 cases (647 eyes) of 3–12 month-old children with CNLDO between July 2014 and July 2015. Material obtained from the lacrimal sac was cultured to isolate infectious agents. Susceptibility testing was done. Children from 3–12 months of age who were found to be sensitive to Levofloxacin (n=493 eyes) were separated into two groups: 3–6 months of age (276 eyes) and 7–12 months of age (217 eyes). Each of the groups were then randomized into group A (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 102 eyes of 7–12 months of age) and group B (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 115 eyes of 7–12 months of age). Children in group A underwent nasolacrimal duct probing alone; those in group B underwent nasolacrimal duct probing plus nasolacrimal duct injection of levofloxacin and the efficacy of probing was evaluated. Results: The average detection rate of pathogenic bacteria in dacryocystitis was 75.1%, andStaphylococcus aureuswas found to be the main pathogenic bacteria (42.59%, 106 cases). Among children from 7–12 months of age, the 1-time success rate of nasolacrimal duct probing alone was 88.24% and the 1-time success rate of probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin ophthalmic gel was 96.52% (statistical signiifcance, P=0.02<0.05). Conclusions: Most pathogenic bacteria (96.81%) were sensitive to levofloxacin. Nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin may improve the success rate of probing in children older than 6 months of age.

  3. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

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    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment were used for evaluating psychosocial development and social emotional status respectively. Spending time with play, peer groups and physical activity were evaluated twice and investaged with respect to possible relationship with psychosocial development.Results: According the current study results; six months after the diagnosis of ALL, children’s social emotional problems were increased, competence was decreased, fine motor and social development-self care ability were regressed.Conclusions: In early develomental stage, even 6 months after the diagnosis, ALL is a risk factor for psychosocial development and emotional state. Social isolation due to neutropenia seems to have important side effect on the behaviour. In the future studies there is a great need of longidutional research as if that side effect will be permanent. In the mean time during the hospitalization and isolation process, children need environmental stimulations. Care givers should be informed and guided about the ways which support development. If needed, children should be directed to special education programs. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 13-6

  4. Therapeutic targeting of the IL-12/23 pathways: generation and characterization of ustekinumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jacqueline M; Sachs, Clifford W; Treacy, George; Zhou, Honghui; Pendley, Charles E; Brodmerkel, Carrie M; Shankar, Gopi; Mascelli, Mary A

    2011-07-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies conducted in the mid-1990s reported strong association and causality between the T-cell helper (T(H)) 1 inductor cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 and numerous immune-mediated disorders, which spurred the development of therapeutic agents targeting IL-12 function. One of the first to enter the clinic, ustekinumab, is a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to the p40 subunit of IL-12. Subsequent to the generation of ustekinumab, it was discovered that IL-23 also contains the p40 subunit. Thus, although ustekinumab was designed to target IL-12, it also modulates IL-23, a cytokine important to the development and/or maintenance of T(H)17 cells. Clinical observations established that IL-12/23p40 is integral to the pathologies of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and Crohn's disease. The molecular and cellular evaluations conducted in ustekinumab clinical programs have provided numerous insights into the pathologic processes of these disorders, illustrating how a novel molecular entity can contribute to our understanding of disease. The individual contributions of these cytokines to specific pathologies require investigation and clinical evaluation of the role of IL-12- and IL-23-specific inhibitors.

  5. The duration of diarrhea and fever is associated with growth faltering in rural Malawian children aged 6-18 months

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    Trehan Indi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition support programs that only focus upon better complementary feeding remain an insufficient means of limiting growth faltering in vulnerable populations of children. To determine if symptoms of acute infections correlate with the incidence of growth faltering in rural Malawian children, the associations between fever, diarrhea, and cough with anthropometric measures of stunting, wasting, and underweight were investigated. Data were analyzed from a trial where 209 children were provided with adequate complementary food and followed fortnightly from 6-18 months of age. Linear mixed model analysis was used to test for associations. Diarrheal disease was inversely associated with changes in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ, mid-upper arm circumference Z-score (MUACZ, and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ. Fever was also inversely associated with changes in MUACZ and WAZ. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce febrile and diarrheal diseases are needed in conjunction with improved complementary feeding to limit growth faltering in rural Malawi.

  6. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  7. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range 38

  8. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  9. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  10. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  11. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  12. Is monthly retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin® necessary in neovascular age-related macular degeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola G Ghazi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nicola G Ghazi, Tyler Q Kirk, Robert M Knape, James S Tiedeman, Brian P ConwayDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To report our short-term experience with bevacizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD and recommend a new treatment strategy.Methods: Retrospective chart review of 29 consecutive patients receiving 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab for AMD and completing 12 weeks of follow up. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT central macular thickness. Injections were repeated if no further improvement was observed.Results: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients were included. The average BCVA improved from 20/148 at baseline to 20/106 at twelve weeks (P = 0.041. Of the 29 eyes, 25 (86.2% had stable or improved BCVA. Average mean central macular thickness measured by OCT improved from 351 μm at baseline to 278 μm at 12 weeks (P = 0.003. Stabilization of vision and improved OCT central macular thickness were maintained for at least eight weeks following only a single injection in the majority of eyes. During the three months of follow up, only five eyes (17.2% required repeat injections, with only three (10.3% requiring retreatment at eight weeks and none at four weeks. No significant ocular or systemic side effects were observed. Conclusion: This short-term data suggests that bevacizumab appears to be a safe and effective treatment for neovascular AMD. Injections as frequent as every month do not appear to be necessary since initial treatment effect appears to be maintained for at least eight weeks in almost all of our patients.Keywords: retina, Avastin®, bevacizumab, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, AMD

  13. Sex-based comparison of limb segmentation in ostriches aged 14 months with and without tibiotarsal rotation : research note

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    R.G. Cooper

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose equations to predict changes that occur over time in the angular position of the bones during motion and the angular velocity of the bones in forward motion as a consequence of tibiotarsal rotation (TTR in ostriches aged 14 months.Twenty-four normal 14-month-old ostriches (12 cocks and 12 hens and 20 birds with TTR (9 cocks and 11 hens were used in the study. Daily readings of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, the lengths of the different segments of the legs and wings, the perpendicular height from the top of the torso to ground level and the length of the erect neck were recorded. Measurements of the degree of valgus deformity in the left foot were made where applicable. TTR hens and cocks were smaller in stature than normal birds. Comparing TTR hens and cocks, the toe, claw, humerus, perpendicular height and angle of rotation were larger in cocks, indicating a larger body in cocks. Hens were more severely affected by TTR. We suggest that the equations used in this study will assist in measuring movement of ostriches and how movement is compromised by overcrowding and TTR. Birds suffering from TTR may experience an increased degree of stress due to movement restrictions in confinement.

  14. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... months of age the mortality rate ratio of children who received two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those who received a single dose of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine or Schwarz vaccine at 9 months of age was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1...

  15. Satisfactory safety and immunogenicity of MSP3 malaria vaccine candidate in Tanzanian children aged 12–24 months

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    Segeja Method D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development and deployment of an effective malaria vaccine would complement existing malaria control measures. A blood stage malaria vaccine candidate, Merozoite Surface Protein-3 (MSP3, produced as a long synthetic peptide, has been shown to be safe in non-immune and semi-immune adults. A phase Ib dose-escalating study was conducted to assess the vaccine's safety and immunogenicity in children aged 12 to 24 months in Korogwe, Tanzania (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00469651. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose escalation phase Ib trial, in which children were given one of two different doses of the MSP3 antigen (15 μg or 30 μg or a control vaccine (Engerix B. Children were randomly allocated either to the MSP3 candidate malaria vaccine or the control vaccine administered at a schedule of 0, 1, and 2 months. Immunization with lower and higher doses was staggered for safety reasons starting with the lower dose. The primary endpoint was safety and reactogenicity within 28 days post-vaccination. Blood samples were obtained at different time points to measure immunological responses. Results are presented up to 84 days post-vaccination. Results A total of 45 children were enrolled, 15 in each of the two MSP3 dose groups and 15 in the Engerix B group. There were no important differences in reactogenicity between the two MSP3 groups and Engerix B. Grade 3 adverse events were infrequent; only five were detected throughout the study, all of which were transient and resolved without sequelae. No serious adverse event reported was considered to be related to MSP3 vaccine. Both MSP3 dose regimens elicited strong cytophilic IgG responses (subclasses IgG1 and IgG3, the isotypes involved in the monocyte-dependant mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum parasite-killing. The titers reached are similar to those from African adults having reached a state of premunition. Furthermore, vaccination induced seroconversion in

  16. Assessing the Efficacy of Tadalafil in Reducing Pulmonary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents Aged 5 Months-15 Years

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    MR Alipour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children has consequences such as right ventricular failure and even death. Recently, the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors has been taken into account in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, among which tadalafil is more acceptable by parents and patients due to its single dose per day compared to sildenafil which should be taken 4 times a day. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tadalafil on reducing pulmonary artery pressure in children and adolescents aged 5 months to 15 years old. Methods: This before and after type study entailed 20 patients of 5-month to 15-year with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had outpatient visits in Yazd Khatam-L-Anbiya clinic during 2013-2014. The participants were diagnosed by echocardiography, considering that they had not ever received any pulmonary arterial pressure lowering medicine up to now, whose congenital heart disease were inoperable. They were then treated using a single dose of oral tadalafil for 6 months. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Mean of pulmonary arterial pressure before and six months after taking tadalafil were 52.30 ± 7.948 mmHg and 33/55 ± 10/34 mmHg, respectively, which on average it was decreased by 18.75 mmHg(pv<0.0001. The mean of arterial oxygen saturation was reported %82.45 ± 7.14 and %86.25 ± 6.496 before and after taking tadalafil, respectively which was increased by 3.9% (pv<0.0001. The severity of tricuspid failure was reduced from moderate to mild level. No serious complication was observed leading to drug discontinuation in the patients’ follow-ups. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that tadalafil drug is effective on the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension within children and adolescents. Moreover, it can be used instead of sildenafil, due to its single dose per day.

  17. Non-nutritive sucking habits, anterior open bite and associated factors in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Flávia Maria Nassar de; Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Heimer, Mônica Vilela; Ferreira, Angela Maria Brito; Katz, Cíntia Regina Tornisiello; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite as well as their main causes (associated factors) in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Day for polio in the city of Recife in the northeastern region of Brazil. The sample was made up of 1,308 children. Data were collected from interviews with mothers or guardians as well as from clinical examinations carried out by previously trained dental students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis at 5% significance level. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits was 40%, and the habits were associated with gender (p=0.001), age (p=0.003) and feeding type (psucking habits (psucking habits and anterior open bite emphasize the need to establish strategies that include orientation regarding health promotion based on the “common determining factors” approach. Public health policies should be adopted to encourage a longer duration of breastfeeding, thereby contributing towards reducing the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite.

  18. Factors associated with stunting among children of age 24 to 59 months in Meskan district, Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fikadu, Teshale; Assegid, Sahilu; Dube, Lamessa

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting is one of the major causes of morbidity among under-five children Knowledge about risk factors of stunting is an important precondition for developing and strengthening nutritional intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with stunting among children of age 24 to 59 months in Meskan District of Gurage Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods Community based case-control study was conducted among children of age 24 to 59 months. A multistage ...

  19. The Effect(s of Vitamin A on Persistent Wheezing after Bronchiolitis in Infants Aged 1-12 Months

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    S Sharafian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causeS of lower respiratory tract infection and almost responsible for 1-3% of hospitalization among children under one year of age. Post bronchiolitis wheezing is the main risk factor for childhood asthma, and its control can decrease incidence of the disease in future. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin A on persistent wheezing after bronchiolitis. Methods: The present double blind clinical trial was conducted on 84 patients aged 1 to 12 months of age who were admitted in Imam Sajad Hospital of Yasuj from October 2012 to 2013. After viral bronchiolitis diagnosis of patients with history and physical exam, they were divided into two similar groups of control and case randomly. Control group received cold and wet nebulized oxygen and bronchodilator and case group received the same protocol together with 5000 IU/kg Vitamin A intramascularlly. Both groups were examined by the same physician before, one and two weeks after treatment and quality and severity of wheezing was recorded. Data were analyzed by statistical student T – test and chi square test. Results: Intensity and quality of wheezing was similar in both groups before the intervention(85/0 = p=0.858 whereas a significant reduction was observed in the severity of wheezing in the group receiving vitamin A compared with the control group (05/0> p<0.05. Conclusion: A significant decrease was observed in persistent wheezing after intramascular administration of a dose of vitamin A in patients requiring hospitalization due to viral bronchiolitis. Administrating one dose vitamin A intramuscularly in patients who need hospitalization due to bronchiolitis, may decrease post bronchiolitis and persistent wheezing.

  20. 17 CFR 210.12-23 - Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... and Content of Schedules § 210.12-23 Mortgage loans on real estate and interest earned on mortgages. 1 Part 1—Mortgage loans on real estate at close of period Column A—List by classification indicated...

  1. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

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    N. Akhter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modifications aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was significantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de

  2. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat...

  3. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children w

  4. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency

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    Marcia Cristina Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Method: Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraiba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50. The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, hematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein > 6 mg/L were excluded. Results: Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. Conclusion: The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron, suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency.

  5. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

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    Ruiz-Beltran Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.

  6. The relationship between spasticity in young children (18 months of age with cerebral palsy and their gross motor function development

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    Verschuren Olaf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that spasticity has an influence on the development of functional motor abilities among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The extent to which spasticity is associated with the change in motor abilities in young children with CP has not been established. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of initial spasticity in young children with CP and their gross motor function development over one year. Methods Fifty children with CP aged 18 months, GMFCS-levels I-V participated in a longitudinal observational study. Change in gross motor functioning (GMFM-66 was measured over one year. The level of spasticity measured at the first assessment was determined with the Modified Tardieu Scale in three muscle groups of the lower extremity (adductor muscles, the hamstrings and the m. gastrocnemius. The Spasticity Total Score per child was calculated with a maximum score of 12 points. Results Spearman's Rho Correlation (-0.28 revealed a statistically significant relationship (p Conclusion Our findings indicate that when measured over one year, spasticity is marginally related to gross motor function development in infants with CP. The initial level of spasticity is only one of the many child, environmental and family factors that determines gross motor development of a young child with CP.

  7. Immediate and longer term impact of the varicella shortage on children 18 and 24 months of age in a community population

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    Zimmerman Rick

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of the recent varicella vaccine shortage. To assess the temporal trend in varicella vaccine administration before 18 and 24 months of age in a community cohort of children prior to, during and after the recent varicella vaccine shortage. And to compare the temporal trends in varicella vaccinations to trends of an older, more widely accepted vaccine, the MMR. Methods Community population-based birth cohorts were identified who were eligible for the varicella vaccination before, during and after the 2001 to 2002 varicella vaccine shortage. Only children (84% of all who remained in the community through their second birthday were included. For each child in the cohort, the medical records and immunization registry records from both medical facilities in the county were reviewed to identify the dates and sites for all varicella immunizations given. In addition to varicella immunizations, the dates of all MMR vaccinations were recorded. Additional data abstracted included the child's birth date, gender and dates of any recognized cases of chickenpox up through age 24 months. Results Of the 2,512 children in the birth cohorts, 50.8% were boys. In the three cohorts combined, 81.1% of the boys and 79.3% of the girls (p = 0.30 received the varicella vaccine by age 24 months. The pre-shortage community rate of varicella immunization was 79.7% by 24 months of age. During the varicella vaccine shortage, the rate of varicella immunization by 24 months fell to 77.2%. Only 6 additional children received a "catch-up" immunization by 36 months of age. In the post shortage period the community 24-month immunization rate rebounded to a level higher than the pre-shortage rate 84.0%. During the almost three years of observation, the MMR immunization rate by age 24 months was constant (87%. Conclusion The varicella shortage was associated with an immediate drop in the 24-month varicella immunizations rate but

  8. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

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    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  9. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmen-tal degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the com-panies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into par-ticular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto- matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  10. The Impact of Age, Educational Background,Gender, and Monthly Expenditure on the Potential of Green Products Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Abdurachman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental degradation continues rising to lead a global warming. Without immediate prevention measures, this could bring the Earth into total breakdown. Therefore environmental preservation campaign buzzing for every element of the society to participate in the campaign. Number of people understand and care about environmental degradation and global warming is growing. Many people aim is to influence the lifestyle and consumption pattern of the society. The campaign is to attract and motivate the society to purchase environ mentally friendly goods which are also known as green products. The number of potential people to the purchase green products continues rising along with the spread of knowledge concerning the importance of conserving the environment. Such condition recognized by the companies. Therefore they start to consist them as the target market. One of the important marketing aspects is market segmentation. There are many ways and statistical methods to classifying consumers into particular segmentations; one of the methods is the Chi-squared Auto-matic Interaction Detector (CHAID. CHAID, it is implemented in this research for green product market segmentation (Segmentation result subsequently used to determination of the following strategic marketing measures. CHAID examines independent variables used in classification and arrangement process based on the level of chi-square statistical significance towards the dependent variable. Dependent variable used in this research is potential customer trend to purchase preference of green products. The result shows that significantly influential variables towards the potential of green products buyers are age, educational background, gender and their monthly amount of expenditure / spending.

  11. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatica Giovanna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months. Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

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    Tesfaye Fikru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child undernutrition is a major public health problem in low income countries. Prospective studies of predictors of infant growth in rural low-income country settings are relatively scarce but vital to guide intervention efforts. Methods A population-based sample of 1065 women in the third trimester of pregnancy was recruited from the demographic surveillance site (DSS in Butajira, south-central Ethiopia, and followed up until the infants were one year of age. After standardising infant weight and length using the 2006 WHO child growth standard, a cut-off of two standard deviations below the mean defined the prevalence of stunting (length-for-age Results The prevalence of infant undernutrition was high at 6 months (21.7% underweight, 26.7% stunted and 16.7% wasted and at 12 months of age (21.2% underweight, 48.1% stunted, and 8.4% wasted. Significant and consistent predictors of infant undernutrition in both logistic and linear multiple regression models were male gender, low birth weight, poor maternal nutritional status, poor household sanitary facilities and living in a rural residence. Compared to girls, boys had twice the odds of being underweight (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.39, 2.86 at 6 months, and being stunted at 6 months (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.69, 3.33 and at 12 months of age (OR = 2.08, 95%CI: 1.59, 2.89. Infant undernutrition at 6 and 12 months of age was not associated with infant feeding practices in the first two months of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of undernutrition in the first year of infancy in this rural Ethiopia population, with significant gender imbalance. Our prospective study highlighted the importance of prenatal maternal nutritional status and household sanitary facilities as potential targets for intervention.

  13. Association of breast feeding practice with worm infestation in children aged 0 -24 months in Calabar South Local Gov-ernment Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Ekabua; Kufre Ekabua; Martin Meremeku

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Reduction in child morbidity and mortality require improved knowledge about hygiene,baby feed-ing and childrearing practices,especially by mothers in low resource nations.The objectives of the study were to compare the prevalence of worm infestation between exclusively and non-exclusively breast -fed children and to determine the age at which exclusively breast -fed children child could be significantly infested with worms. Method:Systematic sampling of 196 mother-infants pairs was done.A pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection.Fresh stool samples collected from the children were examined using the cellophane thick faecal smear technique of Kato -Katz.Results:The difference in preva-lence of worm infestation within 6 months of age was not significant between the exclusively and non-exclusively breast feed children.Age of significant worm infestation for exclusively breast -fed infants was 13 months. Mother's educational level significantly influenced their de-worming practices.Conclusion:This study showed that breast milk does protect children in the first year of life against worm infestation;but the burden of infesta-tion becomes significant after 12 months of age.Mothers should be taught to de -worm their children from 13 months of age.

  14. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit May-Mederake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP, and Listening Progress Profile (LiP. Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK, reception of grammar test (TROG-D and active vocabulary test (AWST-R. The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation.

  15. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal

  16. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2014-08-29

    In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); ≥ 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); ≥ 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and ≥ 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for ≥ 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for ≥ 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), ≥ 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and

  17. Side effects of cellular and acellular DPT vaccine in children aged from 3 months to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmišević Smajil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Both mild and severe local and systemic postvaccination reactions are seen more rarely in infants immunized with DTPa than in those immunized with DTPw vaccine. Material and methods By analysis of medical records and follow-up of patients, the authors searched for sings of adverse effects of DPT vaccines, comparing cellular and acellular vaccines in children aged from three months to five years. The results of investigation were analyzed using X2. Results Out of the total number of 940 applied vaccines, 329 were cellular and 611 were acellular. Body temperature over 38.5oC occurred in 3% of children immunized with cellular DTPw, and vomiting occurred in 0.8% of those immunized with acellular DTPa vaccine. Vomiting occurred (more than five times in 0.9% of children immunized with DPTw and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa. Other undesirable symptoms like swelling, redness and pain in the arm were found in 0.6% of children immunized with DPTw, and in 0.32% of children immunized with DPTa; prolonged crying (three hours or longer was registered in 0.3% of cases immunized with DPTw, and in 0.16% of immunized with DPTa vaccine. Convulsions and collapse appeared only in 0.3% of children immunized with DPTw. Discussion Our investigation shows that local and generalized undesirable postvaccination reactions occurred in 5.4% of children immunized with DPTw and in 1.64 of children immunized with DPTa. The latest clinical investigations show that acellular pertussis vaccines are successful in prevention of pertussis and that they are quite safe for infants; in our investigations, local and generalized reactions were markedly rare in children immunized with DPTa. Conclusion Undesirable postvaccination reactions after application of acellular DPT vaccines are less frequent than it is described in relevant references. The most frequent postvaccination reactions was raised body temperature (38.5oC. Convulsions and collapses were not

  18. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens.

  20. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  1. Cord blood IgE. III. Prediction of IgE high-response and allergy. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S;

    1992-01-01

    size with cord blood IgE less than 0.5 kU/l. A total group of 762 infants were clinically evaluated at 18 months of age, and in 688 of these we evaluated total and specific IgE. A diagnosis of definite atopy, probable atopy or no atopy was established. In the present study we defined allergic disease...

  2. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early admi

  3. Asthma-like symptoms in the first year of life and health-related quality of life at age 12 months: The Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo, A.D.; Koning, H.J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Landgraf, J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Raat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares HRQOL among subgroups of infants with asthma-like symptoms to a subgroup without such symptoms and examines independent associations between asthma-like symptoms during the first year of life and HRQOL at age 12 months. Methods: Our study sample included 5,000 infants pa

  4. Do interactions speak louder than words? Dialogic reading of an interactive tablet-based e-book with children between 16 months and three years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoche, Hendrik; Rasmussen, Niklas Ammitzbøl; Boldreel, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    the effect of interactive elements on speech production of 12 children between the ages of 16 and 33 months when engaged in individual dialogic reading sessions with a tablet-based e-book. Interaction with interactive elements did not reduce the children’s responses to dialogic reading prompts. Spontaneous...

  5. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  6. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  7. Maternal Thyroid Function during the Second Half of Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Chevrier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy alters fetal neurodevelopment among euthyroid offspring, little data are available from later in gestation. In this study, we measured free T4 using direct equilibrium dialysis, as well as total T4 and TSH in 287 pregnant women at 27 weeks' gestation. We also assessed cognition, memory, language, motor functioning, and behavior in their children at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Increasing maternal TSH was related to better performance on tests of cognition and language at 12 months but not at later ages. At 60 months, there was inconsistent evidence that higher TSH was related to improved attention. We found no convincing evidence that maternal TH during the second half of pregnancy was related to impaired child neurodevelopment.

  8. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Elfving

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission.We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (qPCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH (all patients and rectal (GE swabs (diarrhoea patients. For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated.NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98% and 153/164 (93% of patients and 158/166 (95% and 144/165 (87% of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677 had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342 had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%, influenza A/B (22.3%, rhinovirus (10.5% and group-A streptococci (6.4%, CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%, Shigella (4.3% were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83 without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74% patients, but only 152 (22% had an infection retrospectively considered to require

  9. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. Methods We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2–59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. Findings NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection

  10. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  11. Closure of the abdominal wall at the umbilicus and the development of umbilical hernias in a group of foals from birth to 11 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzerink, E; van Weeren, P R; van der Velden, M A

    2000-07-08

    The closure of the body wall defect at the umbilicus was studied in relation to the development of umbilical hernias in a group of 44 normal foals, 25 of which were followed from birth until five months of age, and 19 from birth until 11 months of age. At birth, 19 of the foals had a defect in the body wall at the umbilicus that was termed a 'palpable umbilical ring'. In 18 of them this defect disappeared within four days, but in the other the ring did not close and a hernial sac with abdominal contents was palpable. This foal was considered to be the only foal to have a truly congenital umbilical hernia. Twelve foals developed an umbilical hernia between five and eight weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias was much higher than in other studies, possibly owing to the prospective nature of the study.

  12. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Coordination in Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction from Age 4 to 10 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Vaever, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own…

  14. Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov, S; Vestergaard, Christian; Babirekere, E

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Mwanamugimu (Department of Paediatrics and Child Health), Uganda, 120 children were included over a period of six months and observed when treated for severe acute malnutrition. Skin changes were registered through clinical examination and photo documentation and associated...

  15. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Rubingh, C.M.; Lanting, C.L.; Joosten, K.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diarie

  16. Food consumption and nutrient intake by children aged 10 to 48 months attending day care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goldbohm; Rubingh, C.M. (Carina M.); C.I. Lanting (Caren); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and record

  17. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0–5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6–23 months of age. Approximately one‐fourth (24.6%) of children 6–23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty‐eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6–23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged. PMID:27061954

  18. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0-5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6-23 months of age. Approximately one-fourth (24.6%) of children 6-23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty-eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6-23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged.

  19. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeena, Prakash; Donald M Thea; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Matthew P Fox; H M Coovadia; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites ...

  20. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses.

  2. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7-24 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yang; Yue-Hui Liu; Ming-Fu Fu; Chun-Lin Li; Li-Yan Wang; Qi Wang; Xi-Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early auditory and speech development in home-based early intervention of infants and toddlers with hearing loss younger than 2 years are still spare in China.This study aimed to observe the development of auditory and speech in deaf infants and toddlers who were fitted with hearing aids and/or received cochlear implantation between the chronological ages of 7-24 months,and analyze the effect of chronological age and recovery time on auditory and speech development in the course of home-based early intervention.Methods:This longitudinal study included 55 hearing impaired children with severe and profound binaural deafness,who were divided into Group A (7-12 months),Group B (13-18 months) and Group C (19-24 months) based on the chronological age.Categories auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating scale (SIR) were used to evaluate auditory and speech development at baseline and 3,6,9,12,18,and 24 months of habilitation.Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic features and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance.Results:With 24 months of hearing intervention,78% of the patients were able to understand common phrases and conversation without lip-reading,96% of the patients were intelligible to a listener.In three groups,children showed the rapid growth of trend features in each period of habilitation.CAP and SIR scores have developed rapidly within 24 months after fitted auxiliary device in Group A,which performed much better auditory and speech abilities than Group B (P < 0.05) and Group C (P < 0.05).Group B achieved better results than Group C,whereas no significant differences were observed between Group B and Group C (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development.Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children.The development of auditory

  3. The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): a normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18-24 months of age: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Charman, Tony; Richler, Jennifer; Pasco, Greg; Brayne, Carol

    2008-09-01

    We report a major revision of the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). This quantitative CHAT (Q-CHAT) contains 25 items, scored on a 5 point scale (0-4). The Q-CHAT was completed by parents of n = 779 unselected toddlers (mean age 21 months) and n = 160 toddlers and preschoolers (mean age 44 months) with an Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC). The ASC group (mean (SD) = 51.8 (14.3)) scored higher on the Q-CHAT than controls (26.7 (7.8)). Boys in the control group (27.5 (7.8)) scored higher than girls (25.8 (7.7)). The intraclass correlation for test-retest reliability was 0.82 (n = 330). The distribution in the control group was close to normal. Full examination of the clinical validity of the Q-CHAT and test properties is underway.

  4. Electrophysiological assessment of retinal function during 6 months of bevacizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karen Bjerg; Møller, Flemming; Sjølie, Anne Katrin;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the alteration of retinal function by multifocal electroretinography and full-field electroretinography in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with bevacizumab. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study of 26 eyes of 26...

  5. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  6. The impact of bilingual language learning on whole-word complexity and segmental accuracy among children aged 18 and 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Laukys, Kathryn; Rvachew, Susan

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of 19 monolingual English children and 21 English?French bilingual children at 18 and 36 months. It contributes to the understanding of age-related changes to phonological complexity and to differences due to bilingual language development. In addition, preliminary normative data is presented for English children and English?French bilingual children. Five measures were targeted to represent a range of indices of phonological development: the phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) of the adult target, the pMLU produced by the child, the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP), proportion of consonants correct (PCC), and proportion of whole words correct (PWC). The measures of children's productions showed improvements from 18 to 36 months; however, the rate of change varied across the measures, with PWP improving faster, then PCC, and finally PWC. The results indicated that bilingual children can keep pace with their monolingual peers at both 18 months and 36 months of age, at least in their dominant language. Based on these findings, discrepancies with monolingual phonological development that one might observe in a bilingual child's non-dominant language could be explained by reduced exposure to the language rather than a general slower acquisition of phonology.

  7. Surgical treatment of developmental hip dislocation in children aged 1 to 3 years: a mean 18-year, 9-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Kevin E; Incavo, Stephen J; Haynes, Richard J; Dickson, Jesse H

    2010-03-01

    Forty-six consecutive patients with 57 congenitally dislocated hips were treated with open reduction and femoral or acetabular procedures as indicated. Patient age ranged from 12 to 36 months at the time of surgery. We evaluated the outcome of 38 of the 46 patients (83%) with 47 hips (83%) at a mean follow-up of 18 years, 9 months (range, 13 years, 7 months to 24 years, 7 months) after all patients had reached skeletal maturity.Using Severin's radiographic classification, 24 hips (52%) were rated as class I, 12 (26%) as class II, 8 (17%) as class III, 2 (4%) as class IV, and 0 as class V. The mean Iowa Hip Score was 92 points. One patient had significant abductor weakness and a Trendelenburg gait. The mean leg-length discrepancy was <1 cm. Disturbance in growth of the proximal aspect of the femur occurred in 10 hips (22%).In our experience, open reduction of the congenitally dislocated hip in children aged 1 to 3 years, combined with femoral or acetabular procedures, leads to successful clinical and radiographic results in most cases. These patients have an opportunity for normal hip function during childhood and the potential for a straightforward reconstructive procedure should they develop severe degenerative hip arthrosis.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Behavioral Stability and Change in Children 6-36 months of Age Using Louisville Twin Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Finkel, Deborah; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William

    2015-11-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development has been used to study behavioral development since the 1960s. Matheny (1983) examined behavioral development at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from the Louisville Twin Study (LTS). The extracted temperament scales included Task Orientation, Affect-Extraversion, and Activity. He concluded that monozygotic twins were more similar than same-sex dizygotic twins on these dimensions. Since this seminal work was published, a larger LTS sample and more advanced analytical methods are available. In the current analyses, Choleksy decomposition was applied to behavioral data (n = 1231) from twins 6-36 months. Different patterns of genetic continuity vs genetic innovations were identified for each IBR scale. Single common genetic and shared environmental factors explained cross-age twin similarity in the Activity scale. Multiple shared environmental factors and a single genetic factor coming on line at age 18 months contributed to Affect-Extraversion. A single shared environmental factor and multiple genetic factors explained cross-age twin similarity in Task Orientation.

  9. [Intestinal parasites in children aged 4-12 months attending day-care centers of Federal University-Uberlândia-MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbert-Ferreira, M; Costa-Cruz, J M

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to search for the presence of intestinal parasites in 56 suckling babies, ranging from 4 to 12 months in age hosted during the year of 1989 at the nursery kept by the "Universidade Federal de Uberlândia", at Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. From each child a foecal sample was collected and preserved in 10% formalin until processed, what was done by the Hoffman, Pons and Janer's method, in which the sediment is stained by lugol solution. For each sample 6 slides were prepared and examined, what added up to a total of 336 slides. The percentual of positivity was 23.21%, including 17.85% Ancylostomidae eggs, 5.36% Giardia lamblia and 1.78% Endolimax nana. Only one child presented the associated infections of Ancylostomidae and Giardia lamblia. In what host age is concerned, one child was shown to be infected by Ancylostomidae after it reached 6 months; generally speaking there was evidence of an increase of parasitic infections of hosts beyond the age of 9 months. The above results point out to the necessity of searching for the presence of parasitic intestinal infections covering suckling babies in public nurseries, by means of foecal semestral examinations,even when such babies do not manifest clinical signs of parasitism, in order that adequate treatment and preventive sanitary measures may be adopted to avoid or suppress ambiental contamination with the causative organisms.

  10. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  11. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P regions of China.

  12. Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

    2014-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264.

  13. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau Yun Chong

    Full Text Available Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044. Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85 for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32 when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53 but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53 when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

  14. Relationship Between Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Growth and Semen Quality Parameters in Guzerat Breed Bulls, from Puberty to 36 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Pérez Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between scrotal circumference size and sperm characteristics in 194 males of Guzerat breed. Methods: The bulls were divided by age groups from 12 to 36 months of age. The length and width of the testicle and scrotal circumference were measured. Semen was collected from the animals that showed a circumference ≥ 19 cm through transrectal electrostimulation in order to induce ejaculation. The characteristics assessed in the semen were motility, speed, sperm concentration and presence of rounded cells. Results: the correlation between the scrotal circumference with the sperm motility by group of age was positive (r = 0.94; p < 0.005. The present study showed that the presence of proximal cytoplasmic droplet, the rounded cells in the semen and the defects on the head of the spermatozoids are objective evaluation features, which can be used for early selection of sperm production in Guzerat males. Conclusions: The production of sperm with normal rates in the Guzerat breed is achieved when males reach the age of 28 months and a scrotal circumference close to 30 cm.

  15. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orivuori, L.; Mustonen, K.; de Goffau, M. C.; Hakala, S.; Paasela, M.; Roduit, C.; Dalphin, J. -C.; Genuneit, J.; Lauener, R.; Riedler, J.; Weber, J.; von Mutius, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Vaarala, O.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundGut microbiota and intestinal inflammation regulate the development of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies. Fecal calprotectin is a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. ObjectiveWe evaluated the association of early-age fecal calprotectin levels to the later development of allergi

  16. The Effect of a Six- Month Aerobic Exercise on Levels of GH, IGF-1 and GH/IGF-1 Ratio Serum in Sedentary Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bijeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, a number of researches have been carried out regarding the relationship between atherosclerosis and serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and different results were obtained. This study aimed to determine the effect of a six-month aerobic exercise on levels of GH, IGF-1 and GH/IGF-1 ratio serum in sedentary middle-aged women Methods: Nineteen healthy females, who were selected by convenience sampling method, were divided into two [active (n=11 and non-active (n=8] groups. The exercise protocol included aerobic exercise training lasted for 6 months and 3 sessions per week. Every session lasted for 60 minutes with intensity of 55-65 percent of heart rate reserve. Blood samples were taken and Serum IGF-1 and GH were measured before and after six months of aerobic training. To make intra and intergroup comparisons as well as to investigate the interactive effect, repeated measure analysis of variance were used. For all statistical comparisons, the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: This study demonstrated that the level of serum IGF-1 in middle-aged women decreased significantly (P=0.016. However, the levels of GH didn't change significantly during this period. Moreover, GH to IGF-1 ratio increased significantly (P=0.007. Conclusion: The study results indicated that six-month aerobic exercise led to a decrease on the levels of IGF-1 and did not make a change in GH serum in sedentary middle-aged women. In other words, doing aerobic exercises reduced IGF-1 levels that have a significant relationship with severity of a coronary disease and thus can prevent the atherosclerosis disease.

  17. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), from fish oil (FO), in rodents have been shown to reduce adipogenesis. Evidence of an effect on adipose tissue mass in humans is limited, and no studies have specifically aimed to elucidate this in infancy. To explore whether n-3 LCPUFA...

  18. Differences in object sharing between infants at risk for autism and typically developing infants from 9 to 15 months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2016-01-01

    Object sharing abilities of infants at risk for autism (AR infants) and typically developing (TD) infants were compared from 9 to 15 months of age. Specifically, we examined the effects of infants’ locomotor abilities on their object sharing skills. 16 TD infants and 16 AR infants were observed during an “object sharing” paradigm at crawling and walking ages. Overall, AR walking infants demonstrated lower rates of object sharing with caregivers compared to TD walking infants. Specifically, AR walking infants had lower rates of giving and approaches toward caregivers compared to TD walking infants. AR walking infants also had lower step rates toward task-appropriate targets, i.e. caregivers and objects compared to TD walking infants. No group differences in object sharing were observed at crawling ages. Object sharing could be a valuable context for early identification of delays in infants at risk for developing ASD. PMID:26803417

  19. Relation of stable hand-use preferences to the development of skill for managing multiple objects from 7 to 13 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Kathleen A; Ferre, Claudio L; Michel, George F

    2008-07-01

    Expression of multiple object management skills (manual acquisition and storage of objects) was examined longitudinally at 7, 9, 11, and 13 months for 38 infants (19 females) whose hand use preference was either stable (consistently right or left across the ages) or nonstable (either no hand-use preference exhibited or inconsistent preference across the ages). Four separate sets of four distinctive objects each were presented singly to the infant's right and left side, with the presentation of each subsequent object contingent on the infant manipulating the previous object. Expression of multiple object management skills significantly increased with age. Infants with stable hand-use preferences produced more object acquisition and storage acts than those without a stable hand-use preference. Older infants with stable hand-use preferences exhibited more "sophisticated" sequences of multiple object management acts than those without. The role of stable hand-use preference in the development of manual skill and cognition is discussed.

  20. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  1. Junk Food Consumption and Effects on Growth Status among Children Aged 6-24 Months in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

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    Rahim Vakili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Junk food, due to the lack of vitamins, minerals and trace amounts of energy and protein, there is the risk that the child's stomach filled and by reducing her/his appetite, reduce the chance of nutritious foods. So it is necessary to determine the relationship between using of junk food with growth rate in children. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 mothers and their babies , who were referring to 10 selected Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 months children. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling and valid and reliable   questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic statistics and using SPSS version 16. Results In growth chart, 86.7 percent of children showed appropriate growth, 10.3 percent had delayed growth and 3 percent had horizontal growth curve. In 11.3 percent of families, the junk food has been used for children regularly, 44.7 percent did not believe in these snacks and 44 percent of mothers sometimes used this junk food for their children. Results showed the statistical correlation between junk food consumption and  growth status of children was significant, so children whom haven’t had junk food, have grown more favorable than the other kids (P

  2. Self-Directed Ostensions and Mediations of the Adult at the Age of 8-, 12- and 16 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupertuis, Virginie; Moro, Christiane

    2016-12-01

    One of Vygotsky's main insights was to highlight the role of linguistic signs in psychological development. In this paper, following the works carried out through the Object Pragmatics paradigm, which is grounded in Vygotsky's cultural-historical and semiotic framework, we will explore non verbal signs addressed toward herself by the infant in the process of communication toward oneself, in relation to the appropriation of the objects' canonical uses by infants at 8-, 12- and 16 months in triadic infant-object-adult interaction. More specifically, our focus will concern the development of self-directed ostensions. We will examine how this movement, under the impulse related to other's people signs and public meanings of the object, endorse the status of sign during development and specifies itself in ostension. Ostension as a sign refers to a presentation of an object to someone and has been initially defined within the framework of communication toward other people in semiotic literature. In our works, this sign is studied in communication toward oneself and in its development. It should be noted that very few studies have been done on this topic. Following Vygotsky, we consider that turned toward oneself, ostension plays a crucial role in the formation of thought and consciousness (in the sense of awareness). This paper will focus on the social and semiotic conditions of production of this sign and, more precisely, on the role of the adult's non verbal and verbal mediations, which aim to elicit and sustain its realisation by the infant.

  3. Effectiveness of community-based complementary food supplement (Yingyangbao) distribution in children aged 6-23 months in poor areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Wentao; Zhang, Jian; Man, Qingqing; He, Li; Duan, Yifan; Wang, Hui; Scherpbier, Robert; Yin, Shi-an

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. Methods Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6–23 months for 18 months. Representative children were selected by probability proportional to size sampling methods to assess compliance of YYB and the intervention efficacy. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on basic characteristics of children, breastfeeding, 24-hour dietary intake, and consumption and appetite of YYB. Anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field, and anemia prevalence was evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Of the children involved in the follow-up survey (n = 693), the P50 (P25, P75) intake of YYB was 6.7 (3.5, 7.0) sachets weekly, and 54.7% of the children liked the taste of YYB. Compared with the baseline situation (n = 823), the proportion of children fed a diverse diet and foods rich in iron or vitamin A increased (P anemia decreased from 28.0% to 19.9% (P children aged 12–23 months, those who liked YYB and consumed 6 or more sachets of YYB weekly were at lower risk for anemia (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.90, P children aged 6–23 months are significantly improved by the intervention of YYB and nutrition education, and good compliance to YYB contributes to a low risk for anemia. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Chi

  4. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

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    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  5. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    Calves fed >0.7kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD=0.66kg daily for 39d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=15 calves; HIMOD=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 23d, then 0.66kg daily for 18d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=16 calves; HI=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 37d, and then 0.56kg daily for 7d, n=15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16wk. Measurements in the first and second 56d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of

  6. Compliance to micronutrient supplementation in children 3 to 24 months of age from a semi-rural community in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Flores

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify associated factors to compliance for multiple micronutrient (MM or iron and vitamin A (IVITA supplementation, in children (3 to 24 months old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database (n=465 children from a randomized, controlled, clinical trial, carried out in a semi-rural setting in Mexico, was analyzed. The compliance rate of MM and IVITA supplements was calculated. Adequate compliance rate (AC>80%, and its association with children and households characteristics, was determined. RESULTS: The compliance mean was high (MM:78.2%, IVITA:80.1%; pOBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos con micronutrimentos múltiples (MM o con hierro y vitamina A (FEVITA en niños (80% y su asociación con varias características. RESULTADOS: El cumplimiento fue alto (MM: 78.2%, FEVITA: 80.1%; p<0.05. Los momios de CA fueron 59% mayores en niños del grupo FEVITA que en MM (p=0.052. Escolaridad materna (p<0.001, peso al nacer del niño (p=0.003, porcentaje de tiempo con tos (p<0.001 y con fiebre (p=0.024 y marginalmente, la condición indígena materna (p=0.071 se asociaron con el CA. CONCLUSIONES: La alta tasa de cumplimiento fue consistente con otros estudios. Es necesaria mayor investigación sobre factores fisiológicos, culturales, sociales y operativos relacionados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos.

  7. Difficulty in disengaging from threat and temperamental negative affectivity in early life: A longitudinal study of infants aged 12–36 months

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    Nakagawa Atsuko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention disengagement is reportedly influenced by perceiving a fearful facial expression even in the first year of life. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in disengaging from fearful expressions predict temperamental negative affectivity. Method Twenty-six infants were studied longitudinally at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, using an overlap paradigm and two temperament questionnaires: the Japanese versions of the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Results The infants fixated significantly more frequently to fearful than to happy or neutral faces. The attentional bias to threat (i.e., the number of fixed responses on fearful faces divided by the total number of fixed responses on faces at 12 months was significantly positively correlated with negative affect at 12 months, and its relations with negative affect measured later in development was in the expected positive direction at each age. In addition, a moderation analysis indicates that the orienting network and not the executive network marginally moderated the relation between early attentional bias and later fear. Conclusions The results suggest that at 12 months, infants with more negative affectivity exhibit greater difficulty in disengaging their attention from fearful faces. We also found evidence that the association between parent-reported fear and disengagement might be modulated in the second year, perhaps because of the differences in temperamental control networks.

  8. Long-term treatment of aged Long Evans rats with a dietary supplement containing neuroprotective peptides (N-PEP-12) to prevent brain aging: effects of three months daily treatment by oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter-Paier, B; Reininger-Gutmann, B; Wronski, R; Doppler, E; Moessler, H

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive performance. Growth factors like BDNF are suggested to be involved in the regulation of age-related processes in the brain. A novel dietary supplement produced from purified nerve cell proteins, N-PEP-12, has shown to share properties with naturally occurring peptide growth factors by stimulating neurite outgrowth and beneficial effects on neuronal survival and protection against metabolic stress in cell cultures. The current study investigates the effects of long-term intake on age-dependent memory decline by assessing cognitive performance and synaptic density. All the experiments were performed in aged Long Evans rats randomly assigned to saline or N-PEP-12 once daily by gavage over a period of three months. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze after one, two and three months of treatment. Histological examinations were performed in the hippocampal formation and in the entorhinal cortex by measuring the synaptic density. This study shows that the oral intake of N-PEP-12 has beneficial effects on the cognitive performance of aged animals and that these effects go along with an increase in the synaptic density. Thus, N-PEP-12 may help maintain memory and learning performance during the aging process.

  9. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea...... enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS...

  10. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  11. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  12. Borrelia miyamotoi infections among wild rodents show age and month independence and correlation with Ixodes persulcatus larval attachment in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyle R; Takano, Ai; Konnai, Satoru; Shimozuru, Michito; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    To clarify how Borrelia miyamotoi is maintained in the environment in Hokkaido, we examined Ixodes persulcatus for its prevalence among wild rodents and its tick vector by detecting a portion of the borrelial flaB gene in rodent urinary bladder and blood samples, and from whole ticks. We compared B. miyamotoi infection rates to Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, which are human Lyme disease pathogens also carried by wild rodents, and which are transmitted by the same vector tick. Whereas B. garinii and B. afzelii showed age dependence of infection rates among wild rodents (18.4% and 9.9% among adults and 6.0% and 3.4% among sub-adults, respectively) when looking at urinary bladder samples, B. miyamotoi infection rates were not age dependent for either blood (4.2% among adults, and 7.9% among sub-adults) or urinary bladder samples (1.0% among adults, and 1.7% among sub-adults). Moreover, while B. garinii and B. afzelii infection rates showed increases across months (June, July [prodents with B. garinii, and July and August had higher rates than in May [prodents with B. afzelii), B. miyamotoi infection rates did not show significant month dependence. These differences in month and age dependence led us to suspect that B. miyamotoi may not develop persistent infections in wild rodents, as B. garinii and B. afzelii are thought to. Furthermore, we examined the extent of rodent exposure to I. persulcatus nymphs and larvae throughout most of the tick's active season (May through September), and determined that B. miyamotoi infection rates in sub-adult rodents were correlated with larval burden (prodents.

  13. The B-cell response to a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM₁₉₇ vaccine administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Ohene-Kena, Brigitte; Klinger, Chaam L; Odrljin, Tatjana; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-05-07

    A quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM197 (MenACWY-CRM197) is immunogenic in young infants. We assessed the memory B-cell and antibody responses after a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM197 in children. At 5 months of age, following primary immunisation, serogroup-specific memory B-cells were detectable in fewer than 25% of children, although protective antibody titres (hSBA ≥ 4) were detectable in 69% of children against serogroup A and more than 95% against the other serogroups. At 12 months, before booster immunisation the percentages with hSBA ≥ 4 were 5% for serogroup A, and between 44 and 70% for the other serogroups. One month after booster immunisation with MenACWY-CRM197 over 50% of children had detectable memory B-cells, and 91% had hSBA ≥ 4 against serogroup A and more than 99% against the other serogroups. These data show that few antigen-specific anticapsular memory B-cells can be detected after two-doses priming with MenACWY-CRM197. For MenC and CRM197, the antigens with the highest number of B-cells at 5 months, there was a definite (p ≤0 .02) but weak correlation with antibody persistence at 12 months. Although previous studies suggest that measuring memory B-cell responses after priming immunisations in infancy can be used to predict antibody persistence and memory responses, this may not be suitable for all antigens in young children.

  14. Evidence of a right-shift factor affecting infant hand-use preferences from 7 to 11 months of age as revealed by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, George F; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Brumley, Michele R

    2002-01-01

    Infant hand-use preferences for apprehending objects were assessed three times at 7, 9, and 11 months of age for 154 infants (79 males) using a reliable and valid procedure. Two classification procedures (differing in Type I classification error rates) were used to identify an infant's preference (right, left, no preference) at each age, and these data were examined using two- and three-group latent class analysis models. These analyses revealed the importance of using a handedness classification procedure with low Type I error rates and evidence of a right-shift factor similar to that expressed in child and adult handedness. Thus, infant hand-use preferences for apprehending objects are likely a developmental precursor of adult handedness. The relation of the right-shift factor to increased susceptibility to social influences during development and the evolution of human abilities also is discussed.

  15. Predictors of Health-Care Utilization Among Children 6–59 Months of Age in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayham, Mary; Blevins, Meridith; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Moon, Troy D.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, approximately 5.9 million children under 5 years of age died in 2015, a reduction of over 50% since 1990. Millennium Development Goal 4 established the goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Multiple countries have surpassed this goal; however, regional and within-country inequities exist. We sought to study determinants of health-care utilization among children 6–59 months of age with fever, diarrhea, and respiratory symptoms in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of female heads of household between April and May 2014. Mobile teams conducted interviews in 262 enumeration areas, with three distinct districts being oversampled for improved precision. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 and R 3.2.2 were used to examine factors associated with health-care utilization. A total of 2,317 children were evaluated in this study. Mothers' median age was 26 years, whereas child median age was 24 months. The proportion of children reporting fever, diarrhea, or respiratory illness in the prior 30 days was 44%, 22%, and 22%, respectively. Health-care utilization varied with 65% seeking health care for fever, compared with 57% for diarrhea and 25% for respiratory illness. In multivariable logistic regression, the characteristics most associated with health-care utilization across illnesses were delivery of last child at a facility, higher maternal education, and household ownership of a radio. The decision or ability to use health care is a multifaceted behavior swayed by societal norms, values, socioeconomics, and perceived need. Recognizing the predictors of a particular population may offer useful information to increase uptake in health-care services. PMID:27821686

  16. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  17. Age-related differences in memory expression during infancy: using eye-tracking to measure relational memory in 6- and 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jenny L; Power, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Relational memory, or the ability to bind components of an event into a network of linked representations, is a primary function of the hippocampus. Here we extend eye-tracking research showing that infants are capable of forming memories for the relation between arbitrarily paired scenes and faces, by looking at age-related changes in relational memory over the first year of life. Six- and 12-month-old infants were familiarized with pairs of faces and scenes before being tested with arrays of three familiar faces that were presented on a familiar scene. Preferential looking at the face that matches the scene is typically taken as evidence of relational memory. The results showed that while 6-month-old showed very early preferential looking when face/scene pairs were tested immediately, 12-month-old did not exhibit evidence of relational memory either immediately or after a short delay. Theoretical implications for the functional development of the hippocampus and practical implications for the use of eye tracking to measure memory during early life are discussed.

  18. Early caregiving stress exposure moderates the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity at 1 month and biobehavioral outcomes at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore; Abar, Beau; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing scientific interest in the psychophysiological functioning of children living in low-socioeconomic status (SES) contexts, though this research is complicated by knowledge that physiology-behavior relations often operate differently in these environments among adults. Importantly, such research is made more difficult because SES may be a proxy for a wide range of risk factors including poor caregiving and exposure to parental substance use. We used factor analysis to organize risk-exposure data collected from 827 children-many of whom were raised in low-SES contexts and exposed to substances prenatally-into dissociable components including economic stress, caregiving stress (e.g., stress the caregiver may experience, including parental psychopathology), and postnatal substance exposure. These factors, along with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity at age 1 month, were used to predict behavior dysregulation and resting RSA at age 3 years. A significant RSA Reactivity × Caregiving Stress interaction indicated that infants who exhibited high RSA reactivity at 1 month experienced the greatest behavior dysregulation at 3 years, but only when they were exposed to high levels of caregiving stress. Among African Americans, the highest resting RSA at 3 years was found in infants with less RSA reactivity, but only if they also experienced less caregiving stress. Our work is consistent with biological sensitivity to context, adaptive calibration, and allostatic load models, and highlights the importance of studying Physiology × Environment interactions in low-SES contexts for predicting behavior and resting RSA.

  19. Circumcision Complications Associated with the Plastibell Device and Conventional Dissection Surgery: A Trial of 586 Infants of Ages up to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dissection surgery (CDS or using the Plastibell device (PD is the method most frequently employed for circumcision. The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods in terms of the incidence of complications in infants of ages up to 12 months. In a prospective study, 586 infants equal to or less than 12 months were studied from 2002 to 2008, and complications between the two groups were assessed. The overall rates of complications in CDS and PD groups were 1.95% and 7.08%, respectively. In each group, the rate of complications was not different among children who had a normal weight, compared to those of a lower or upper (10% weight. There was a significant positive correlation between the age and weight of subjects within the time of ring separation (<.001. The results of this study suggest the PD method for neonates and low-weight infants with thin prepuce and the CDS for other infants.

  20. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

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    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  1. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  2. Development of visual and somatosensory attention of the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6 to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-11-01

    The reach-to-eat movement is a natural act in which an object or food item is grasped and brought to the mouth. It is one of the earliest forelimb behaviours displayed by human infants, who bring almost all grasped objects to the mouth, and is used daily by adults. In adults, there is a tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the reach-to-eat movement. The target is visually engaged just as hand advance is initiated and visually disengaged just as the target is grasped. This coupling of vision and hand advance suggests that advance is mediated by visual attention and withdrawal by somatosensation. The present study examined when the tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the movement develops in infancy. In a longitudinal study, eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and 20 adults reached for familiar inanimate objects and food items. Visual gaze, hand movement and hand accuracy were measured using frame-by-frame video scoring and 2D kinematic analysis. The study found that the youngest infants (6-8 months) visually engaged the target well before initiating a reaching movement and continued to fixate on the target after it was grasped and as it was brought to the mouth. Between 10 and 12 months of age, infants began to visually engage the target just as the reaching movement was initiated and visually disengaged the target as it was grasped, as did the adults. Over the same developmental time period, the infants developed rotatory hand shaping movements, precision grasping, and improved targeting accuracy both for grasping the object and placing it into the mouth. The results suggest that visual guidance of advance and somatosensory guidance of withdrawal develop together and in concert with hand movement ability and skill.

  3. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

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    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  4. Long-term (60-month results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

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    Boyer D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available David Boyer,1 K Bailey Freund,2 Carl Regillo,3 Marc H Levy,4 Sumit Garg5 1Retina-Vitreous Associates Medical Group, Beverly Hills, CA, 2Vitreous-Retina-Macula Consultants of New York, New York, NY; 3Wills Eye Institute, Philadelphia, PA, 4Sarasota Retina Institute, Sarasota, FL, 5The Gavin Herbert Eye Institute (University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800 resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127], with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA, quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD. Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months.Results: Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76, with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10% and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%; and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%, corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%, and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%. Significant

  5. Impact of micronutrients sprinkle on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in Tonk district of Rajasthan state

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    Vijay Jyoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, multiple micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health problem, especially for children below three years of age. It is a crucial period for the growth and development of children. There is lack of data from Rajasthan state on the effect of micronutrients supplementation on growth of children below three years of age. Aims & Objectives: To assess the impact of ICDS supplementary food with or without micronutrients sprinkles on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in the Tonk district, Rajasthan state. Materials & Methods: The trial was conducted in the 15 Angan wadi centers, each from Tonk (rural and Malpura blocks of Tonk District in Rajasthan state. Children from both blocks were considered as experimental and control groups. Experimental (N=790 and Control groups (N=540 received ICDS supplementary food for six months with or without micronutrients sprinkles. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard techniques. Results: At baseline, children with severe underweight, severe stunting and severe wasting in experimental group stood at 19.2%, 19.3%, 7.3%, respectively, which declined to 14.9%, 15.3% and 6.3%, after intervention. Significant difference was observed in the mean weights of post intervention children between experimental and control groups, whereas, there was no significant difference in mean heights. In experimental group, statistical significant difference was also noted in the mean weights and heights of children between pre and post intervention periods. Conclusion: Micronutrients sprinkles can be effective in reducing malnutrition amongst vulnerable population.

  6. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal......-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12...... months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p 12 months was predicted by younger age (p

  7. Dental caries prevalence in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different water fluoride content

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    Ana Valéria Pagliari Tiano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of cavitated caries lesions (CCL and early childhood caries (ECC, and the contribution of some variables in children up to 36 months of age attending daycare centers in municipalities with different fluoride levels in the water supply: AFC (adequate fluoride content and LFC (low fluoride content. After approval of the Ethics Committee, the parents were interviewed. The children were clinically examined using the same codes and criteria established by the WHO (World Health Organization and the ADA (American Dental Association. Fisher's exact test (p<0.05 was applied for statistical analysis of data. The dmft indices calculated in the LFC and AFC municipalities were 0.57 and 0.68, respectively. Considering all children examined, 17.6% presented CCL and 33.8% ECC. The economic classification, mother's education level and duration of breastfeeding were considered statistically significant with regards to CCL prevalence. The age group, duration of the habit of drinking milk before bedtime and age at which oral hygiene started were considered statistically significant with regards to ECC prevalence.

  8. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  9. Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with prolonged release melatonin for 6 months: a randomized placebo controlled trial on age and endogenous melatonin as predictors of efficacy and safety

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    Wade Alan G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is extensively used in the USA in a non-regulated manner for sleep disorders. Prolonged release melatonin (PRM is licensed in Europe and other countries for the short term treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged 55 years and over. However, a clear definition of the target patient population and well-controlled studies of long-term efficacy and safety are lacking. It is known that melatonin production declines with age. Some young insomnia patients also may have low melatonin levels. The study investigated whether older age or low melatonin excretion is a better predictor of response to PRM, whether the efficacy observed in short-term studies is sustained during continued treatment and the long term safety of such treatment. Methods Adult outpatients (791, aged 18-80 years with primary insomnia, were treated with placebo (2 weeks and then randomized, double-blind to 3 weeks with PRM or placebo nightly. PRM patients continued whereas placebo completers were re-randomized 1:1 to PRM or placebo for 26 weeks with 2 weeks of single-blind placebo run-out. Main outcome measures were sleep latency derived from a sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Quality of Life (World Health Organzaton-5 Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I and adverse effects and vital signs recorded at each visit. Results On the primary efficacy variable, sleep latency, the effects of PRM (3 weeks in patients with low endogenous melatonin (6-sulphatoxymelatonin [6-SMT] ≤8 μg/night regardless of age did not differ from the placebo, whereas PRM significantly reduced sleep latency compared to the placebo in elderly patients regardless of melatonin levels (-19.1 versus -1.7 min; P = 0.002. The effects on sleep latency and additional sleep and daytime parameters that improved with PRM were maintained or enhanced over the 6-month period with no signs of tolerance. Most adverse events were mild in severity with no clinically

  10. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  11. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both PBMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (P

  12. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.

  13. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  14. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  15. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

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    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  16. The Relationship between Protein, Zinc and Phosphorus Consumption to IGF-1 Status of Children Aged 6-24 Months in Timur Tengah Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province

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    Matius Rantesalu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Status of malnutrition in children should watch out because it can lead to immunological suppression, impaired growth, increased morbidity from infectious diseases, developmental disorders and the presence of locomotor coordination in infants and children, inhibition of learning progress and speaking, a deficit of intelligence quotient (IQ permanently 5 points below normal, as well as developmental disorders and cognitive behavior. This study aimed to examines the relationship between protein intake, Zink and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status in Timur Tengah, Selatan Regency, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. This study was an observational study with cross-sectional design. The experiment was conducted in nine sub-district of South Central Timur. Children's levels of IGF-1 are determined using Elisa Quantikine Human IGF-1 Immunoassay. Other data that food consumption in children 6-24 months of age is obtained through consumption recall, while other supporting data obtained through questionnaires by enumerators power. Analysis of nutrients content in foods used a food processor 2 (FP2. The statistical test used was t-test. The results showed that the father work mostly farmers while the mother does not work. Mother's education and father respectively 51 people (70.8% and 48 (66.7% 9 years of basic education. IGF-1 levels below the average in children aged 6-24 months by 59 (81.9%. Statistical test between nutrient consumption of protein, Zinc and Phosphorus with a confidence level of 95% indicates that there is a is significant correlation between protein intake Zinc and Phosphorus with IGF-1 status.

  17. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

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    Kikelomo Adebanke Kolawole

    Full Text Available Non-nutritive sucking (NNS is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression.The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2 years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80, mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30 while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73. Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81 but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01 insignificantly.Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  18. Transcriptomics of maternal and fetal membranes can discriminate between gestational-age matched preterm neonates with and without cognitive impairment diagnosed at 18-24 months.

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    Athina Pappas

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment.(1 To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2 to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth.A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18-24 months' corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score 1.5; 2 Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease (q-value <0.1; 4 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1(p<0.05; and 5 a multi-gene model predicted 18-24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%.Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed.

  19. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  20. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pneonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  1. Performance of motor sequences in children at heightened vs. low risk for ASD: A longitudinal study from 18 to 36 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA eFOCAROLI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR. Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD.

  2. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  3. Analysis of feeding status of infants aged 0-24 months%0~24月龄婴幼儿喂养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩虹; 朱宗涵; 戴耀华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To obtain the information on feeding status of infants aged 0-24 months so as to provide references for further nutritional intervention. Methods Beijing, Changzhi, Huanggang, Suzhou and Nanning were selected as study areas. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of infants who attended the out-patient clinic of maternal and child health hospitals ( MCH ) at the time of recruitment, and the survey results were input into computer to analyze. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in first 4 months was 55.2% , and that in first 6 months decreased to 19.0%. The median of weaning was 8 months. Weaning was mainly due to "insufficient breast milk secretion" , " parents think that infants need weaning" and " mothers return to work". 69. 1% of infants started receiving complementary food before 6 months, 20.5% at 6 months and 10.4% after 6 months. Compared with rural infants, the complementary rate of fruits (X2 = 4. 366 ,P = 0. 037 ), vegetables (x2 = 6. 562, P = 0. 010 ), meet ( X2 = 10. 812, P = 0. 001 ) and fishes (x2 = 20. 208, P <0. 001 ) in urban infants was significantly higher. Conclusion The rate of exclusive breasffeeding in study areas is relatively low, and theduration of breastfeeding is short. Further efforts are needed to reinforce complementary feeding.%目的 获取调查地区0~24月龄婴幼儿的喂养情况,为进一步的营养干预提供参考依据.方法 以北京、长治、黄冈、苏州和南宁为研究地,在五地妇幼保健院儿保门诊对婴幼儿父母进行问卷调查,结果输入计算机进行分析.结果 受访婴幼儿4月龄纯母乳喂养率为55.2%,6月龄纯母乳喂养率降至19.0%.断奶月龄中位数是8个月,断奶的主要原因是"母乳不足"、"家长认为应该断奶了"和"母亲上班".未满6月龄即添加辅食的婴幼儿占69.1%,6月龄时添加的为20.5%,10.4%的婴幼儿6月龄后才添加;城市婴幼儿在水果(χ2=4.366,P=0.037)、蔬菜(χ2=6.562,P=0.010)、肉类(χ2

  4. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile Woldie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81, 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47, poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38, stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05, diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59, no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27, early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31, and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88 were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as

  5. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldie, Haile; Kebede, Yigzaw; Tariku, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81)), 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as

  6. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6-23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldie, Haile; Kebede, Yigzaw; Tariku, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6-23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60-5.81)), 9-11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61-25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35-7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20-6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63-14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26-5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08-30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01-8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6-23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and

  7. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event...

  8. Consumo alimentar entre crianças brasileiras com idade de 6 a 59 meses Food consumption Brazilian children by 6 to 59 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Ane Bortolini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o consumo alimentar em crianças brasileiras de 6-59 meses de idade, por região e zona de residência. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal com 4.322 crianças investigadas na Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde (2006/2007. Observou-se baixo consumo diário de verduras (12,7%, legumes (21,8%, carnes (24,6% e elevado consumo de refrigerantes (40,5%, alimentos fritos (39,4%, salgadinhos (39,4%, doces (37,8%, na frequência de uma a três vezes na semana. Comparando-se as regiões, as crianças residentes no Sul, Sudeste e Centro-oeste consumiram com mais frequência arroz, pão, batata, feijão, verdura de folha, legumes e carne, mas também consumiram, mais frequentemente, alimentos não recomendados para a idade, como doces e refrigerantes. Crianças da zona rural apresentaram menor consumo dos alimentos recomendados para a idade e, também, dos não recomendados, quando comparadas às crianças da zona urbana. O consumo alimentar evidenciado neste estudo não está de acordo com recomendações de alimentação saudável para crianças.The aim of this study was to assess food consumption in Brazilian children 6 to 59 months of age by region of the country and area of residence. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 4,322 children in the National Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007. The data showed low daily consumption of leafy vegetables (12.7%, vegetables (21.8%, and meat (24.6% and high consumption (1-3 times a week of soft drinks (40.5%, fried foods (39.4%, salty snacks (39.4%, and sweets (37.8%. Comparing the regions of Brazil, children in the South, Southeast, and Central-West consumed more rice, bread, potatoes, beans, greens, vegetables, and meat, but they also ate more foods not recommended for their age, like sweets and soft drinks (soda. Rural children showed lower consumption of foods recommended for their age and also those not recommended for their age, as compared to their urban

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine administered concomitantly with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry M; Nissen, Michael D; Naz, Aftab; Shepard, Julie; Bedell, Lisa; Hohenboken, Matthew; Odrljin, Tatjana; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infants are at the highest risk for meningococcal disease and a broadly protective and safe vaccine is an unmet need in this youngest population. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 4-dose infant/toddler regimen of MenACWY-CRM given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age concomitantly with pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Hemophilus influenzae type b-inactivated poliovirus-combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7- or 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Results: Four doses of MenACWY-CRM induced hSBA titers ≥8 in 89%, 95%, 97%, and 96% of participants against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y, respectively. hSBA titers ≥8 were present in 76–98% of participants after the first 3 doses. A categorical linear analysis incorporating vaccine group and study center showed responses to routine vaccines administered with MenACWY-CRM were non-inferior to routine vaccines alone, except for seroresponse to the pertussis antigen fimbriae. The reactogenicity profile was not affected when MenACWY-CRM was administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. Conclusion: MenACWY-CRM administered with routine concomitant vaccinations in young infants was well tolerated and induced highly immunogenic responses against each of the serogroups without significant interference with the immune responses to routine infant vaccinations. Methods: Healthy 2 month old infants were randomized to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines (n = 258) or routine vaccines alone (n = 271). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA). Medically attended adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and AEs leading to study withdrawal were collected throughout the study period. PMID:24220326

  10. Monthly errors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is...

  11. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

  12. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  13. Development of rotational movements, hand shaping, and accuracy in advance and withdrawal for the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    The reach-to-eat movement, transport of a hand to grasp an object that is withdrawn and placed in the mouth, is amongst the earliest developing functional movements of human infants. The present longitudinal study is the first description of the maturation of hand-rotation, hand shaping, and accuracy associated with the advance and withdrawal phases of the movement. Eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and eight adults, were video recorded as they reached for familiar objects or food items. Hand, arm, and trunk movements were assessed frame-by-frame with the Skilled Reaching Rating Scale, previously developed for the assessment of adult reaching, and supplementary kinematic analysis. Reach-to-eat maturation was characterized by three changes. First, for advance, a simple open hand transport gradually matured to a movement associated with pronation and hand shaping of the digits for precision grasping. Second, for withdrawal to the mouth, a direct withdrawal movement gradually became associated with hand supination that oriented the target object to the mouth. Third, associated with the maturation of rotational movements, inaccurate and fragmented hand transport and withdrawal movements developed into precise targeting of the hand-to-object and object-to-mouth. Across the age range, there was a decrease in bimanual reaching and an increase in right handed reaching. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that the maturation of the reach-to-eat movement involves the development of rotational and shaping movements of the hand and visual and somatosensory guidance of a preferred hand.

  14. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency.

  15. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  16. Vaccination coverage levels among Alaska Native children aged 19-35 months--National Immunization Survey, United States, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    In 2000, a total of 118,846 persons indicated that their race/ethnicity was Alaska Native (AN), either alone or in combination with one or more other racial/ethnic groups. AN groups comprise 19% of the population of Alaska and 0.4% of the total U.S. population. The AN grouping includes Eskimos, Aleuts, and Alaska Indians (members of the Alaska Athabaskan, Tlingit, Haida, or other AN tribes). Eskimo represented the largest AN tribal grouping, followed by Tlingit/Haida, Alaska Athabascan, and Aleut. Vaccination coverage levels among AN children have not been reported previously. This report presents data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS) for 2000-2001, which indicate that vaccination coverage levels among AN children aged 19-35 months exceeded the national health objective for 2010 (objective no. 14-22) for the majority of vaccines. This achievement indicates the effectiveness of using multiple strategies to increase vaccination coverage. Similar efforts might increase vaccination coverage in other rural regions with American Indian (AI)/AN populations.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Gadoxetate Disodium–Enhanced Liver MRI in Pediatric Patients Aged >2 Months to <18 Years—Results of a Retrospective, Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, James; Kasahara, Mureo; Martinez, Mercedes; Soresina, Annarosa; Kashanian, Fran; Endrikat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium–enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs. Efficacy was defined based on the additional diagnostic information obtained from the combined (pre- and postcontrast) image sets as compared with the precontrast image sets by blinded reading. RESULTS A total of 52 patients for safety and 51 patients for efficacy analyses were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) reported a total of 51 serious AEs (SAEs) and one AE after one year. No SAE or AE was related to gadoxetate disodium injection. Gadoxetate disodium–related effects on vital signs were not seen. Additional diagnostic information was obtained for 86.3% of patients. The three most improved efficacy variables were lesion-to-background contrast, lesion characterization, and improved border delineation in 78.4%, 76.5%, and 70.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION Gadoxetate disodium in pediatric patients did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. Contrast enhancement provided additional clinically relevant information. PMID:27478381

  18. PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6 MONTHS-5 YEARS ADMITTED AT KBNTGH AND TO KNOW THE RATES OF PROPHYLACTIC IRON SUPPLEMENTATION, A ONE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujumdar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA among chilsdren aged 6 months-5 years in KBNTGH (Khaja Bandanawaz Teaching and General Hospital attached to Khaja Bandanawaz Institute of Medical Sciences. The files of 1519 patients aged between 0-5 years, who were hospitalized to KBN Hospital Pediatrics Ward were reviewed. A total of 50 patients with anaemia (Haemoglobin: 9gm% consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16.59±1.68 months were included into the study. The prevalence of IDA was 3.29% (Boys: 4.23%, girls: 2.1%. Haemoglobin and haematocrit of these patients was analysed. Hemoglobim and hematocrit of children >24 months were significantly higher than those of the patients with the age of 6–12 months. Of the 28 patients who were older than 12 months, only 44% of them had received a full course of iron supplementation for 8 months. In conclusion, although prophylactic iron supplementation lowered the prevalences of IDA, receiving rates of iron supplementation were not adequate. While IDA is still a public health problem, prophylactic approaches should be carried out more effectively.

  19. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    risk factors has potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  20. Use of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in children aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2014-06-20

    During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine.

  1. IGF-I at 9 and 36 months of age — relations with body composition and diet at 3 years — the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Larnkjær, A.; Pedersen, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High infancy levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have been associated with increased linear growth and fat-free mass (FFM) but also with risk of obesity. This paper examines how IGF-I at 9 and 36 months relates to diet and body composition. Design Healthy term infants from...... the prospective cohort study, SKOT, were examined at 9 and 36 months with anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance (36 months), 7-day food records and blood analysis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 by chemiluminescent immunometric assay. Results IGF-I at 36 months (n = 229) was positively correlated with 9 months values...... and values were considerably higher in girls (43%). Children breastfed at 9 months had lower IGF-I concentrations at 9 months but reached the same IGF-I concentrations at 36 months as infants not breastfed at 9 months. IGF-I at 36 months was positively associated with height, weight, BMI, predicted FFM...

  2. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  3. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

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    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  4. Vaccination Coverage Disparities Between Foreign-Born and U.S.-Born Children Aged 19-35 Months, United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Li, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Coverage estimates controlling for sociodemographic factors and multivariable logistic regression modeling for 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series completion are presented. Significantly lower coverage among foreign-born children was detected for DTaP, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal conjugate, and rotavirus vaccines, and for the combined series. Series completion disparities persisted after control for demographic, access-to-care, poverty, and language effects. Substantial and potentially widening disparities in vaccination coverage exist among foreign-born children. Improved immunization strategies targeting this population and continued vaccination coverage monitoring by nativity are needed.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  6. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large rando

  7. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-up Growth Within the First 24 Months Among HIV-infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition was def...

  8. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-Up Growth within the First 24 Months among HIV-Infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-01-01

    Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score <-2 SD, according to three anthropometric indicators: Weight-for-age (WAZ) for underweight, Height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting, and Weight-for-Height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z-score ≥-2 SD) on ART, adjusted for gender, immunodeficiency and malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children < 10 years of age were included. At ART initiation, 51% were underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57;80), 61% (95%CI: 47;70), and 90% (95%CI: 76;95) for WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ/BAZ, respectively. Adjusted catch-up growth was more likely for children <5 years of age at ART initiation compared to children ≥5 years for WAZ, HAZ (P<0.001), and for WHZ/BAZ (P = 0.026). Conclusions Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835

  9. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  10. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Harvey-Leeson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK and Kongo Central (KC. We determined hemoglobin (Hb, serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, retinol binding protein (RBP, C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC, children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC, and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC, respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC, children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC, and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC. Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP deficiencies were all very low (<5%; RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC, children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC, and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC. The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  11. Real-world variability in ranibizumab treatment and associated clinical, quality of life, and safety outcomes over 24 months in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: the HELIOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakic JM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Marie Rakic,1 Anita Leys,2 Heidi Brié,3 Kris Denhaerynck,4 Christy Pacheco,4 Stefaan Vancayzeele,3 Christine Hermans,3 Karen MacDonald,4 Ivo Abraham4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Site du Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium; 2Leuven University Eye Hospital, Leuven, Belgium; 3Novartis Pharma, Vilvoorde, Belgium; 4Matrix45, Tucson, AZ, USA; 5Center for Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomic Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine ranibizumab treatment patterns in "real-world" practice and clinical settings, as well as to assess quality of life outcomes over a 24-month period. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, observational, multicenter, open-label study of 0.5 mg of ranibizumab administered intravitreally. Patients were followed over 24 ± 3 months with intermediate data points at 6 ± 2 months and 12 ± 2 months, and a limited data point at 2.5 ± 1 month that coincided with the end of the loading phase. Outcomes included visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, visual function (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 [NEI VFQ-25], quality of life (Health Utilities Index Mark III [HUI3], and safety. Results: A total of 267 patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 78.5 ± 7.3 years; 62.4% were female; 34.5% with dual eye involvement; 74.9% were treatment-naïve were treated (309 eyes were treated. The mean ± SD Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study score at baseline was 56.3 ± 14.3 letters. The mean ± SD number of injections over 24 months was 7.6 ± 4.1, including 2.5 ± 0.7 and 5.9 ± 3.6 during the loading and maintenance phases, respectively, with corresponding treatment intervals of 4.8 ± 1.4 weeks and 11.5 ± 9.5 weeks, respectively. Improvements in visual acuity over baseline were reached at 2.5 months and maintained at 6 months (both P

  12. Following the World Health Organization’s Recommendation of Exclusive Breastfeeding to 6 Months of Age Does Not Impact the Growth of Rural Gambian Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Johnson, William; Sonko, Bakary; Prentice, Andrew M; Darboe, Momodou K; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 mo of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of EBF to age 6 mo on growth in a large sample of rural Gambian infants at high risk of undernutrition. Methods: Infants with growth monitoring from birth to 2 y of age (n = 756) from the ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development) trial were categorized as exclusively breastfed if only breast milk and no other liquids or foods were given. EBF status was entered into confounder-adjusted multilevel models to test associations with growth trajectories by using >11,000 weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z score observations. Results: Thirty-two percent of infants were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo. The mean age of discontinuation of EBF was 5.2 mo, and growth faltering started at ∼3.5 mo of age. Some evidence for a difference in WAZ and WHZ was found between infants who were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo (EBF-6) and those who were not (nEBF-6), at 6 and 12 mo of age, with EBF-6 children having a higher mean z score. The differences in z scores between the 2 groups were small in magnitude (at 6 mo of age: 0.147 WAZ; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.293 WAZ; 0.189 WHZ; 95% CI: 0.038, 0.341 WHZ). No evidence for a difference between EBF-6 and nEBF-6 infants was observed for LAZ at any time point (6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Furthermore, a higher mean WLZ at 3 mo of age was associated with a subsequent higher mean age at discontinuation of EBF, which implied reverse causality in this setting (coefficient: 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008, 0.120). Conclusion: This study suggests that EBF to age 6 mo has limited benefit to the growth of rural Gambian infants. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28003540

  13. Manejo de novilhas prenhes aos 13/15 meses de idade em sistemas a pasto Pregnant heifers management at 13/15 months of age in grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2008-07-01

    de vaca.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the development of 32 primiparous beef heifers Aberdeen Angus and Angus crossbred raised and mating from 13 to the 15 months of age. The experiment had beginning in the pregnancy diagnosis of using ultra-sound technique, realized at 28 days after the ending of the reproductive period. The initial average weight and body condition (BC was 288 kg LW and 3.2 points, respectively. In this occasion, the beef heifers were uniformly distributed by genetic group, LW and conception order in two grazing systems. Grazing systems were: PMI - pregnant beef heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum, L.; PNA - pregnant heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on natural pasture. Grazed period was 67 days in pearl millet pasture. At end of the treatments the beef heifers were maintained as a unique group: on natural pasture at pre calving period, on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture at post calving period and on natural pasture at second reproductive period. In the initial pregnancy phase, the average daily gain (ADG of 0.899 kg and body condition gain (BCG, 0.34 points of the PMI heifers were higher then the ADG of 0.377 kg and BC lost of -0.15 for PNA heifers. The PMI beef heifers had post calving live weight (PCW and post calving body condition of 301 kg and 2.9 points, respectively, higher values than of PNA beef heifers, 267 kg and 2.7 points. Calving, dystocia, birth and weaning rates were not different between the feeding treatment. The PMI beef heifers were 31 kg heaviest and with more 0.30 point of BC at initial second reproductive period. The pregnancy rate (PR and estimations of calving productive efficiency (CPEE and weaning productive efficiency at 100 days of age (WPEE were not different between feeding treatments. Mean PR was 77%. Mean CPEE was 30.3 and WPEE 28.1 kg of weaning calf/100 kg of cow.

  14. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  15. Important risk factors of mortality among children aged 1-59 months in rural areas of Shahroud, Iran: A community-based nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  16. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  17. Joint attention at 10 months of age in infant-mother dyads: contrasting free toy-play with semi-structured toy-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vera; Martins, Carla; Osório, Ana; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-two 10-month-olds and their mothers were observed in free toy-play and semi-structured toy-play for assessing joint attention capabilities. Mothers exhibited more bids for joint attention during semi-structured toy-play. Infants' response to maternal behaviors and their bids for initiating joint attention were higher during free toy-play.

  18. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: Association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, H. B.; Swift, P G; Holl, R. W.; Hougaard, P; Hansen, L; Bjoerndalen, H.; de Beaufort, Carine; Knip, M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate

  19. Researches on Feeding Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feeding behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following feeding behavior aspects were determined: number of feeding periods, the length of feeding periods and the total length of feeding periods. Results showed that calves spent feeding, on average, 292 minutes in the morning, 198 minutes in the afternoon and only 71 minutes during the night when ...

  20. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937.

  1. Cheese peptidomics: a detailed study on the evolution of the oligopeptide fraction in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from curd to 24 months of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, S; Cavatorta, V; Lambertini, F; Galaverna, G; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we performed a detailed evaluation of the evolution of the oligopeptide fractions in samples of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from the curd up to 24 mo of aging. The samples were taken from wheels produced the same day, in the same factory, from the same milk, during the same caseification process, thus simplifying the natural variability of a whey-based starter fermentation. This unique and homogeneous sampling plan, never reported before in the literature, provided a detailed study of the peptides produced by enzymatic events during Parmigiano-Reggiano aging. Given the large dimensions of the 35-kg wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano, samples were taken from both the internal and external parts of the cheese, to evidence eventual differences in the oligopeptide composition of the different parts. Fifty-seven peptides were considered, being among the most abundant during at least one of the periods of ripening considered, and their semiquantification indicated that the peptide fraction of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese constantly evolves during the aging period. Five trends in its evolution were outlined, which could be clearly correlated to the enzymatic activities present in the cheese, making it possible to discriminate cheeses according to their aging time. Several known bioactive peptides were also found to be present in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese samples, and for the first time, the age at which they are most abundant has been identified. Aged cheeses have been shown to be dominated by nonproteolytic aminoacyl derivatives, a new class of peptide-like molecules recently reported. Finally, the changing peptide pattern may be related to the changing enzymatic activities occurring inside the cheeses during the aging period, which, in turn, are also related to the microbiological composition.

  2. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  3. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  4. Long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release in children 5-11 years of age: results from a 12-month, open-label study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijman, Rien J M; Borgstein, Niels G; Ellsworth, Pamela;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI......-blind tolterodine ER, n=221; placebo, n=97). The majority of patients were white (90%), mean+/-SD age was 7.6+/-1.5 yr, and 54% were boys. Forty-nine percent of patients reported >/=1 AE during the study, similar to that observed in the preceding 12-wk study (42%). The most frequent AEs were urinary tract infection...

  5. The effect of prenatal exposure on total IgE at birth and sensitization at twelve months and four years of age : The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Aalberse, RC; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the development of the fetal immune system can be influenced by environmental exposure in utero. We investigated whether prenatal exposure is associated with a high neonatal total IgE level and sensitization at the age of 1 and 4 yr. Data from 1027 infants were coll

  6. Long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release in children 5-11 years of age : Results from a 12-month, open-label study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Rien J. M.; Borgstein, Niels G.; Ellsworth, Pamela; Siggaard, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). Methods: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI sugg

  7. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ...

  8. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7–24 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development. Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children. The development of auditory and speech in hearing impaired children may be relatively crucial in thefirst year's habilitation after fitted with the auxiliary device.

  9. t(7;12)(q36;p13) and t(7;12)(q32;p13)--translocations involving ETV6 in children 18 months of age or younger with myeloid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, R M; von Drunen, E; Kroes, W G; Weghuis, D O; van den Berg, E; Smit, E M; van der Does-van den Berg, A; van Wering, E; Hählen, K; Carroll, A J; Raimondi, S C; Beverloo, H B

    2001-06-01

    Our retrospective karyotype review revealed two rare recurrent translocations affecting ETV6 (TEL): t(7;12)(q36;p13) and t(7;12)(q32;p13). Five patients with a t(7;12) were from a group of 125 successfully karyotyped pediatric patients enrolled in consecutive clinical AML trials of the Dutch Childhood Leukemia Study Group over a period of 7 years. During a search of available cytogenetic databases, we found 7q and 12p abnormalities in two additional Dutch patients and in three participants in Pediatric Oncology Group trials. A del(12p) had been initially identified in four of these patients and re-examination of the original karyograms revealed a t(7;12)(q36;p13) in two instances and a probable t(7;12) in the other two. FISH confirmed the presence of a t(7;12)(q36;p13) in the latter. Most (n = 7) also had trisomy 19. The t(7;12)(q36;p13) (n = 9) was more common than the t(7;12)(q32;p13) (n = 1). These subtle translocations were found only in children 18 months of age or younger. A literature search revealed that the t(7;12) with break-points at 7q31-q36 and 12p12-p13 had been reported in six children with myeloid disorders and in two with acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all were 12 months of age or younger. Only two of the 17 for whom survival data were available, were alive after at least 22 months of continuous complete remission. Our findings suggest that ETV6 rearrangements due to a t(7;12) may play an adverse role in myeloid disorders in children 18 months of age or younger. Therefore, children in this age group with myeloid disorders should be screened for both MLL and ETV6 rearrangements.

  10. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age.

  11. A comparison of the efficacy of weight-shift vs. joystick control of a robotic mobility device by infants ages 5 to 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Sharon; Dennis, Carole; Altman, Rachel; Smith, Janelle; Larin, Hélène

    2017-02-02

    The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it. This study compares the efficacy of using the WeeBot vs. using the traditional manual joystick to control a robotic mobility device. Participants were 20 typically developing infants between 5 and 10 months who had not yet achieved independent mobility. A quasi-experimental two-group design was used: The first 10 participants recruited used the WeeBot (weight-shift); the next 10 used the joystick. Results showed that infants learned to use weight-shift control more easily and more skilfully than did infants using the joystick. The ability of infants to use the WeeBot suggests that an intuitive alternative control might allow very early powered mobility for children with disabilities, which might have implications for various aspects of their development.

  12. Adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue depots of Angus steers between 9 and 16 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Go, G W; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, S H; Sawyer, J E; Silvey, D T; Gilmore, L A; Ghahramany, G; Kim, K H

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated that among carcass adipose tissue depots, brisket subcutaneous adipose tissue contains the greatest concentration of MUFA and lowest concentration of SFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that brisket subcutaneous adipose tissue depots would exhibit greater adipogenic gene expression over time than other major subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. Four Angus steers, each at 9, 12, 14, and 16 mo of age, were harvested and fresh subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected from over the brisket, chuck, rib, loin, sirloin, round, flank, and plate. Relative gene expression for C/EBPβ, PPARγ, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT-1β), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43) was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of C/EBPβ, PPARγ, and CPT-1β was greatest at 12 to 14 mo of age (all P subcutaneous adipose tissues than in brisket and round adipose tissues. The expression of the SCD gene did not differ among the 4 age groups (P = 0.95). The palmitoleic:stearic acid ratio (an estimate of SCD activity) was greater (P subcutaneous adipose tissues from brisket, plate, and round than in the loin, rib, and sirloin. Conversely, subcutaneous adipose tissue from the loin, rib, and sirloin had greater (P subcutaneous adipose tissues with the highest concentration of MUFA and least SFA consistently exhibited the least SCD gene expression and adipogenic gene expression. We conclude that MUFA in the brisket and other depots with large SCD indices were deposited before 9 mo of age, during a time when the subcutaneous adipocytes were highly differentiated.

  13. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  14. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  15. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  16. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

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    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  17. Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Iqbal S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety/depression, the rate of recurrence and the interval preceding recurrence in women during first two and a half years after childbirth. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, community women from two under-privileged communities were trained in data gathering, teaching healthy child-rearing practices, basic counseling skills, and screening for anxiety/depression by using an indigenously developed questionnaire, the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. The diagnosis was further confirmed by a clinical psychologist using DSM IV criteria. After obtaining consent, 420 women were screened and 102 were identified as having anxiety/depression. Screening was carried out after 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of a live birth. Only 62 out of 102 agreed to be counseled and received eight weekly sessions. AKUADS was re-administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the beginning of counseling; this was followed by the clinical psychologist's interview for confirmation of response. After recovery, screening was continued every 3 months for detection of recurrence throughout the study period. Out of the women who had declined counseling 12 agreed to retake AKUADS after 4 and 8 weeks of diagnosis. Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measures ANOVA and Kaplan Meier technique were used for the analysis. Results A significant decline in level of anxiety/depression was found in both the counseled and the non-counseled groups at 4 and 8 weeks (p-value Conclusions As our results cannot be generalized; further studies need to be

  18. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.

  19. Researches on Rumination Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Tripon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the rumination behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: number of rumination periods, the length of rumination periods and the total length of rumination periods. Results showed that calves spent ruminating, on average, only 96.4 minutes in the morning, 176 minutes in the afternoon and 262.6 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 124.2 minutes during the morning, 173.6 minutes during the afternoon and 243.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 106.2 minutes during the morning, 134.2 minutes during the afternoon and 286.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent ruminating by calves was 535 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 541 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 527 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 for total time spent ruminating by calves between the three experimental variants.

  20. Pharmacokinetic study of once-daily versus twice-daily abacavir and lamivudine in HIV type-1-infected children aged 3-<36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Valerius, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Once-daily dosing of abacavir and lamivudine has been approved for adults, but paediatric data are insufficient. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study of once-daily and twice-daily abacavir and lamivudine in children aged 3-... levels after 12 weeks treatment with twice-daily abacavir (8 mg/kg) with or without lamivudine (4 mg/kg) underwent plasma pharmacokinetic sampling. Children then switched to once-daily abacavir (16 mg/kg) with or without lamivudine (8 mg/kg), and sampling was repeated 4 weeks later. The area under......-abacavir (17 for lamivudine). The GMR of AUC(0-24), once-daily versus twice-daily, was 1.07 (90% CI 0.92-1.23) for abacavir and 0.91 (90% CI 0.79-1.06) for lamivudine. C(max) almost doubled on once-daily versus twice...

  1. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba O Sow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized.Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS, a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD] were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated.Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9% and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%; 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67 and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52 per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08 and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05 per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01 and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92 in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51 and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18 in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium-attributable deaths (regions combined. ~59

  2. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.

  3. Researches on Feeding Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Tripon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feeding behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following feeding behavior aspects were determined: number of feeding periods, the length of feeding periods and the total length of feeding periods. Results showed that calves spent feeding, on average, 292 minutes in the morning, 198 minutes in the afternoon and only 71 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent feeding 175 minutes during the morning, 193 minutes during the afternoon and 53 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent feeding 255 minutes during the morning, 227 minutes during the afternoon and 30 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent feeding by calves was 560 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 421 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 512 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were significant differences (p<0.05 for total time spent feeding by calves between the first experimental variant (0.6 m feeding space per calf and the second variant (0.32 m feeding space per calf and between the second experimental variant and the third variant (0.28 m feeding space per calf.

  4. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  5. An energy-dense complementary food is associated with a modest increase in weight gain when compared with a fortified porridge in Malawian children aged 6-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carol A; Manary, Mark J; Maleta, Ken; Briend, André; Ashorn, Per

    2008-03-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices are associated with stunting and growth faltering throughout the developing world. The objective was to compare the effect of using peanut-/soy-based fortified spread (FS) and corn porridge fortified with fish powder (FP) as complementary foods on growth in rural Malawian children. A total of 240 children were enrolled at the age of 6 mo and randomized to receive FS or FP. Both complementary foods provided 836 kJ/d from 6 to 9 mo of age and 1254 kJ/d from 9 to 18 mo of age. Children were followed monthly for anthropometry and fortnightly for the symptoms of fever, cough, or diarrhea until they were 18 mo old. Zn and Se status were assessed at 6 and 12 mo. The primary outcomes were the rates of weight and length gain from 6-12 mo and from 12-18 mo. Children who received FS gained 110 g more (95% CI 220 to 10) from 6-12 mo of age than children receiving FP. Weight gain did not differ between children receiving FS and FP between 12 and 18 mo of age, nor did statural growth from 6 to 12 mo or 12 to 18 mo. A total of 23% of all children were Zn deficient at 6 mo of age and this increased to 37% at 12 mo of age. Neither FS nor FP was associated with significantly improved Zn status. FS was associated with better weight gain from 6-12 mo of age and may be useful in conjunction with additional interventions to improve infant growth in the developing world.

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 10 Years With Influenza-like Illness Enrolled in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lopez, Pio; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Mascareñas de Los Santos, Abiel; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P.; Seng, Lim Fong; Hernandez-de Mezerville, Marcela; Faingezicht, Idis; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Feng, Yang; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Haars, Gerco; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W.; Taylor, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated morbidity and mortality makes vaccine development a priority. Methods. As part of an efficacy trial of pandemic influenza vaccines (NCT01051661), RSV epidemiology in healthy children aged 6 months to <10 years at first vaccination with influenza-like illness (ILI) was evaluated in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand between February 2010 and August 2011. Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year, with nasal and throat swabs analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence and incidence of RSV among ILI episodes were calculated. Results. A total of 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes with a respiratory sample available. RSV was detected for 359 ILI episodes, a prevalence of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–10.7). The highest prevalence was in children aged 12–23 or 24–35 months in all countries except the Philippines, where it was in children aged 6–11 months. The incidence of RSV-associated ILI was 7.0 (6.3–7.7) per 100 person-years (PY). Eighty-eight ILI episodes resulted in hospitalization, of which 8 were associated with RSV (prevalence 9.1% [4.0–17.1]; incidence 0.2 [0.1–0.3] per 100 PY). The incidence of RSV-associated ILI resulting in medical attendance was 6.0 (5.4–6.7) per 100 PY. RSV B subtypes were observed more frequently than A subtypes. Conclusions. Active surveillance demonstrated the considerable burden of RSV-associated illness that would not be identified through hospital-based surveillance, with a substantial part of the burden occurring in older infants and children. PMID:25673560

  7. The Oportunidades program's fortified food supplement, but not improvements in the home diet, increased the intake of key micronutrients in rural Mexican children aged 12-59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Leroy, Jef L; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2013-05-01

    Mexico's Oportunidades program provides conditional cash transfers, nutrition education, health services, and fortified food supplements for the young children of poor families. We have documented the effects of the program on growth and reduction of anemia. To better understand the impact pathways and disentangle the relative effects on dietary intake of the food supplements compared with other program components, we analyzed data from a randomized effectiveness evaluation of the Oportunidades program in rural children aged 12-59 mo. All Oportunidades beneficiaries received the cash transfers and the health and education components, but some children did not consume the supplements. The children's diet was evaluated using a single 24-h recall. The impact was estimated using multiple linear regression models with community-level random effects. Comparisons were made among children who received all the benefits of Oportunidades, including the fortified food supplement (SG), beneficiaries of the program who did not consume the food supplement (NSG), and the control group (CG). Relative to the NSG and CG, respectively, the SG consumed greater amounts of [mean (95% CI)]: energy, 94 (28, 160) and 111 (43, 180) kcal/d; iron, 7.6 (6.3, 8.9) and 7.7 (6.5, 9.0) mg/d; zinc, 7.5 (6.4, 8.6) and 7.6 (6.5, 8.7) mg/d; and vitamin A, 0.109 (0.071, 0.147) and 0.120 (0.080, 0.159) mg retinol equivalents/d. No differences were found between the NSG and CG (P > 0.05). To conclude, the Oportunidades program had a positive impact on the diet of children. The effects of the program on dietary intake resulted from the food supplement and not from improvements in the home diet. Our findings are useful for identifying which program components contributed to the effects on the nutritional status of children.

  8. Positive effects on bone mineralisation and muscular fitness after 10 months of intense school-based physical training for children aged 8–10 years: the FIT FIRST randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Helge, Eva Wulff

    2017-01-01

    improves bone mineralisation and several aspects of muscular fitness of children aged 8–10 years, suggesting that well-organised intense physical education classes can contribute positively to develop musculoskeletal health in young children. Trial registration number NCT02000492, post results....... classes), a circuit strength training group (CST) (n=83, four schools, four classes) or a control group (CON, n=116, two schools, five classes). Intervention SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone...

  9. Investigation on breastfeeding for the infants within four months of age in Tongling City%铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红琼; 胡冬香; 冯雪; 陈尚徽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of breastfeeding for the infants not older than four months of age in Tongling City so as to provide scientific evidence for health policy-making.Methods Infants, who were four months of age or younger and took their first medical examination in child health clinic of Tongling Maternal and Child Health Hospital from June 2009 to December 2010, were enrolled as subjects of the study , and a cross-section analysis was conducted after interviewing their guardians on spot .Results Breastfeeding rate for the infants younger than four months in Tongling was 82.2%, with the exclusive breastfeeding rate of 54.6%.The breastfeeding rate dropped down as the months of age increased .The rate of breastfeeding within half an hour after delivery was 29.3%.The popularity of the breastfeeding varied according to delivery mode , time of breastfeeding start , month of age , living area and educational level of mother and father (χ2 value was 27.20, 25.38, 29.43, 20.67, 10.62 and 15.14, respectively, all P<0.05).Conclusion Breastfeeding is the principle feeding way for the infants not older than four months of age in Tongling City .The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding is low . It is suggested that both the management of child health hospitals and the health education be promoted to increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate and improve children ’ s health condition .%目的:了解铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养情况,为制定干预措施提供参考依据。方法采用横断面调查分析方法,以2009年6月至2010年12月在铜陵市妇幼保健院儿童保健科门诊初次体检,月龄在4个月内的婴儿作为调查对象,通过现场询问获得母乳喂养情况,并进行相关因素分析。结果①铜陵市4个月内婴儿母乳喂养率占82.2%,纯母乳喂养率占54.6%,随着婴儿月龄的增长,母乳喂养率有所下降,母亲产后半小时内开奶率为29.3%;②不同的

  10. Antibody persistence after primary and booster doses of a pentavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine among Thai children at 18-19 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Thisyakorn, Usa; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Ortiz, Esteban

    2012-03-01

    The World Health Organization recommends a booster dose of a pertussis-containing vaccine for children aged 1-6 years, preferably during the second year of life. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent combination vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and conjugated-Hib polysaccharide antigens, [(DTaP-IPV//PRP-T (Pentaxim)], as a booster at 18-19 months of age. Participants had received primary doses of the same vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Antibody concentrations were measured immediately before and one month after the booster dose. Adverse events were evaluated from parental reports. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) or titers (GMTs) decreased from post-primary to pre-booster vaccination; however, at least 94.4% of children had protective levels of anti-tetanus (> or = 0.01 IU/ml), antipoliovirus (> or = 81/dil) and anti-PRP (Hib, > or = 0.15 microg/ml) antibodies prior to the booster. Anti-diphtheria antibody titers > or = 0.01 IU/ml were also observed in the majority of children pre-booster. One month after the booster, seroprotection rates were 99.4% for PRP (> or = 1.0 microg/ml), 95.0% for diphtheria (> or = 0.10 IU/ml) and 100% for tetanus (> or = 0.1 IU/ml) and poliovirus types 1, 2, 3 (> or = 81/dil). At least 93.1% of subjects had 4 fold post-booster increases in anti-pertussis antibody titers. GMCs increased from 14.0 to 307.3 EU/ml and from 13.9 to 271.9 EU/ml for anti-PT and anti-FHA, respectively. Anti-PRP GMC increased from 1.2 to 62.2 microg/ml. The booster was well tolerated. A booster dose during the second year of life was safe and induced a strong immune response, indicative of long-term protection.

  11. High increments of overweight along with low length-for-age growth during the first 24 months of life Aumento de sobrepeso con bajo crecimiento de talla-para-edad durante los primeros 24 meses de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacardí-Gascón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that children nursed in orphanages loose one month of lineal growth for every three months they spend in the orphanage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily variation of weight- for- length and length-for-age among infants under 24 months of age, living in a temporary public orphanage in Mexico. Methods: Ninety children from 0 to 24 months of age, who were institutionalized at an orphanage, were assessed during a three month period. Upon arrival their height and weight were measured daily, Monday through Friday. Daily growth velocity for weight and length was calculated. Length-for age (LAZ and weight-for-length (WHZ age z- scores were calculated based on WHO criteria. Risk of overweight (ROW and overweight (OW were classified using the WHO criteria. Results: The increments of daily weight were lower than the normal range (9 g daily, but the ROW and OW increased from 10% and 3% at the beginning of the study to 14% and 11% at the end. At the end of the follow-up, WHZ was inversely associated to length (cm/day velocity (r = -302, p Antecedentes: Se ha descrito que los niños de orfanatorios pierden un mes lineal por cada tres meses que residen en un orfanatorio. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la variación diaria de peso-para-talla y talla-para edad, entre infantes de menos de 24 meses de edad, que residen en un orfanatorio público temporal de México Métodos: Se valoraron durante un período de tres meses, noventa niños de 0 a 24 meses de edad, institucionalizados en un orfanatorio. Desde su ingreso se midieron diariamente la estatura y el peso de manera estandarizada, del lunes al viernes. Se calculó la velocidad de crecimiento diario del peso y la estatura. Las puntuaciones del z-score de la talla-para-edad y del peso-para-talla (zPT, se calcularon basados en los criterios de la OMS. El riesgo de sobrepeso (RSP y el sobrepeso (SP se clasificó de acuerdo a los

  12. Comparative Study on Beef Quality of Holstein Dairy Bull Calf of Different Month Ages%不同月龄荷斯坦奶公犊肉品质的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡猛; 张文举; 尹君亮; 陈宁; 张云峰

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective] The purpose of this project was to explore the internal quality of the Holstein dairy bull and provide reference for solving the shortage of beef sources and accelerate Meat - Type of cow by conducting comparative study on the beef quality of Holstein dairy bull of different month old. [ Method ] Holstein dairy bull calves of 10,12,18 month age and culling cows were slaughtered in the same nutrition model. The right side muscle of the Carcass was taken back as meat sample. Sense organ, physiochemical and machining indexes of the beef quality were detected. [Result]The dry material, crude protein, crude fat, water losing rate .water retention capacity, cooking percentage of 12 month age Holstein dairy bull were 23.12% , 18.75% ,4. 28% ,21. 05% ,72. 62% ,64. 48% ; 15 month age were 23. 94% , 19. 22% ,8. 11% , 20.96% ,72.44% ,62.21% ;18 month age were 26. 30% ,20.14% ,10.04% ,22. 34% ,69.69% ,61. 52% ; and the culling were 25. 07% , 19. 31% ,11. 54% ,25. 03% ,67. 03% ,59. 50%. The beef color, marbling, tenderness of 18 month age Holstein dairy bull calves were better than those of the other three periods, the content and composition of amino acid were in an ideal situation, however, the contents of 18 free amino acids displayed the dynamic changes in each period. [ Conclusion ] Significant changes appeared in the various indexes of every period with the increasing month age except the ash and pH value. Given all the indexes, the beef quality of Holstein dairy bull calves of 18 month age is the best.%[目的]对不同月龄的荷斯坦奶公犊肉品质进行比较研究,探索奶公犊牛肉内在品质,为解决肉牛源不足加快奶牛肉用化提供参考依据.[方法]在相同的营养模式下随机选取荷斯坦奶公犊12、15、18月龄及淘汰荷斯坦牛各3头进行屠宰,取右半边胴体的背最长肌作为肉品质试验样品,分别对肉品质的感官、理化及加工指标进行分析.[结果]干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、

  13. Comparison of the effects of educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the BASNEF model and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding plays a pivotal role in the promotion of health and prevention of psychological problems in children. This study aimed to compare the effects of breastfeeding educational programs on the development of infants aged 1-3 months based on the model of Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Enabling Factors (BASNEF and application of acupressure on the GB-21 point. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 150 pregnant women (gestational age: 36-41 weeks receiving care in the educational clinics affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Subjects were divided into two intervention groups (educational and acupressure and one control group. In intervention groups, in addition to routine prenatal care, pregnant women received training based on the BASNEF model and instructed acupressure. Mothers in the control group received only standard care during pregnancy. After the intervention, data were collected using Denver developmental screening test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Among developmental gross motor skills, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding the ability to breast lift by relying on the arm (P=0.016. In terms of fine motor skills, a significant difference was observed in holding the rattle by infant (P=0.034. Moreover, time of acquiring individual and social developmental skills was higher in intervention groups compared to the control group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P≥0.05. Therefore, no significant differences were observed between the two interventional groups in this regard (P≥0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, instructed acupressure on the GB-21 pointcould improve some gross motor and fine motor skills in infants. Therefore, it is recommended that the developmental indicators in infants aged 1-3 months be evaluated in

  14. Vegetative development of cultivars of palm oil from 14 to 34 months of age in ecosystems Roraima = Desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade em ecossistemas de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development of cultivars oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq from 14 to 34 months of age in the field in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two experiments were conducted, one in another area of savanna and forest area changes in the assessment of BRS C-2528, C-3701 and BRS BRS C-2301, in experimental design of randomized blocks with six replications. 18 reviews were conducted monthly from August 2008 to April 2010, the number of sheets issued, four leaf length (cm and girth circumference (cm. Analyses of variance individual and joint. For the statistical analysis of the characteristics evaluated test was used Scott-Knott at 5% probability. By comparing the averages of the characteristics evaluated in two environments, we found that, at 34 months old, the forest ecosystem plants had a higher number of leaves, leaf length greater than 4 and greater girth circumference, differing significantly the results obtained in the savanna ecosystem. In forest area changes, independent of cultivar evaluated, plants showed, 3.0 leaves emitted / month, four leaf growth of 8.9 cm / month and girth circumference of 9.6 cm / month, while in savanna, issued 2.5 leaves / month, 4 leaf length of 7.5 cm / month and girth circumference of 6.1 cm / month. It is concluded that changes in forest environment, cultivars have vegetative growth higher than in the environment of savanna. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo Elaeis guineensis Jacq dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade no campo, em dois ecossistemas de Roraima. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em área de savana e outro em área de floresta alterada com a avaliação das cultivares BRS C-2528, BRS C-3701 e BRS C-2301, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. Foram realizadas 18 avaliações mensais, no período de agosto de 2008 a abril de 2010, quanto ao número de folhas

  15. Desenvolvimento do olhar e do contato ocular em lactentes de zero a quatro meses de idade The development of looking behavior and eye-contact in breast feeding children aged between 0 and 4 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Elise Gerbelli Belini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar o desenvolvimento do contato ocular e do comportamento visual de bebês entre zero e quatro meses. MÉTODOS: dezessete bebês típicos foram filmados mensalmente por 30 minutos, sendo transcritas 11 categorias de observação do olhar, quantificadas e tratadas estatisticamente através dos testes de Friedman (α = 0,050 e dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon (α de Bonferroni = 0,010. RESULTADOS: houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nas frequências das categorias: "olhar para os olhos da mãe" (pOBJECTIVES: to investigate the development of eye-contact and visual behavior in babies aged between 0 and 4 months. METHODS: sixteen normal babies were filmed monthly for 30 minutes, and 11 eleven visual behavior categories observed and transcribed. These were then quantified and treated statistically using the Friedman test (α = 0.050 and Wilcoxon's Signed Rank test (Bonferroni's α = 0,010. RESULTS: there were statistical differences in frequency between the various categories: "looking mother in the eye" (p<0.001, "looking mother in the face" (p<0.001, "looking at an object" (p<0.001, "looking at the researcher" (p<0.001, "actively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "passively looking at the surroundings" (p<0.001, "looking at own body" (p=0.001 and "eyes closed" (p=0.005. Eye-contact was detected in the third week of life in 64.7% and developed during the first five months of life (p=0.010 in 50% of the intervals between data collection. CONCLUSIONS: eye-contact can be detected from the neonatal period onwards and develops over the first few months of life. The frequency of the baby's eye-contact with its mother increases longitudinally in the first four months. Other focuses of attention, apart from the mother's eyes, are also fundamental during the early stages of development outside the womb.

  16. Phonological Specificity of Tones in Early Lexical Representation at 16 Months of Age%不同母语环境下16个月婴儿词汇表征中声调的语义特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶冶; 徐琴美; Kim Plunkett

    2012-01-01

    采用跨通道注视偏好范式(IPLP)下的声调错读任务,探究16个月中英婴儿熟悉词汇表征中普通话声调的音位语义特性(phonological specificity).结果发现在先正确命名再声调错读的任务顺序下,中英婴儿均在正确命名时表现出命名效应,在错读时不能再认目标图片,表现出错读效应,说明普通话声调对16个月中英婴儿而言都具备语义特性.%By about 14 months of age, English infants show sensitivity to mispronunciations of consonants and vowels of familiar and newly learnt words when asked to identify a referent. They are also capable of learning two similar-sounding words. These findings suggest that infants possess phonologically detailed representations of words. However,very little is known about the role that tones play in early lexical representations. Wotd meaning is also distinguished by tones, which consist primarily of pitch level or contour variations in tonal language, like Chinese. While in English, a typically non-tonal language, pitch change only plays a role in the phrasal level as intonation. This study aims to answer the question: Do 16-month-old Chinese and English infants treat tones as phonological information in their lexical representations. Using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm with the mispronunciation task, study 1 examined whether Chinese infants at 16 months were sensitive to mispronunciations of tones in monosyllabic, familiar words. 15 infants were separated into two groups. For group 1, the familiar words were pronounced correctly in block 1, while mispronounced with the falling tone in Mandarin (T4) in block 2. The block order was reversed for the infants in group 2. Using a similar task to study 1, study 2 investigated whether English infants at 16 months were sensitive to tonal change in familiar English words when asked to identify a referent. In contrast with study 1, all the 12 infants received one kind of block order. In block 1, the

  17. Monthly Meteorological Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly forms that do not fit into any regular submission. Tabulation sheets and generic monthly forms designed to capture miscellaneous monthly observations.

  18. The use of insecticide-treated nets for reducing malaria morbidity among children aged 6-59 months, in an area of high malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsanzabana Christian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are an important tool for controlling malaria. Much attention has been devoted to determine both the effect of LLINs on the reduction of Plasmodium infection rate and on clinically-confirmed malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out an epidemiological study to investigate whether LLINs impact on Plasmodium prevalence rate and the proportion of clinically-confirmed malaria cases, in five villages in the district of Toumodi, central Côte d'Ivoire. Methods From April 2007 to November 2008, a community-based malaria control programme was implemented in the study villages, which involved large-scale distribution of LLINs, and training and sensitization activities within the community. We determined the effect of this programme on Plasmodium prevalence rate, clinically-confirmed malaria cases and proportion of high parasitaemia rates in children aged 6-59 months through a series of cross-sectional surveys starting in April 2007 and repeated once every 6 months. Results We observed a significant decrease in the mean P. falciparum prevalence rate from April 2007 to April 2008 (p = 0.029. An opposite trend was observed from November 2007 to November 2008 when P. falciparum prevalence rate increased significantly (p = 0.003. Highly significant decreases in the proportions of clinical malaria cases were observed between April 2007 and April 2008 (p Conclusions Large-scale distribution of LLINs, accompanied by training and sensitization activities, significantly reduced Plasmodium prevalence rates among young children in the first year of the project, whereas overall clinical malaria rates dropped over the entire 18-month project period. A decrease in community motivation to sleep under bed nets, perhaps along with changing patterns of malaria transmission, might explain the observed increase in the Plasmodium prevalence rate between November 2007 and November 2008.

  19. Comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo pequenos para a idade gestacional no primeiro trimestre da vida Behavior of full term infants small for gestational age in the first three months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Balanin A. Mello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi comparar o comportamento de lactentes nascidos a termo com peso adequado (AIG a lactantes pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG, no primeiro trimestre de vida. A amostra foi de 20 lactentes, avaliados no 1º, 2º e 3º meses. Foram utilizadas as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil - II, com ênfase na Escala de Classificação do Comportamento (ECC. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no 2º mês, com maior número de lactentes PIG classificados como alterados na ECC. O Fator Qualidade Motora demonstrou valores da mediana significativamente menores no grupo PIG, nos itens Motricidade Axial, Controle de Movimentos e Hipertonia Muscular. O Fator Atenção/Vigília não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Entretanto, quando analisados os itens Exploração de Objetos e de Ambiente e Interação com o Examinador, houve diferença significativa no 2º mês, com valores da mediana menores no grupo PIG.The objective was to compare the behavior of full-term infants small-for-gestational age (SGA with full-term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA. The sample considered 20 infants in the 1st, 2nd and in the 3rd months of life. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were used, with attention to items related to Behavior Rate Scale (BRS. It was found that SGA infants showed lower average values in the BRS in the 2nd month. The Motor Quality Factor displayed significantly lower average values in SGA group, in the items Gross-motor Movement Required by Tasks, Control of Movements and Hypertonicity. The Attention/Arousal Factor in the items Exploration of Objects/Surroundings and Orientation to Examiner displayed significantly lower average values in the SGA group.

  20. Aleitamento materno e práticas alimentares de crianças menores de seis meses em Alfenas, Minas Gerais Breastfeeding and feeding practices for infants under six months of age from Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Irene Spinelli Arantes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da amamentação e avaliar o consumo de outros alimentos em crianças menores de seis meses em Alfenas, Estado de Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo epidemiológico transversal, realizado por meio de inquérito domiciliar com uma amostra de 126 crianças nascidas em 2008. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de formulário com o recordatório de 24 horas da alimentação da criança e outras questões. Na análise dos dados, foi utilizado o Programa Epi Info, versão 6.04. Foi determinada a prevalência das diferentes categorias de amamentação (amamentação exclusiva, amamentação predominante, amamentação complementada e amamentação segundo faixas etárias. O Teste de Fischer e o Teste qui-quadrado foram calculados na associação de variáveis com o aleitamento materno. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da amamentação exclusiva em crianças menores de seis meses foi de 37,3%. A introdução de alimentos semissólidos ocorreu acentuadamente a partir do quinto mês de vida. No sexto mês, 50,7% das crianças encontravam-se em amamentação complementada. As crianças menores de seis meses não amamentadas, comparadas com as amamentadas, apresentaram prevalências significativamente maiores quanto ao consumo de água, frutas e comida da família. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre a amamentação exclusiva até o sexto mês e as variáveis maternas estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de vários resultados deste estudo apresentarem-se superiores aos de outros municípios, a prevalência do aleitamento materno em Alfenas ainda está distante da recomendação de que crianças recebam exclusivamente leite materno até os seis meses de idade.OBJECTIVE: This study determined the prevalence of breastfeeding and evaluated the consumption of other foods by infants under six months of age from Alfenas, Minas Gerais. METHODS: This cross-sectional, epidemiological study included 126 children born in

  1. 6个月内婴儿母乳喂养现状及影响因素研究%An analysis on the status and influencing factors of breastfeeding among infants within six months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕; 邱丽倩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of breastfeeding and to explore the influencing factors among infants within six months of age in Yongkang City.Methods A total of 667 infants aged 0 -6 months from 9 towns in Yongkang City was selected by random cluster sampling method and their mothers were interviewed by self -designed questionnaire .Results By 7 days,1 month,3 months and 4 -6 months,the rate of pure breastfeeding was 69.72%,77.66%,58.32% and 27.97% respectively;the rate of almost pure breastfeeding was 1.95%,0.45%,0.60% and 1.69% respectively;the rate of partial breastfeeding was 13.34%,14.39%,30.13% and 47.46% respectively;the rate of artificial feeding was 14.99%,7.50%,10.95% and 22.88% respectively.There were statistical differences on the rates of breastfeeding among four groups(P <0.05).Non -conditional logistic regression analysis showed that mother's age below 30 (OR =0.464,95%CI =0.315 -0.682),low education level (OR =0.507,95%CI =0.305 -0.842)and part -time working (OR =0.517,95%CI =0.352 -0.758)were protective factors of breastfeeding.Family income above 6 000 yuan was the risk factor of breastfeeding (OR =1.923,95%CI =1.306 -2.833).Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding for infants within six month of age was high,but the rate of breastfeeding by 4 -6 months dropped sharply.The mothers aged below 30 with the family income above 6 000 yuan,with full -time job and higher education level have low breastfeeding rate relatively.%目的:了解永康市6个月内婴儿的母乳喂养现状及影响因素。方法采用随机整群抽样方法对永康市9个镇(街道)667名0~6个月婴儿的母亲进行调查。结果婴儿在出生7 d、1个月、3个月和4~6个月时纯母乳喂养率分别为69.72%、77.66%、58.32%和27.97%;几乎纯母乳喂养率分别为1.95%、0.45%、0.60%和1.69%;部分母乳喂养率分别为13.34%、14.39%、30.13%和47.46%;人工喂养率分别为14.99%、7

  2. Long-term immunogenicity assessment of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 4, 6 and 18-19 months of age, and immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV vaccine given as a booster dose at 4 to 6 years of age in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Ortiz, Esteban

    2012-05-01

    Booster vaccination of infants aims to further reduce the burden of childhood infectious diseases. This study assessed the antibody persistence induced by a primary series vaccination at 2, 4, 6 months of age and a first booster at 18-19 months of age with a pentavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T) in 4-6 year-old Thai children (N=123). The safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine (containing the same DTaP-IPV antigens as the previous vaccine) given as a second booster at 4 to 6 years of age was also evaluated. Seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria (> or = 0.01 IU/ml), tetanus (> or = 0.10 IU/ml), and polioviruses (> or = 8 1/dil) were maintained 4-6 years after primary-vaccination and first booster by > or = 92.7% of children, and anti-pertussis antibodies > or = 5 EU/ml were observed in the majority of children. The second booster with DTaP-IPV elicited a strong response for all antigens. GMT or GMC ratios for all antigens at the pre- and post-booster samples were from 4.7 to 52.5. Primary vaccination at 2, 4, 6 and a booster at 18-19 months of age with the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine induced satisfactory antibody persistence at 4-6 years of age. A second booster with DTaP-IPV induced a strong immune response and was well tolerated.

  3. 12月龄以下婴儿人工耳蜗植入的可行性分析与手术技巧%Feasibility analysis and surgical highlight of cochlear implantation in infants under 12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治华; 黄琦; 汪照炎; 杨军; 吴皓

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析12月龄以下婴儿人工耳蜗植入的可行性和相关手术技巧.方法 14例12月龄以下婴儿及63例13~24月龄幼儿在上海交通大学附属新华医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科植入单侧人工耳蜗.记录分析内容分为两部分,手术相关部分包括手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间、手术并发症,听力学部分包括声场啭音听阈、听力表现指数、言语发育商、咿呀学语发生及爆发月龄.结果 婴儿组与幼儿组的住院时间((-x)±s,下同)分别为(5.1±0.5)d和(5.8±1.1)d,差异有统计学意义(t=-3.17,P0.05). The surgical highlights and experience, strictly restricted operation duration, intimate cooperation among the treatment team members and reduction of intraoperative bleeding are key points to ensure safety and success of the operation. The warble tone average aided in free field and language behavior developmental quotient of younger infants were both improved during follow-up and showed no significant difference compared with older group( t =4.6 and 3.8 ,P > 0.05 ). 80% of infants who finished 24 months follow-up had a CAP score of 6 or 7. The babbling onset in younger group occurred at (14.1 ± 0. 9) months of life, which was better than that in older group [(22.6 ± 3.0) months of life]. Conclusions It is feasible to put cochlear implantation in infants under 12 months of age. And the earlier cochlear implantation could shorten auditory deprivation for children with bilateral congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. Considering the high requirement of surgical highlights and experience, the suggest was that only experienced otologists challenge this domain cautiously.

  4. Effect of locally made Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (Mushpro Health Drink Powder – MHDP for Treatment of Malnutrition on Children Aged 6 to 72 Months in Tribal area of Amravati District of Maharashtra, India: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod R. Wasnik,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM in children is a significant public health problem in India with associated increased morbidity and mortality. The current WHO recommendations on management of SAM are based on facility based treatment. Given the large number of children with SAM in India and the involved costs to the care-provider as well as the care-seeker, incorporation of alternative strategies like home based management of uncomplicated SAM is important.Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a locally made ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF Mushpro Health Drink Powder in decreasing malnutrition in Tribal area. Methods/Study Design: Open-labeled Randomized Controlled trial Eligibility criteria for participants: Children aged 6—72 months but not requiring hospitalization for severe malnutrition (SAM and Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM were considered eligible for study. Children less than 6 months were excluded as several of them were receiving breast milk. Also children having other diseases incriminated as a cause of severe malnutrition, including cerebral palsy, chromosomal malformation, known metabolic diseases, malignancies, congenital heart disorders, hemolytic anaemia, known malabsorption syndrome, or hepatic disorder were excluded. Study Setting: Anganwadi centers’ run by ICDS program in tribal areas of Amravati District of Maharashtra. Interventions: Children with Severe acute malnutrition (SAM and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in 26 Intervention Anganwadi centre received RUTF (MHDP 3 gm/kg/per day (SAM & 2 gm/kg/day MAM two times a day from October to December 2011. Children in the 27 Noninterventional Anganwadi centers’ did not receive Mushpro supplementation. For both the groups the supplementations as per ICDS protocol were given & both arms included continuation of family diets. Main outcome measures: Mean Weight gain and Mean Height gain. Results / Findings: The Mean weight gain at 2

  5. 兰州市6~24月龄儿童喂养问题聚类分析%Clustering analysis of feeding problem in children aged 6 to 24 months in Lanzhou.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月芬

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过深入细致地了解儿童饮食行为问题发生、发展及转归的规律,对儿童喂养问题形成更加清晰的认识,进一步提高儿童喂养指导工作的效率和水平. [方法]选择湖北省妇幼保健院主持标化《中国婴幼儿喂养困难评分量表》,按照课题规范,对兰州市城区6~24个月的儿童进行了相关调查. [结果]1)通过聚类分析,发现儿童的喂养问题有不同的类型.可归为三类:即被动抵抗行为、被动接受行为及延伸性问题;2)上述三类问题与年龄显著相关( x2=29.335,P<0.05).被动抵抗型的构成比,6~10个月龄组最高,为76.5%~77.4%,19~21个月龄组最低,为29%;被动接受型与被动抵抗型的构成比及变化趋势大体反向对应;延伸问题介于两者之间.三类问题的构成比在19~21个月龄组呈现一个明显的交汇点. [结论]儿童喂养问题具有较显著的类型特征,饮食行为干预应科学评估、分类指导;儿童喂养问题具有显著的年龄特征,饮食行为干预应结合儿童身心发展特点,系统监测、适时干预.%[Objective] Through an in-depth understanding the pattern of the occurrence,development and prognosis of children dietary problems,the understanding about children dietary problems becomes more clear,and to further improve the effect of children feeding guidance. [Method] According to the study standards, 202 children aged from 6 months to 24 months in Lanzhou urban were investigated with Chinese Infants Feeding Intolerance Rating Scale which was standardized by Maternal and Children Health Care Hospital of Hubei Province. [Results] 1) There were different types of children feeding problems using clustering analysis. The problems were grouped three types: children resisting diet passively, children accepting diet passively and derivative problem. 2) There was significant correlation between these three problems and age (^2 =29. 335,P<0. 05). The highest

  6. 不同年龄・胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响%Effects of Dairy Cow Age, Fetal Times and Lactation Month on the Butter-fat Percentage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双军; 尚娇; 尚海彬; 李强子; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[方法]对宁夏平吉堡奶牛场1500头成年奶牛乳脂率进行测定,研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[结果]奶牛平均乳脂率为3.64%,随着年龄的增长而逐渐下降,乳脂率由4岁的3.94%降至9岁的3.54%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着胎次的增加也逐渐下降,由1胎的4.03%降至8胎的3.26%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着泌乳月的延长而呈两头高中间低的变化趋势。[结论]该研究结果对今后的奶牛生产具有一定的指导意义。%Objective] To research the effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage.[Method] Butter-fat percentage of 1 500 adult cows was detected in Ningxia Pingjibao Dairy Farm.Effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage were researched.[Result] The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow was 3.64%, which gradually reduced as the age increased.The butter-fat percentage reduced from 3.94% at 4-year old to 3.54% at 9-year old.The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow gradually reduced as the dairy cow enhanced, which declined from 4.03% of the first fetus time to the eighth fetus.The average butter-fat per-centage of dairy cow showed a change trend of peaking at both sides.[Conclusion] This research provides certain guidance for the dairy cow pro-duction in future.

  7. Methodology of infant and young child feeding index for children aged 6-24 months in China%6~24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数评价方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫玲; 曾果; 孙要武; 李增宁; 董文兰; 潘丽莉; 王玉英; 赖建强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) in China to comprehensive evaluate the feeding of children aged 6-24 months. Methods Based on the feed index concept defined by Ruel and Menon in 2002, and according to the feeding principle by WHO and Chinese dietary guidelines for children aged 0-6 years,the feed index for infants and young children was built and the variables were scored. Then using WAZ, HAZ and WHZ, the correlation between ICFI and Z score for children in urban and rural of three provinces (Sichuan, Hebei and Heilongjiang) was evaluated. Results The ICFI was constituted by 7 parts; continued breast-eeding, bottle-feeding, dietary diversity for the past 24h, frequency of feeding solids/semisolids for the past 24h, food frequency for the past 7d, the supplementary time of the formula milk and other foods. The difference of ICFI score between urban and rural group was significant ( P < 0.05). In urban, the ICFI score of children aged 6 ~ 8months was lower than that of children aged 9-24 months. In urban, the negatively correlation between ICFI and WAZ WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) . In rural , the negatively correlation between ICFI and WHZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ) , while the positively correlation between ICFI and HAZ was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion ICFI is effective to evaluate the infant feeding in China.%目的 建立6 ~ 24月龄中国婴幼儿喂养指数,为综合评价婴幼儿喂养提供有效的工具.方法 以2002年Ruel和Menon提出的喂养指数概念为基础,根据世界卫生组织(WHO)喂养建议和中国0~6岁儿童膳食指南,建立喂养指数确定各变量分类及分值,利用四川、河北、黑龙江三地区城乡6 ~ 24月龄共1738名婴幼儿年龄别体重( WAZ)、年龄别身长(HAZ)和身长别体重(WHZ),分析喂养指数与婴幼儿Z评分之间的相关性.结果 喂养指数由持续母乳喂养、奶瓶使用、过去24小时膳食摄入种类和膳食摄入频

  8. Práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses e fatores maternos associados Feeding habits of children aged 6 to 12 months and associated maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina D. M. Saldiva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar as práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses de idade e sua associação com fatores maternos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de delineamento transversal, no qual foram analisados os dados do Projeto Amamentação e Municípios de 2004, conduzido em 136 municípios do estado de São Paulo com 24.448 crianças. O padrão de consumo de alimentos foi avaliado segundo a freqüência de crianças que receberam leite materno e outros alimentos nas últimas 24 horas, e a probabilidade de consumo dos alimentos, nas faixas de idade, foi estimada por meio da análise de probitos. RESULTADOS: O consumo de alimentos revelou que 50% receberam leite materno, 77% outros tipos de leite, 63% mingau, 87% frutas, 78% sopas, 64% comida de panela, 58% comida com feijão e 36% sopa ou comida com carne. A probabilidade de a criança, aos 6 meses de idade, consumir sopas é elevada (78%, comida de panela é baixa (39%, e a probabilidade dela receber leite materno é de 59%, inferior aos outros leites (70% e mingau (63%. Encontrou-se associação entre consumo de refeições lácteas e mães primíparas, que trabalhavam fora e com maior escolaridade. Semelhantes achados foram observados para consumo de sopas, acrescido à idade da mãe superior a 20 anos. O consumo de comida de panela associou-se a mães com menos de 20 anos, que não trabalhavam fora, com menor escolaridade e multíparas. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se consumo excessivo de alimentos líquidos e semi-sólidos e a necessidade do aconselhamento adequado em alimentação complementar, considerando idade, primiparidade, escolaridade e trabalho materno.OBJECTIVE: To identify the feeding practices of children aged 6 to 12 months of age and associated maternal factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the 2004 Breastfeeding and the Municipalities Project, which was implemented in 136 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 24,448 children

  9. Study on the Content of Seven Kinds of Mineral Elements in Muscle of Kazak Male Lamb at Different Month-ages%不同月龄哈萨克公羔羊肌肉7种矿物质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    托娜; 贾帅宾; 程发祥; 余雄

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on natural pasture on north bank of Tekes River in army horse farm of Zhaosu County in Yili Kazak autonomous prefecture of Xinjiang from May 15th to September 21th of 2008.55 4-month-old Kazak male lambs were selected to measure the body weight.Among them,20 lambs were used in digestion experiment and 35 lambs were used in slaughter experiment.The preliminary trial lasted for 8 days and the test lasted for 120 days.The results showed that the content of Cu in the muscle of Kazak grazing lambs obviously decreased with the increase of the age and the body weight(P〈0.05).The content of Cu was the lowest at 6-month-age and reached the highest value at the 7-month-age.The content of Fe significantly increased with the increase of the month-age(P〈0.05).Fe content reached the highest peak at the 7-month-age and began to decrease obviously at 8-month-age with significant difference(P〈0.05).The content of Ca continuously decrease at 5-month-age and 6-month-age,without significant difference(P〉0.05).And Ca content began to increase at 7-month-age,but there was no significant difference(P〉0.05).The content of Co was basically stable,but it began to decrease at 7-month-age without significant difference(P〉0.05).The content of Mg basically tended to be stable with the age and there was no significant difference among different months(P〉0.05).The content of Mn decreased with the month-age,but it began to increase at 7-month-age.Mn content at 7-month-age had significant differences with that at 5-month-age and 8-month-age(P〈0.05).And Mn content obviously decreased at 8-month-age(P〈0.05).Zn content obviously increased with the month-age until 6-month-age.Zn content at 6-month-age had significant difference with that at 4-month-age and 5-month-age(P〈0.05).Zn content began to decrease at 7-month-age and 8-month-age and there was significant difference between 6-month-age and 8-month-age(P〈0

  10. 6个月以下婴儿川崎病33例临床分析%A clinical analysis of 33 cases Kawasaki disease of infants aged under 6 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓琼仙; 吕洁; 赵文利

    2012-01-01

    Objective For early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and to decrease the misdiagnosis rate, this article analyze clinical features of Kawasaki disease in the infants. Methods The clinical data of 33 infants aged 1 to 6 months suffering from Kawasaki disease were retrospectively analyzed. Results In this study, the number of boys was more than that of girls. The incidence of the no-typical Kawasaki disease was higher, that of the typical one and the misdiagnosis rate was higher. Conclusion Early diagnosis and timely treatment are difficult in younger infants younger than 6 months with KD, echocardiogram becomes an important inplement for diagnosis.%目的 分析6个月龄以下小婴儿川崎病的临床发病特点,利于早期诊断.方法 收集2006年6月~2011年6月我院收治的6个月龄以下川崎病患儿33例临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 6个月龄以下小婴儿川崎病以男孩多发,不典型病例多见,误诊率较高.结论 婴儿川崎病临床表现无特异性,冠状动脉异常可作为小婴儿非典型川崎病唯一确诊的金指标.

  11. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  12. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and exploratory analysis on anti-circumsporozoite antibody titres and protection in children aged 5-17 months in Kenya and Tanzania: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Leach, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine. We recently showed efficacy against clinical falciparum malaria in 5-17 month old children, during an average of 8 months follow-up. We aimed to assess the efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E during 15 months of follow-up.......RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine. We recently showed efficacy against clinical falciparum malaria in 5-17 month old children, during an average of 8 months follow-up. We aimed to assess the efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E during 15 months of follow-up....

  13. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  14. Proposing Chinese Pharmacists Month

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Pharmacists: Today I would like to share with you about the American Pharmacists Month which is celebrated in October every year.This month-long observance is promoted by American Pharmacist Association.

  15. 3月龄以下婴儿迁延性咳嗽百日咳感染状况调查%Survey of pertussis infection in infants aged under 3 months with persistent cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米荣; 伏瑾; 康利民; 崔晓岱; 王晓颖; 李莉; 徐放生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence of pertussis in hospitalized infants aged under 3 months with persistent cough.Methods The nasopharyngeal secretions and serum samples were collected from hospitalized infants aged under 3 months with cough for over 2 weeks from January 2011 to January 2012.The samples of nasopharyngeal secretion were suctioned and collected.Multiplex PCR assay was employed to identify Bordetella pertussis( B.pertussis)and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to detect antibody to pertussis toxin (PT-IgG).Total bacterial DNA was exacted from nasopharyngeal secretion and two-target IS481/PT of B.pertussis was detected by PCR.Results Fifty-nine infants (32 boys and 27 girls) were enrolled.None of them was pre-immunized with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine.Seventeen infants (28.8% ) were B.Pertussis positive.Among 17 cases,3 infants under 1 month,4 infants 1 -2months,and 10 infants 2 -3 months.Three infants had household contacts with persistent cough and their serum antibodies to pertussis toxin were positive.Sixteen infants with pertussis had the paroxysms of frequent and rapid coughs while another 5 with pertussis had long inspiratory effort accompanied by a high-pitched "whoop" at the end of paroxysms.Seven infants with pertusis had conjunctiva bleeding,a special sign of pertussis.Ten infants had lymphocytosis with a predominant elevation of lymphocytes.Conclusions B.pertussis is an important pathogen for the infants under 3 months with persistent cough.Multiplex PCR may be used to identify B.pertussis with a high sensitivity.The unrecognized close family members of the infants with pertussis are probably an important source of infection.%目的 调查3月龄以下(≤3个月)的住院患儿中迁延性咳嗽(咳嗽2周以上)婴儿博德特百日咳杆菌感染状况.方法 对2011年1月至2012年1月首都儿科研究所附属儿童医院收治的3月龄以下迁延性咳嗽患儿采集血清和深部呼吸道分泌物,分别采用

  16. Recovery rate and associated factors of children age 6 to 59 months admitted with severe acute malnutrition at inpatient unit of Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral hospital therapeutic feeding unite, northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyibelew, Hanna Demelash; Fekadu, Abel; Woldie, Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite numerous advances made in improving child health and the clinical management protocols for treating severe acute malnutrition at treatment centers, evidences concerning the treatment outcomes are scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the recovery rate and associated factors of severely acute malnourished children of age 6 to 59 months admitted to inpatient therapeutic feeding unit at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. Methods We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 401 severely malnourished children who were admitted from September 2012 to January 2016. Bivariable and a Multivariable logistic regression model were fitted to identify factors associated with recovery rate. Adjusted Odds ratio with its 95% CI was reported and P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Fifty eight percent (58.4%) (95%CI: 53.1–64.1) of admitted children were recovered with a mean recovery time of 18 (±6.3) days. Being female, children who were fully and partially vaccinated, who had better MUAC measurement, who stayed longer in the hospital, and children who took routine vitamin-A supplementation had better recovery rate. However, children who had co-morbidity at admission, had human immune virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) infection, and who had edema were less likely to recover. Interpretation Recovery rate was low as compared to international SPHERE cutoff points (> 75% recovery rate). Interventions that could address the outlined factors would be helpful to improve treatment recovery rate of admitted children. PMID:28166247

  17. Nitrogenous metabolism in Thoroughbred and Arabian foals from birth to five months of age Metabolismo do nitrogênio em potros PSI e Árabe do nascimento aos cinco meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piccione

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of nitrogen metabolism was studied in six Thoroughbred and six Arabian foals. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates and serum concentration of several hematochemical parameters (total protein, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and albumine were monitored from birth to 5 months of age. In both breeds, all the parameters except albumine showed significant differences over time (PA maturação do metabolismo do nitrogênio foi estudada em seis potros da raça Puro-Sangue Inglês e seis da raça Árabe. A temperatura retal, batimento cardíaco e concentração sérica de várias características hematoquímicos (proteína total, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina e albumina foram investigadas do nascimento aos cinco meses de idade. Em ambas as raças, todas as características, exceto a albumina, mostraram diferenças significativas ao longo da maturação (P<0,05. As duas raças não diferiram uma da outra durante os períodos de vida equivalentes. Reduções significativas das concentrações de uréia e creatinina mostraram as necessidades de crescimento dos potros durante esse período crítico de desenvolvimento.

  18. 1至4个月龄正常婴幼儿结膜囊菌群分布特征分析%Normal conjunctival flora in healthy infants aged from 1 to 4 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宁; 马文江; 汪建涛; 石婷; 李筱荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨1至4个月龄正常婴幼儿结膜囊的菌群分布及其相关影响因素.方法 横断面研究方法.2009年1至3月天津医科大学眼科中心与天津市妇女儿童保健中心合作,采取简单随机抽样研究方法选择109例接受眼病筛查的1至4个月龄的健康小儿,进行双眼结膜囊分泌物取材并做细菌培养和鉴定.应用卡方检验、t检验和回归分析方法对数据进行统计学处理,分析结膜囊细菌种类和分布以及相关影响因素.结果 结膜囊分泌物培养阳性的小儿26例(36只眼),占23.9%.共检出7种44株细菌,包括革兰阳性球菌25株,革兰阳性杆菌18株,革兰阴性杆菌1株.其中类白喉棒状杆菌17株(17/44,38.6%),表皮葡萄球菌16株(16/44,36.4%),金黄色葡萄球菌6株(6/44,13.6%).单眼分离出2种细菌者8只眼(8/36,22.2%),均为葡萄球菌和类白喉棒状杆菌.不同月龄、性别及喂养方式的细菌培养结果差异无统计学意义(X2=0.351,X2=0.001,X2=1.182,P值均大于0.05).结膜囊培养阳性者26例(36只眼),培养阴性者83例(166只眼),两组小儿的出生体重、胎龄及受检周龄比较差异无统计学意义(t=0.078,t=0.940,t=0.686,P值均大于0.05).本研究中性别、年龄、出生体重、胎龄及喂养方式不影响结膜囊带菌状态(Wald X2=0.001,Wald X2=0.003,Wald X2=0.117,Wald X2=1.307,Wald X2=1.490,P值均大于0.05).结论 婴儿期结膜囊正常菌群已经建立,以表皮葡萄球菌和类白喉棒状杆菌为主要菌种.葡萄球菌与类白喉棒状杆菌有共生现象.小儿结膜囊带菌状态相关影响因素仍需进一步研究.%Objective To investigate the normal conjunetival bacterial flora isolated from healthy infants aged from 1 to 4 months and to analyze its correlated factors.Methods This was a cross-sectional study.From January to March 2009,109 cases of healthy babies aged from 1 to 4 months were selected throulgh simple random sampling when they accepted health examination

  19. Effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old%早期教育对6月龄婴儿气质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟召学; 李荣萍; 陈林英

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨早期教育对6月龄婴儿气质的影响,为更好地开展婴幼儿早期教育提供理论依据,促进婴幼儿心理及智力发育. [方法]采用Carey的儿童气质问卷对100例早教组6月龄婴儿及100例对照组6月龄婴儿进行气质测评. [结果]两组婴儿在气质类型和气质维度上差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).母亲学历低和家庭收入低对婴儿气质有消极影响,早期教育可以使难养型气质婴儿减少. [结论]早期教育可以促进婴幼儿气质良好发展,确保儿童早期身心健康发展.%[Objective] To explore the effects of early education on the temperamental development for infants aged 6 months old and to provide theoretical basis of early education on promoting the psychological and intellectual development of infants. [Methods] 200 normal 6-month-old infants were assigned to early education group (100 subjects) and the control group (100 subjects). All children of the two groups were assessed by Careys Children Temperamental Questionnaires. [Results] There was significant difference of the temperamental types between the two groups (all P<0. 05). The factor of mothers with low degree and low family income had negative effect on the temperament of infants. The early education could decrease the number of infants of difficult-to-raise type. [Conclusion] Early education has positive effect on the children's temperament,and promotes the development of infants.

  20. Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Forns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education. Methods: We prospectively studied a population-based birth cohort, which forms part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood Project. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Cattell and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire-12 respectively. Results: We observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included. The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile. In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. Conclusions: The association between maternal intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual occupational social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.Objetivos: Este estudio exploró la relación entre inteligencia y salud mental materna y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad en población normal, teniendo en cuenta la clase social basada en la ocupación y el nivel educativo maternos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de cohortes de nacimiento englobado dentro del proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. El

  1. Quando anti-TNF não obtém sucesso, anti-IL-12-23 é opção alternativa na psoríase e na artrite psoriásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Prado Golmia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com psoríase e artrite psoriásica respondem à terapia anti-TNF, mas nem todos os pacientes mantêm uma resposta efetiva e alguns não respondem. Nesse artigo, demonstramos o papel de uma nova via patogenética que, até certo ponto, independe de TNF nesses pacientes. Anti-IL-12-23 é um modo terapêutico novo e alternativo para pacientes com resposta recalcitrante à medicação com anti-TNF.

  2. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 18 months to 16 years: results from a randomized, parallel controlled, phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F; Yang, J; Kang, G; Sun, Q; Lu, P; Zhao, Y; Wang, Z; Luo, J; Wang, Z

    2016-09-01

    For large-scale immunization of children with hepatitis A (HA) vaccines in China, accurately designed studies comparing the safety and immunogenicity of the live attenuated HA vaccine (HA-L) and inactivated HA vaccine (HA-I) are necessary. A randomized, parallel controlled, phase IV clinical trial was conducted with 6000 healthy children aged 18 months to 16 years. HA-L or HA-I was administered at a ratio of 1: 1 to randomized selected participants. The safety and immunogenicity were evaluated. Both HA-L and HA-I were well tolerated by all participants. The immunogenicity results showed that the seroconversion rates (HA-L versus HA-I: 98.0% versus 100%, respectively, p >0.05), and geometric mean concentrations in participants negative for antibodies against HA virus IgG (anti-HAV IgG) before vaccination did not differ significantly between the two types of vaccines (HA-L versus HA-I first dose: 898.9 versus 886.2 mIU/mL, respectively, p >0.05). After administration of the booster dose of HA-I, the geometric mean concentrations of anti-HAV IgG (HA-I booster dose: 2591.2 mIU/mL) was higher than that after the first dose (p <0.05) and that reported in participants administered HA-L (p <0.05). Additionally, 12 (25%) of the 48 randomized selected participants who received HA-L tested positive for HA antigen in stool samples. Hence, both HA-L and HA-I could provide acceptable immunogenicity in children. The effects of long-term immunogenicity after natural exposure to wild-type HA virus and the possibility of mutational shifts of the live vaccine virus in the field need to be studied in more detail.

  3. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  4. 吊带治疗婴幼儿发育性髋关节发育不良%Pavlik harness treatment for infant aged in 4 months with development dysplasia of hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐校光; 胡士琪; 李永智; 李赫; 金芝学; 戚秀丽; 姜胜宇; 胡涛; 金晓光

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨Pavlik吊带治疗6个月内婴幼儿发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的治疗方案和效果。方法:回顾性总结我院2014年6月~2016年6月收治的42例(44髋)年龄为6个月内的发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的婴儿,其中男性7例,女性35例,单侧40例,双侧2例,年龄6~24周。根据Graf超声诊断发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)的病理分型,7髋为Ⅱa(-)型,18髋为Ⅱb型,12髋为Ⅱc型,6髋为Ⅲ型,1髋为Ⅳ型。患儿体检发现发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)患儿存在双侧臀纹不对称,或伴有患侧髋关节屈曲外展受限,经Graf 静态超声技术明确诊断。均采用Pavlik 吊带治疗,间隔1周复诊1次,3周后超声检查观察髋关节发育变化。吊带治疗时间4~24周,随访时间1~20个月,平均10个月。结果:39例(40髋)经Pavlik吊带治疗后,经超声和X线片检查,相关指标达到正常,确认治愈。3例(4髋)在经Pavlik治疗过程中,经超声检查后,相关指标改善明显,58°<α角<60°。全部患儿均无股骨头无菌性坏死等并发症。结论:Pavlik 吊带对于Graf Ⅱ型患儿治愈率高,而对于GrafⅢ、Ⅳ型患儿,Pavlik 吊带治愈率降低,部分患儿需要进一步的后续治疗。超声检查可达到动态观察Pavlik 吊带治疗效果的目的。早期超声检查为发育性髋关节发育不良( DDH)能早期得到 Pavlik 吊带治疗提供了可能,对减少患儿远期遗留畸形和降低治疗过程中并发症发生率有重要意义。%To investigate the effective treatment method of the Pavlik harness for aged in 4 month baby with developmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH) ,the value on high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of DDH.Me thods:From 2014 to 2016,42( 44 hips) affected baby aged in 4 months were treated,male in 7,female in 35,one side in 40,two sides in 2.The patients were 6

  5. Progress report, 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  6. Hispanic Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic heritage month is from September 15 to October 15. One problem that arises when grouping people into categories such as Hispanic or Latino is stereotyping, stereotypes can be promoted or used in this Hispanic month to promote a greater understanding of Latino cultures.

  7. Progress report, 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the past 12 months (months 13 – 24) of the project has included the conclusion of Task 1 – Fundamental Studies and Task 2 – Multimirror Cutting Head Design. Work on Task 3 – Compact Cutting Head Design, and Task 4 – Interface Design has been carried out and the tests of ...

  8. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik B; Swift, Peter G F; Holl, Reinhard W;

    2010-01-01

    To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).......To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D)....

  9. Survey and research on feeding behavior of infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months in Shanghai%上海地区2~36个月婴幼儿进食行为调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琼; 徐秀; 刘静; 鲁萍; 燕东雍

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To obtain a systematic insight into feeding behavior of infants and toddlers in Shanghai. Main indicators included feeding behaviors, feeding activities by feeders and development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers.[Methods] The research adopted a cluster sampling method to conduct the questionnaire survey on 960 healthy infants and toddlers aged between 2 months and 36 months at several neighborhoods in six districts. The study recouped 873 com-pletely-filled-in and effective questionnaires and used the SPSS 11. 5 software for analysis. [Results] 42. 7% of responding parents believed that their children had feeding problems. The main feeding problems of infants included eating too little (38.0%), picky eating and finicky eating (21. 4%) as well as nausea and vomiting (19. 8%). The main feeding problems of children included picky eating and finicky eating (39. 5%), eating too little (34. 3%) and eating too slowly (32. 8%). The main feeding problems included longer mealtimes, high frequency of meals, inappropriate feeding position as well as feeders' poor feeding techniques. Meanwhile, the research also found out that infants and toddlers of all ages lagged in acquiring feeding skills than those listed on the textbook. In terms of skills such as finger feeding, feeding self with help, drinking from cup with help, drinking from cup without assistance, infants and toddlers admitted in this study apparently lagged their counterparts listed on the textbook. The differences featured statistical significance (P<0. 05). [Conclusion]Changing the unreasonable frequency of meals, duration of meals and feeding behaviors while promoting development of feeding skills of infants and toddlers in a proper manner will help reduce the occurrence of feeding problems and boost normal development of feeding behavior of infants and toddlers.%[目的]了解目前上海地区婴幼儿的进食行为状况:主要进食行为问题,喂养人的喂养行为,婴幼儿

  10. Influence of age on radioinduced cognitive disorders: Experimental studies with cerebral irradiation of 30 Gy in 10 sessions and 12 days in the Wistar rat at 1.5, 4 and 18 months; Influence de l'age sur les troubles cognitifs radioinduits : etudes experimentales avec irradiation cerebrale de 30 Gy en 10 seances et 12 jours chez le rat Wistar de 1 1/2, 4 et 18 mois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamproglou, I. [Lab. de Chimie et Biophysique des Traceurs, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, Paris (France); Baillet, F.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J. [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Delattre, J.Y. [Dept. of Neurology and Inst. National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age on the learning and memory dysfunction induced by cranial radiation in the male Wistar rat. Ninety-six 45-day-old, 70 4-month-old, and 78 18-month-old male rats were divided in two equal groups: (i) irradiated and (ii) control. A course of whole-brain radiation therapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 12 days) was administered to the irradiated group, while the control group received sham irradiation. Sequential behavioral studies including one and two-way avoidance tests were undertaken before and after the 7 months following radiation. The results suggest that radiation induced progressive and irreversible memory dysfunction in elderly (18-month-old) rats, but this effect was partial or almost reversible in the 4-month-old and 45-day-old rats, respectively. In return, the learning dysfunction was age non-dependent despite the fact that is occurs more rapidly in the young (45 days, 4 months) rats. (author)

  11. Lightship Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Weather Observations (Monthly Form 1001) from lightship stations in the United States. Please see the 'Surface Weather Observations (1001)' library for more...

  12. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  13. Oceanographic Monthly Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Monthly Summary contains sea surface temperature (SST) analyses on both regional and ocean basin scales for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans....

  14. 0~24月龄婴幼儿家庭养育情况调查%A survey of family nurture environment for infants aged 0-24 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩虹; 朱宗涵; 戴耀华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of family nurture environment and its influencing factors on infants aged 0 to 24 months, so as to provide references for family rearing. Methods Beijing, Changzhi, Huanggang, Suzhou and Nanning were selected as study areas. The structured questionnaires were accomplished by caregivers of infants aged 0-24 months, and the results were analyzed by using SPSS. Results Altogether 1 036 cases participated in the study. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding in study areas was low, and further efforts were needed to reinforce complementary feeding. The complementary feeding rates of fruits, vegetables, meet and fish were significantly higher in urban than those in rural area (χ2 value was 4. 366, 6. 562, 10. 812 and 20. 208, respectively, all P <0. 05 ). The rate of vaccination was high, and 89. 9% of infants had regular physical examination. Prevalence of respiratory tract infection ( RTI ) was the highest, and the awareness rates of fever and cough were higher than other symptoms. Parents knowledge on disease was related to previous health status. Of 1 036 infants, 377( 36. 4% ) had accident injuries. Diapers were still used in 66. 5% of infants, and 32. 7% used both cloth and disposable diapers. For skin cleaning, water was most frequently used ( 67. 5% ). The average sleep time of studied infants at night was 9. 7 hours. Conclusion Infants development is significantly associated with parents care and their nurture environment. Under family nurture environment, it is necessary to enhance scientific infant-rearing conception and skills, so that the early development of infants can be promoted.%目的 了解0~24月龄婴幼儿家庭养育情况及其影响因素,为家庭育儿提供参考.方法 选择北京、长治、黄冈、苏州和南宁为研究地点,对0~24月龄婴幼儿养育人进行问卷调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 参加本次调查的婴幼儿共1 036人.纯母乳喂养率较低,辅食添加状况有待改

  15. Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en lactantes y preescolares del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia Community acquired neumonia in chil- children dren aged 2-60 months in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Arango

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 110 niños entre los 2 y los 60 meses de edad, con diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad, en el Hospital Francisco Valderrama del municipio de Turbo, Antioquia, pertenecientes al programa Vida Infantil de la Universidad de Antioquia. Los criterios de inclusión fueron la taquipnea y el tiraje de acuerdo con las normas de la OMS para el diagnóstico de la infección respiratoria baja en lactantes y preescolares en países en vías de desarrollo. Los pacientes se estudiaron microbiológicamente mediante hemocultivos, prueba de látex para antígenos bacterianos en la orina, prueba de Elisa para Micoplasma pneumoniae y panel respiratorio para los virus que causan más frecuentemente dicha enfermedad. Se hicieron además hemoleucogramas y radiografías pulmonares. Todas las muestras se tomaron bajo criterios protocolizados y se trasladaron por vía aérea a la ciudad de Medellín bajo normas estrictas de conservación, para ser procesadas en el Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Infectología Pediátrica de la Universidad de Antioquia. Los exámenes más adecuados para la comprobación del diagnóstico fueron las radiografías de tórax con 77%; los hemocultivos con una positividad de 11.1%, el panel respiratorio con 3.7%, la prueba de látex para los antígenos bacterianos con 7.4% y la prueba de ELISA con 0.9%. Los hemoleucogramas tuvieron un amplio margen de variabilidad. No se encontró relación estadística entre las variables epidemiológicas estudiadas y la gravedad de la infección. El estudio confirma la escasa sensibilidad de los exámenes paraclínicos y reafirma la importancia del diagnóstico clínico temprano como base para iniciar la terapia. One hundred and ten children aged between 2 and 60 months with the diagnosis of communityacquired pneumoniae, were studied at Francisco Valderrama Hospital in the city of Turbo, Colombia; they belonged to the University of Antioquia Child Life program. Admission

  16. Aleitamento materno em crianças até os seis meses de vida: percepção das mães Breastfeeding among children until six months of age: women's perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Camillo Carrascoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar e analisar a percepção de mães, que amamentaram seus filhos até que estes completassem seis meses de vida, em relação à prática do aleitamento materno. Foi realizado estudo quantitativo-qualitativo. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e consulta aos prontuários clínicos de 101 mães participantes de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento. A análise compreensiva dos discursos foi efetuada com base na técnica de análise de conteúdo, e como referencial metodológico utilizou-se a teoria das representações sociais. A experiência de amamentação demonstrou-se por meio de diversas facetas, agrupadas em cinco categorias: (1 "Realização/Satisfação", (2 "Apego", (3 "Crescimento/Saúde", (4 "Medo do desmame" e (5 "Paciência". As mães se referiram com maior frequência a situações relacionadas à sua realização e satisfação pessoal. Sendo assim, pode-se dizer que a experiência de amamentação, aos olhos das mães deste estudo, não se mostrou focada na criança. O trabalho pode fornecer subsídios para a compreensão do fenômeno da amamentação sob a percepção da mulher-mãe-nutriz, possibilitando a reformulação de atividades de incentivo ao aleitamento.The aim of the study was to characterize and to analyse mothers' perception of the breastfeeding practice among women who breastfed their children until six months of age. A quantitative-qualitative study was conducted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and consultation to records of 101 mothers assisted by interdisciplinary program on breastfeeding promotion. The comprehensive analysis of the speeches was based on the Content Analysis and the Social Representation Theory was used as methodological reference. The breastfeeding experience representations were grouped in five categories such as: (1 "Fulfillment/Satisfaction", (2 "Attachment", (3 "Growth/Health", (4 "Fear of

  17. Feeding patterns and diet -- children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000713.htm Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 ... development Can help prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age ...

  18. Padrão e ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida Pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants during the first four months corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Raniero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo objetivou caracterizar o padrão e o ritmo de aquisição das habilidades motoras de lactentes nascidos pré-termo nos quatro primeiros meses de idade corrigida, comparando-os com um grupo de lactentes a termo. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 12 lactentes pré-termo saudáveis, (MD=33,6 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 1,25 e 10 lactentes a termo saudáveis (MD=39,1 semanas de idade gestacional, ± 0,73. Eles foram avaliados mensalmente (zero a quatro meses de idade com o Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP. RESULTADOS: O padrão de desempenho motor aumentou ao longo dos meses em ambos os grupos, constatando variabilidade nos escores totais em todas as idades. O grupo pré-termo apresentou escore médio mais elevado do que o a termo entre um e quatro meses de idade. Nesse grupo, o ritmo de aquisição motora foi maior de zero a um do que de três a quatro meses. Verificou-se também que os cuidadores desses lactentes iniciaram a estimulação com brinquedos anteriormente aos cuidadores do grupo a termo. Ambos os grupos apresentaram escores médios inferiores aos do TIMP. CONCLUSÕES: Os lactentes pré-termo apresentaram padrão de desenvolvimento motor semelhante aos típicos quanto à sequência de habilidades adquiridas e ritmo acelerado no período de recém-nascido (RN a um mês de idade. Sugere-se que lactentes pré-termo com essas características não necessitam de correção do grau de prematuridade e que programas de acompanhamento orientem os pais e cuidadores a estimulá-los, desde o primeiro mês, com brinquedos, propiciando a exploração precoce de diversos padrões motores.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants from newborn to four months corrected age, in comparison with a group of full-term infants. METHODS: Twelve healthy preterm infants (mean gestational age=33.6 weeks ± 1.25 and 10 healthy full-term infants (mean

  19. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  20. Photos of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Congratulations to Adele Rimoldi, ATLAS physicist from Pavia, who ran her first marathon in New York last month. Adele completed the 42.2 km in a time of 4:49:19. She sure makes it look easy!!! The ATLAS pixel service quarter panel in SR1

  1. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  2. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 9 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 9 Months Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Contact ...

  3. Effect of supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement on the micronutrient status of children aged 6–18 months living in the rural region of Intibucá, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been effective in the treatment of acute malnutrition among children. We evaluated the use of LNS supplementation for improving the micronutrient status of young children. Methods: A 12-month randomised controlled trial was conducted among chil...

  4. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  5. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  6. Periods study of nutrition interventions about infants aged 6 ~ 24 months in Ningqiang county affected by Wenchuan earthquake%地震灾区宁强县6~24月龄婴幼儿营养干预周期研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林江; 徐增康; 常锋; 付萍; 张坚; 张同军; 张汉沛; 李建莉; 宋鹏坤

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨宁强县6~24月龄婴幼儿营养干预效果与干预周期的关系. [方法]按照干预措施实施的时限将婴幼儿分组,分别比较不同时限干预组与未干预组婴幼儿的年龄别体重Z评分(Weight-for-age Z-score,WAZ)、年龄别身长Z评分( Height-for-age Z-score,HAZ)、身高别体重Z评分(Weight-for-Height Z-score,WHZ)以及血红蛋白的差异. [结果]干预0~2.9月组、3~5.9月组和6~8.9月组的WAZ分别为0.37±1.25、0.07±0.97、0.07±1.02,与未干预组相比差异存在统计学意义(P<0.01);干预0~2.9月组、3~5.9月组和6~8.9月组的WHZ分别为0.55±1.11、0.43±1.00、0.32±1.26,较未干预组有显著增加(P<0.01);干预0~2.9月组(P<0.01)、6~8.9月组(P<0.05)的HAZ较未干预组显著增加. [结论]通过营养干预可以显著改善宁强县6~24月龄婴幼儿营养状况,本研究存在“0~9个月”的敏感干预周期.%[Objective] To investigate the relationship between effectiveness and periods of nutrition interventions a-bout infants aged 6 ~ 24 months in Ningqiang county. [Methods] Infants were divided according to periods of nutrition interventions. And the differences of infants' weight-forage Z-score( WAZ), height-for-age Z-score( HAZ),weight-for-height Z-score( WHZ)and hemoglobin concentration between groups were compared. [Results] The WAZ of 0~2. 9 months group,3~5. 9 months group and 6~8. 9 months group were 0. 37± 1. 25,0. 07±0. 97,0. 07 ± 1. 02,respectively,and they increased significantly compared to the baseline(P<0. 01). The WHZ of O~2. 9 months group,3~5. 9 months group and 6 ~ 8. 9 months group were 0. 55±1. 11,0. 43+ 1. 00,0. 32±1. 26,respectively,there were significant differences between intervention groups and non-intervention group. (P<0. 01). The HAZ of 0~2. 9 months group(P<0. ODand 6 ~ 8. 9 months group(P<0. 05) also increased significantly. [Conclusions] Through nutrition interventions the nutrition status of infants aged

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  8. Frequency of Septic Complications after Voiding Cystourethrography without Prior Urine Culture in Children Three Months to Six Years of Age with Urinary Tract Infection and Clinical Response to Antibiotic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Pavony, Juan Gonzalo; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Bustos Sánchez, Diana Carolina; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Rey Camacho, Sandra Janeth; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Vásquez Blanco, Gladys Johanna; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Lozano, Juan Manuel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    complications secondary to the development of voiding cystourethrography without urine culture in children three months to six years with UTI treated at the Hospital San Ignacio and had adequate clinical response to antibiotics. We designed a retrospective cohort study of two years. We reviewed a total of 243 medical records of patients whose data were extracted based on the data collection form. None of the 59 patients who met the inclusion criteria had septic complications. It intends to de...

  9. Commissioners' Monthly Case Activity Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission — Total cases pending at the beginning of the month, total cases added to the docket during the month, total cases disposed of during the month, and total cases...

  10. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months ... coo Be able to laugh out loud Anticipate feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle- ...

  11. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  12. 5 CFR 1650.13 - Monthly payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly payment amount calculated based on life expectancy. Payments based on life expectancy are determined using the factors set forth in the Internal Revenue Service life expectancy tables codified at 26... balance by the factor from the IRS life expectancy tables based upon the participant's age as of his...

  13. 75 FR 67905 - National Hospice Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... caregivers manage the details and emotional challenges of caring for a dying loved one. The decision to place... comprehensive care for terminally ill individuals. As many of our Nation's veterans age and cope with illness... National Hospice Month. I encourage citizens, medical institutions, government and social service...

  14. 滩湖F1代6月龄产肉性能研究%A Study of Meat Producing Performance of F1 Generation Tanhu Sheep of 6 Months Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊丽; 马吉锋; 王建东; 梁小军; 黄建军

    2015-01-01

    为研究滩湖F1代产肉性能,选择滩湖F1代6月龄公羔、滩羊公羔进行屠宰测定。结果表明:滩湖F1代6月龄公羔产肉性能高于同期滩羊公羔,其中滩湖F1代屠宰率、净肉率、背膘厚、GR值、眼肌面积分别比滩羊提高了1.26%、7.15%,21.66%、17.75%、8.52%;滩湖F1骨肉比、尾脂和内脂占胴体比例比滩羊降低了20.11%、27.01%,二者差异不显著(P>0.05)。%In order to study the meat producing performance of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep, the 6 months old male lamb of F1 generation Tanhu sheep and the male lamb of Tan sheep were selected to make slaughter and measurement. The results showed that the meat producing performance of the 6 months old male lamb of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep was higher than that of the male lamb of Tan sheep, and the slaughter rate, net meat percentage, backfat thickness, GR value and loin eye area of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep were higher than those of the Tan sheep by 1.26%, 7.15%,21.66%, 17.75% and 8.52% respectively; the flesh ratio and the ratio of the tail and inner fat accounting for the carcass of the F1 generation Tanhu sheep were 20.11% and 27.01% lower compared with those of the Tan sheep and the difference was not significant(P>0.05).

  15. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. COSMIC monthly progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  18. Mother-Stranger Discrimination in Three-Month-Old Infants and Subsequent Gesell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kiki V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the ability of infants at various age levels between three and nine months to discriminate between their mother and a stranger, and relates such ability to the infants' developmental quotient at age nine months. (Author/MP)

  19. AN EXPERIENCE OF FACILITY-BASED MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0-59 MONTHS ADOPTING THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS AT NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTRE, ANANTHAPURAMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Deen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM increases significantly the risk of death in children under five years of age. It can be an indirect cause of child death by increasing the case fatality rate in children suffering from common illness such as diarrhoea, pneumonia. AIMS The aim of this study is to know the effectiveness of facility based management of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition at Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs. SETTINGS AND DESIGN The study was done in the Department of Paediatrics, Government General Hospital at Ananthapuramu as a prospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIALS A total of 195 patients were selected under Severe Acute Malnutrition as per WHO Child Growth Standards by observing for bilateral pitting oedema and/or MUAC _15% admission weight, while 50 (32.7% did not attain target weight gain (non-recovered. CONCLUSION This study will help to improve the functional activities of NRCs. Conducting audits after such studies will aid in implementation of newer guidelines, which will enhance the functional outcome of NRCs. Such NRCs will greatly help to reduce the under-five child mortality rate.

  20. State and influencing factors for anemia of infants aged 0-18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province%陕西农村0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血状况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛媛; 刘黎明; 杨文方; 张水平; 王懿

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the state and influencing factors for anemia of infants aged 0-18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province and provide scientific basis for preventing from anemia .Methods; 336 infants aged 0-18 months were selected from 19 village by stratified sampling.Questionnaire survey was done and hemoglobin was analyzed by blood routine examination.Results: The anemia prevalence rate of infants aged 0-18 months was 35.10% and increased with the age increasing.The anemia prevalence rate of infants aged 13 -18 months was highest (50.82% ).Low birth weight ( <2 500 g) was the risk factor of suffering anemia, longer mother's school years and higher family's average month income were protective factors of anemia.Conclusion: Compared to the nationwide and most other provinces and cities, the prevalence rate of anemia of infants aged 0 - 18 months in rural area of Shaanxi province is higher.It is advised to develop health education widely since duration of pregnancy, improve the feeding techniques of the people who take care, especially mother's feeding methods to decrease prevalence rate of infantile anemia.%目的:了解陕西农村贫血状况及其影响因素,为合理防止提供科学依据.方法:采取整群分层抽样的方法对陕西省19个自然村336名0 ~18月龄婴幼儿进行问卷调查和血红蛋白的测定.结果:该地区0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血患病率为35.12%,0~18个月婴幼儿中0~3月龄组贫血患病率最低,为13.33%,随月龄增大贫血患病率逐渐增高,至13 ~18月龄组达最高(50.82%).出生时低体重(<2500g)、家庭经济状况差以及母亲的教育程度低均为婴幼儿患贫血的危险因素.结论:陕西农村地区0~18月龄婴幼儿贫血患病率明显高于全国水平和大多数省市婴幼儿的贫血患病率,处于较高的水平,应广泛开展健康教育,加强孕期保健,提高母亲的喂养技术,预防和改善婴幼儿贫血.

  1. Biodisponibilidade do ferro como fator de proteção contra anemia entre crianças de 12 a 16 meses Iron bioavailability as a protective factor against anemia among children aged 12 to 16 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2007-02-01

    iron intake according to recommendations. METHODS: The study included 369 children from a cohort of inhabitants of São Leopoldo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, who were randomized at birth into an intervention group and into a control group. The intervention group had nutritional guidance in the first year of life, with monthly follow-up home visits, whereas the control group was visited at 6 and 12 months, without nutritional intervention. At the end of the first year of life, a 24-hour recall was used. Anemia was diagnosed based on a hemoglobin level less than 11 g/dL. The children's diets were classified according to iron bioavailability. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia amounted to 63.7% in this study. The proportion of children with adequate iron intake relative to the recommendations was statistically higher in the nonanemic group (26.8% than in the anemic one (17.7%. Nonanemic children had a greater intake of iron (p = 0.019, vitamin C (p = 0.001, energy density at dinner (p = 0.006, iron density per 1,000 calories (p = 0.045; and 16.3% of them had a diet with high iron bioavailability (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with high iron bioavailability protects children from anemia and can be used as an intervention measure by basic health services and by the municipal departments of children's education.

  2. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  3. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after vaccination of toddlers and children between 12 months and 10 years of age with a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Forsten, Aino; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    We studied the persistence of serum bactericidal antibody using rabbit and human complement (rSBA/hSBA, cut-offs 1:8) 5 y after a single dose of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) compared with age-appropriate control vaccines in toddlers and children (NCT00427908). Children were previously randomized (3:1) to receive either MenACWY-TT or control vaccine (MenC-CRM197 in 1-vaccine [Men-PS] in 2-vaccine and discontinued from the study. A repeated measurement statistical model assessed potential selection effects due to drop-outs. At year 5 in MenACWY-TT-vaccinated-toddlers for serogroups A, C, W, and Y respectively, percentages with rSBA titers ≥1:8 were 73.5%, 77.6%, 34.7%, and 42.9%, hSBA ≥1:8 were 35.6%, 91.7%, 82.6% and 80.0%. For MenC-CRM197 recipients, 63.6% had persisting rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8 and 90.9% had hSBA-MenC ≥1:8 (not significantly different versus MenACWY-TT for either assay: exploratory analyses). In 2-vaccinees were 90.8%, 90.8%, 78.6%, and 78.6% and 15.4%, 100%, 0.0%, 7.7% in Men-PS-vaccinees (significantly different for serogroups A, W and Y, exploratory analyses). Serogroups A, W and Y rSBA GMTs were ≥ 26-fold higher in MenACWY-TT-vaccinees. As expected, GMTs modeled at year 5 to assess the impact of subject drop out (mainly for revaccination), appeared lower for serogroup C. No vaccine-related SAEs were reported. Antibody persistence was observed for all serogroups up to 5 y after MenACWY-TT vaccination.

  4. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  5. Effects of Castration on Blood Testosterone Content,Growth Performance and APPearance Characteristics of Wannan Cattle Aged from 12 to 18 Months%去势对12~18月龄皖南牛血液睾酮含量、生长性能和外貌特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴隆; 汪先友; 何阳; 薛志杰; 杨莹; 曹兵海

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of castration on blood testosterone content, growth performance and appearance characteristics of Wannan cattle aged from 12 to 18 months. Twelve Wan-nan cattle aged 12 months with similar body weight and body size were selected and assigned to 2 groups with 6 heads in each group. Cattle in one group were castrated,while those in the other group were not castrated. The results showed as follows:castration significantly reduced the average content of blood testosterone of Wannan cattle aged from 12 to 18 months( P 0.05),and the difference occurred in the first three months after castration;castration significantly reduced the average value of body length increased per month at 12 to 18 months of age( P0.05). It is concluded that castration can down-reg-ulate blood testosterone content,inhibited the growth of the body sizes shortly after castration,and changed the appearance characteristics of Wannan cattle,especially the development of muscle of neck and front 1 / 4 of trunk.%本试验目的是研究去势对12~18月龄皖南牛血液睾酮含量、生长性能和外貌特征的影响。选择12头12月龄体重与体尺相近的皖南牛随机分为2组,每组6头,一组进行去势处理,另一组未进行去势处理。结果表明:去势极显著减低了12~18月龄皖南牛血液睾酮含量的平均值(P<0.01)。去势组18月龄体重显著低于未去势组(P<0.05),这主要是由于去势后2个月平均日增重的大幅降低。去势组18月龄的体高要低于去未势牛组,但差异不显著( P>0.05),2组间的差异主要是在去势后3个月引起的;去势显著降低了12~18月龄月增加体斜长的平均值(P<0.05),影响主要发生在去势后5个月内;去势后2个月内去势组月增加胸围均低于未去势组,但差异不显著(P>0.05)。结果提示,去势能降低皖南牛血液睾酮含量,短期内抑

  6. Long-term stability in children's frontal EEG alpha asymmetry between 14-months and 83-months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.C.N.; Kuhn-Popp, N.; Meinhardt, J.; Sodian, B.; Paulus, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the test-retest stability of resting state alpha asymmetry in 18 children (9 male and 9 female) in a longitudinal design. Children's resting state brain activation asymmetries were assessed by means of EEG first after 14 months of age, and again a second time at

  7. Elimination of iron deficiency anemia and soil transmitted helminth infection: evidence from a fifty-four month iron-folic acid and de-worming program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming are effective initiatives to reduce anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and soil transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effectiveness of population-based interventions delivered in resource-constrained settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives were to evaluate the impact of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and de-worming on mean hemoglobin and the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, and soil transmitted helminth infection in a rural population of women in northern Vietnam and to identify predictive factors for hematological outcomes. A prospective cohort design was used to evaluate a population-based supplementation and deworming program over 54 months. The 389 participants were enrolled just prior to commencement of the intervention. After 54 months 76% (95% CI [68%, 84%] were taking the iron-folic acid supplement and 95% (95% CI [93%, 98%] had taken the most recently distributed deworming treatment. Mean hemoglobin rose from 122 g/L (95% CI [120, 124] to 131 g/L (95% CI [128, 134] and anemia prevalence fell from 38% (95% CI [31%, 45%] to 18% (95% CI [12%, 23%]; however, results differed significantly between ethnic groups. Iron deficiency fell from 23% (95% CI [17%, 29%] to 8% (95% CI [4%, 12%], while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was reduced to 4% (95% CI [1%, 7%]. The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 76% (95% CI [68%, 83%] to 11% (95% CI [5%, 18%]. The level of moderate or heavy infestation of any soil-transmitted helminth was reduced to less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Population-based interventions can efficiently and effectively reduce anemia and practically eliminate iron deficiency anemia and moderate to heavy soil transmitted helminth infections, maintaining them below the level of public health concern.

  8. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  9. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  10. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  11. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  13. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  18. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  20. Haida Months of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  1. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  3. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  10. Growth and development and its related factors among rural children aged 6 - 24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西农村6~24月龄婴幼儿生长发育及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶群; 王惠珊; 宫丽敏; 韦萍; 赵晶; 张丽晋; 许慧琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth and development and its related factors among the rural children aged 6-24 months in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to provide reference for the improvement of the children's health. Methods A questionaire survey was conducted among the parents of 1 198 children aged 6-24 months selected randomly with stratified cluster sampling form eight towns in two counties of Guangxi. The height and weight of the children were measured by nuiformly trained personnel and were evaluated based on the study of nine cities in China,2005. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 21. 9% among the children and was lower than the average level of the nine cities. The prevalences of underweight and stunting were 16. 2% and 13. 5% ,and increased with the age among the children. There were significant differences in malnutrition and stunting among the young children of different month of age. The results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that aged 12 months or more, second or late parity, and drinking unboiled water were the risk factors and normal delivery was a protective factor for malnutrition among the children. Conclusion The prevalences of low weight and stunting are relative high and preterm infants and children of second or late parity are at a high risk of malnutrition among the children in rural areas of Guangxi.%目的 了解广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿的生长发育现状及其影响因素,为改善当地儿童生长发育水平提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取广西横县、宾阳县和灵山县8个乡的1 198名6 ~ 24月龄婴幼儿家长进行问卷调查,并由经过统一培训的人员测量婴幼儿的身长、体重.结果 广西壮族自治区农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿体重和身长均低于中国9市标准人群,且随年龄增加,儿童身长、体重差距逐渐增大;广西农村地区6~24月龄婴幼儿营养不良发生率为21.9

  11. Age determination of raccoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  12. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  13. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Risk factors for iron deifciency anemia in infants aged 6 to 12 months and its effects on neuropsychological development%6~12月龄婴儿缺铁性贫血的危险因素分析及对神经心理发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康; 张翠梅; 黄连红; 付四毛; 刘玉玲; 陈昂; 欧俊斌

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deifciency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants.MethodsA total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classiifed into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children’s mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament.ResultsThe univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (P1;P1;P1,P1,P<0.05)。IDA组Gesell总发育商、大运动、适应行为、精细动作得分较对照组低(P<0.05)。IDA组难养型及中间偏难养型气质的比例较高(P<0.05)。IDA组活动水平、节律性、适应性、坚持性维度得分较对照组高(P<0.05)。结论早产、多胎、低出生体重、喂养方式、母亲孕期贫血及母亲缺乏IDA相关知识与6~12月龄婴儿IDA贫血程度相关。IDA患儿神经运动发育落后,消极气质类型居多,需加强对患儿心理行为问题的重视,指导家长选择恰当的喂养及教育方式。

  17. Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination Diphtheria–Tetanus Toxoid–Five-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.) PMID:23966556

  18. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  19. 230例极低出生体质量儿随访至纠正6月龄生存质量分析%Analysis of the quality of life of 230 very low birth weight infants followed up to 6 months of corrected age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青莲; 包蕾

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析极低出生体质量(VLBW)婴儿的短期预后。方法回顾性分析2013年12月至2014年12月收治的VLBW婴儿随访至纠正6月龄的生存质量。结果共入选230例符合标准的VLBW婴儿,出院时死亡30例(13.0%),放弃治疗40例(17.4%),好转签字出院60例(26.1%),治愈100例(43.5%)。30例死亡VLBW婴儿中,主要为新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征18例、肺出血5例、败血症3例。200例存活婴儿随访至纠正6月龄时,13例(6.5%)失访;54例(27.0%)死亡,其中40例是因经济原因放弃治疗或好转签字出院的。纠正1、3、6月龄时,继续随访的VLBW婴儿身长、体质量均随月龄增长逐渐接近儿童生长标准,但至纠正6月龄时仍明显落后于儿童生长标准;身长落后较体质量落后更明显。109例患儿行眼底筛查,其中早产儿视网膜病变Ⅰ期21例、Ⅱ期7例,眼底出血行激光光凝术6例;98例患儿行听力筛查,单侧未通过5例,双侧未通过11例;95例患儿行头颅磁共振成像(MRI)检查,颅内出血10例,早产儿脑损伤9例。49例患儿纠正胎龄42周行新生儿神经行为测定(NBNA)均≤35分;纠正3月龄时,36例患儿行Gesell发育量表评估,轻度发育迟缓11例、中度2例;纠正6月龄时,24例行Gesell发育量表评估,轻度发育迟缓2例。VLBW婴儿在适应能力、社交行为、大运动方面进步较快。结论经济条件及新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、肺出血、败血症是影响VLBW婴儿存活及生存质量的重要因素;存活VLBW婴儿的生长发育均有逐渐好转现象。%Objective To analyze the short term prognosis of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The clinical data of VLBW infants who were hospitalized from December 2013 to December 2014 and followed up to 6 months of corrected age were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 230 VLBW infants were enrolled. Thirty infants (13.0%) died during hospitalization

  20. Effectiveness of nutrition interventions about infants aged 6~24 months in Ningqiang county affected by Wenchuan earth quake%地震灾区宁强县6~24月龄婴幼儿营养干预效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增康; 王林江; 常锋; 付萍; 张坚; 张汉沛; 李建莉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the nutrition status of infants before and after nutrition interventions in Ningqiang county. [Methods] The project provided nutrition interventions which feed infants aged 6-24 months one packet Yingyangbao per day and educated babysitter how to feed infants properly in Ningqiang county. Before and after the 18 months nutrition interventions,327 and 300 infants aged 6~24 months were sampled respectively to complete the investigation. Effectiveness of nutrition interventions was evaluated by analyzing the differences of infants' length,body weitht,hemoglobin concentration,WAZ,HAZ,WHZ,underweight rate,stunting rate, wasting rate and anemia rate between two samples. [Results] After the interventions,average weight and length of infants aged 6~24 months increased 0. 90 kg(t=-9. 94, P<0. 01)and 3. 40 cra(t=-7. 74,P<0. 01)respectively,and there were significant differences between before and after interventions. WAZ(-0. 48 vs 0. 09,t=-6. 95,P<0. 01),HAZ (-0.73 vs -0. 25,t=-4. 63 ,P<0. 01) and WHZ(-0. 15 vs 0.30, i = -4. 90,P<0. 01) also increased significantly. Through the nutrition interventions infants' hemoglobin concentration increased from 10.94 g/dL to 11.70 g/dL(t=-7. 97,P<0. 01),anemia rate decreased from 49.5% to 23. 9%(x2 =43. 72,P <0. 01) ,and the results of statistical analysis showed that significant differences exist. [Conclusion] Through 18 months nutrition interventions the nutrition status of infants aged 6~24 months could be improved significantly.%[目的]评价发放辅食营养包和开展健康教育对地震灾区宁强县婴幼儿营养状况的改善效果.[方法]对宁强县所有6~24月龄婴幼儿添加辅食营养包、对婴幼儿看护人开展婴幼儿喂养健康教育,在干预措施实施18个月前后,分别抽取327名和300名6~24月龄婴幼儿进行调查,对比干预前后婴幼儿的身高、体重、血红蛋白、WAZ(Weight-for-age Z-score)、HAZ (Height-for-age Z-score)、WHZ(Weight-for -Height Z

  1. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  2. US Monthly Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly winds aloft summary forms summarizing Pilot Balloon observational data for the United States. Generally labeled as Form 1114, and then transitioning to Form...

  3. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  4. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  5. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  6. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  8. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Determinación de sensibilización alérgica a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores por fluoroinmuno ensayo-UniCAP Dust mite allergic sensitization in children aged 1 month to 5 years-old using specific IgE determination by unicap fluoroimmunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA MEYER K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de asma. Hay escasa información sobre la sensibilización temprana en niños chilenos. Objetivo: Investigar la sensibilización a dermatofagoides en niños de 5 años y menores. Método: Revisión de resultados de IgE específica por ensayo UniCAP (Pharmacia contra dermatofagoides de niños de hasta 5 años con sospecha de alergia respiratoria, divididos en 3 grupos de edad: 1-12 meses, 13-35 meses y 3-5 años. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 224 niños, entre 1 mes y 5 años de edad (x 2,65 años ± 1,48 DS, 57,1% de sexo masculino. Su distribución según grupo etario fue: 66 en el grupo 1; 45 en el grupo 2 y 113 en el grupo 3. El 30,6% presentó sensibilización a dermatofagoides (18,2% grupo 1; 33,3% grupo 2 y 36,3% grupo 3. El grupo 3 presentó concentraciones de IgE específica significativamente más elevadas que los otros grupos. Conclusiones: La sensibilización a dermatofagoides es detectable en menores de un año, con frecuencia y nivel que aumentan en forma paralela a la edadDust mite sensitization is considered a major risk factor for pediatric asthma; however, there are few data about early sensitization in Chilean children available. This study aimed to investigate allergic sensitization to mites in infancy and early childhood. The patient population, 224 children aged 0 to 5 years with suspected respiratory allergy, was divided into 3 groups of age: 1 to 12 months-old, 13 to 35 months-old, and 3 to 5 years-old. Sensitization status was ascertained by assessing the specific IgE to mite by UniCAP fluoroimmunoassay (Pharmacia. Sixty eight (30.6% patients were sensitized to mites. The frequency and level of sensitization increased with the age of the children. Our data support that avoidance measures in the domestic environment aimed at the primary prevention of mite-driven sensitization should be introduced at the earliest possible stage

  20. COMPARISON OF GROWTH, INFECTIONS AND FEEDING HABITS AMONG FORMULA-FED INFANTS STARTING COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING AT 4 TO 6 MONTHS OLD WITH THOSE STARTING AT 6 MONTHS OLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppornlertwong, Chanon; Tantibhaedhyangkul, Ruangvith

    2016-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends starting complementary feeding among infants beginning at 6 months old, as opposed to 4 to 6 months old. We prospectively studied 21 formula-fed infants beginning complementary feeding at 4 to 6 months old and compared them with 20 formula-fed infants starting feeding at 6 months old to determine difference in growth, number of infections and feeding habits. The studied infants were each enrolled at age 4 months. The decision as to which group the infants were classified into was based on the parental decision as to when to start complementary feeding. Initial demographic data were obtained for each subject. Growth, infections, and feeding habit data were recorded. No significant differences in growth were detected between the 2 groups. Respiratory infections at age 10 to 12 months were more common among children who began complementary feeding later. By age 12 months, the percentages of subjects who were bottle feeding and night feeding, and new food acceptance were not different from each other, but those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months were less picky eaters. By 15 months old, those who began complementary feeding at age 6 months had less bottle feeding and better food acceptance. In conclusion, for formula-fed infants, age of onset of complementary feeding was not associated with infant growth or infection rates. However, some feeding habits differed between the two groups. It is unclear if the age of introducing complementary feeding caused these differences or was merely associated with these differences.

  1. Prática alimentar entre crianças menores de dois anos de idade residentes em municípios do semiárido do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Feeding practice among children under 24 months in the semi-arid area of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana de Araújo Palmeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prática alimentar de crianças menores de dois anos de idade residentes em municípios do interior do Estado da Paraíba. MÉTODOS: Estudo secional realizado nos 14 municípios mais carentes do Estado da Paraíba. Foram pesquisados 539 domicílios com pelo menos uma criança com idade entre 0 e 23,9 meses. Aplicou-se às mães recordatório 24 horas sobre alimentação das crianças. O modelo de análise considerou três momentos do crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança, identificando as recomendações de consumo alimentar pertinentes. RESULTADOS: Crianças de 0-5,9 meses: destacou-se um importante percentual de desmame (20,7% e a reduzida prevalência do aleitamento materno exclusivo (30,5%. Crianças de 6-11,9 meses: 45,2% ainda mamavam, porém apenas 21,7% das crianças entre 6 e 9,9 meses apresentaram uma alimentação complementar oportuna. Crianças entre 12-23,9 meses: a prática alimentar das crianças caracterizou-se essencialmente pelo consumo de leite não materno e pelo consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro. CONCLUSÃO: O hábito alimentar distancia-se de uma prática alimentar segura, especialmente pela interrupção precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo e sua consequente substituição por refeições à base de leite não materno, expondo esse grupo a situações de insegurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: Examine the feeding practices among children under 24 months in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in 14 municipalities identified as the poorest of the state; 539 households composed of at least one child between the ages of 0 and 23.9 months were investigated. A 24-hour recall was conducted with the mothers regarding food consumed by their children. The analytic model took into account established recommendations for appropriate child feeding practices for three age groups: 0-5.9 months; 6-12 months; 12-24 months. RESULTS: Children between

  2. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  3. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  4. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  6. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  9. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas analysis and geographic information systems.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts......, 2) electroforming of tools for moulding of low-cost precision polymer devices and 3) deposition of magnetic alloys to be used in new planar micro-devices. Within each of the three studied application areas, the targeted output is a finished demonstrator to show the potential of the new ULTRAPLATE...

  17. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  1. Inquérito sorológico de sarampo em crianças de 5 a 15 meses de idade, em Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, 1983 Serological survey on measles in children of five to fifteen months of age, in Curitiba and S. José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil - 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Lino Rodriguez

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Inquérito sorológico, realizado para avaliar os motivos da alta incidência e surtos freqüentes de sarampo nas cidades de Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais - Paraná (Brasil, revela que entre 7 e 10 meses de idade só 44% das crianças vacinadas estão protegidas e que entre o 11º e 15º mês o índice de proteção se eleva para 65,1%. As não vacinadas, ao 5º, 6º e 7º mês de idade apresentaram percentuais de proteção de 56,7, 28,6 e 14,8, respectivamente. As crianças que foram vacinadas ao 7º e 8º mês apresentaram percentuais de proteção de 50,8 e as vacinadas a partir do 9º mês, de 75,75%. As médias geométricas dos títulos de anticorpos também foram menores nas vacinadas antes dos 9 meses, em relação às vacinadas a partir desta idade.A serological survey intended to evaluate the causes of the high incidence of frequent outbreaks of measles in the cities of Curitiba and S. José dos Pinhais, Paraná, shows that of children vaccinated between 7 and 10 months of age, only 44% are protected, whereas in those vaccinated between the 11th and 15th months, the level of protection rises to 65.1%. Samples taken in non-vaccinated children at the 5th, 6th and 7th months of age showed protection level of 56.7%, 28.6% and 14.8% respectively. The children vaccinated during the 7th and 8th months of age had a percentage of protection of 50.8, and those vaccinated from the 9th month on, a percentage of 75.75. The geometric averages of antibody titers are also lower in those vaccinated before 9 months of age as compared to those vaccinated after this age.

  2. Efeito da ausência de trato dos bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros aos domingos sobre seus desempenhos até os seis meses de idade Effect of the absence of dairy calves management on sundays on theirs performance up to six months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Fajardo de Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte quatro bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram usados para comparar os seguintes tratamentos experimentais: 1 presença do tratador todos os dias da semana; 2 ausência do tratador aos domingos, com compensação na quantidade de leite oferecida (seis litros de leite integral aos sábados e às segundas-feiras; e 3 ausência do tratador aos domingos, sem compensação na quantidade de leite oferecida. Os bezerros receberam quatro litros de leite integral/animal/dia até as oito semanas de idade, quando foram abruptamente desaleitados. A partir da segunda semana de vida, receberam concentrado limitado em 2 kg/animal/dia. Conclui-se que: a ausência do tratador aos domingos não afetou o peso vivo (72,3 vs 71,7 kg e o ganho de peso médio diário (479 vs 451 g/animal/dia aos seis meses de idade e o consumo médio de concentrado durante as dez primeiras semanas de vida (784 vs 732 g/animal/dia; a compensação na quantidade oferecida de leite resultou em animais mais pesados ao desaleitamento (63,0 vs 58,2 kg, mas não aos seis meses de idade (114,3 vs 113,8 kg.Twenty-four Holstein x Zebu crossbred calves were used to compare the following experimental treatments: 1 calves management every day of the week, 2 absence of calves management on Sundays, with the compensation of the amount of milk fed (6 kg of whole milk given on Saturdays and on Mondays, and 3 absence of calves management on Sundays without the compensation of the amount of milk fed. Calves were fed 4 kg of whole milk/animal/day (except for treatment 2 up to 8 weeks of age when they were abruptly weaned. Starter was available to calves since the second week of age and limited to 2 kg/animal/day. It was concluded that: (a the absence of calves management on Sundays did not affect body weight (72.3 vs 71.7 kg and average daily weight gains (479 vs 451 g/animal/day at six months of age, and average starter intake during the first ten weeks of age (784 vs 732 g/animal/day; (b the

  3. Ganho de peso e componentes do peso vivo em borregos Ile de France inteiros ou castrados e Hampshire Down castrados abatidos aos doze meses de idade Weight gain and live weight components of intact or castrated Ile de France and castrated Hampshire Down lambs slaughtered at twelve months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis De Azambuja Ribeiro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o ganho de peso e os componentes do peso vivo em ovinos inteiros ou castrados abatidos aos 12 meses de idade. Foram usados 16 borregos Ile de France, sendo metade inteiros e metade castrados, e oito Hampshire Down castrados. Os borregos foram mantidos em pastagem de grama Coast-Cross e foram pesados dos três aos 12 meses de idade, quando abatidos. Não houve diferenças entre as raças para peso, ganhos de peso e para os componentes do peso vivo. Porém, os machos inteiros da raça Ile de France ganharam mais peso dos três aos 12 meses do que os castrados, com médias, respectivamente, de 0,078 e 0,063kg por dia; o ganho de peso médio diário para os borregos Hampshire Down foi de 0,064kg. As médias para os pesos vivos no abate e para os rendimentos de carcaça quente (entre parenteses foram: 38,54 (47,51%; 36,08 (47,82% e 36,44 (46,38%kg, respectivamente, para os borregos Ile de France inteiros, Ile de France castrados e Hampshire Down castrados. Os resultados indicam que, quando o abate for realizado aos 12 meses de idade, o uso de machos inteiros é recomendado devido ao seu maior ganho de peso.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the weight gain and live weight components of intact or castrated lambs slaughtered at 12 months of age. Sixteen Ile de France lambs, half intact and half castrated, and eight castrated Hampshire Down lambs were used in this experiment. The animals were kept on a Coast-Cross pasture from three to 12 months of age, and then slaughtered. There were no differences between breeds for weight, weight gain and live weight components. However, intact Ile de France lambs had a greater daily weight gain than castrated Ile de France lambs, with averages of 0.078 and 0.063kg, respectively; the average daily weight gain for the castrated Hampshire Down was 0.064kg. The averages for live weight before slaughtering and hot dressing percentage were: 38.54, 36

  4. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  6. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  7. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  8. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  9. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  10. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various machi...

  11. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  12. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  13. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  14. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  15. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  16. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has ... Read to the child. Encourage play dates with children of the same ... 2. Play simple games together, such as puzzles and shape sorting. Use ...

  17. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  18. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage