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Sample records for aged 1-3 years

  1. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children aged 1 year old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children aged 1 year old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children aged 1 year old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  2. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 13 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Subarkah; Nursalam Nursalam; Praba Diyan Rachmawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%). Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan d...

  3. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Subarkah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%. Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan district, Surabaya. Methods: The research design used was cross-sectional study with dietary habit as the independent variable and nutritional status as dependent variable. The sample was taken from 154 mothers and children. Consecutive sampling was deployed. Data collection by questionnaires, and then data analysis using the Spearman’s Rho in level  of significance α≤0.05. Result and Analysis: There was strong relationship between feeding pattern and nutritional status (r=0.640. The result showed that inappropriate feeding patterns with nutritional status is very thin (44.4% a proper feeding patterns with normal nutritional status (89.7%.  Discussion and Conclussion: The efforts to improve nutritional status of children aged 1-3 years related to feeding patterns should be improved in order to achieve a normal nutritional status. Further research may explore on the feeding patterns based on dietary allowances. Keywords: feeding pattern, nutritional status, 1-3 years old children

  4. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    , exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children......, aged 1 to 3 years, with recurrent wheeze randomized in a 3:1 ratio to treatment for 52 weeks with FP (100 microg twice daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Babyhaler spacer device or SCG (5 mg 4 times daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Nebuhaler spacer device, respectively. RESULTS...

  5. [Effect of parental feeding behavior on eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the eating behavior of children aged 1-3 years and parental feeding behavior and the effect of family status on feeding behavior. With stratified random sampling, 2 324 children aged 1-3 years were selected from Shanghai. Questionnaires were filled out by their parents or feeders to investigate the basic family information, parental feeding behavior, the eating behavior of children, and the basic information on children. The eating behavior of children was positively correlated with eating environment (r=0.223) and parental monitoring behavior (r=0.245) but negatively correlated with parental compulsive behavior (r=-0.264) (Pparental compulsive behavior (r=-0.569) but positively correlated with parental monitoring behavior (r=0.615) and eating environment (r=0.621). The emotional undereating of children was positively correlated with parental emotional feeding (r=0.259) and parental compulsive behavior (r=0.279). Parental monitoring behavior showed significant differences between different families (PParental feeding behavior is closely related to the eating behavior of children. Parental feeding behavior may vary across different family status.

  6. New commercial dairy products in the feeding of children aged 1 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is of particular importance in young children who are characterized by exceptionally high growth rates in conjunction with scare resources of nutrients in their body. The physiological features of infants suggest that this active life period in the child requires adequate attitude towards his nutrition that largely differs from that during the first year of life. The paper considers the issues of organizing the nutrition of children aged 1 to 3 years, by using commercial infant dairy products — new combined products — sterilized milk- and fruit-milk-based desserts and milk cocktails for infant feeding. 

  7. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  9. Pediatric dentists' perspective of general dentists' role in treating children aged 0-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Julie M; Razdan, Shinjni; Best, Al M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H

    2017-01-01

    This study examined pediatric dentists' perspectives on the types of dental services general dentists provide to children who are 0-3 years old. A web-based survey was sent to 5185 pediatric dentists and 769 (14.8%) responded. Among the respondents, 58% agreed with general dentists' providing an age 1 dental visit. Only 24% agreed with general dentists' performing complex behavior management techniques, such as sedation, to patients aged 0-3 years. Those respondents who taught pediatric dentistry full time were more likely to agree with general dentists' providing an age 1 dental visit (P = 0.0088). Those who reported that their own dental school had adequately prepared them for this type of age 1 visit were also more in agreement (P pediatric dentists' perceptions of the level of collaboration between general dentists and pediatric dentists; the types of oral health services general dentists can provide for children aged 0-3 years; and the anticipated level of competency of entry-level general dentists.

  10. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

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    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  11. Growth, psychomotor development and morbidity up to 3 years of age in children born after IVF.

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    Koivurova, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Gissler, M; Hemminki, E; Järvelin, M-R

    2003-11-01

    To examine the long-term child outcome after IVF until the age of 3 years in Northern Finland, we conducted a population-based cohort study. First, a cohort of 299 IVF children born in 1990-1995 was compared with a cohort of 558 controls representing the general population in terms of a multiple birth rate of 1.2%, randomly chosen from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) and matched for sex, year of birth, area of residence, parity, maternal age and social class (full sample analyses). Second, IVF singletons (n = 150) were compared with singleton controls (n = 280). Third, a plurality matched control cohort (n = 100) for IVF twins (n = 100) was randomly chosen, matched as above, from the FMBR and analysed separately. Infant mortality rate was compared with the national rate from the FMBR. Infant mortality in the IVF group was >2-fold higher compared to the national rate in the general population. The risk (OR, 95% CI) of low weight and height, below the lowest quartile, at 1 year of age (1.6, 1.1-2.2; 1.6, 1.1-2.4) and 2 years of age (1.5, 1.1-2.4; 1.7, 1.2-2.5) was significantly higher in the IVF group when compared with the general population control group. No statistically significant differences were found in the psychomotor development between the cohorts. Cumulative incidence of different diseases up to 3 years of age was significantly higher among IVF children in the full sample and singleton analyses (OR, 95% CI: 2.3, 1.7-3.2; 2.1, 1.3-3.3 respectively) especially regarding respiratory diseases (3.5, 1.9-6.5; 3.1, 1.0-9.4) and diarrhoea (3.7, 2.2-6.2; 5.7, 2.6-12.7), but not in twin comparisons. The growth of IVF children was behind that of control children during the first 3 years of life, but their psychomotor development was similar. Their postnatal health was worse, probably reflecting the problems in the neonatal period.

  12. The Predictors of Diet Quality among Australian Children Aged 3.5 Years.

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    Collins, Laura J; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to promote healthy eating early in life. The aim of this study was to examine diet quality and its predictors among Australian preschool-aged children. Diet was assessed at age 3.5 years using multiple 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was assessed using an adapted version of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Potential predictors of diet quality were from questionnaires at age 3, 9, and 18 months and informed by the ecologic model of childhood overweight. Potential predictors included child's sex, age of introduction to solid foods, breastfeeding status, food acceptance, maternal nutrition knowledge, modeling of healthy eating, self-efficacy, education, and home food availability. Data from 244 children participating in the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity, and Nutrition Trial in 2008-2010 and follow-up data collection in 2011-2013 were examined. Diet quality at age 3.5 years. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between diet quality and each predictor. A multivariable logistic regression model accounting for influences of covariates, treatment arm, and clustering by group tested associations between diet quality and significant predictors from bivariate analyses. RC-DQI scores had a mean±standard deviation score of 62.8±8.3 points out of a maximum of 85 points. Breastfeeding status (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.10) and maternal modeling of healthy eating (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.03) were positively associated with RC-DQI scores. Both breastfeeding status (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.63 to 5.85) and modeling (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.88) remained positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for child age, body mass index z score, energy intake, treatment arm, and clustering. Breastfeeding status and modeling of healthy eating were independently associated with children's diet quality. Early intervention could assist mothers to practice these behaviors to provide support for improving

  13. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

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    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  14. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  15. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  16. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3 with patient age and grade of lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigouris, Andreas; Batistatou, Anna; Alexiou, George A; Pachatouridis, Dimitrios; Mihos, Evaggelos; Drosos, Dimitrios; Fotakopoulos, George; Doukas, Michail; Voulgaris, Spyridon; Kyritsis, Athanasios P

    2011-02-01

    The authors studied the histological alterations and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in disc specimens of patients who had undergone operations for lumbar disc herniation. Forty-three lumbar disc specimens were evaluated histopathologically for degenerative changes and immunohistochemical expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The observed degenerative changes provided a degenerative score that was applied in each patient. Sections of disc immunostained for MMP-1 and MMP-3 were evaluated semiquantitatively. Patients were categorized in 3 age groups: 60 years of age. The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were correlated to patient's age, degenerative score, and grade of lumbar disc herniation. There was no statistically significant difference in the degenerative score between the age groups. Degenerative changes were more pronounced in greater grades of herniation (p correlation between MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. For the group of patients 30-60 years of age, there was no significant difference between MMP-1 expression and degenerative score, but the correlation between MMP-1 expression and grade of herniation was significant. There was a significant correlation between MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. Regarding the patients > 60 years of age, there was a significant correlation between MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression and both degenerative score and herniation grade. There was a significantly lower expression of both MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the group correlation was found in MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression between the groups of patients who were 30-60 and > 60 years of age. Interestingly, in age groups > 30 years, there were no statistically significant differences between the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3, whereas in patients correlated to the age of the patients and the grade of herniation. An important finding in this study is the differential expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3

  17. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  18. Measles in vaccinated children 1.5 to 3 years of age in rural community of district peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ullah, O.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite of vaccination thousands of children have been infected by measles virus during last couple of years in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the measles vaccination coverage rate and frequency of measles among vaccinated children of age 1.5-3 years in rural community of district Peshawar. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 children aged 1.5-3 year of rural community of Peshawar. After taking informed consent from parents/guardians a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Evidence of vaccination and measles history was taken by vaccination card, doctor prescription and parent/guardian recall. Data was gathered and analysed by using SPSS-16. Results: Of the 385 children, 361 (93.7%) were vaccinated against measles at 9 month. It was found that 27 (7.48%) vaccinated children had measles history of which 23 (6.74%) were infected after 9 month vaccination. One hundred and ninety-two (49.8%) children were vaccinated both at 9 and 15 months, and 14 (7.29%) dual vaccinated children had a measles history, 9 among them (4.68%) were infected after taking both measles doses. Conclusion: The occurrence of measles among vaccinated children and low coverage rate of second dose of measles vaccine raises many questions about vaccination program and its efficacy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of other predisposing factors like vaccine quality, manufacturer, supply, cold chain, handling, nutritional status of children and technical approach, on measles vaccine efficacy. (author)

  19. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in New Zealand children at 3.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, D J; Thompson, J M D; Clark, P M; Robinson, E; Black, P N; Wild, C J; Mitchell, E A

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene hypothesis. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study is a case-control study of risk factors for small for gestational age babies. Cases were born at term with birthweight 10th centile. The infants were assessed at birth, 1 year and 3.5 years of age. Data were collected by parental interview and examination of the child. AD was defined as the presence of an itchy rash in the past 12 months with three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement; history of generally dry skin; history of atopic disease in parents or siblings; and visible flexural dermatitis as per photographic protocol. Statistical analyses took into account the disproportionate sampling of the study population. Analysis was restricted to European subjects. Eight hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled at birth, 744 (85.4%) participated at 1 year, and 550 (63.2%) at 3.5 years. AD was diagnosed in 87 (15.8%) children seen at 3.5 years. The prevalence of AD did not differ by birthweight. AD at 3.5 years was associated with raised serum IgE > 200 kU L(-1), and wheezing, asthma, rash or eczema at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for parental atopy and breastfeeding, AD at 3.5 years was associated with atopic disease in the parents: maternal atopy only, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-12.23; paternal atopy only, adjusted OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.09-11.75; both parents atopic, adjusted OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.02-18.50. There was a higher risk of AD with longer duration of breastfeeding: or = 6 months, adjusted OR 9.70, 95% CI 2.47-38.15 compared with never breastfed. These findings remained significant after adjusting for

  20. Developmental Antecedents of Taxonomic and Thematic Strategies at 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Individual differences in children's conceptual strategies at 3 years of age were predicted by aspects of children's behavior and language at 13 and 24 months. Production of pointing gestures at 13 months and nouns and attributive adjectives at 24 months were positively associated with the use of a taxonomic matching strategy at 3 years of age.…

  1. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  2. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  3. Social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 5 years: the Eden mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.

  4. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Huijun

    2008-11-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion. It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir in infants under the age of 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Rashmi; Matthews, Slade; Khandaker, Gulam; Walker, Karen; Festa, Marino; Booy, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Oseltamivir is the only antiviral treatment recommended for influenza in young children over the age of 1 year. There is scant data on oseltamivir pharmacokinetics (PK) in infants clearance in infants time points afterwards, to calculate Cmax (ng/mL), Tmax (h), AUC0-t (ng h/mL) and time for AUC (h). Four children with influenza A received oral oseltamivir, 2.35-3 mg/kg/dose. This dose range produced a target oseltamivir carboxylate plasma concentration in excess of the proposed 12-h target AUC of 3800 ng h/mL, selected from earlier studies to avert resistance. One patient developed GIT adverse event: dry retching. Oseltamivir was well tolerated at a dose of 2.35-3 mg/kg/dose twice a day in infants under the age of 1 year. In general agreement with earlier data, these doses produced a target oseltamivir carboxylate plasma exposure in excess of the proposed 12-h target exposure of AUC equal to 3800 ng h/mL in two patients. The limited plasma concentration data in the remaining two patients were not inconsistent with the target exposure being reached.

  6. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuanian inhabitants during 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2015-04-01

    To summarize the data on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-aged Lithuania inhabitants (1991-2010). New prevalent cases consist of growing-up patients with diabetes onset in childhood, i.e., up to 14 years, new onset 15-34-year-aged type 1 diabetic patients Lithuanian inhabitants, and immigrants. The data on type 1 diabetes was collected with the help of general practitioners and regional endocrinologists in Lithuania. On 31 December 1991, there were 1202 adolescent and adult 15-34-year-aged patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or 103.59 per 100,000 inhabitants of the same age group (95% Poisson CI 97.90-109.62), and at the end of 2010 - 1533 or 187.80 (178.63-197.44), respectively in Lithuania. During 19-year period the mean increase of type 1 diabetic patients was 1.25±1.94% per year or 1.47±2.74 per 100,000 inhabitants per mean year of the study period (for males 1.42±2.14% or 1.69±3.05/100,000 and for females 1.05±1.99%, or 1.24±2.92/100,000). Regression-based linear trends showed that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in 15-34-year-age group had a tendency to increase among males (r=0.953; p1) and females (r=0.970; p1). The age adjusted prevalence frequencies for males and females in 1991 were correspondingly 102.81/100,000 and 104.55/100,000, and in 2010 - 193.75 and 182.01. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 15-34-year-age males and females had a tendency to increase during 1991-2010. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years.

  8. [Neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years of age of infants born at less than 26 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, O; Garcia, P; Bernard, V; Fabre, M; Vialet, R; Boubred, F; Fayol, L

    2016-09-01

    To describe the neurodevelopmental outcome and perinatal factors associated with favorable outcome among extremely preterm children at 3 years of age. All infants born before 26 weeks of gestation between 2007 and 2011, admitted to intensive care units participating in a French regional network (western PACA-southern Corsica) were included. Perinatal data were collected to assess the main neonatal morbidities. At 3 years of age, the children's neurodevelopment was assessed by trained physicians participating in the follow-up network. Children were classified according to their disability: none, moderate, or severe. Using logistic regression, we determined the perinatal factors associated with the absence of disability at 3 years of age. One hundred and sixty-two very preterm newborns were admitted to neonatal intensive care units. At discharge the survival rate was 62% (101). Rates of survival increased with gestational age (33% at 23 weeks, 57% at 24 weeks and 68% at 25 weeks). Among the 101 surviving extremely preterm children, 66 were evaluated at 3 years. The perinatal characteristics were not significantly different from those of the children lost to follow-up. Overall, 56% of extremely preterm children had no disability and 6% had severe disability. Cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 13% of children. At 3 years of age, the main perinatal factors associated with no disability were short duration of mechanical ventilation (OR=0.96 [0.93-0.99]; P=0.03) and complete course of prenatal corticosteroids (OR=4.7 [1.2-17.7]; P=0.02). As mortality rates continue to decrease for very preterm infants, concerns are rising about their long-term outcome. In this high-risk population, improving perinatal care remains a challenge to improve long-term outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  10. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  11. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes: The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the effects of growth on change in HbA1c and the tracking of HbA1c between the age of 8 and 12 years. Study Design and Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken and HbA1c levels were assessed in 955 children without diabetes aged around 12 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. In 363 of these children HbA1c was also measured at age 8 years. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Results We found no significant association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c at age 12 years. Mean(SD) change in HbA1c between ages 8 and 12 years was 0.6(0.7) mmol/mol per year (or 0.1(0.1) %/yr). Anthropometric measures at age 8 and their change between age 8 and 12 years were not associated with the change in HbA1c. 68.9% of the children remained in the same quintile or had an HbA1c one quintile higher or lower at age 8 years compared to age 12 years. Conclusion The lack of association between known risk factors for diabetes and HbA1c suggest that HbA1c in children without diabetes is relatively unaffected by factors associated with glycaemia. HbA1c at age 8 years is by far the most important predictor of HbA1c at age 12. Therefore, the ranking of HbA1c levels appear to be fairly stable over time. PMID:25875773

  12. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  14. Incomplete Kawasaki disease in patients younger than 1 year of age: a possible inherent risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Yunku; Kim, TaeYeon; Ha, KeeSoo; Jang, GiYoung; Lee, JungHwa; Lee, KwangChul; Son, ChangSung; Lee, JooWon

    2009-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) patients younger than 1 year of age are at especially high risk of developing coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). To define the clinical characteristics of this group, as well as the risk factors predisposing them to CAA, we reviewed the medical records of 136 KD patients younger than 1 year of age who were treated at the Korea University Medical Center from January 2001 to July 2006. Of these patients, 16 developed CAA (11.8%). The CAA(+) group had a longer duration of total fever than the CAA(-) group (9.1+/-3.7 days vs. 6.3+/-2.0 days, p=0.011), but did not differ in the duration of pre- and post-intravenous gamma-globulin (IVGG) fever. The CAA(+) group had fewer diagnostic symptoms than the CAA(-) group (2.7+/-1.1 vs. 4.3+/-1.2, p<0.001). Of the hematological findings, the CAA(+) group only differed from the CAA(-) group in having significantly higher total white blood cell (19.2+/-6.0 vs. 14.7+/-4.7 K/mm(3), p=0.007) and platelet (462.9+/-101.0 vs. 383.6+/-121.1 K/mm(3), p=0.014) levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the only factors which were significantly associated with the development of CAA were the total number of symptoms (OR=0.493, 95% CI=0.293-0.829, p=0.007) and the duration of total fever (OR=1.405, 95% CI=1.092-1.808, p=0.008). Conclusively, incomplete clinical manifestations and a longer duration of total fever are significantly associated with the development of CAA in KD patients younger than 1 year of age. Therefore, these patients should be monitored for incomplete KD, especially if unexplained fever continues, and treatment to shorten the duration of total fever should be initiated.

  15. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A

    2017-08-01

    To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p children with normal vision (p Children aged 42-47 months performed significantly faster on two tasks and had better total scores than children aged 36-41 months (p children is appropriate to assess fine motor skills, and is sensitive to differences between children with visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.

  16. Safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 1 year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hina Walia,1 Dmitry Tumin,1 Sharon Wrona,1 David Martin,1,2 Tarun Bhalla,1,2 Joseph D Tobias,1-3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA Background: The management of acute pain presents unique challenges in the younger pediatric population. Although patient-controlled devices are frequently used in patients ≥6 years of age, alternative modes of analgesic delivery are needed in infants.Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA in neonates less than 1 year of age.Methods: Data from patients <1 year of age receiving NCA as ordered by the Acute Pain Service at our institution were collected over a 5-year period and reviewed retrospectively. The primary outcomes were activation of the institution’s Rapid Response Team (RRT or Code Blue, signifying severe adverse events. Pain score after NCA initiation was a secondary outcome.Results: Among 338 girls and 431 boys, the most common opioid used for NCA was fentanyl, followed by morphine and hydromorphone. There were 39 (5% cases involving RRT or Code Blue activation, of which only one (Code Blue was activated due to a complication of NCA (apnea. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated morphine NCA to be associated with greater odds of RRT activation (OR=3.29, 95% CI=1.35, 8.03, P=0.009 compared to fentanyl NCA. There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores after NCA initiation across NCA agents.Conclusion: NCA is safe in neonates and infants, with comparable efficacy demonstrated for the three agents used. The elevated incidence of RRT activation in patients receiving morphine suggests caution in its use and consideration of alternative agents in this population. Keywords: nurse-controlled analgesia, pain medicine, Rapid Response Team

  17. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Sonderen, L.; Tamminga, P.; Kok, J.H.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age

  18. Four Weeks in a Single-Leg Weight-Bearing Hip Spica Cast is Sufficient Treatment for Isolated Femoral Shaft Fractures in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sami; Sobh, Ali; Legakis, Julie E; Thomas, Ronald; Buhler, Kelsey; Jones, Eric T

    2016-01-01

    Hip spica casting regimens for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in a pediatric population aged 1 to 3 years vary. Patient charts were reviewed to determine if there are any clinical differences between 3 and 4 weeks in an ambulatory single-leg hip spica (SLHS) cast versus 6 to 8 weeks in a standard double-leg, non-weight-bearing hip spica cast. The medical records of 109 patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with a hip spica casting from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011 were examined. After exclusions, 94 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patient records were assessed, noting age, weight, type of cast, time in cast, and complications. All casts were applied by senior pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at a single institution. Two groups were evaluated: 59 patients in the SLHS group and 35 in the double-leg hip spica group. The 2 groups were demographically similar with an average age of 2 years, 70.2% of patients were male, 45.7% were black, and 35.1% were white. The average time to cast removal was 4.1 weeks for the single-leg group and 5.3 weeks for the double-leg group (Pshaft fractures in patients less than 4 years old can be treated in a weight-bearing SLHS casts for approximately 4 weeks with fewer alignment and skin complications. Level III-clinical retrospective comparative study.

  19. Risk factors for mortality before age 18 years in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColley, Susanna A; Schechter, Michael S; Morgan, Wayne J; Pasta, David J; Craib, Marcia L; Konstan, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Understanding early-life risk factors for childhood death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for clinical care, including the identification of effective interventions. Data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) collected 1994-2005 were linked with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) demographic and mortality data from 2013. Inclusion criteria were ≥1 visit annually at age 3-5 years and ≥1 FEV 1 measurement at age 6-8 years. Demographic data, nutritional parameters, pulmonary signs and symptoms, microbiology, and FEV 1 were evaluated as risk factors for death before age 18 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the simultaneous effects of risk factors associated with death before age 18 years. Among 5365 patients enrolled in ESCF who met inclusion criteria, 3880 (72%) were linked to the CFFPR. Among these, 191 (5.7%) died before age 18 years; median age at death was 13.4 ± 3.1 years. Multivariable regression showed clubbing, crackles, female sex, unknown CFTR genotype, minority race or ethnicity, Medicaid insurance (a proxy of low socioeconomic status), Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 2 or more cultures, and weight-for-age <50th percentile were significant risk factors for death regardless of inclusion of FEV 1 at age 6-8 years in the model. We identified multiple risk factors for childhood death of patients with CF, all of which remained important after incorporating FEV 1 at age 6-8 years. Among the factors identified were the presence of clubbing or crackles at age 3-5 years, signs which are not routinely collected in registries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation.

  1. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Katya Polena; Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL. Mild HL was significantly

  2. Visual outcome and refractive status in first 3 years of age in preterm infants suffered from laser-treated Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): a 6-year retrospective review in a tertiary centre in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Julie Y C; Yip, Wilson W K; Luk, Abbie S W; Chin, Joyce K Y; Lau, Henry H W; Young, Alvin L

    2018-02-01

    To report the visual outcome and refractive status in first 3 years of age in preterm infants suffered from laser-treated Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): a 6-year review in Hong Kong DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODOLOGY: Clinical records of all infants suffered from Type 1 ROP who had undergone laser therapy between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Basic demographic data, serial changes of refractive error, visual acuity, severity of ROP and laser were analyzed. Correlation with myopia and astigmatism progression, body weight, height, growth and gestational age were also analyzed. Among 494 babies screened, 14 Chinese babies (26 eyes) recruited with 1:1 male-to-female ratio in this study. All eyes showed gradual progression of myopia in first 3 years of age but no significant change of astigmatism. Further correlation analysis showed no correlation with laser energy consumed, birth weight (p = 0.14), head circumference growth (p = 0.57) and body weight growth (p = 0.71). However, severity of myopia was related to the post-conceptual age when receiving laser therapy (p < 0.005), gestation age (p = 0.02) and possibly body height growth with age (p = 0.05). Myopia in early life is one of the most common ocular sequelae in Type 1 ROP survivors. Early detection of refractive error is important for prompt correction and visual rehabilitation to prevent amblyopia.

  3. A 10-year review of cannabis exposure in children under 3-years of age: do we need a more global approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Le Breton, Mathilde; Bréhin, Camille; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Pediatricians working in an emergency environment are confronted with children admitted to emergency departments for intoxication on a daily basis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department due to unintentional cannabis exposure over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Twenty-nine children under the age of 3 were admitted with a positive cannabis urine test. Eighty-seven percent of intoxications occurred at the family home. Resin was the main form of ingested cannabis (69%). The mean age was 16.5 ± 5.2 months, and mean weight was 11.1 ± 2.1 Kg. Sixty percent of admissions occurred between 2012 and 2014. More severe presentations, based on Poisoning Severity Score, occurred over the past 2 years. Four children experienced seizures before admission. Ten children (34%) had a decreased level of consciousness (GCS cannabis consumption. This study supports the impression that accidental child poisonings with cannabis have been more serious than previously thought for 2 years. This observation may be explained by (1) the increased THC concentration in cannabis and (2) the widespread use in young adults, even after they become parents. Introducing an addiction team inside the PED could help to improve the care links with these parents. What is Known: • Cases of unintentional cannabis intoxication in children have been increasing for many years due to an increase of potency. What is New: • We highlight an increase in more severe presentations in children under the age of 3 occurring over the past 2 years, which will indicate the importance of assessing cannabis abuse in parents by a specialized addiction team.

  4. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, piron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, pdeficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r=0.597; pAnemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. METHODS Preterm children (n=102; 44males; 58 females) with a gestational

  6. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoon, Glenn D.; Davison, Tanya E.

    2014-01-01

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  7. Psychological Well-being Trajectories of Individuals with Dyslexia Aged 3-11 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Dyer, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Dyslexia has been associated with a range of psychological well-being issues in childhood. However, it is unclear if these difficulties stem from coping with academic struggles at school, or from other pre-existing diagnoses that sometimes co-occur with dyslexia. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 7224) from 2003 to 2011, the present study compared psychological well-being development from ages 3-11 years for children with (1) dyslexia only; (2) special educational needs excluding dyslexia; (3) comorbid dyslexia and other special educational needs; and (4) no special educational needs. Growth curve modelling results controlling for race, gender, age and family income suggested that with the exception of conduct difficulties, psychological well-being issues related to dyslexia do not occur preschool; rather, they commence upon starting school. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Galectin-3, osteopontin and successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Alis, Rafael; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Individuals who reach exceptional longevity (100+ years of age) free of common chronic age diseases (i.e. 'dodgers') arguably represent the paradigm of successful aging in humans. As such, identification of potential biomarkers associated with this phenomenon is of medical interest. We measured serum levels of galectin-3 and osteopontin, both of which have been shown to be linked with major chronic or aging-related disorders in younger populations, in centenarian 'dodgers' (n=81; 40 men; 100-104 years) and healthy controls (n=41; 24 men, 70-80 years). Both biomarkers showed significantly lower values (p<0.001) in the former (galectin-3: 2.4±1.7 vs. 4.8±2.8 ng/mL; osteopontin: 38.1±27.7 vs. 72.6±33.1 μg/mL). Logistic regression analysis identified the combination of these two biomarkers as a significant predictor variable associated with successful aging regardless of sex (p<0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) classified the ability of galectin-3 and osteopontin to predict the likelihood of successful aging as 'fair' (AUC=0.75) and 'good' (AUC=0.80), respectively. Particularly, the combination of the two biomarkers showed good discriminatory power for successful aging (AUC=0.86), with sensitivity=83% and specificity=74%. Lower levels of both galectin-3 and osteopontin are associated with successful aging, representing potential biomarkers of this condition. Our cross-sectional data must be however approached with caution. Further research is necessary to replicate the present preliminary results in other cohorts and to identify the potential use of galectin-3 and osteopontin as potential targets (or at least predictors) in future personalized anti-aging therapies.

  9. [The causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years hospitalized in the year 2006-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Kroczka, Sławomir; Kaciński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy can be one of symptoms of the damage to CNS in children with neurodevelopmental deficits, it is more difficult however to diagnose seizures if they are the first symptom of severe brain damage. This retrospective research was conducted to study causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 year hospitalized between 2006 and 2007 year in the Department of Pediatric Neurology. 156 children with symptomatic epilepsy occurred after 2 years of life were included. The diagnosis of symptomatic epilepsy was established including clinical picture, neuro-radiological tests and EEG. The information from parents was helpful to analyze the type of seizures. The clinical state of children was analyzed, especially psychomotor development, focal deficits, as well as results of CT and/or MRI, in some children psychological testing was performed, molecular or serological. 156 children with epilepsy were hospitalized, within encephalopathy was diagnosed in 61 children. In 42 children static encephalopathy was associated with birth trauma, in 7 progressive encephalopathy was diagnosed, in 1 child CO intoxication caused encephalopathy, and in 11 cases the cause was not identified. Malformations of nervous system were associated with epilepsy in 37 children, geneticaly determined syndromes in 6, and the head trauma in other 6 children. Disorders of vascular origin caused epilepsy in 16 children, and neuroinfections in 9 children. In 2 children epilepsy was associated with ADEM, and in 11 children nonspecific de/dysmyelination was detected. The brain tumor was detected in 6 children with symptomatic epilepsy. The most common disorder leading to epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years was encephalopathy, within hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The other in sequence were malformations of nervous system and vascular diseases.

  10. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  11. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Currently Use E-Cigarettes,† by Sex and Age Group - National Health Interview Survey,§ 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    In 2016, 3.8% of men and 2.6% of women aged ≥18 years currently used e-cigarettes. Among men, current e-cigarette use decreased with advancing age, from 7.1% among men aged 18-24 years to 4.8% among men aged 25-49 years, 2.6% among men 50-64 years, and 1.1% among men aged ≥65 years. Among women, current e-cigarette use increased between ages 18-24 years (2.3%) and 25-49 years (3.3%) and decreased between ages 50-64 years (3.0%) and ≥65 years (0.9%). A greater percentage of men aged 18-24 years and 25-49 years currently used e-cigarettes compared with women in the same age groups.

  12. [Epidemiology of diabetes type 1 in children aged 0-14 in Podlasie Province in years 2005-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczyńska, Joanna; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Jamiołkowska, Milena; Polkowska, Agnieszka; Zasim, Aneta; Łuczyński, Włodzimierz; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies performed during last decades in many European countries and in the world proved increasing incidence rate of diabetes, especially diabetes type 1 in children (DMT1). In Europe there is one of the highest diabetes incidence rate. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence rate of diabetes type 1 in children aged 0-14 years in North-East Poland during 2005-2012 years and to analyse this rates in relation to age, gender and season of the diabetes onset. The study was performed among patients staying under care of outpatient diabetes clinic of the Department of Pediatric, Endocrinologym Diabetology with Cardilogy Division, medical University of Białystok, Poland. The DMT1 incidence rate was calculated as the number of all newly diagnosed cases per 100 000 persons 0-14 aged matched. During the studied 8-years- period DMT1 was diagnosed in 306 children aged 0-14 years, 159 boys and 147 girls, in Podlasie Province. The highest number of new cases was found in 2011: 49, and 2012: 47, with the lowest number in 2005 and 2009: 32 each year. The average incidence rate in the studied period was 20,84/100 000 population, aged matched. The lowest incidence rate was found in 0-4 yrs old group: 14,59 /100 000, in 5-9 years old group was: 22,04/100 000, and was highest in 10-14 years old group: 24,94/100 000. The highest increase in incidence rate was noted in the youngest group: from 9,14/100 000 in 2005, to 23,45/100 000 in 2012. The greatest number of new recognisions was found in from November to March, and the lowest number from June to August. 1. The DMT1 incidence rate among children aged 0-14 years, in Podlasie Province, during 2005-2012 years was 20,84/100 000. 2. Increase in incidence rate was observed in the studied period from 15,23/100 000 in 2005 to 26,71/100 000 in 2012. The highest increase in incidence rate, 2,5 times, was fund in the youngest group, aged 0-4 years. 3. The seasonal incidence of New onset was observed with the

  13. Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)

  14. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Xiao

    Full Text Available Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  15. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  16. Tracking drinking behaviour from age 15-19 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    beverages at age 15 increased the risk of drinking alcohol weekly at the age of 19 [odds ratio (OR)-values from 1.11 to 3.53]. Drunkenness among the 15-year-old boys and the use of spirits of the 15-year-old girls showed the strongest predictive relationship with excessive consumption at age 19 [OR = 2...... phenomenon. It was a behaviour that tracked into young adulthood, leaving the adolescents at increased risk of being long-term, large-scale consumers....

  17. Pharmacokinetics and dose requirements of factor VIII over the age range 3-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Sven; Folkesson, Anna; Jönsson, Siv

    2009-01-01

    in the sparse clinical data. Model-predicted doses (based on age and body weight) to maintain a recommended 0.01 U/mL trough level of FVIII with administration on alternate days started at around 60 U/kg in the small children, decreasing to 10 U/kg or less in middle age. However, "true" dose requirements......, as estimated from individual PK parameter data, showed a much greater variation. CONCLUSION: Appropriate dosing of FVIII for prophylactic treatment cannot be calculated only from body weight and/or age. However, plausible starting doses for most patients would be 1,000 U every other day. FVIII levels should...... can be calculated according to patient characteristics, and (3) to present dosing recommendations for initiating prophylactic treatment. METHODS: A population PK model was developed using data from four PK studies on patients aged 7-74 years. The model was tested on sparse FVIII data from 42...

  18. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  19. Growth, behavior, development and intelligence in rural children between 1-3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, D K; Awasthy, A; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, P; Kumar, J; Agarwal, K N

    1992-04-01

    In a rural cohort of 625 children registered from 1981 to 1983 in 10 villages of K.V. Block, Varanasi, 196 children were assessed for physical growth, development, intelligence and concept development between 1 and 3 years of age. Home environment was also assessed using Caldwell Home inventory. These rural children remained below 3rd centile of NCHS standard for weight, height, skull and mid-arm circumferences throughout the study. Malnourished children scored poorly in all the areas of development, i.e., motor, adaptive, language and personal social, 9% in Grade I and 16.6% children in Grade II + III had IQ less than 79 (inferior). Concept for color shape and size was poorly developed in malnourished children. Maternal involvement and stimulation was strongly associated with better behavior development and intelligence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of home environment on development and intelligence was of a higher magnitude as compared to status and family variables and nutritional status during 1-3 years of age.

  20. Relationship between protein energy malnutrition and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Protein energy malnutrition (PEM affects physical, psychological, and social development. Objective To investigate the relationship between PEM and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at Child Health Outpatient Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, betweenApril-September 2000. We included children living with their parents, with no handicap or chronically ill condition. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was determined based on WHO-NCHS standard, while social maturity was measured by Vineland social maturity scale. Results Of the 200 subjects analyzed, the mean age was 16.9 months (SD 3.8, body weight 10.2 kg (SD 1.7 and social quotient (SQ score 94.3(SD 10.6. There was a significant correlation between SQ and PEM (B-7.5, CI 95%-10.6;-4.3, p<0.001 parents' occupation (B4.9, CI 95% 2.2-7.7, P<0.001 and mothers' education (B4.2,CI 95% 1.0-7.4, P<0.001. Conclusion This study revealed that the more severe the PEM, the lower the SQ, while the better the education and occupation, the higher the SQ was.

  1. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  2. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  3. Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3-8 years highlights differences to US reference sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Huyben, Floris; Lenoir, Matthieu; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. More proficient FMS performance was found with increasing age, from 3 to 6 years for locomotor skills and 3 to 7 years for object control skills. Gender differences were observed in object control skills, with boys performing better than girls. In general, Belgian children had lower levels of motor competence than the US reference sample, specifically for object control skills. The score distribution of the Belgian sample was skewed, with 37.4% scoring below average and only 6.9% scoring above average. This study supported the usefulness of the TGMD-2 as a process-oriented instrument to measure gross motor development in early childhood in Belgium. However, it also demonstrated that caution is warranted when using the US reference norms. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Neurovascular phenotypes in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia patients according to age. Review of 50 consecutive patients aged 1 day-60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krings, T.; Ozanne, A.; Chng, S.M.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P.L.; Rodesch, G.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance and expressivity. Some of the most devastating consequences of this disease result from cerebral vascular malformations that manifest themselves in either arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), small nidus-type arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or micro-AVMs with a nidus less than 1 cm in size. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotypes of CNS-manifestations of HHT with the age of the patient. The charts and angiographic films of 50 patients diagnosed with HHT according to the Curacao criteria were retrospectively evaluated concerning age of onset of symptoms, or, if not applicable of first consultation. The files were reviewed for clinical presentation, family and personal history, while the patients' angiograms were analysed with respect to the number of lesions (single and multiple), the location (superficial supratentorial, deep supratentorial, infratentorial, and spinal), and type of lesion (fistulous AVM, nidus-type AVM, and micro-AVM). A total of 75 central nervous system manifestations of HHT were found. Lesions included seven spinal cord AVFs that were all present in the paediatric age group (mean age: 2.2 years), 34 cerebral AV fistulae, all but two affected patients were less than 6 years (mean age 3.0). Sixteen nidus type AVMs (mean age: 23.1 years) and 18 micro-AVMs (mean age: 31.8 years) were found. HHT displays an age-related penetrance of clinical manifestations. Since members of the same family can present with completely different phenotypes of this disease there seems to be no relationship between the type of mutation and the phenotype of the disease. Since there seems to be a continuum of vascular abnormalities (from large fistulous areas to small AVMs and micro-AVMs) associated with HHT, the most likely determinating factor of the HHT phenotype is the timing of the revealing event in relation to the maturity of the vessel

  5. Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children Ages 1-5 Years: A Causal Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Malateste, Karen; Renner, Lorna; Sawry, Shobna; N'Gbeche, Sylvie; Technau, Karl-Günter; Eboua, François; Tanser, Frank; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Phiri, Sam; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Chimbete, Cleophas; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Giddy, Janet; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Wood, Robin; Egger, Matthias; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-03-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and regions. ART-naïve children of ages 12-59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included. We estimated 3-year growth and cumulative mortality from the start of follow-up for different CD4 criteria using g-computation. About one quarter of the 5,826 included children was from West Africa (24.6%).The median (first; third quartile) CD4% at the first visit was 16% (11%; 23%), the median weight-for-age z-scores and height-for-age z-scores were -1.5 (-2.7; -0.6) and -2.5 (-3.5; -1.5), respectively. Estimated cumulative mortality was higher overall, and growth was slower, when initiating ART at lower CD4 thresholds. After 3 years of follow-up, the estimated mortality difference between starting ART routinely irrespective of CD4 count and starting ART if either CD4 count <750 cells/mm³ or CD4% <25% was 0.2% (95% CI = -0.2%; 0.3%), and the difference in the mean height-for-age z-scores of those who survived was -0.02 (95% CI = -0.04; 0.01). Younger children ages 1-2 and children in West Africa had worse outcomes. Our results demonstrate that earlier treatment initiation yields overall better growth and mortality outcomes, although we could not show any differences in outcomes between immediate ART and delaying until CD4 count/% falls below 750/25%.

  6. "1"4C ages and calendar years of Japanese swords measured with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Kazuhiro; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kokubu, Yoko; Nakamura, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Steel of Japanese swords has been produced with Tatara process from iron sand and charcoal. Carbon dissolved in steel was absorbed from wooden charcoal fuel during the production of the steel. From the decay of "1"4C activity in the steel, the "1"4C age of Japanese sword can be determined. The "1"4C ages of 4 Japanese swords were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and calibrated to calendar years. Each "1"4C age provided plural calendar year periods with definite probabilities, and one of the periods agreed with the production year of each sword that was determined from the sword master's name cut in the grip of his sword after taking the age range of charcoal used for steel production and usage for several generations of the same names of sword masters into account. (author)

  7. Searching for sharp drops in the incidence of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza by single year of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hartman Jacobs

    Full Text Available During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1, morbidity and mortality sparing was observed among the elderly population; it was hypothesized that this age group benefited from immunity to pH1N1 due to cross-reactive antibodies generated from prior infection with antigenically similar influenza viruses. Evidence from serologic studies and genetic similarities between pH1N1 and historical influenza viruses suggest that the incidence of pH1N1 cases should drop markedly in age cohorts born prior to the disappearance of H1N1 in 1957, namely those at least 52-53 years old in 2009, but the precise range of ages affected has not been delineated.To test for any age-associated discontinuities in pH1N1 incidence, we aggregated laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 case data from 8 jurisdictions in 7 countries, stratified by single year of age, sex (when available, and hospitalization status. Using single year of age population denominators, we generated smoothed curves of the weighted risk ratio of pH1N1 incidence, and looked for sharp drops at varying age bandwidths, defined as a significantly negative second derivative. Analyses stratified by hospitalization status and sex were used to test alternative explanations for observed discontinuities. We found that the risk of laboratory-confirmed infection with pH1N1 declines with age, but that there was a statistically significant leveling off or increase in risk from about 45 to 50 years of age, after which a sharp drop in risk occurs until the late fifties. This trend was more pronounced in hospitalized cases and in women and was independent of the choice in smoothing parameters. The age range at which the decline in risk accelerates corresponds to the cohort born between 1951-1959 (hospitalized and 1953-1960 (not hospitalized.The reduced incidence of pH1N1 disease in older individuals shows a detailed age-specific pattern consistent with protection conferred by exposure to influenza A/H1N1 viruses circulating before 1957.

  8. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Instead of Shunt Revision in Children Younger Than 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Shi, Wei; Yang, Haowei; Li, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a valuable option in the treatment of shunt failure, but no clinical data exist for young children. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of ETV in patients younger than 3 years of age with shunt malfunction. A cohort of 37 patients younger than 3 years of age with shunt malfunction underwent ETV instead of shunt revision. Patients' preoperative condition and medical history were studied to determine the impact of a number of variables on outcome. The Fisher exact test was used to assess differences among groups. Median age at ETV was 21.6 months (8-36 months). Diagnosis was obstructive hydrocephalus in 24 patients and communicating hydrocephalus in 13. Median age at initial shunt placement was 3.2 months (10 days to 30 months). The etiology of shunt malfunction was obstruction (n = 27) or infection (n = 10). Overall ETV failure rate was 40.5% (15/37). Patients whose age at initial shunt placement was <6 months and/or who had a preterm birth history had higher relative rates of ETV failure. Other variables, including type of hydrocephalus, interval between initial shunt placement and ETV, history of intraventricular bleeding and/or infection, and etiology of shunt malfunction, did not significantly affect the final outcome. Patients younger than 3 years with obstructive or communicating hydrocephalus may benefit from ETV in the event of shunt malfunction and have about a 60% probability of becoming shunt free. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Counselling, BRCA1/2 Status and Clinico-pathologic Characteristics of Patients with Ovarian Cancer before 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvelbar, Mirjam; Hocevar, Marko; Novakovic, Srdjan; Stegel, Vida; Perhavec, Andraz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In Slovenia like in other countries, till recently, personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not been included among indications for genetic counselling. Recent studies reported up to 17% rate of germinal BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCA1/2m) within the age group under 50 years at diagnosis. The original aim of this study was to invite to the genetic counselling still living patients with EOC under 45 years, to offer gBRCA1/2m testing and to perform analysis of gBRCA1/2m rate and of clinico-pathologic characteristics. Later, we added also the data of previously genetically tested patients with EOC aged 45 to 49 years. Patients and methods All clinical data have to be interpreted in the light of many changes happened in the field of EOC just in the last few years: new hystology stage classification (FIGO), new hystology types and differentiation grades classification, new therapeutic possibilities (PARP inhibitors available, also in Slovenia) and new guidelines for genetic counselling of EOC patients (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, NCCN), together with next-generation sequencing possibilities. Results Compliance rate at the invitation was 43.1%. In the group of 27 invited or previously tested patients with EOC diagnosed before the age of 45 years, five gBRCA1/2 mutations were found. The gBRCA1/2m detection rate within the group was 18.5%. There were 4 gBRCA1 and 1 gBRCA2 mutations detected. In the extended group of 42 tested patients with EOC diagnosed before the age of 50 years, 14 gBRCA1/2 mutations were found. The gBRCA1/2m detection rate within this extended, partially selected group was 33.3%. There were 11 gBRCA1 and 3 gBRCA2 mutations detected. Conclusions The rate of gBRCA1/2 mutation in tested unselected EOC patients under the age of 50 years was higher than 10%, namely 18.5%. Considering also a direct therapeuthic benefit of PARP inhibitors for BRCA positive patients, there is a double reason to offer genetic testing to

  10. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya

    2018-01-01

    aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during...... variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate...... of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression...

  11. Evaluation of nutrient status after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Taha; Strain, Gladys W; Dakin, Gregory; Gagner, Michel; Costa, Ricardo; Pomp, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy evolved as a primary bariatric procedure with little information on its nutritional effects. Our objective was to assess the longer term micronutrient and vitamin status after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at a university hospital. Measurements of ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, hematocrit, parathyroid hormone, albumin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, folate, and vitamins A, B1, B12, and D were obtained at baseline and 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery. Two-sample t tests with multiple adjusted comparisons and Fisher's exact test were used to determine deficiency. A total of 82 patients (67% women), with a mean age of 46.4 years and a baseline body mass index 55.7 kg/m2 were included in the present study (35 at 1, 27 at 3, and 30 at 5 years postoperatively). The percentage of excess body mass index loss was 58.5% at year 1 in 35 patients, 63.1% at year 3 in 27 patients, and 46.1% at year 5 in 30 patients. The parathyroid hormone level decreased from 75.0 to 49.6 ng/mL in year 1 to 40.7 ng/mL in year 3. The year 5 levels increased to 99.6 ng/mL. The mean vitamin D level increased from 23.6 ng/mL to 35.0, 32.1 and 34.8 at years 1, 3, and 5 (P = .05 for baseline to year 1). The vitamin D level was less than normal in 42% of the patients at year 5. After normalization from baseline, by year 5, parathyroid hormone had increased in 58.3% of patients. At year 5, vitamin B1 was less than normal in 30.8% of patients, and hemoglobin and hematocrit were less than normal in for 28.6% and 25% of patients, respectively. Finally, 28.9% of patients reported taking supplements in year 1, 42.9% in year 3, and 63.3% in year 5. The other variables were not significantly different. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy resulted in health improvements through year 3. At year 5, the nutrient levels had reverted toward the baseline values. These observations provide focus for necessary clinical monitoring. Copyright © 2012 American

  12. Diclofenac pharmacokinetic meta-analysis and dose recommendations for surgical pain in children aged 1-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Joseph F; Tibboel, Dick; Korpela, Reijo; Olkkola, Klaus T

    2011-03-01

    Diclofenac is an effective, opiate-sparing analgesic for acute pain in children, which is commonly used in pediatric surgical units. Recently, a Cochrane review concluded the major knowledge gap in diclofenac use is dosing information. A pharmacokinetic meta-analysis has been undertaken with the aim of recommending a dose for children aged 1-12 years. Studies containing diclofenac pharmacokinetic data were identified during a Cochrane systematic review, and authors were asked to provide raw data. A pooled population analysis was undertaken in NONMEM to define the pharmacokinetics of intravenous, oral, and rectal diclofenac in children. Simulations were performed to recommend a dose yielding an equivalent area under diclofenac concentration-time curve (AUC) to a 50-mg dispersible tablet in adults. Data from 111 children aged 1-14 years consisting of 375 samples following intravenous, oral suspension, and suppositories were used. Adult dispersible tablet and suspension data were added to provide a reference AUC and support the absorption modeling, respectively. A three-compartment model described disposition, a dual-absorption compartment model was used for suspension and dispersible tablet data, and single-absorption compartment model for suppositories. The estimate of clearance was 16.5 l·h(-1) ·70 kg(-1) and bioavailabilities were 0.36, 0.63, and 0.35 for suspension, suppository, and dispersible tablets, respectively. Single doses of 0.3 mg·kg(-1) for intravenous, 0.5 mg·kg(-1) for suppositories, and 1 mg·kg(-1) for oral diclofenac in children aged 1-12 years are recommended as they yield a similar AUC to 50 mg in adults. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  14. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  15. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20–29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications. PMID:25954770

  16. Differentiation of initial skills in 1st grade and the relative age effect in 3rd grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KONARZEWSKI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to verify two hypotheses. The first states that the differentiation of initial 1st grade pupil skills is negatively correlated with age at entry to school. This was tested according to findings from the ERI study Six and seven year olds at the start of school. The variation of reading and writing scores of 1164 pupils aged 5.9–7.9 years who were beginning 1st grade decreased in subsequent age quartiles. The second hypothesis – that classroom differentiation of pupils’ initial skills in 1st grade is positively correlated with the birthdate effect in 3rd grade – was tested on data of 4838 pupils from 254 classrooms drawn from the 2011 PIRLS and TIMSS studies in Poland. Skills were evaluated on the basis of parental reports. Hierarchical linear analysis (gender, SES and school location controlled showed that the greater the differentiation of language skills in 1st grade, the greater the birthdate effect in mathematics in 3rd grade. This result suggests that school entry age is of lesser importance than the methods used to reduce differences in children’s school readiness at the onset of education.

  17. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  18. Growth and Mortality Outcomes for Different Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Criteria in Children aged 1–5 Years: A Causal Modelling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ann; Malateste, Karen; Renner, Lorna; Sawry, Shobna; N’Gbeche, Sylvie; Technau, Karl-Günter; Eboua, François; Tanser, Frank; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Phiri, Sam; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Chimbete, Cleophas; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Giddy, Janet; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Wood, Robin; Egger, Matthias; Leroy, Valeriane

    2017-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modelling analysis in children aged 1–5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups and regions. Methods ART-naïve children of age 12–59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included. We estimated 3-year growth and cumulative mortality from the start of follow-up for different CD4 criteria using g-computation. Results About one quarter of the 5826 included children was from West Africa (24.6%). The median (first; third quartile) CD4% at the first visit was 16% (11%;23%), the median weight-for-age z-scores and height-for-age z-scores were −1.5 (−2.7; −0.6) and −2.5 (−3.5; −1.5), respectively. Estimated cumulative mortality was higher overall, and growth was slower, when initiating ART at lower CD4 thresholds. After 3 years of follow-up, the estimated mortality difference between starting ART routinely irrespective of CD4 count and starting ART if either CD4 count<750 cells/mm3 or CD4%<25% was 0.2% (95%CI: −0.2%;0.3%), and the difference in the mean height-for-age z-scores of those who survived was −0.02 (95%CI: −0.04;0.01). Younger children aged 1–2 and children in West Africa had worse outcomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that earlier treatment initiation yields overall better growth and mortality outcomes, though we could not show any differences in outcomes between immediate ART and delaying until CD4 count/% falls below750/25%. PMID:26479876

  19. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  20. Infliximab therapy in pediatric patients 7 years of age and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Grossman, Andrew B; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar

    2014-12-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is efficacious for induction and maintenance of remission in pediatric patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It has, however, not been studied in patients 7 years old and younger. Our aim was to characterize efficacy and safety of IFX therapy in this cohort. This was a retrospective study of patients with IBD ages 7 years and younger, treated with IFX between 1999 and 2011. Medical records were reviewed for age of diagnosis, disease phenotype, therapy, surgery, IFX infusion dates, dose, and intervals. Outcome measures included physician global assessment, corticosteroid requirement, and adverse events. Thirty-three children (ages 2.4-7 years) were included. Twenty patients had Crohn disease, 4 had ulcerative colitis, and 9 had indeterminate colitis. Maintenance of IFX therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years was 36%, 18%, and 12%, respectively. Patients of age 5 years and younger had the lowest rates of maintenance of therapy at 25% at year 1, and 10% at years 2 and 3 combined. Nine percent of all of the patients demonstrated response measured by the physician global assessment and were steroid free at 1 year. There were 8 infusion reactions. There were no malignancies, serious infections, or deaths. IFX demonstrated a modest response rate and a low steroid-sparing effect in patients with IBD 7 years old and younger. Although this is a limited study, there appears to be a trend for decreased sustained efficacy with IFX in this age group, particularly in children 5 years old and younger, when compared with the previously published literature in older children.

  1. Comparison of the Lea Symbols and HOTV charts for preschool vision screening from age 3 to 4.5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the applicability and the development of the normal visual acuity from age 3 to 3.5 years using Lea Symbols and HOTV charts.METHODS: It was a survey research study. Totally, 133 preschoolers(266 eyesbetween 3 to 4.5 years old recruited from two kid-gardens in Guangzhou were tested with both the Lea Symbols chart and the HOTV chart. Outcome measures were monocular logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution(logMARvisual acuity and inter-eye acuity difference in logMAR units for each test. RESULTS: The testability rates of the two charts were high(96.24% vs 92.48%, respectively, but difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The difference between the two kind of monocular vision was not statistically significant(the right eye: t=0.517, P=0.606; the left eye: t=-0.618, P=0.538. There was no significant difference between different eye(Lea Symbols chart: t=0.638, P=0.525; HOTV chart: t=-0.897, P=0.372. The visual acuities of the boys were better than those of the girls, but the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. The results which came from visual acuities with the two charts for the corresponding age groups(3-year-old group, 3.5-year-old group, 4-year-old group, 4.5-year-old groupindicated that the visual acuities of the preschoolers were improving with increasing age, but the difference among the visual acuities with the Lea Symbols chart was not statistically significant(the right eye: F=2.662, P=0.052; the left eye: F=1.850, P=0.143. However the difference among the visual acuities with the HOTV chart was statistically significant(the right eye: F=4.518, P=0.005; the left eye: F=3.893, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Both Lea Symbols and HOTV chars are accepted and appropriate for preschool vision screening from 3 to 4.5 years old. The monocular visual acuity of preschoolers from age 3 to 4.5 years could be assessed was similar using the two charts. There is no correlation between visual acuity and different eye

  2. Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Ani

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for writing my diploma thesis titled Production of didactic toys to children aged 3–6 years came during arts and crafts course at the faculty when I made some didactic toys and took them to the kindergarten. There I observed how children eagerly examined the toys and asked me lots of questions about them with curiosity. Since there are not many good toys with which the children can play in the kindergarten, a thought sprang to mind that the children could acquire new knowledge ...

  3. Early and intensive nutritional strategy combining parenteral and enteral feeding promotes neurodevelopment and growth at 18months of corrected age and 3years of age in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Satoshi; Ichiba, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Harada, Sayaka; Matsumura, Hisako; Kan, Ayako; Asada, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate whether aggressive nutrition can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This single-center cohort study included 137 ELBW AGA infants born in two epochs. The first group received standard nutrition (SN; n=79) consisting of amino acids started at 0.5g/kg/day on Day 4 of life and increased to 1.0g/kg/day. The second aggressive nutrition (AN) group received amino acids started at 1.5-2.0g/kg/day within 24h of life and increased to 3.5g/kg/day. Parenteral and enteral feedings were combined in both groups. Neurodevelopmental outcomes by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and growth were followed up to 18months of corrected age or 3years of age and compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. At 3years of age, AN children had a significantly greater mean value of head circumference, but not length or weight, than SN children (49.1 vs 48.0cm, p=0.014). The cognitive-adaptive (C-A) score in the AN group was also significantly higher than that in the SN group (98.3 vs 91.9 at 18months, p=0.039 and 89.5 vs 83.1 at 3years, p=0.047). AN infants born ≥26weeks of gestation were less likely to develop borderline disability in C-A, language-social and overall developmental scores compared to gestational age-matched SN infants. Parenteral and enteral AN after birth improved the long-term cognitive neurodevelopment in ELBW AGA infants, especially in those born ≥26weeks of gestational age, however results need to be confirmed in a larger, multi-site randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal complications in osteogenesis imperfecta: 47 patients 1-16 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; Gerver, W. J.; Breslau-Siderius, L. J.; van der Graaf, Y.; Pruijs, H. E.; van Doorne, J. M.; Beemer, F. A.; Helders, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    We examined in a cross-sectional study, 47 children (mean age 7.7 (1-16) years) with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) to find the prevalence of spinal deformities and to correlate these observations with anthropometry. The associations between dentinogenesis imperfecta, joint hypermobility and spinal

  5. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    related to poverty. Aggregately, PubIic Health Development Index (IPKM is an indicator of Health Development Improvement and Human Development Index (IPM is one of 24 IPKM's indicators. Aim of Analysis: To study the determinants which differentiate the high of stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age in province level. Method: This analysis is a study of population data that are being analyzed is aggregate data from some variables (IPKM, KEK on pregnant mothers and household energy deficit from Health Basic Survey (Riskesdas 2007 data. Then IPM variable and poverty in 2007 from BPS’s data. On this analysis, stunting in children 2-3 years of age as variable is bonded, while others variables are free variables. Statistic test that used is correlation test and discriminant test. Result: Bivariately, there is no correlation between KEK in pregnant mothers and stunting in children 2-3 years of age, but there is correlation between stunting with IPKM. IPKM (r=-0.67; p=0.000, IPM (r=-0.52; p=0.002 and poverty (r=0.58; p=0.003. Discriminant result shows that IPKM is a differentiating factor between low- and high- stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age in province level. IPKM variance contribution on two different groups is 34 percent. Discriminant function that was resulted Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM, IPKM with prediction ability 78.8 percent. Conclusion: IPKM is a differentiate factor between high and low stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age in province level. [Penel Gizi Makan 2011, 34(1: 50-62]   Keywords: stunting, children 2-3 years of age, IPKM, IPM, poverty

  6. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhong Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods: In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI in children aged 3–6 years. Results: A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001 in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001. Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29. The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76 in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions: Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity.

  7. Quality of Maternal Parenting of 9-Month-Old Infants Predicts Executive Function Performance at 2 and 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanhua Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.

  8. Solar wind oscillations with a 1.3 year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John D.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Belcher, John W.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8) and Voyager 2 spacecraft have recently detected a very strong modulation in the solar wind speed with an approximately 1.3 year period. Combined with evidence from long-term auroral and magnetometer studies, this suggests that fundamental changes in the Sun occur on a roughly 1.3 year time scale.

  9. A near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old:new designs and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Qing Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To introduce a new near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.METHODS:The new near-vision chart which combined the Bailey-Lovie layout with a newly devised set of symmetry symbols was designed based on Weber-Fechner law. It consists of 15 rows of symmetry symbols, corresponding to a visual acuity range from 1.3 to 0.1 logMAR. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross, which matched the preschool children''s cognitive level. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 15 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and two smaller groups of optotypes ranging from 0.7 to -0.1 logMAR were included for repetitive testing. A near visual acuity was recorded in logMAR or decimal, and the testing distance was 25 cm.RESULTS:This new near-vision chart with pediatric acuity test optotypes which consists of 4 different symbols (triangle, square, cross, and circle met the national and international eye chart design guidelines. When performing the near visual acuity assessment in preschoolers (3-5 years old. It overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ''E'' or Landolt ''C'', which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. Near vision may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new near-vision chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the Chinese national standard logarithmic near-vision chart (r=0.932, P<0.01, but also indicated good test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1 logMAR units of the initial test score and a high response rate

  10. Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    : All deaths in persons aged 1 to 49 years were included in 2007 to 2009. Death certificates were reviewed by 2 physicians. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries were read. Sudden unexpected death cases were identified and autopsy reports were collected...

  11. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10......% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during...

  12. OPEC/OJEC for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, D A; Pinkerton, C R; Lewis, I J; Ellershaw, C; Cole, M; Pearson, A D

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity of OPEC/OJEC chemotherapy in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over 1 year of age. Ninety-five patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma received alternating courses of OPEC/OJEC--vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 (O), cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (P), etoposide 200 mg/m2 (E), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (C), and carboplatin 500 mg/m2 (J), every 21 days if there was haematological recovery. Seventy out of ninety-five (74%) patients completed seven or more courses and were evaluable for toxicity. Of these 70 patients, 33% had more than three episodes of fever and sepsis, 35% required more than five blood or platelet transfusions, 36% had grade 2 or more gastrointestinal toxicity and 9% had neurotoxicity. There was a median reduction in GFR of 32 ml/min/1.73 m2 (-46 to 134) and there was one toxic death. OPEC/OJEC is a well-tolerated therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma over 1 year of age.

  13. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37–41 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  14. Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence in children aged 9-11 years, Pinar del Río Province, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca, Miladys; Morejón, Griselda; Cabrera, Niurka; Menéndez, Reinaldo; Orraca, Odalys

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis 1 is one of the most common heritable genetic disorders in humans. It is characterized by formation of neurofibromas, with marked variability in expression. Half the cases are due to autosomal dominant inheritance; the rest arise from de novo mutations. Prevalence varies by population, and prevalence in Cuba is unknown. OBJECTIVE Determine the prevalence of neurofibromatosis 1 in a population of Cuban children aged 9-11 years old in Pinar del Río Province, Cuba. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Pinar del Río Province in 2004, in which 19,392 children were assessed for neurofibromatosis 1. The study was conducted in two phases: the first, a survey of the entire population aged 9-11 years by genetic counselors in the province's schools; the second, assessment by clinical geneticists of children who met criteria for referral to the Provincial Medical Genetics Center. Neurofibromatosis 1 cases and first-degree relatives were examined to identify the origin of the mutation (de novo or inherited). Neurofibromatosis 1 prevalence was calculated, as well as history of a first-degree relative with the disease and frequency of several principal clinical signs-café au lait spots, freckles in places unexposed to sunlight, presence of neurofibromas, Lisch nodules and characteristic bone lesions. RESULTS Of the eligible population, 99.3% was screened (10,034 boys and 9358 girls). Active case finding resulted in referral of 200 children to medical geneticists and the disease was confirmed in 17, for a prevalence of one case per 1141 children aged 9-11 years old. Café au lait spots were the most frequent sign (100%), followed by freckles in areas unexposed to sunlight (82.4%) and characteristic bone lesions (41.2%). Only 4 of the 17 cases were previously being treated for the disease. CONCLUSIONS Neurofibromatosis 1 has high prevalence in the group studied in Pinar del Rio Province and most cases are not detected in

  15. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M.; Goltz, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1 st cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2 nd cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3 rd cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4 th cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered 1 H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1 st cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2 nd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3 rd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4 th cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired 1 H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  16. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  17. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  18. Fibroadenoma: Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in females aged 25 years or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwuonwu, O A; Anyanwu, Snc; Chianakwana, G U; Ihekwoaba, E C

    2016-01-01

    Accurate clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in young females is desirable because of the possibility of nonoperative treatment for those desiring it. To determine the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤ 25 years. A prospective study of all patients with breast disease presenting to the breast clinic was conducted from January 2004 to December 2008. During the study period, 145 patients aged ≤25 years presented with breast lumps. In this group, a clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made in 100 (69.0%), fibrocystic disease in 32 (22.1%), breast cancer in 4 (0.03%) patients, the remaining were benign lesions. Excision biopsy was done for 81 (55.9%) patients. Of these 81 patients, only 62 (76.5%) returned with histology report. The histological diagnosis was fibroadenoma in 45 (72.5%) patients with a mean age of 21.4 years. Their ages range from 18 to 25 years. The histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease in 9 (14.5%) and malignant phyllodes in 1 (1.6%) patient. The remaining 7 (11.3%) patients had other types of benign lesions. For fibroadenoma, true positive cases were 42, false positive 7 and false negative 3, and true negative 10. Therefore, the sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was 93.3%, while specificity was 58.8%. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma in patients aged ≤25 years was good, though specificity is low.

  19. Outcomes of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Andrew; Tran, Haily; Roberts, Mary; Clarke, Nadeene; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Vidmar, Suzanna; Wilson, John; Robertson, Colin F

    2014-06-01

    In 1964, The Melbourne Asthma Study was established to describe the spectrum and natural history of childhood asthma. To describe the clinical and lung function outcome of childhood asthma to the age of 50 years. Subjects were invited to complete an interviewer-administered questionnaire, skin prick testing, and measurement of lung function from the age of 7 years to the age of 50 years at 7-year intervals. Of 458 survivors (from the original 484 subjects at recruitment), 346 subjects (76%) participated, of whom, 197 completed lung function measurement. Asthma remission at the age of 50 years was 64% in those with wheezy bronchitis, 47% for those with persistent asthma, and 15% for those with severe asthma in childhood. Multivariable analysis identified severe asthma in childhood (odds ratio [OR] 11.9 [95% CI, 3.4-41.8]), female sex (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]), and childhood hay fever (OR 2.0 [95% CI, 1.0-4.0]) as risk factors for "current asthma" at age 50 years. There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of decline in FEV1 (mL/y, 95% CI) between the severe asthma group (15 mL/y [95% CI, 9-22 mL/y]) and all the other recruitment groups: control (16 mL/y [95% CI, 12-20 mL/y]), mild wheezy bronchitis (14 mL/y [95% CI, 8-19 mL/y]), wheezy bronchitis (16 mL/y [95% CI, 11-20 mL/y]), and persistent asthma (19 mL/y [95% CI, 13-24 mL/y]). The clinical and lung function outcome in adult life is strongly determined by asthma severity in childhood. The reduced lung function seen in adults is established in childhood and does not appear to decline more rapidly in adult years despite continuing symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age as Risk Factor for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanch, Jeannette; Nájera, Manuel; González, Claudia; Guerrero, Andrea; Olea, Andrea; Fasce, Rodrigo; Morales, Cecilia; Vega, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 affected Chile during the winter of 2009. The hospitalization rate was 0.56% overall and 3.47% for persons >60 years of age at risk for severe disease and death independent of concurrent conditions. Age >60 years was the major risk factor for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009. PMID:21762580

  1. Range of variation of genu valgum and association with anthropometric characteristics and physical activity: comparison between children aged 3-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspiris, Angelos; Zaphiropoulou, Chrisi; Vasiliadis, Elias

    2013-07-01

    The lower limbs of children aged 3-9 years present varying knock-knee deformities that have a direct impact on the diversification of the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb and on the modification of gait kinematics. The purpose of our study was to establish the reference values of knee alignment in a Greek population and whether this is linked to a change in the physical activity of children depending on the severity of the genu valgum. Using a clinical method, we measured both the tibiofemoral (TF) angle and the intermalleolar (IM) distance of the lower extremities of normal children. Subsequently, forms of the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) for young children and the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity, modified especially for children, were completed by the parents. We examined both the development of the TF angle and the IM distance in relation to age and the degree of restriction of physical activity in relation to the severity of the genu valgum. We analysed 316 unaffected lower extremities in children aged 3-9 years. The average value of the TF angle starts around 7° at the age of 3 years and gradually decreases to 4° at the age of 7-8 years. The average value of the IM distance ranges over 3.5 cm at the age of 3 years and progressively decreases to 2 cm at the age of 7-8 years. Physical activity appears to be influenced by sex and the severity of the genu valgum. We provide age-specific values for limb alignment and joint orientation of the lower extremity in children aged 3-9 years. A statistical correlation between all indexes (sport, leisure time and total) of the Baecke and the NPAQs and measurements of genu valgum was noted depending on the severity of the valgus deformity.

  2. Perfil comunicativo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal de linguagem Communicative profile of children between 1 and 3-years old with normal language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtes Adiles Sandri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: traçar o perfil comunicativo (habilidades comunicativas e interacionais, compreensão verbal e aspectos do desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal da linguagem, correlacionando com as variáveis faixa etária e gênero. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 24 crianças (12 meninos e 12 meninas, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (G1 - crianças de 1 e 2 anos e Grupo 2 (G2 - crianças de 2 e 3 anos. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o Protocolo de Observação Comportamental (PROC (Zorzi e Hage, 2004. RESULTADOS: na análise dos dados quantitativos houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os grupos por faixa etária (PPURPOSE: to trace the communicative profile (communicative and interactive abilities, verbal comprehension and cognitive development aspects of children with normal linguistic development between 1 and 3-year old, correlating with the variables of age groups and gender. METHODS: twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls took part in the study, divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1 - children between 1 and 2-year old, and Group 2 (G2 -children between 2 and 3-year old. The used protocol was Behavioral Observation Protocol ("Protocolo de Observação Comportamental - PROC" (Zorzi and Hage, 2004. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the quantitative data when the groups where compared by their age (P<0.05. When comparing qualitative data by their age group, children of the G2 were better (P<0.05, except in the item with regards to the oral language understanding, which resulted being equivalent between the groups (P=0.217. There was no significant statistical difference related to gender, however, we observed superiority in female gender. CONCLUSION: the used test was sensitive for identifying the differences in performance between the two age groups, with regards to the communicative profile of the studied children.

  3. Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Six-monthly vitamin A from 1 to 6 years of age DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 1 million children in Northern India · Pre-school rural Northern India · DEVTA: cluster-randomised trial in 8000+ villages (ie, AWCs) in 72 clusters (ie, blocks) · DEVTA vitamin A schedule, 05/1999 - 04/2004 · DEVTA: biomedical monitoring.

  4. Skin autofluorescence as proxy of tissue AGE accumulation is dissociated from SCORE cardiovascular risk score, and remains so after 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiessen, Ans H; Jager, Willemein; ter Bogt, Nancy C W; Beltman, Frank W; van der Meer, Klaas; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J

    2014-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF), as a proxy of AGE accumulation, is predictive of cardiovascular (CVD) complications in i.a. type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal failure, independently of most conventional CVD risk factors. The present exploratory substudy of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL)-project addresses whether SAF is related to Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk estimation (% 10-year CVD-mortality risk) in overweight/obese persons in primary care, without diabetes/renal disease, and if after 3-year treatment of risk factors (change in, Δ) SAF is related to ΔSCORE. In a sample of 65 participants from the GOAL study, with a body mass index (BMI) >25-40 kg/m2, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia, but without diabetes/renal disease, SAF and CVD risk factors were measured at baseline, and after 3 years of lifestyle and pharmaceutical treatment. At baseline, the mean SCORE risk estimation was 3.1±2.6%, mean SAF 2.04±0.5AU. In multivariate analysis SAF was strongly related to age, but not to other risk factors/SCORE. After 3 years ΔSAF was 0.34±0.45 AU (phistory of CVD compared to 54 persons without CVD (p=0.002). Baseline and 3-year-Δ SAF are not related to (Δ)SCORE, or its components, except age, in the studied population. ΔSAF was negatively related to Δweight. As 3-year SAF was higher in persons with CVD, these results support a larger study on SAF to assess its contribution to conventional risk factors/SCORE in predicting CVD in overweight persons with low-intermediate cardiovascular risk.

  5. [Chile: mortality between 1 and 4 years of age. Trends and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E

    1981-08-01

    The great decline in infant mortality in Chile in the last 2 decades provokes interest in the current situation in child mortality (for children 1-4 years of age). For the present analysis, central death rates and probabilities of dying are used, calculated with Greville's method from birth and death data. Mortality trends of the group between 1961-78, sex differentials, and causes of death are studied. The findings indicate that mortality in this age group has declined dramatically during the period of analysis, mainly due to the decrease in mortality from respiratory diseases, diarrhea, and diseases avoidable through vaccination. To attain the future approach of the Chilean rate to that of more developed countries, the reduction of mortality from respiratory diseases and diarrhea should continue together with the achievement of substantial reduction in mortality from violence and accidents. This, the primary cause of death in children, ages 1-4, has not varied during the period under study. (author's)

  6. Left cheek bias for emotion perception, but not expression, is established in children aged 3-7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Aznar, Ana

    2017-01-01

    As the left hemiface is controlled by the emotion-dominant right hemisphere, emotion is expressed asymmetrically. Portraits showing a model's left cheek consequently appear more emotive. Though the left cheek bias is well established in adults, it has not been investigated in children. To determine whether the left cheek biases for emotion perception and expression are present and/or develop between the ages of 3 and 7 years, 145 children (71 male, 74 female; M age = 65.49 months) completed two experimental tasks: one assessing biases in emotion perception, and the other assessing biases in emotion expression. Regression analysis confirmed that children aged 3-7 years find left cheek portraits happier than right cheek portraits, and age does not predict the magnitude of the bias. In contrast when asked to pose for a photo expressing happiness children did not show a left cheek bias, with logistic regression confirming that age did not predict posing orientations. These findings indicate that though the left cheek bias for emotion perception is established by age 3, a similar bias for emotion expression is not evident by age 7. This implies that tacit knowledge of the left cheek's greater expressivity is not innate but develops in later childhood/adolescence.

  7. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3?12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed...

  8. Relationships among Maternal Stress and Depression, Type 2 Responses, and Recurrent Wheezing at Age 3 Years in Low-Income Urban Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramratnam, Sima K; Visness, Cynthia M; Jaffee, Katy F; Bloomberg, Gordon R; Kattan, Meyer; Sandel, Megan T; Wood, Robert A; Gern, James E; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-03-01

    Maternal depression and prenatal and early life stress may influence childhood wheezing illnesses, potentially through effects on immune development. To test the hypothesis that maternal stress and/or depression during pregnancy and early life are associated with recurrent wheezing and aeroallergen sensitivity and altered cytokine responses (enhanced type 2 or reduced virus-induced cytokine responses) from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells at age 3 years. URECA (Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma) is a birth cohort at high risk for asthma (n = 560) in four inner cities. Maternal stress, depression, and childhood wheezing episodes were assessed by quarterly questionnaires beginning at birth. Logistic and linear regression techniques were used to examine the relation of maternal stress/depression to recurrent wheezing and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses at age 3 years. Overall, 166 (36%) children had recurrent wheeze at age 3 years. Measures of maternal perceived stress at Years 2 and 3 were positively associated with recurrent wheeze (P Maternal depression (any year) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing (P ≤ 0.01). These associations were also significant when considered in a longitudinal analysis of cumulative stress and depression (P ≤ 0.02). Neither stress nor depression was significantly related to aeroallergen sensitization or antiviral responses. Contrary to our original hypothesis, prenatal and Year 1 stress and depression had significant inverse associations with several type 2 cytokine responses. In urban children at high risk for asthma, maternal perceived stress and depression were significantly associated with recurrent wheezing but not increased atopy or reduced antiviral responses.

  9. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  10. Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment. To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years. We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility. Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated

  11. The association between peripheral total IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and functional and cognitive outcomes in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Hagen, Clinton E; Machulda, Mary M; Hollman, John H; Roberts, Rosebud O; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Mielke, Michelle M

    2018-06-01

    Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and their ratio in the blood may be useful for monitoring those at risk of cognitive and functional decline. However, the association between IGF measures and functional and cognitive outcomes has been mixed, and the associations may vary by sex. The present study investigated the cross-sectional, sex-specific associations between serum measures total IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, gait speed, and cognition in 1320 cognitively unimpaired participants aged 50-95 years enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. We used multivariable linear regression models to determine the association between IGF measures and gait speed or cognitive test performance by sex. IGF measures were not associated with cognitive or functional performance among men. Among women, higher levels of log total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were associated with better performance in attention, visuospatial, and global cognitive domains, independent of the gait speed. These findings suggest that among women, IGF measures are associated with cognition, and these associations are independent of function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency in children is widespread. But the vitamin D status of Chinese children is seldom investigated. The objective of the present study was to survey the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in more than 6,000 children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou (latitude: 30°N, the capital of Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Methods The children aged 1 month to 16 years who came to the child health care department of our hospital, the children's hospital affiliated to Zhejiang university school of medicine, for health examination were taken blood for 25(OH D measurement. Serum 25(OH D levels were determined by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and categorized as Results A total of 6,008 children aged 1 month to 16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the subjects were divided into subgroups according to their age: 0-1y, 2-5y, 6-11y and 12-16y representing infancy, preschool, school age and adolescence stages respectively. The highest mean level of serum 25(OHD was found in the 0-1y stage (99 nmol/L and the lowest one was found in 12-16y stage (52 nmol/L. Accordingly, the prevalence of serum 25(OHD levels of Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children in Hangzhou Zhejiang province is high, especially among children aged 6-16 years. We suggest that the recommendation for vitamin D supplementation in Chinese children should be extended to adolescence.

  13. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  14. Results of NOPHO ALL2008 treatment for patients aged 1-45 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, N; Birgens, H; Abrahamsson, J

    2018-01-01

    Adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) do worse than children. From 7/2008 to 12/2014, Nordic and Baltic centers treated 1509 consecutive patients aged 1-45 years with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL according to the NOPHO ALL2008 without cranial irradiation. Overall, 1022 patients...... time to relapse of 1.6 years and 13 (no adult) developed a second malignancy. Median follow-up time was 4.6 years. Among the three age groups, older patients more often had higher risk ALL due to T-ALL (32%/25%/9%, Pleukemia...... 10 years. In conclusion, a pediatric-based protocol is tolerable and effective for young adults, despite their increased frequency of higher risk features.Leukemia advance online publication, 22 September 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.265....

  15. The associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index or gestational weight change during pregnancy and body mass index of the child at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamnes Køpp, U M; Dahl-Jørgensen, K; Stigum, H; Frost Andersen, L; Næss, Ø; Nystad, W

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight change (GWC) during pregnancy and offspring BMI at 3 years of age, while taking several pre-and postnatal factors into account. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based pregnancy cohort study of women recruited from all geographical areas of Norway. The study includes 31 169 women enrolled between 2000 and 2009 through a postal invitation sent to women at 17-18 weeks of gestation. Data collected from 5898 of the fathers were included. MAIN OUTCOME MESURES: Offspring BMI at 3 years was the main outcome measured in this study. Mean maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg m(-2) (s.d. 4.1), mean GWC in the first 30 weeks of gestation was 9.0 kg (s.d. 4.1) and mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age was 16.1 kg m(-2) (s.d. 1.5). Both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC also interacted, and the strength of the interaction between these two factors was strongly associated with the increase in offspring BMI among mothers who gained the most weight during pregnancy and had the highest pre-pregnancy BMI. Our findings show that results could be biased by not including pre-pregnant paternal BMI. This large population-based study showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age.

  16. Outcomes of hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older compared with a matched-pair control of patients aged 30 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Linder, Dror; Finley, Zachary; Botser, Itamar B; Chen, Austin; Williamson, Joseph; Gupta, Asheesh

    2015-02-01

    Age has been suggested as a negative prognostic factor for hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics and outcomes after hip arthroscopy in patients aged 50 years or older with a matched control group of patients aged 30 years or younger at a minimum postoperative follow-up of 2 years. Between September 2008 and March 2010, data were prospectively collected on all patients aged 50 years or older undergoing primary hip arthroscopy. Fifty-two patients met our inclusion and matching criteria, of whom all 52 (100%) were available for follow-up at a minimum of 2 years. This cohort was compared with a matched-pair control group of patients aged 30 years or younger who underwent similar procedures. The mean age of the study group was 54.8 years (range, 50 to 69 years), and that of the control group was 20.3 years (range, 13 to 30 years). The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio, including 18 male patients (34.6%) and 34 female patients (65.4%) in each group, with a mean follow-up period of 32 months (range, 24 to 54 months). In the younger control group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 62.9 to 84.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 60.5 to 84.2 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.1 to 86.5 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 42.2 to 72.7 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. In the older study group, the score improvement from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up was 61.2 to 82.2 for the modified Harris Hip Score, 59.9 to 80.4 for the Non-Arthritic Hip Score, 63.9 to 83 for the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, and 41.2 to 64.6 for the Hip Outcome Score-Sport-Specific Subscale. All improvements in both groups were statistically significant at the 2-year postoperative follow-up (P arthroscopy should be considered a valid treatment option when treating hip pain in patients aged 50 years or older with a Tönnis arthritic grade of 0 or 1. Older patients

  17. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in balance in preschool children aged 1 and 3 years

    OpenAIRE

    Petrič, Melita

    2016-01-01

    The main part of motor development happens in the preschool period. This means that this period provides the foundation for specialised movement later in life. However, children at that age are the most susceptible to various influences from the environment, which affect motor as well as other areas of development, hence the expression comprehensive development of the child. From the teacher's perspective, comprehensive development means comprehensive planning and a challenge of determining i...

  19. Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score at 3 months can predict patients' ability to return to sport 1 year after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Christensen, Marianne; Budolfsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at 3 months and 1 year after injury is associated with a patient's ability to return to work and sports as well as to investigate whether sex and age influence ATRS after 3 months and 1 year. METHOD: This is a retrospectiv...

  20. Incidence of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in subjects 0-14 years of age in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ríos, M; Moy, C S; Martín Serrano, R; Minuesa Asensio, A; de Tomás Labat, M E; Zarandieta Romero, G; Herrera, J

    1990-07-01

    A retrospective, population-based registry was established in the Comunidad of Madrid, Spain (total population: 4,780,572; under age 15: 1,105,243) to investigate the epidemiology of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Included were all cases diagnosed with diabetes between 1985 and 1988, with age onset less than 15 years, and using insulin at discharge from hospital. Using the capture-recapture method employing hospital records as the primary source and membership files of the Spanish Diabetic Association as the secondary source, the ascertainment was 90%. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 11.3/100,000 (Poison 95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4). There was no temporal increase in incidence, nor was there a significant sex difference in incidence rates, either overall or by year. The seasonal onset pattern showed the highest incidence in winter (December-February) and lowest in summer (June-August) (r = 7.36, p less than 0.05). The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence of 10.9/100,000 was inconsistent with the hypothesis of a north-south gradient in diabetes risk.

  1. Quality of social interaction in foster dyads at child age 2 and 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Heidi; Vang, Kristin Alvestad; Lindahl, Karoline Mentzoni; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

    2018-06-30

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the quality of social interaction between 60 foster parents and their foster children compared to a group of 55 non-foster families at 2 (T1) and again at 3 (T2) years of age. Video observations were used to investigate child-parent interaction at both time-points. "This is My Baby" interview was administered to investigate foster parents' commitment at T1. The main results revealed significant group differences at T1 on all child-parent social interaction measures, although not at T2. Further, a significant group by time interaction was identified for parental sensitivity, revealing a positive development over time in the foster group. Finally, a significant positive relation was found between commitment at T1 and parental sensitivity. The results convey an optimistic view of the possibilities for foster dyads to develop positive patterns of social interaction over time.

  2. A new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old:development and its clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Qing Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To introduce a new specialized visual acuity chart for amblyopic children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.METHODS:The new visual acuity chart and notations were designed based on Weber-Fechner law. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 14 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and the testing distance was 3m. Visual acuity score could be recorded as logMAR notation or decimal notation. Age-stratified diagnostic criteria for amblyopia established by consensus statement on diagnosis of amblyopia (2011 among members of the Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Group, Ophthalmology Society, Chinese Medical Association (SPOGOSCMA were illustrated in the new visual acuity chart.RESULTS: When assessing visual acuity in children aged 3-5 years old, this new visual acuity chart that consists of four symmetrical shapes (triangle, square, cross, and circle overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ‘E’ or Landolt ‘C’, which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. The visual acuity score may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new eye chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the international standard logarithmic visual acuity chart (r=0.932, P<0.01, but also indicated a high test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1logMAR units of the initial test score.CONCLUSION: The results of this study support the validity and reliability of distance visual acuity measurements using the new eye chart in

  3. Proposition of decision limits for serum lipids in Brazilian children aged one to 13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slhessarenko, Natasha; Fontes, Cor J F; Slhessarenko, Maria Eduarda; Azevedo, Raymundo S; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2018-03-09

    To determine decision limits for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in healthy children and adolescents from Cuiabá, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 1866 healthy children and adolescents randomly selected from daycare centers and public schools in Cuiabá. The desirable levels of serum lipids were defined using the classic criteria, i.e., total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels below the P75 percentile, and HDL-c above the P10 percentile. For CT, P75 was: 160mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <3 years, 170mg/dL for ≥3 to <9 years, and 176mg/dL for ≥9 to <13 years. For non-HDL cholesterol, it was 122mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <13 years. For LDL-c, it was 104mg/dL at the age range of 1 to <9 years and 106mg/dL from ≥9 to <13 years. For TG, it was 127mg/dL from 1 to <2 years; 98mg/dL from ≥2 to <6 years; and 92mg/dL from ≥6 to <13 years. As for HDL-cholesterol, P10 was 24mg/dL, 28mg/dL, 32mg/dL, and 36mg/dL, for the age ranges of 1 to <2 years, ≥2 to <3 years, ≥3 to <4 years, and ≥4 to <13 years, respectively. The decision limits for the serum lipid levels defined in this study differed from those observed in the current Brazilian and North-American guidelines, especially because it differentiates between the age ranges. Using these decision limits in clinical practice will certainly contribute to improve the diagnostic accuracy for dyslipidemia in this population group. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  5. Ageing management studies of RAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohra, A.K.; Jain, L.K.; Joshi, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) is the first nuclear power plant of India with pressurized heavy water reactor. The construction of Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) was started in the year 1966 in collaboration with Canada. The Unit-1 achieved first criticality on August 1972 and was first synchronized to Grid on November 1972. During initial operation of the Unit, several problems were faced in its various systems and these were addressed by incorporating various engineering changes and procedures. In this unit various major innovative repairs were done like end shield leak repair, OPRD leak repair. Considering the operation of various systems of Unit-1, since year 1971 it was imperative to study ageing degradation mechanisms and mitigating measures were to be taken. Although the ageing management is a continuous process the opportunity of Unit-1 shutdown for upgradations from 30-04-2002 to 08-02-2004 was utilized for inspection and assessment of health of various SSC, which otherwise could not have been done with unit in operational state. This paper contains the following in detail. (1) Ageing management programme, its objectives and scope (2) Methodology of ageing management studies - Replacement and upgradation -Additional inspection programme based on ageing management review - Statistical analysis of ageing degradation occurrence - Estimation of residual life span of cables and relays (3) Criteria for selection of components for ageing management programme (4) Findings of ageing management studies-case studies. The ageing study done for RAPS-1 indicated that appropriate ageing monitoring methods and procedures exist in the station for taking timely mitigating measures. The technological obsoleteness has been overcome by installing new components of latest technology. On overall assessment, the Unit-1 was considered fit for further service. (author)

  6. [A survey of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area, Sichuan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Cheng, W T; Pan, X; Song, X X; Jiang, Q W

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections in children aged 1-13 years in Yi ethnic area in Sichuan province. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the form of field survey in four townships selected from Yi ethnic area of Sichuan during 2014-2015. Participants were children aged 1-13 years by sample size of 900 and were screened for HIV antibody, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody, and laboratory comfirmation was conducted. The area, age, gender and ethnic group specific infection rates were compared by using Fisher's exact test, and multiple comparisons were corrected by using Bonferroni correction. Results: A total of 677 children aged 1-13 years were surveyed. The infection rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were 1.03 % (7/677, 95 %CI : 0.42 % -1.12 % ), 6.65 % (45/677, 95 %CI : 4.89 % -8.79 % ) and 0.15 % (1/677, 95 %CI : 0 % -0.82 % ), respectively. The infection rates of HIV differed among townships ( P =0.000), the infection rate was higher in township D than in township B, the difference was significant ( P HBV and HCV infections were not significant among different townships, age, gender and ethnic groups. The difference in HBV viral load between age group 5-9 years and age groups 10-13 years was not significant ( U =115.000, P =0.967). Conclusions: The burden of HIV and HBV infections in children aged 1-13 years was heavy in rural area of Yi ethnic area in Sichuan. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective measures to block the vertical transmission of HIV and HBV as well as to increase the coverage of HBV vaccination.

  7. Neurological follow-up of small-for-gestational age newborn infants: a study of risk factors related to prognosis at one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz D. Gherpelli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relative importance of some risk factors and neurological prognosis in the first year of life, 37 small-for-gestational age newborns were followed prospectively to 1 year of conceptional age. An abnormal neurological examination was found in 51.3% of the newborns and, at 12 months, 32.5% were still considered abnormal. Only 8.1% of the group had severe neurological sequelae at 1 year of corrected age. The developmental tests showed little changes during the first year, with abnormality rates varying from 16.1 to 25%. The following risk factors were analyzed concerning their relation to neurological and developmental abnormalities: high-risk pregnancy, maternal hypertension, social class, pre-term birth, neonatal asphyxia and weight and height less than 2.5 percentile at the age of 1 year. The statistical analysis showed a high correlation between subnormal weight gain and neurological (p=0.000l and developmental (p=0.001 abnormalities at 1 year. None of the other risk factors were statistically related to neurological prognosis at 1 year.

  8. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  9. Flash visual evoked potentials in patients with periventricular leucomalacia in children less than 1 year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL are known to have visual impairment of various forms starting from reduced vision, field defects, congnitive problems, and problems with hand eye coordination. There is very scant data/literature on the visual evoked potentials (VEPs at an early age in children with PVL. We did a study to evaluate the flash visual evoked potentials (fVEPs in children with PVL less than 1 year of age. Materials and Methods: A total of nine children diagnosed as having PVL on magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. The mean age was 9.7μ 3.5 months. All children underwent handheld fVEPs under sedation at two different flash frequencies 1.4 and 8 Hz. Results: The mean latency of N1 and P1 on stimulation with 1.4 Hz was 47.9μ 15.2 and 77.7μ 26.0 ms, respectively. However, on stimulation with 8 Hz the mean latency of N1 and P1 was 189.8μ 25.6 and 238.4μ 33.6 ms, respectively. The mean amplitude with 1.4 Hz and 8 stimulation frequency was 5.6μ 4.5 and 5.59μ 3 mV, respectively. Conclusion: We have found for the first time that there is a change in the latency and the delay occurs at 8 Hz frequency but not at 1.4 Hz. We also conclude that amplitudes by fVEPs may be normal even in presence of periventricular changes. The amplitudes of fVEPs are not reliable in children with PVL.

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20 in...

  11. Phenylalanine tolerance can already reliably be assessed at the age of 2 years in patients with PKU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, F J; van Rijn, M; Dorgelo, B; Hoeksma, M; Bosch, A M; Mulder, M F; de Klerk, J B C; de Koning, T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; de Vries, M; Verkerk, P H

    2009-02-01

    The clinical severity of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency is usually defined by either pre-treatment phenylalanine (Phe) concentration or Phe tolerance at 5 years of age. So far, little is known about the course of Phe tolerance or the ability of both pre-treatment Phe and Phe tolerance at early age to predict Phe tolerance at later age. This study was conducted to investigate the course of the individual Phe tolerance and to assess the predictive value of both the pre-treatment Phe concentration and Phe tolerance at 1 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years for Phe tolerance at 10 years of age. Data on blood Phe concentration, prescribed Phe intake and weight of 213 early and continuously treated Dutch PKU patients up to 10 years of age were collected. Data acquired under good metabolic control were used in the study. Tolerance was expressed in mg/day and mg/kg per day. Data at 1 and 6 months and at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years of 61, 58, 59, 57, 56 and 59 patients were included for comparison with the Phe tolerance at 10 years. Phe tolerances (mg/kg per day) at 2, 3 and 5 years showed a clear correlation with the tolerance at 10 years of age (r = 0.608, r = 0.725 and r = 0.661). Results for tolerance expressed as mg/day were comparable. Pre-treatment Phe concentrations did not correlate significantly with the tolerance. Pre-treatment Phe is unreliable but Phe tolerance is a reliable predictor of the tolerance at 10 years of age, starting at 2 years of age.

  12. Microglia and Aging: The Role of the TREM2–DAP12 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mecca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the species, microglial cells represent 5–20% of glial cells in the adult brain. As the innate immune effector of the brain, microglia are involved in several functions: regulation of inflammation, synaptic connectivity, programmed cell death, wiring and circuitry formation, phagocytosis of cell debris, and synaptic pruning and sculpting of postnatal neural circuits. Moreover, microglia contribute to some neurodevelopmental disorders such as Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD, and to aged-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and others. There is evidence that human and rodent microglia may become senescent. This event determines alterations in the microglia activation status, associated with a chronic inflammation phenotype and with the loss of neuroprotective functions that lead to a greater susceptibility to the neurodegenerative diseases of aging. In the central nervous system (CNS, Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2-DNAX activation protein 12 (TREM2-DAP12 is a signaling complex expressed exclusively in microglia. As a microglial surface receptor, TREM2 interacts with DAP12 to initiate signal transduction pathways that promote microglial cell activation, phagocytosis, and microglial cell survival. Defective TREM2-DAP12 functions play a central role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The CX3CL1 (fractalkine-CX3CR1 signaling represents the most important communication channel between neurons and microglia. The expression of CX3CL1 in neurons and of its receptor CX3CR1 in microglia determines a specific interaction, playing fundamental roles in the regulation of the maturation and function of these cells. Here, we review the role of the TREM2-DAP12 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axes in aged microglia and the involvement of these pathways in physiological CNS aging and in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years: A nationwide cohort study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Holzmann, Martin J; Ärnlöv, Johan; Wändell, Per; Gasevic, Danijela; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Objective We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48.9%) were followed for a mean of 5.5 years (SD 3.5 years), during which 1777 (0.30%) strokes among men and 1374 (0.24%) strokes among women were recorded. After adjustment for sex, marital status, education level, immigrant status, region of residence, and neighborhood services, there was a lower risk of stroke in residents from high-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.96), and an increased risk of stroke in adults from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.27), compared to their counterparts living in middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods. After further adjustment for hospital diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation prior to the age of 40, the higher risk in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status was attenuated, but remained significant (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.23). Conclusions In a nationwide study of individuals between 40 and 50 years, we found that the risk of ischemic stroke differed depending on neighborhood socioeconomic status, which calls for increased efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  14. Vitamin A status of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienboon, Prasong; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the most common cause of childhood blindness in the developing world. It is estimated that by giving adequate vitamin A, in vitamin A deficient populations, child mortality from measles can be reduced by 50%, and mortality from diarrheal disease by 40%. Overall mortality in children 6-59 months of age can be reduced by 23%. This paper reported results from a study of vitamin A status and malnutrition of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in the north of Thailand. All children aged 1-6 years (N = 158; 83 boys, 75 girls) from the three Karen villages (Mae Hae Tai, Mae Yot, Mae Raek) of Mae Chaem district in the north of Thailand were studied. The Karen is the largest mountain ethnic minority ("hill tribe") group in Thailand. All children were examined by a qualified medical doctor and were assessed for their vitamin A intakes using 24 hours dietary recall. Thai food composition table from Ministry of Health, Thailand were used as references. The results were compared with the Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances. Children aged 1-3 years and 4-6 years were separately analysed due to the differences in Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances between the two age groups. A whole blood of 300 microL was obtained by "fingerstick" for determination of serum vitamin A. Community or village's vitamin A status was assessed by using Simplified Dietary Assessment (SDA) method and Helen Keller International (HKI) food frequency method. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. All families of the study boys and girls had income lower than the Thailand poverty line (US $ 1,000/year). On average, 63% of children from Mae Hae Tai village, 1.5% of children from Mae Yot village and none of children from Mae Raek village had serum vitamin AKaren children in Mae Chaem district, recommendations were made as follow: (1) increased use of fat and oil, particularly in areas with high risk of VAD; (2) more general work

  15. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight opportunities to increase younger teens exposure to interventions that delay

  16. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Fernandes, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance), handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively) and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active ( p  activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  17. Are trajectories of self-regulation abilities from ages 2-3 to 6-7 associated with academic achievement in the early school years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A C P; Chittleborough, C R; Mittinty, M N; Miller-Lewis, L R; Sawyer, M G; Sullivan, T; Lynch, J W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between two key aspects of self-regulation, 'task attentiveness' and 'emotional regulation' assessed from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years, and academic achievement when children were aged 6-7 years. Participants (n = 3410) were children in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents rated children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation abilities when children were aged 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7. Academic achievement was assessed using the Academic Rating Scale completed by teachers. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between developmental trajectories (i.e. rate of change per year) of task attentiveness and emotional regulation, and academic achievement at 6-7 years. Improvements in task attentiveness between 2-3 and 6-7 years, adjusted for baseline levels of task attentiveness, child and family confounders, and children's receptive vocabulary and non-verbal reasoning skills at age 6-7 were associated with greater teacher-rated literacy [B = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.06] and maths achievement (B = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.03-0.06) at 6-7 years. Improvements in emotional regulation, adjusting for baseline levels and covariates, were also associated with better teacher-rated literacy (B = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) but not with maths achievement (B = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.01-0.02) at 6-7 years. For literacy, improvements in task attentiveness had a stronger association with achievement at 6-7 years than improvements in emotional regulation. Our study shows that improved trajectories of task attentiveness from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years are associated with improved literacy and maths achievement during the early school years. Trajectories of improving emotional regulation showed smaller effects on academic outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that improve task attentiveness when children are aged 2-3 to 6-7 years have the potential to improve literacy and maths achievement during

  18. Balance, Proprioception, and Gross Motor Development of Chinese Children Aged 3 to 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gui-Ping; Jiao, Xi-Bian; Wu, Sheng-Kou; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Tong; Chen, Xi; Wang, Hui-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to find the features of balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children 3-6 years old and their correlations, provide theoretical support for promoting children's motor development, and enrich the world theoretical system of motor development. This study used a Tekscan foot pressure measurement instrument (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA), walking on a balance beam, Xsens 3-dimensional positional measuring system (Xsens Technologies, Enschede, the Netherlands), and Test of Gross Motor Development-2 to assess static balance, dynamic balance, knee proprioception, and levels of gross motor development (GMD) of 3- to 6-year-old children (n = 60) in Beijing. The results are as follows: children had significant age differences in static balance, dynamic balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children had significant gender differences in static balance, proprioception, and levels of GMD; children's static balance, dynamic balance, and proprioception had a very significant positive correlation with GMD (p < .01), but no significant correlation with body mass index.

  19. Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Kenneth; Lyngsø, Kristina S

    2018-01-01

    Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function...... was determined in mesenteric arteries (perfusion) and aortae (isometric contraction) of young and old wild-type (WT), Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 knockout mice. NO production was measured by fluorescence imaging in mesenteric arteries. With age, endothelium-dependent subsequent dilatation (following depolarization...... significantly reduced in mesenteric arteries of old compared to young WT mice. In Cav3.1(-/-) and Cav3.2(-/-) preparations, NO levels increased significantly with age. Relaxations to acetylcholine were significantly smaller in the aortae of old compared to young WT mice, while such responses were comparable...

  20. Dental Provider Attitudes Are a Barrier to Expanded Oral Health Care for Children ≤3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clark MPH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children.

  1. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardi......A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation...... and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity......-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations...

  2. [Estimated glucose disposal rate in patients under 18 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, Enrique; Ballester Herrera, M José; Giralt Muiña, Patricio; Ruiz Cano, Rafael; León Martín, Alberto; Giralt Muiña, Juan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), insulin dose, and lipoprotein profile in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and overweight or obesity as compared to children with T1DM and normal weight. A total of 115 patients (aged 5-16 years) with T1DM on intensive insulin therapy were recruited. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, insulin dose, eGDR, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profile. Results were stratified by sex and age. No significant differences were found in eGDR between children with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. However, obese children older than 11 years had lower eGDR values (9.3±1.3 vs 10.1±0.8 mg kg(-1)min(-1); p<0.01). Insulin dose was higher in overweight and obese children, especially in IU/m2/day (37.7 vs 36.1 vs. 29.4 respectively; p<0.01). Obese children had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than children with overweight and normal weight (106.5 vs 91.7 vs 91.5mg/dL respectively; p<0.01). No correlation was found between waist circumference and the different markers of insulin resistance. Values of eGDR values were lower in obese children with T1DM older than 11 years, and this may therefore be considered a marker of insulin resistance. Insulin dose was higher in diabetic patients with overweight or obesity, specially in IU/m2/day. Obese children with T1DM had a lipoprotein profile of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-11-01

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. In children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), motor function improved between 3 months and 24 months. Improvements in cognitive function were variable between 3 months and 24 months. Working memory centiles declined, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Processing speed improved but remained significantly below the 50th centile. Cognitive impact of ICH may increase with age in children. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  5. Change in HbA1c levels between the age of 8 years and the age of 12 years in Dutch children without diabetes : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; De Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the

  6. Change in HbA1c levels between the age of 8 years and the age of 12 years in Dutch children without diabetes : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H; Scholtens, Salome|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834548; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; de Jongste, Johan C; Smit, Henriëtte A; Stolk, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the

  7. Change in HbA1c Levels between the Age of 8 Years and the Age of 12 Years in Dutch Children without Diabetes : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Hanneke; Wijga, Alet H.; Scholtens, Salome; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular risk in persons without diabetes and cardiovascular risk accumulates over the life course. Therefore, insight in factors determining HbA1c from childhood onwards is important. We investigated (lifestyle) determinants of HbA1c at age 12 years and the

  8. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  9. Association between Cognition and Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Middle-Aged & Older Men: An 8 Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Tumati

    Full Text Available Low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, an essential neurotrophic factor, have been associated with worse cognitive function in older adults. However, few studies have assessed the prospective association of serum IGF-1 with cognitive function. We aimed to determine the association between serum IGF-1 on concurrent and prospective cognitive function in a population sample of men aged 40-80 years. Blood samples were assessed for IGF-1 levels at baseline and neuropsychological assessments were performed at baseline (n = 400 and at follow-up after a mean duration of 8.3 years (n = 286. Linear regression analyses were carried out to determine the associations between quintiles of IGF-1 and cognitive function at the baseline and follow-up visits. Results showed that those in the top quintile of IGF-1 had lower processing capacity and global cognition scores at follow-up after controlling for cognitive function at baseline and other confounding factors. Additional analyses exploring associations with IGF-1 separately in middle-aged and older participants, and with quartiles of IGF-1 produced similar results. In those older than 60 years, high IGF-1 levels were also associated with lower baseline processing capacity. These results suggest that high IGF-1 levels are associated with worse long-term cognition in men. Together with past studies, we suggest that both, high and low levels of IGF-1 may be associated with poor cognitive function and that optimum levels of IGF-1 (quintile 2 and 3 in current study may be associated with better cognitive function.

  10. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  11. Mediterranean diet and 3-year Alzheimer brain biomarker changes in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Valentina; Walters, Michelle; Sterling, Joanna; Quinn, Crystal G; Logue, Michelle; Andrews, Randolph; Matthews, Dawn C; Osorio, Ricardo S; Pupi, Alberto; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Isaacson, Richard S; de Leon, Mony J; Mosconi, Lisa

    2018-04-13

    To examine in a 3-year brain imaging study the effects of higher vs lower adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (MeDi) on Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker changes (brain β-amyloid load via 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] PET and neurodegeneration via 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET and structural MRI) in midlife. Seventy 30- to 60-year-old cognitively normal participants with clinical, neuropsychological, and dietary examinations and imaging biomarkers at least 2 years apart were examined. These included 34 participants with higher (MeDi+) and 36 with lower (MeDi-) MeDi adherence. Statistical parametric mapping and volumes of interest were used to compare AD biomarkers between groups at cross section and longitudinally. MeDi groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. At baseline, compared to the MeDi+ group, the MeDi- group showed reduced FDG-PET glucose metabolism (CMRglc) and higher PiB-PET deposition in AD-affected regions ( p brain aging and AD. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Flexibility of interval between vaccinations with AS03A-adjuvanted influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in adults aged 18–60 and >60 years: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duval Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexibility of vaccination schedule and lower antigen content can facilitate pandemic vaccine coverage. We assessed the immune response and safety of AS03-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine containing half of the registered adult haemagglutinin (HA antigen content, administered as a two-dose schedule at intervals of 21 days or 6 months in both young and elderly adults. Methods In this open-label randomized trial, healthy adults aged 18–60 years (N = 163 and >60 years (N = 143 received AS03A-adjuvanted A/California/7/2009 H1N1 vaccine containing 1.9 μg HA on Day 0. A second dose was given on Day 21 (n = 177 or Day 182 (n = 106. Haemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibody responses were analyzed on Days 0, 21, 42, 182, 364 and additionally on Day 203 for subjects vaccinated on Day 182. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Results The HI antibody response in both age strata 21 days after the first dose met and exceeded all regulatory acceptance criteria although the results suggested a lower response in the older age stratum (geometric mean titres [GMTs] for HI antibodies of 420.5 for subjects aged 18–60 years and 174.4 for those >60 years. A second dose of AS03A adjuvanted A/H1N1/2009 vaccine induced a further increase in antibody titres and the response was similar whether the second dose was administered at 21 days (GMTs of 771.8 for 18–60 years and 400.9 for >60 years or 6 months (GMTs of 708.3 for 18–60 years and 512.1 for >60 years following the first dose. Seroprotection rates remained high at 6 months after one dose or two doses while at 12 months rates tended to be higher for the 6 month interval schedule (93.3% for 18–60 years and 80.4% for >60 years than the 21 day schedule (82.3% for 18–60 years and 50.0% for >60 years. Reactogenicity/safety profiles were similar for both schedules, there was no evidence of an

  13. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up

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    Maria Teresa Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance, handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active (p < 0.05. Greater importance should be given to prescription of exercise targeting older adults and, specifically, walking and manual activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  14. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  15. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5 years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5 years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5 years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  16. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  17. The Relationship between Number of Fruits, Vegetables, and Noncore Foods Tried at Age 14 Months and Food Preferences, Dietary Intake Patterns, Fussy Eating Behavior, and Weight Status at Age 3.7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Fildes, Alison; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether exposure to a greater number of fruits, vegetables, and noncore foods (ie, nutrient poor and high in saturated fats, added sugars, or added salt) at age 14 months was related to children's preference for and intake of these foods as well as maternal-reported food fussiness and measured child weight status at age 3.7 years. This study reports secondary analyses of longitudinal data from mothers and children (n=340) participating in the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. Exposure was quantified as the number of food items (n=55) tried by a child from specified lists at age 14 months. At age 3.7 years, food preferences, intake patterns, and fussiness (also at age 14 months) were assessed using maternal-completed, established questionnaires. Child weight and length/height were measured by study staff at both age points. Multivariable linear regression models were tested to predict food preferences, intake patterns, fussy eating, and body mass index z score at age 3.7 years adjusting for a range of maternal and child covariates. Having tried a greater number of vegetables, fruits, and noncore foods at age 14 months predicted corresponding preferences and higher intakes at age 3.7 years but did not predict child body mass index z score. Adjusting for fussiness at age 14 months, having tried more vegetables at age 14 months was associated with lower fussiness at age 3.7 years. These prospective analyses support the hypothesis that early taste and texture experiences influence subsequent food preferences and acceptance. These findings indicate introduction to a variety of fruits and vegetables and limited noncore food exposure from an early age are important strategies to improve later diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

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    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  19. Acceleration of Age-Associated Methylation Patterns in HIV-1-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, pmodules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage= 0.007088, p=2.08 x 10-9; βHIV= 0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage= 0.008762, p=1.27x 10-5; βHIV= 0.128649, p= 0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10-6, odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are similar to age-associated patterns and suggest that general aging and HIV-1 related aging work through some common cellular

  20. A randomized trial comparing part-time patching with observation for children 3 to 10 years of age with intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Susan A; Mohney, Brian G; Chandler, Danielle L; Holmes, Jonathan M; Repka, Michael X; Melia, Michele; Wallace, David K; Beck, Roy W; Birch, Eileen E; Kraker, Raymond T; Tamkins, Susanna M; Miller, Aaron M; Sala, Nicholas A; Glaser, Stephen R

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of prescribed part-time patching for treatment of intermittent exotropia (IXT) in children. Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Three hundred fifty-eight children 3 to part-time patching group (difference, 5.4%; lower limit of 1-sided exact 95% confidence interval, 2.0%; P = 0.004, 1-sided hypothesis test). Deterioration of previously untreated childhood IXT over a 6-month period is uncommon with or without patching treatment. Although there is a slightly lower deterioration rate with patching, both management approaches are reasonable for treating children 3 to 10 years of age with IXT. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  2. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

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    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  3. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mary E; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A

    Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers' involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000-2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (pinvolvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes.

  4. Influence of behaviour and risk factors on motor performance in preterm infants at age 2 to 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of test-taking behaviour and risk factors for delayed motor performance in 437 preterm infants (244 males, 193 females; < or = 32 weeks of gestation) at the corrected age of 2 to 3 years (mean 29mo [SD 3.3]). Other mean (SD) sample

  5. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among rural, urban, and tribal children (1–10 Years of Age

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    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have largely focused on children in specific settings. The current scenario of research in ASDs is limited largely to clinic-based case reports, case series, and retrospective chart reviews. The present study is the first population-based prevalence study conducted across rural, urban, and tribal populations in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional two-phase study was conducted covering children in the age group of 1–10 years of age across geographical regions representing rural, urban, and tribal populations. The first phase (screening phase involved administration of the Hindi version of the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism. Those identified as suspected of ASD and 10% of all classified as nonsuspects for autism were also evaluated by the clinical team in second phase (evaluation phase. Results: Forty-three children out of a total of 28,070 children in rural, urban, and tribal area in the age group of 1–10 years were diagnosed as cases of ASD yielding a prevalence of 0.15% (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.15–0.25. Logistic regression analysis showed a two times significantly higher risk of diagnosing ASD in rural area as compared to tribal (odds ratio [OR]; 95% CI = 2.17 [1.04–4.52], P = 0.04. Male sex and upper socioeconomic group of head of family/father had a higher risk of getting diagnosed as autism as compared to lower socioeconomic group (OR; 95% CI - 3.23; 0.24–44.28, P = 0.38. Conclusions: Estimation of true prevalence of ASD in India is going to improve policies on developmental disabilities.

  6. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  7. Trends and patterns of sexual behaviors among adolescents and adults aged 14 to 59 years, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui; Hariri, Susan; Bradley, Heather; Gottlieb, Sami L; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of sexual behaviors is essential to better understand the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is an ongoing probability sample survey of the US population. Using NHANES sexual behavior data from 1999 to 2012, we performed the following: (1) trend analyses among adults aged 25 to 59 years by 10-year birth cohorts and (2) descriptive analyses among participants aged 14 to 24 years. Sex was defined as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Among adults aged 25 to 59 years, median age at sexual initiation decreased between the 1940-1949 and 1980-1989 cohorts from 17.9 to 16.2 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 17.1 to 16.1 among males (P trend < 0.001). Median lifetime partners increased between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts, from 2.6 to 5.3 among females (P trend < 0.001) and from 6.7 to 8.8 among males (P trend < 0.001). The percentage of females reporting ever having a same-sex partner increased from 5.2% to 9.3% between the 1940-1949 and 1970-1979 cohorts (P trend < 0.001). Among participants aged 14 to 24 years, the percentage having had sex increased with age, from 12.5% among females and 13.1% among males at age 14 years to more than 75% at age 19 years for both sexes. Among sexually experienced 14- to 19-year-olds, 45.2% of females and 55.0% of males had at least 3 lifetime partners; 39.4% of females and 48.6% of males had at least 2 partners in the past year. The proportion of females aged 20 to 24 years who reported ever having a same-sex partner was 14.9%. The proportion of participants aged 14-19 or 20-24 years reporting ever having sex did not differ by survey year from 1999 to 2012 for either males or females. Sexual behaviors changed with successive birth cohorts, with more pronounced changes among females. A substantial proportion of adolescents are sexually active and have multiple partners. These data reinforce existing recommendations for sexual

  8. Bilateral visual outcomes and service utilization of patients treated for 3 years with ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

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    Chavan R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Randhir Chavan,1,* Swati Panneerselvam,1,* Parul Adhana,1 Nirodhini Narendran,1 Yit Yang1,2 1Eye Infirmary, New Cross Hospital, Royal Wolverhampton Hospitals NHS Trust Wolverhampton, West Midlands, UK; 2Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK *These authors contributed equally to this paper Background: The aim of this study was to describe bilateral visual outcomes and the effect of incomplete follow-up after 3 years of ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Secondarily, the demands on service provision over a 3-year period were described. Methods: Data on visual acuity, hospital visits, and injections were collected over 36 months on consecutive patients commencing treatment over a 9-month period. Visual outcome was determined for 1 all patients, using last observation carried forward for missed visits due to early discontinuation and 2 only those patients completing full 36-month follow-up. Results: Over 3 years, 120 patients cumulatively attended hospital for 1,823 noninjection visits and 1,365 injection visits. A visual acuity loss of <15 letters (L was experienced by 78.2% of patients. For all patients (n=120, there was a mean loss of 1.68 L using last observation carried forward for missing values. Excluding five patients who died and 30 who discontinued follow-up, mean gain was 1.47 L. In bilateral cases, final acuity was on average 9 L better in second eyes compared to first eyes. Also, 91% of better-seeing eyes continued to be the better-seeing eye. Conclusion: We have demonstrated our approach to describing the long-term service provision and visual outcomes of ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a consecutive cohort of patients. Although there was a heavy burden with very frequent injections and clinic visits, patients can expect a good level of visual stability and a very high chance of maintaining their better

  9. Psychosocial family factors and glycemic control among children aged 1-15 years with type 1 diabetes: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugstvedt Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being the parents of children with diabetes is demanding. Jay Belsky's determinants of parenting model emphasizes both the personal psychological resources, the characteristics of the child and contextual sources such as parents' work, marital relations and social network support as important determinants for parenting. To better understand the factors influencing parental functioning among parents of children with type 1 diabetes, we aimed to investigate associations between the children's glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and 1 variables related to the parents' psychological and contextual resources, and 2 frequency of blood glucose measurement as a marker for diabetes-related parenting behavior. Methods Mothers (n = 103 and fathers (n = 97 of 115 children younger than 16 years old participated in a population-based survey. The questionnaire comprised the Life Orientation Test, the Oslo 3-item Social Support Scale, a single question regarding perceived social limitation because of the child's diabetes, the Relationship Satisfaction Scale and demographic and clinical variables. We investigated associations by using regression analysis. Related to the second aim hypoglycemic events, child age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen and comorbid diseases were included as covariates. Results The mean HbA1c was 8.1%, and 29% had HbA1c ≤ 7.5%. In multiple regression analysis, lower HbA1c was associated with higher education and stronger perceptions of social limitation among the mothers. A higher frequency of blood glucose measurement was significantly associated with lower HbA1c in bivariate analysis. Higher child age was significantly associated with higher HbA1c both in bivariate and multivariate analysis. A scatterplot indicated this association to be linear. Conclusions Most families do not reach recommended treatment goals for their child with type 1 diabetes. Concerning contextual sources of stress and support, the families who

  10. Co-occurring motor, language and emotional-behavioral problems in children 3-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Dowling, Sara; Missiuna, Cheryl; Rodriguez, M Christine; Greenway, Matt; Cairney, John

    2015-02-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has been shown to co-occur with behavioral and language problems in school-aged children, but little is known as to when these problems begin to emerge, or if they are inherent in children with DCD. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficits in language and emotional-behavioral problems are apparent in preschool-aged children with movement difficulties. Two hundred and fourteen children (mean age 4years 11months, SD 9.8months, 103 male) performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (MABC-2). Children falling at or below the 16th percentile were classified as being at risk for movement difficulties (MD risk). Auditory comprehension and expressive communication were examined using the Preschool Language Scales 4th Edition (PLS-4). Parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Preschool children with diminished motor coordination (n=37) were found to have lower language scores, higher externalizing behaviors in the form of increased aggression, as well as increased withdrawn and other behavior symptoms compared with their typically developing peers. Motor coordination, language and emotional-behavioral difficulties tend to co-occur in young children aged 3-6years. These results highlight the need for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Five-year biochemical outcome following permanent interstitial brachytherapy for clinical T1-T3 prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Lief, Jonathan H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 5-year biochemical disease-free outcome for men with clinical T1b-T3a NxM0 1977 American Joint Committee on Cancer (1997 AJCC) adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland who underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided permanent prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Four hundred twenty-five patients underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy using either 103 Pd or 125 I, for clinical T1b-T3a NxM0 (1997 AJCC) adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland, from April 1995 to October 1999. No patient underwent pathologic lymph-node staging. One hundred ninety patients were implanted with either 103 Pd or 125 I monotherapy; 235 patients received moderate-dose external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), followed by a prostate brachytherapy boost; 163 patients received neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation, in conjunction with either 103 Pd or 125 I monotherapy (77 patients) or in conjunction with moderate-dose EBRT and a prostate brachytherapy boost (86 patients). The median patient age was 68.0 years (range, 48.2-81.3 years). The median follow-up was 31 months (range, 11-69 months). Follow-up was calculated from the day of implantation. No patient was lost to follow-up. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined by the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus definition. Results: For the entire cohort, the 5-year actuarial biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) survival rate was 94%. For patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease, the 5-year biochemical disease-free rates were 97.1%, 97.5%, and 84.4%, respectively. For hormone-naive patients, 95.7%, 96.4%, and 79.9% of patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease were free of biochemical failure. Clinical and treatment parameters predictive of biochemical outcome included: clinical stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, risk group, age > 65 years, and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. Isotope choice was

  12. Effect of age on immunological response in the first year of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestre, Eric; Eholié, Serge P; Lokossue, Amani; Sow, Papa Salif; Charurat, Man; Minga, Albert; Drabo, Joseph; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2012-05-15

    To assess the effect of aging on the immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the West African context. The change in CD4 T-cell count was analysed according to age at the time of ART initiation among HIV-infected patients enrolled in the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration in the West African region. CD4 gain over 12 months of ART was estimated using linear mixed models. Models were adjusted for baseline CD4 cell count, sex, baseline clinical stage, calendar period and ART regimen. The total number of patients included was 24,107, contributing for 50,893 measures of CD4 cell count in the first year of ART. The baseline median CD4 cell count was 144 cells/μl [interquartile range (IQR) 61-235]; median CD4 cell count reached 310 cells/μl (IQR 204-443) after 1 year of ART. The median age at treatment initiation was 36.3 years (10th-90th percentiles = 26.5-50.1). In adjusted analysis, the mean CD4 gain was significantly higher in younger patients (P immunological response after 12 months of ART was significantly poorer in elderly patients. As the population of treated patients is likely to get older, the impact of this age effect on immunological response to ART may increase over time.

  13. Optics workshops designed to preschool children (age 3 to 6 years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Charvel; Solano, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Since 2005, it was decided in Mexico that children have to start their formal education at the age of 3 years, two years earlier that in many other countries. This change was done to increase activities that enhance the social interaction and stimulus (knowledge and skills) of the students to prepare them to the next academic level. The main drawback of the developed curriculum for the younger children is that it does not include enough scientific activities. The work presented here is the answer of a particular initiative of some teachers to implement scientific workshops in optics. We have found that preschoolers are attracted to scientific activities if the material is presented in the right way. While design any scientific activity it is important to remember that young children want to know about their world without changing it, they have to experience the principle without memorizing, therefore the language used to describe concepts, ideas or terms has to be carefully chosen to avoid confuse preschoolers that can lose track of the activity. The scientific information has to be very clear and limited to a single physical principle and the concepts have to be presented in a way to include games as a learning activity that allow them to experience with the results.

  14. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    ) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive......The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...

  15. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS......) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive...

  16. Residual β-Cell Function 3 to 6 Years After Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Sand; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo determine the prevalence of residual -cell function (RBF) in children after 3-6 years of type 1 diabetes, and to examine the association between RBF and incidence of severe hypoglycemia, glycemic control, and insulin requirements.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 342 children (173....../mol]; P 0.2 nmol/L (mean +/- SE: 1.07 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.93 +/- 0.07 units/kg/day; P children after 3-6 years of type 1 diabetes. Children with RBF...... boys) 4.8-18.9 years of age with type 1 diabetes for 3-6 years were included. RBF was assessed by testing meal-stimulated C-peptide concentrations. Information regarding severe hypoglycemia within the past year, current HbA(1c), and daily insulin requirements was retrieved from the medical records...

  17. Asthma Mortality Among Persons Aged 15-64 Years, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 1999-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Opal; Syamlal, Girija; Wood, John; Dodd, Katelynn E; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2018-01-19

    In 2015, an estimated 18.4 million U.S. adults had current asthma, and 3,396 adult asthma deaths were reported (1). An estimated 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be attributable to occupational exposures (2). To describe asthma mortality among persons aged 15-64 years,* CDC analyzed multiple cause-of-death data † for 1999-2016 and industry and occupation information collected from 26 states § for the years 1999, 2003, 2004, and 2007-2012. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) ¶ for asthma among persons aged 15-64 years were calculated. During 1999-2016, a total of 14,296 (42.9%) asthma deaths occurred among males and 19,011 (57.1%) occurred among females. Based on an estimate that 11%-21% of asthma deaths might be related to occupational exposures, during this 18-year period, 1,573-3,002 asthma deaths in males and 2,091-3,992 deaths in females might have resulted from occupational exposures. Some of these deaths might have been averted by instituting measures to prevent potential workplace exposures. The annual age-adjusted asthma death rate** per 1 million persons aged 15-64 years declined from 13.59 in 1999 to 9.34 in 2016 (pindustries and occupations underscores the importance of optimal asthma management and identification and prevention of potential workplace exposures.

  18. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  19. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M Rickabaugh

    Full Text Available Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of young (20-35 and older (36-56 adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200 and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3 was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70 and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31. Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015. In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9; βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5; βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001. Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6, odds ratio=1.91. These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that

  20. Alteration of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years of age until nonagenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lebriz Altay,1 Cheryl Jahn,1 Mücella Arikan Yorgun,1 Albert Caramoy,1 Tina Schick,1 Carel B Hoyng,2 Anneke I den Hollander,2 Sascha Fauser1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: To assess alterations of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years old. Methods: Retinal layers of 160 healthy subjects (aged 60–100 years without any retinal pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer, photoreceptor complex (PR and retinal thickness (RT were measured in a 3.45 mm grid. Correlations between age and layers were estimated and linear regression equations were calculated. Different age-groups (60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years and nonagenarians, each group with 40 participants were compared. Results: Significant age-thickness correlations were observed for GCLIPL (P<0.001, r=-0.394, PR (P<0.001, r=-0.370 and RT (P<0.001, r=-0.290. A comparison between age groups 60–69 years and nonagenarians showed no significant thickness alteration of retinal nerve fiber layer (21.80±2.18 µm vs 22.82±2.97 µm, P=0.163, inner nuclear layer (37.23±3.02 µm vs 36.01±3.24 µm, P=0.07 and outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer (104.95±6.56 µm vs 104.23±7.59 µm, P=0.567, while GCLIPL (83.35±7.35 µm vs 74.38±9.09 µm, PR (83.03±3.31 µm vs 79.34±2.09 µm and RT (330.64±12.63 µm vs 316.83±18.35 µm showed a significant decrease (P<0.001 for all. Conclusion: Our study provides normative data of alterations of retinal layers for persons aged 60 years to nonagenarians and indicates a continuous decrease of RT, PR, and GCLIPL. This data may be useful for clinical trials investigating macular diseases in older patients

  1. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Liu, Shih-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    Cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children aged younger than 6 years in Taiwan has increased in the past 10 years. This retrospective study aimed to review the management experience of such patients in a single center. From January 2004 to June 2015, 52 newly diagnosed diabetic children younger than 6 years who had regular follow-up for > 1 year were enrolled, as well as 94 older diabetic children for comparison. Their medical records were thoroughly reviewed. The most common symptoms and signs were polyuria, polydipsia, dry lips, weight loss, and nocturia. Among the children younger than 6 years, 87% had ketoacidosis upon diagnosis-significantly higher than that of the older age group-and 88% had at least one islet cell autoantibody detected. Their serum C-peptide levels were significantly lower and the frequency of insulin autoantibodies detected was significantly higher compared with the older age group (37% vs. 10%). The remission rate of the young diabetic patients was significantly lower than that of the older age group (40% vs. 59%), but there was no difference in time of onset and duration of remission between the two groups. Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is an important cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years. These patients usually have a low insulin reserve and severe ketoacidosis upon diagnosis. A high index of suspicion in the presence of classic symptoms of diabetes in young children is important to prevent complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Quantifying cortical development in typically developing toddlers and young children, 1-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Justin; Croteau-Chonka, Elise; Dean, Douglas C; D'Arpino, Sara; Dirks, Holly; Whiley, Dannielle; Deoni, Sean C L

    2017-06-01

    Cortical maturation, including age-related changes in thickness, volume, surface area, and folding (gyrification), play a central role in developing brain function and plasticity. Further, abnormal cortical maturation is a suspected substrate in various behavioral, intellectual, and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to characterize the altered development associated with these disorders, appreciation of the normative patterns of cortical development in neurotypical children between 1 and 6 years of age, a period of peak brain development during which many behavioral and developmental disorders emerge, is necessary. To this end, we examined measures of cortical thickness, surface area, mean curvature, and gray matter volume across 34 bilateral regions in a cohort of 140 healthy children devoid of major risk factors for abnormal development. From these data, we observed linear, logarithmic, and quadratic patterns of change with age depending on brain region. Cortical thinning, ranging from 10% to 20%, was observed throughout most of the brain, with the exception of posterior brain structures, which showed initial cortical thinning from 1 to 5 years, followed by thickening. Cortical surface area expansion ranged from 20% to 108%, and cortical curvature varied by 1-20% across the investigated age range. Right-left hemisphere asymmetry was observed across development for each of the 4 cortical measures. Our results present new insight into the normative patterns of cortical development across an important but under studied developmental window, and provide a valuable reference to which trajectories observed in neurodevelopmental disorders may be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive Oct -3/4 and D2-40 Immunohistochemical Expression in Germ Cells and Suspected Histology Pattern of Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Boys with Cryptorchidism Vanish after the Age of 2 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    of repeat biopsy with anti-stem cell factor (SCF) receptor.  Results  The prevalence of Oct-3/4 and D2-40-positive staining of germ cells in testicular biopsies were in age groups less than 6 months, 100% and 50%; 6-12 months, 60% and 17%; and 1-2 years, 12% and 4%. A 1year, 1-month-old boy with Prader-Willi...... syndrome treated with growth hormone had ITGCN in both cryptorchid testes. In another three bilateral nonsyndromic cases, 8 months, 8 months and 1-year-old, a histological pattern in accordance with ITGCN was found. These three boys had a repeat biopsy from both testes performed at the age of 3 years, 4......, but no increased risk of malignancy.  Materials and Methods  Histology sections from 373 testicular biopsies from 289 boys aged 1 month to 2 years operated for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like-alkaline phosphatase, antiOct-3/4, anti-C-kit, anti-D2-40, and in case...

  4. The panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. V. Ages and masses of the year 1 stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouesneau, Morgan; Johnson, L. Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Søren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2014-01-01

    We present ages and masses for 601 star clusters in M31 from the analysis of the six filter integrated light measurements from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, made as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT). We derive the ages and masses using a probabilistic technique, which accounts for the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function. Tests on synthetic data show that this method, in conjunction with the exquisite sensitivity of the PHAT observations and their broad wavelength baseline, provides robust age and mass recovery for clusters ranging from ∼10 2 to 2 × 10 6 M ☉ . We find that the cluster age distribution is consistent with being uniform over the past 100 Myr, which suggests a weak effect of cluster disruption within M31. The age distribution of older (>100 Myr) clusters falls toward old ages, consistent with a power-law decline of index –1, likely from a combination of fading and disruption of the clusters. We find that the mass distribution of the whole sample can be well described by a single power law with a spectral index of –1.9 ± 0.1 over the range of 10 3 -3 × 10 5 M ☉ . However, if we subdivide the sample by galactocentric radius, we find that the age distributions remain unchanged. However, the mass spectral index varies significantly, showing best-fit values between –2.2 and –1.8, with the shallower slope in the highest star formation intensity regions. We explore the robustness of our study to potential systematics and conclude that the cluster mass function may vary with respect to environment.

  5. Low-dose fractionated percutaneous teletherapy in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveolar neovascularization - 3 year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittkowski, M.; Schneider, H.; Guthoff, R.; Grueschow, K.; Ziegler, P.G.; Fietkau, R.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of low dose fractionated percutaneous teletherapy to visual acuity and the changes in subfoveolar neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration were investigated. Patients and Method: 126 eyes of 118 patients (age 55-89 years; mean 74 ys.) were treated. Best distal and near visual acuity was assessed prior to (= initial visual acuity [IVA]) and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after teletherapy. Fluorescein angiography was performed prior to and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after radiation therapy. For analysis patients were divided into different groups by IVA and membrane size. Maximal duration of observation was 36 months. Teletherapy was done by a 9-MeV photon linear accelerator through a lateral port in half-beam technique with a single dose of 2 Gy up to a total dose of 20 Gy within 12 days. Results: No severe negative side effects have been observed. Eight patients reported of epiphora and four patients complained of transient sicca syndrome. Visual acuity decreased more than one line in the group IVA 0.05-0.2. The group IVA 0.3-0.5 remained unchanged for 1 year. We found a tendency for increased visual acuity in group IVA ≥ 0.6 for 18 months. After that time both groups showed decreased visual acuity, but all these patients reported of reduced metamorphopsia and increased color and contrast perception. Conclusions: There is an influence of low dose fractionated percutaneous teletherapy on visual acuity, subfoveal neovascular membranes and metamorphopsia. IVA and duration of anamnesis play an important role. There seems to be no persistent effect; possibly increased dosage will bring a benefit. (orig.) [de

  6. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, M; Peyron, F; Cornu, C; Vinault, S; Abrahamowicz, M; Kopp, C Bonithon; Binquet, C

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy exposes the fetus to risks of congenital infection and sequelae that depend heavily on gestational age (GA) at time of infection. Accurate risk estimates by GA are necessary to counsel parents and improve clinical decisions. We analyzed data from pregnant women diagnosed with acute Toxoplasma infection in Lyon (France) from 1987 to 2008 and assessed how the risks of congenital toxoplasmosis and of clinical signs at age 3 years vary depending on GA at the time of maternal infection. Among 2048 mother-infant pairs, 93.2% of mothers received prenatal treatment and 513 (24.7%) fetuses were infected. Because of a significant reduction in risk since 1992 when monthly screening was introduced (59.4% vs 46.6% at 26 GA weeks; P = .038), probabilities of infection were estimated on the basis of maternal infections diagnosed after mid-1992 (n = 1624). Probabilities of congenital infection were <10% for maternal infections before 12 weeks of gestation, rose to 20.0% at 19 weeks, and then continued increasing to 52.3% and almost 70% at 28 and 39 GA weeks, respectively. Because of a significant reduction in risk of clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis in infected children born from mothers diagnosed after 1995 when polymerase chain reaction testing on amniotic fluid was initiated (87/794 vs 46/1150; P = .012), probabilities of clinical signs at 3 years were estimated based on 1015 maternal infections diagnosed after 1995 including 207 infected children, with symptoms in 46 (22.2%). These analyses demonstrated that introduction of monthly prenatal screening and improvement in antenatal diagnosis were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of congenital infection and a better outcome at 3 years of age in infected children. Our updated estimates will improve individual management and counseling in areas where genotype II Toxoplasma is predominant.

  8. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in children from three to seventeen years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans C; Abarca, Katia; Rivera, Luis; Lattanzi, Maria; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani; Kieninger-Baum, Dorothee; Della Cioppa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the optimal dose of an MF59-adjuvanted, monovalent, A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy paediatric subjects. Subjects aged 3-8 years (n=194) and 9-17 years (n=160) were randomized to receive two primary doses of A/H1N1 vaccine containing either 3.75 μg antigen with half a standard dose of MF59 adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or (children 3-8 years only), a non-adjuvanted 15 μg formulation. A booster dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine including homologous A/H1N1 strain was given one year after priming. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study (up to 18 months). A single priming dose of either MF59-adjuvanted formulation was sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines (HI titres ≥1:40>70%; seroconversion>40%; and GMR>2.5). Two non-adjuvanted vaccine doses were required to meet the same licensure criteria. After first and second doses, percentage of subjects with HI titres ≥1:40 were between 97% and 100% in the adjuvanted vaccine groups compared with 68% and 91% in the non-adjuvanted group, respectively. Postvaccination seroconversion rates ranged from 91% to 98% in adjuvanted groups and were 68% (first dose) and 98% (second dose) in the non-adjuvanted group. HI titres ≥1:330 after primary doses were achieved in 69% to 90% in adjuvanted groups compared with 41% in the non-adjuvanted group. Long-term antibody persistence after priming and a robust antibody response to booster immunization were observed in all vaccination groups. All A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred, and no subjects were withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine containing 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen was well tolerated and sufficiently immunogenic to meet all the

  10. Language and cognitive outcome for high-risk neonates at the age of 2-3 years - experience from an Arab Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Baz, Hemmat; ElShabrawi, Doaa

    2017-02-08

    To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. The studied children were subjected to a protocol of language assessment that included history taking, clinical and neurological examination, audiological evaluation, assessment of language using modified preschool language scale-4, IQ and mental age assessment and assessment of social age. The studied children had a median gestational age of 37 wk, median birth weight of 2.5 kg. The distribution of the high-risk factors in the affected children were prematurity in 25 children, respiratory distress syndrome in 25 children, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 15 children, hyperbilirubinemia in 10 children, hypoglycemia in 13 children, mixed risk factors in 15 children. The results revealed that high-risk neonatal complications were associated with impairment of different language parameters and cognitive abilities ( P language and cognitive delay significantly by 3.9 fold. Arabic-speaking children aged 2-3 years who were exposed to high-risk conditions in the perinatal period are likely to exhibit delays in the development of language and impairments in cognitive abilities. The most significant risk factor associated with language and cognitive impairments was prematurity.

  11. A 3-year study of atorvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langslet, Gisle; Breazna, Andrei; Drogari, Euridiki

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in children/adolescents aged 10-17 years with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) have been demonstrated in trials of up to 1 year in duration. However, the efficacy/safety of >1 year use of atorvastatin in children/adolescents with HeFH, including children from 6 years of age, has not been assessed. To characterize the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin over 3 years and to assess the impact on growth and development in children aged 6-15 years with HeFH. A total of 272 subjects aged 6-15 years with HeFH and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥4.0 mmol/L (154 mg/dL) were enrolled in a 3-year study (NCT00827606). Subjects were initiated on atorvastatin (5 mg or 10 mg) with doses increased to up to 80 mg based on LDL-C levels. Mean percentage reductions from baseline in LDL-C at 36 months/early termination were 43.8% for subjects at Tanner stage (TS) 1 and 39.9% for TS ≥2. There was no evidence of variations in the lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin between the TS groups analyzed (1 vs ≥2) or in subjects aged Atorvastatin had a favorable safety and tolerability profile, and only 6 (2.2%) subjects discontinued because of adverse events. Atorvastatin over 3 years was efficacious, had no impact on growth/maturation, and was well tolerated in children and adolescents with HeFH aged 6-15 years. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Comparative study on the situation of neglected children aged 3-6 year-olds between urban and rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Pan, Jian-ping; Zhang, Song-jie; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Zi-Ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Cao, Chun-hong; Wang, Fei; Yang, Xiao-mei; Niu, Qian; Shen, Hong

    2012-02-01

    To investigate and analyze the situation of urban and rural neglected children aged 3 - 6, in China, so as to provide basis for the analysis and comparison on relevant risk factors. 1163 urban children aged 3 - 6 (with 49.6% males and 4.5% with minority ethnicity) were investigated from 25 cities of 14 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole country. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Again, using the same sampling method, 4096 rural children (of whom 50.6% were males with 6.2% as minorities) were chosen from 26 cities of 10 provinces or municipalities. Identification of children being neglected was based on "Child Neglect Evaluation Norms of Children Aged 3 - 6 Years in Urban/Rural China". SPSS-Windows 13.0 was employed for data analysis. Scores, frequency/degrees, age, sex and types (physical, emotional, educational, safety, medical and social) of children under negligence on every group of the regions, were calculated. χ(2) test (Chi-Square) and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were processed to determine the significance of their differences. The overall frequencies of negligence were 28.0% and 53.7% respectively among the urban and rural children aged 3 - 6, while the total degrees of negligence were 42.2 and 44.4 respectively. Significant difference was found between children from the urban and the rural areas (P children on every age group (P children, in the urban or rural areas. Significant differences were found on male or female between urban and rural groups (P children aged 3 - 6 for the six types were from 5.1% to 12.9%, with the frequency in rural areas as 13.1% - 26.6%. Significant difference was found between urban and rural group for any other type (P children aged 3 - 6 for the different type were between 39.4 and 43.4, while in the rural areas as from 36.5 to 48.2, with significant difference for every type (P children from the urban than from the rural areas. The highest frequency of child negligence was

  13. Apparent CFC and 3H/ 3He age differences in water from Floridan Aquifer springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, James D.; Opsahl, Stephen; Top, Zafer; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2006-03-01

    The apparent CFC-11, -12 and -113 ages of Upper Floridan Aquifer water discharged from 31 springs located in Florida and Georgia ranged from 11 to 44 years when samples were collected in 2002 and 2003. Apparent 3H/ 3He ages in these springs ranged from 12 to 66 years. Some of the springs sampled did not yield valid CFC ages because one or more of the CFCs were contaminated by non-atmospheric sources. Of the 31 springs sampled, six were contaminated with all three CFCs and nine were contaminated with one or two CFCs. Of the remaining 16 springs, the CFC distributions of four could be modeled assuming a single source of water, and 11 were best modeled by assuming two sources of water, with one of the water sources >60 years old. The CFC and 3H/ 3He apparent ages and the simple mixing models applied to these ages suggest that past impacts to the water quality of water recharging the sampled springs may take anywhere from 0 to ˜60 years or more to appear in the discharging spring water. In 27 springs where both 3H/ 3He ages and CFC ages were available, five springs gave similar results between the two techniques, while in the other 22 cases the 3H/ 3He apparent ages were 8-40 years greater than the CFC ages. Large excesses of 4He were observed in many of the springs, consistent with a source of older water. This older water may also carry an additional and unaccounted for source of 3He, which may be responsible for the greater 3H/ 3He ages relative to the CFC ages. We believe that the large excess 3He and 4He values and apparent age differences are related to regional climate variations because our samples were obtained at the end of a 4-year drought.

  14. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child’s Development: 3 Years Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 3 años Kids this age ... circle dresses and undresses with a little help Social and Emotional Development is toilet trained during the ...

  15. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  16. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S K; Jespersen, Louise Norman; Nissen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study question: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? Summary answer: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...... and external causes. What is known already: Advanced paternal age has previously been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and some long term health problems in the offspring. This is possibly due to specific point mutations, a condition known to increase in the sperm with increasing paternal age....... Study design, size, duration: A Danish population-based register study, designed as a prospective cohort study, of 1 575 521 live born children born from 1978 to 2004. The age of the child (in days) was used as the underlying time and the children entered the cohort the day they were born and were...

  17. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5 years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5 years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 20 Years of Pediatric Benchmarking in Germany and Austria: Age-Dependent Analysis of Longitudinal Follow-Up in 63,967 Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bohn

    Full Text Available To investigate changes in diabetes treatment over the last two decades in three age-groups of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D from Germany and Austria.63,967 subjects (<18yr with T1D documented between 1995 and 2014 from the DPV-database were included and stratified according to age (0.5-<6, 6-<12, 12-<18yr. Regression models were applied for insulin regimens (<3 and ≥4 injection time points/day, or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, use of rapid- and long acting insulin analogues, NPH insulin, and frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG/day. Models were adjusted for sex, diabetes duration, and migration background. P-value for trend was given.The number of subjects with <3 injection time points/day decreased from 1995 to 2014 to <5% in all age-groups (p<0.0001. Proportion of patients with ≥4 injections/day increased until the early 2000s, and then declined until 2014. This trend was not found in 6-<12yr olds (p = 0.3403. CSII increased in all age-groups (p<0.0001 with the highest increase in children <6 years (from 0.4% to 79.2%, and the lowest increase in 12-<18 year olds (from 1.0% to 38.9%. NPH insulin decreased in all age-groups (p<0.0001. Insulin analogues, especially rapid-acting, became more frequent in all age-groups (p<0.0001, accounting for 78.4% in 2014 for all subjects. The highest use was found in the youngest children (in 2014: 85.6%, the lowest use in 6-<12 year olds (in 2014: 72.9%. The number of SMBG/day increased from 2.2 to 6.4 with a similar rise in all age-groups (p<0.0001. Frequency was highest in subjects <6yr.In all age-groups, T1D treatment was intensified over the last 20 years. Age-specific differences in trends were particularly observed in the number of patients on CSII, in the number of patients with 4 or more injections/day, and in the frequency of SMBG/day.

  20. Radium retention in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Bruenger, F.W.; Jones, C.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Retention of 226 Ra was substantially lower in mature beagles injected at 5 years of age compared to corresponding values for 1 1/2-year-old young adult beagles. As with young adults, average retention in mature dogs given about 10 μCi/kg exceeded that of mature dogs given 4 μCi/kg or less. Measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratios in bone were similar in mature and young adults. About 66% of the injected radium was excreted by mature dogs during the first 3 weeks, about 2/3 of the total excretion appearing in the feces. Distribution of 226 Ra within the skeleton was similar in mature and young adult beagles

  1. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  3. Australian children with cleft palate achieve age-appropriate speech by 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Antonia; Parkin, Melissa; Broome, Kate; Purcell, Alison

    2017-12-01

    Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Eligible participants were aged 3 or 5 years with a repaired cleft palate. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) Articulation subtest and a non-standardised list of mono- and polysyllabic words were administered once for each child. The Profile of Phonology (PROPH) was used to analyse each child's speech. N = 51 children with cleft palate participated in the study. Three-year-old children with cleft palate produced significantly more speech errors than their typically-developing peers, but no difference was apparent at 5 years. The 5-year-olds demonstrated greater phonetic and phonological accuracy than the 3-year-old children. Polysyllabic words were more affected by errors than monosyllables in the 3-year-old group only. Children with cleft palate are prone to phonetic and phonological speech errors in their preschool years. Most of these speech errors approximate typically-developing children by 5 years. At 3 years, word shape has an influence upon phonological speech accuracy. Speech pathology intervention is indicated to support the intelligibility of these children from their earliest stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Northeast Arctic cod year class strength (at the age of 3+) with the SST anomalies in main spawning ground (the Norwegian Shelf Waters) by results of analysis satellite monitoring data during last years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George

    2015-04-01

    Continuous long-term database (1998-2014) on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the Norwegian and the Barents seas) is used to resolve several applied problems. Authors have analyzed indirect influence the SST (the NOAA satellite data) on modern cod total stock biomass (abundance of the Northeast Arctic cod at age 3+). In this study, we went on the consideration of the relationship between the SST anomalies for March-April in the main spawning ground of the cod off the Lofoten islands in the Norwegian Shelf Waters and forecasting assessment of future cod generation success and its future abundance of 3 year old. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps which made by using the NOAA satellites data for the period 1998-2014. Comparison of the SST anomalies in the main spawning ground with abundance of the cod year class at age 3+ shows that survival of the cod generations was inhibited on the whole as negative (below -0,1C) well as positive SST anomalies (above +1,3C) during March and April. Finally, the results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod at age 3+ (2002, 2004, 2010) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive the SST anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal significances provide conditions for appearance middle or strong generations of cod (2001-2003, 2005-2009, 2011-2013). So, the SST and SST anomalies (by the NOAA satellite data) characterize of increase in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the main stream thus creating favorable conditions for spawning and development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, the Northeast Arctic cod, spawning ground, forecast of the cod year class

  5. DIET, BODY MASS INDEX AND DENTAL CARIES AMONG THAI CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 5 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Arunakul, Malee; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Laisirireoungrai, Tanai; Praneechotiros, Tharawut; Tevavichulada, Peerapol

    2017-03-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) can cause pain and interfere with healthy nutrition affecting a child growth. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) among Thai children aged 3 to 5 years. We randomly selected 100 students attending Suan Missakawan School, Bangkok, Thailand. We examined each child to determine the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) giving a DMFT score. We also measured the height and weight for each subject and calculated their body mass index (BMI) as weight in kilograms divided by height in meter squared. Parents or guardians were asked to complete a questionnaire asking general information and the diet of the child. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Associations between caries and variables were examined using the Spearman’s correlation with significance set at pcaries (DMFT score=0), 32% had a few caries (DMFT score=0.1-3.0), 14% had many caries (DMFT scores=3.1-6.9), and 36% had very many caries (DMFT≥7). The DMFT score was not significantly associated with a history of sugar consumption or BMI. The DMFT score was significantly negatively associated with estimated fat consumption and estimated iron consumption based on the diet reported by the parents or guardians. Further studies are needed to determine if these reported diets reflect actual consumption and if the associations are still significant.

  6. Relationship between protein energy malnutrition and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati Nurhayati; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Ketut G. Suandi

    2006-01-01

    Background Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) affects physical, psychological, and social development. Objective To investigate the relationship between PEM and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at Child Health Outpatient Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, betweenApril-September 2000. We included children living with their parents, with no handicap or chronically ill condition. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Nutri...

  7. Performance of the Spot Vision Screener in Children Younger Than 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Blake D; Peterseim, M Millicent; Wilson, M Edward; Cheeseman, Edward W; Feldman, Samuel; Marzolf, Amanda L; Wolf, Bethany J; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the use of the Spot Vision Screener (Spot; Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, New York, USA) for detection of amblyopia risk factors in children aged 6 months to 3 years, as defined by the 2013 guidelines of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Reliability analysis. In this study, children seen from June 1, 2012, to April 30, 2016 were tested with the Spot during a routine visit. Enrolled children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and sensorimotor testing within 6 months of the testing date by a pediatric ophthalmologist masked to the Spot results. A total of 184 children were included. The Spot successfully obtained readings in 89.7% of patients. Compared with the ophthalmologist's examination, the Spot had an overall sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 70.4%. The Spot achieved good sensitivity and specificity for detection of amblyopia risk factors in this young cohort, particularly in the older subgroup. Our data offer support for automated vision screening in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Prenatal Supplementation With Vitamin D on Asthma or Recurrent Wheezing in Offspring by Age 3 Years: The VDAART Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Laranjo, Nancy; Harshfield, Benjamin J; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George T; Sandel, Megan; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Paritz, Aviva; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Macones, George A; Zeiger, Robert S; Schatz, Michael; Hollis, Bruce W; Hornsby, Eve; Hawrylowicz, Catherine; Wu, Ann Chen; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-01-26

    Asthma and wheezing begin early in life, and prenatal vitamin D deficiency has been variably associated with these disorders in offspring. To determine whether prenatal vitamin D (cholecalciferol) supplementation can prevent asthma or recurrent wheeze in early childhood. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 3 centers across the United States. Enrollment began in October 2009 and completed follow-up in January 2015. Eight hundred eighty-one pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 39 years at high risk of having children with asthma were randomized at 10 to 18 weeks' gestation. Five participants were deemed ineligible shortly after randomization and were discontinued. Four hundred forty women were randomized to receive daily 4000 IU vitamin D plus a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU vitamin D, and 436 women were randomized to receive a placebo plus a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU vitamin D. Coprimary outcomes of (1) parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheezing through 3 years of age and (2) third trimester maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Eight hundred ten infants were born in the study, and 806 were included in the analyses for the 3-year outcomes. Two hundred eighteen children developed asthma or recurrent wheeze: 98 of 405 (24.3%; 95% CI, 18.7%-28.5%) in the 4400-IU group vs 120 of 401 (30.4%, 95% CI, 25.7%-73.1%) in the 400-IU group (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = .051). Of the women in the 4400-IU group whose blood levels were checked, 289 (74.9%) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL or higher by the third trimester of pregnancy compared with 133 of 391 (34.0%) in the 400-IU group (difference, 40.9%; 95% CI, 34.2%-47.5%, P d of vitamin D compared with 400 IU/d significantly increased vitamin D levels in the women. The incidence of asthma and recurrent wheezing in their children at age 3 years was lower by 6.1%, but this did not

  9. Visual attention to meaningful stimuli by 1- to 3-year olds: implications for the measurement of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Jaeger, Katja; Sonne, Trine; Gross, Julien

    2016-11-01

    The visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm has been widely used to measure memory during infancy and early childhood; it has also been used to study memory in human and nonhuman adults. Typically, participants are familiarized with stimuli that have no special significance to them. Under these conditions, greater attention to the novel stimulus during the test (i.e., novelty preference) is used as the primary index of memory. Here, we took a novel approach to the VRM paradigm and tested 1-, 2-, and 3-year olds using photos of meaningful stimuli that were drawn from the participants' own environment (e.g., photos of their mother, father, siblings, house). We also compared their performance to that of participants of the same age who were tested in an explicit pointing version of the VRM task. Two- and 3-year olds exhibited a strong familiarity preference for some, but not all, of the meaningful stimuli; 1-year olds did not. At no age did participants exhibit the kind of novelty preference that is commonly used to define memory in the VRM task. Furthermore, when compared to pointing, looking measures provided a rough approximation of recognition memory, but in some instances, the looking measure underestimated retention. The use of meaningful stimuli raise important questions about the way in which visual attention is interpreted in the VRM paradigm, and may provide new opportunities to measure memory during infancy and early childhood. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Infant eczema, infant sleeping problems, and mental health at 10 years of age: the prospective birth cohort study LISAplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Chen, C-M; Apfelbacher, C; Romanos, M; Lehmann, I; Herbarth, O; Schaaf, B; Kraemer, U; von Berg, A; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between eczema and mental health problems, possibly modified by sleeping problems, but prospective evidence is missing. We aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between infant eczema (within first 2 years of age), infant sleeping problems (within first 2 years of age), and the risk of mental health problems at 10 years of age. Between 1997 and 1999, a population-based birth cohort was recruited in Munich, Leipzig, Wesel, and Bad Honnef, Germany, and followed until 10 years of age. Physician-diagnosed eczema, parent-reported sleeping problems, and known environmental risk factors for atopy were regularly assessed until 10 years of age. Mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (parent version) at 10 years of age. We applied logistic regression modeling adjusting for environmental and lifestyle factors, allergic comorbidity, and family history of eczema. From the original cohort of 3097 neonates, 1658 (54%) were followed until age 10, while 1578 (51%) were eligible for analysis. In the fully adjusted model, children with infant eczema were at increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention at 10 years of age [odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-3.09]. Infant eczema with concurrent sleeping problems predicted emotional problems [OR 2.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.20-5.76] and conduct problems (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.01-9.12) at 10 years of age. Infant eczema with concurrent sleeping problems appears to be a risk factor for the development of mental health problems. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years.A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India.Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia.Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  12. Genetic counselling, BRCA1/2 status and clinico-pathologic characteristics of patients with ovarian cancer before 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvelbar Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia like in other countries, till recently, personal history of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC has not been included among indications for genetic counselling. Recent studies reported up to 17% rate of germinal BRCA1/2 mutation (gBRCA1/2m within the age group under 50 years at diagnosis. The original aim of this study was to invite to the genetic counselling still living patients with EOC under 45 years, to offer gBRCA1/2m testing and to perform analysis of gBRCA1/2m rate and of clinico-pathologic characteristics. Later, we added also the data of previously genetically tested patients with EOC aged 45 to 49 years.

  13. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  14. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  15. The relationship between body mass index and gross motor development in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nervik, Deborah; Martin, Kathy; Rundquist, Peter; Cleland, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between obesity and gross motor development in children who are developing typically and determine whether body mass index (BMI) predicts difficulty in gross motor skills. BMIs were calculated and gross motor skills examined in 50 children who were healthy aged 3 to 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Pearson chi-square statistic and stepwise linear hierarchical regression were used for analysis. A total of 24% of the children were overweight/obese, whereas 76% were found not to be overweight/obese. Fifty-eight percent of the overweight/obese group scored below average on the PDMS-2 compared to 15% of the nonoverweight group. Association between BMI and gross motor quotients was identified with significance of less than 0.002. Regression results were nonsignificant with all 50 subjects, yet showed significance (P = 0.018) when an outlier was excluded. Children aged 3 to 5 years with high BMIs may have difficulty with their gross motor skills. Further research is needed.

  16. Mothers literacy status and its association with feeding practices and PEM among 1-5 year aged children in southern part of India, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of PEM in children aged 1 to 5 years and to study the association of mothers educational status with feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 1 to 5 years. Methods: A cross sectional study of 600 children of 1-5 year age group in urban slums of Mysore city was carried out with cluster random sampling method. The data was collected by using a predesigned and pretested proforma. Assessment of the nutritional status was done by clinical examination and anthropometry. WHO child growth standards, 2006 reference data were used to classify malnutrition. Results: Among 600 children examined, 285 (47.5% were males and 315 (52.5% were females. Exclusive breast feeding was given in 295 (49.2% of children. Pre lacteal feeds and top milk feeds were given in 123 (20.5% and 108 (18% of children respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 31.3%, 42.2% and 14.2% respectively. About 12.8% of mothers were illiterate and this was significantly associated with feeding practices and nutritional status of children. Conclusions: Mothers literacy status plays important role in feeding practices of their children which inturn is an important factor in determining the nutritional status of child

  17. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1·25 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Timmis, Adam; George, Julie; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Shah, Anoop D; Denaxas, Spiros; White, Ian R; Caulfield, Mark J; Deanfield, John E; Smeeth, Liam; Williams, Bryan; Hingorani, Aroon; Hemingway, Harry

    2014-05-31

    abdominal aortic aneurysm than did raised systolic pressure. Pulse pressure associations were inverse for abdominal aortic aneurysm (HR per 10 mm Hg 0·91 [95% CI 0·86-0·98]) and strongest for peripheral arterial disease (1·23 [1·20-1·27]). People with hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or those receiving blood pressure-lowering drugs) had a lifetime risk of overall cardiovascular disease at 30 years of age of 63·3% (95% CI 62·9-63·8) compared with 46·1% (45·5-46·8) for those with normal blood pressure, and developed cardiovascular disease 5·0 years earlier (95% CI 4·8-5·2). Stable and unstable angina accounted for most (43%) of the cardiovascular disease-free years of life lost associated with hypertension from index age 30 years, whereas heart failure and stable angina accounted for the largest proportion (19% each) of years of life lost from index age 80 years. The widely held assumptions that blood pressure has strong associations with the occurrence of all cardiovascular diseases across a wide age range, and that diastolic and systolic associations are concordant, are not supported by the findings of this high-resolution study. Despite modern treatments, the lifetime burden of hypertension is substantial. These findings emphasise the need for new blood pressure-lowering strategies, and will help to inform the design of randomised trials to assess them. Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Wellcome Trust. Copyright © 2014 Rapsomaniki et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative fruit and vegetables consumption for 1-3 year old Indonesian children

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    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:World Health Organization merekomendasikan konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah dan kecukupan vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, asam folat dan serat yang dapat dipenuhi untuk kelompok umur 1-3 tahun anak Indonesia. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan analisis linier programming untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun.Hasil:Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah sayur bayam, sayur sop, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, dan sayur asam. Jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram sayuran dan 150-200 gram buah Kesimpulan: Alternatif anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram (1-2 mangkok sayuran dan 150-200 gram (3-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:74-7Kata kunci: anjuran, konsumsi, sayur, buah, anak usia 1-3 tahunAbstractBackground: WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables at least 400 grams or 5 servings. Based on national health survey Indonesia in 2007, means of daily portion of fruit and vegetable for Indonesian was less than 5 portion. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruit and vegetables in 1-3 year old Indonesian children, and adequacy of daily requirement of vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, folic acid and fiber. Methods: The study used consumption data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, we then could present 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables. Result:  The  study  found  five  kind  of

  19. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Health Act[3] (section 6(1)(d)) and the common law. Constitutional ... the right to bodily and psychological integrity (section 12(2)) and the right to privacy ... development; (iii) any disability that the child may have; and (iv) any chronic ... healthcare provider in deciding whether a child of 12 years of age or more is 'of ...

  20. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  1. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  2. Vital Signs: Births to Teens Aged 15–17 Years — United States, 1991–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Teens who give birth at age 15–17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. Methods To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15–19 years that were to teens aged 15–17 years, CDC analyzed 1991–2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006–2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15–17 years. Results During 1991–2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15–17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15–19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15–17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15–17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Conclusions Births to teens aged 15–17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15–19 years. Implications for public health

  3. A Brief Measure of Language Skills at 3 Years of Age and Special Education Use in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Pelham, William E; Kim, Matthew H; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-02-01

    To test whether a language screener administered during early childhood predicts special education referrals and placement in middle childhood. A series of logistic regressions was conducted in a longitudinal study of 731 children. Predictor variables included scores on the early language screener (Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test-Second Edition [Fluharty-2]) at ages 3 and 4 years, a standardized measure of academic achievement at age 5 years, and parent report of special education services at ages 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5 years. Results showed that higher scores on the Fluharty-2 predicted a reduced likelihood of having an individualized education program (OR 0.48), being referred for special education (OR 0.55), and being held back a grade (OR 0.37). These findings did not vary by sex, race, or ethnicity, and remained significant after controlling for male sex, behavior problems, parental education, and family income. The Fluharty-2 remained predictive of special education outcomes even after controlling for children's academic skills at age 5 years. Results suggest that structured, brief assessments of language in early childhood are robust predictors of children's future engagement in special education services and low academic achievement. Primary care physicians may use a multipronged developmental surveillance and monitoring protocol designed to identify children who may need comprehensive evaluation and intervention. Early intervention may reduce the need for costly special education services in the future and reduce comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Younger age at menopause is associated with overall mortality, and cigarette smoking is the only lifestyle factor influencing this association. However, the combined effects of age at menopause and smoking have never been quantified in terms of survival time. Our aim was to evaluate, in a large cohort of Swedish women, differences in age at death according to age at menopause and smoking status. Age at menopause and smoking were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, in a population-based cohort of 25,474 women aged 48 to 83 years. Laplace regression was used to calculate differences in median age at death (50th percentile difference [PD]) according to smoking and age at menopause. Across 16 years of follow-up, 5,942 participants died. The difference in median age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years was 1.3 years (50th PD, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). Compared with current smokers, former smokers and never smokers had older median age at death-2.5 years (50th PD, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.6 years (50th PD, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.1-4.1), respectively. When analysis was restricted to current smokers, the difference in age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years increased to 2.6 years (50th PD, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.8-4.5). No association among never smokers was observed. Younger age at menopause is linearly associated with shorter survival. This association tends to be stronger among current smokers.

  5. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of 137 Cs γ rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus

  6. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was e...

  7. Effects of antibiotic consumption on children 2-8 years of age developing asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Antibiotic exposure in children is a possible contributor to the increasing asthma prevalence in several countries. The present study aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure and the risk of developing childhood asthma at 2-8 years of age. METHODS A case-control study was undertaken among children aged 2-8 years old between March and September 2010 in the Urmia district in the northwest of Iran. The cases were doctor-diagnosed asthmatic children based on Global Initiative for Asthma criteria (n=207, and the controls were children without respiratory symptoms (n=400 selected by frequency matching by age and gender. Clinical data including antibiotic exposure was collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire, which was completed by interviewing parents/guardians. RESULTS Antibiotic consumption during the first year of life increased the odds ratio [OR] of asthma symptoms at 2-8 years of age (crude OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-3.35; p<0.01, and the strength of association was similar after adjusting for a family history of asthma or atopic disorder, preterm delivery, birth order, and delivery method (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.88; p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that antibiotic consumption in children was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, and an additional confirmative study is needed.

  8. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p < 0.001). Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p < 0.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. © 2014 UICC.

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of Large Sets of Age-Related Physiological Indicators Reveals Rapid Aging around the Age of 55 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixie, Erin; Edgeworth, Jameson; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    While many studies show a correlation between chronological age and physiological indicators, the nature of this correlation is not fully understood. To perform a comprehensive analysis of the correlation between chronological age and age-related physiological indicators. Physiological aging scores were deduced using principal component analysis from a large dataset of 1,227 variables measured in a cohort of 4,796 human subjects, and the correlation between the physiological aging scores and chronological age was assessed. Physiological age does not progress linearly or exponentially with chronological age: a more rapid physiological change is observed around the age of 55 years, followed by a mild decline until around the age of 70 years. These findings provide evidence that the progression of physiological age is not linear with that of chronological age, and that periods of mild change in physiological age are separated by periods of more rapid aging. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  11. Clinical outcome of narrow-diameter (3.3-mm) locking-taper implants: a prospective study with 1 to 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil A; Sammons, Rachel L; Veronesi, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of narrow-diameter (3.3-mm) locking-taper implants used in the rehabilitation of partially and fully edentulous patients over a 10-year period. Between January 2002 and December 2011, all patients referred to a private dental clinic for treatment with narrow-diameter implants were enrolled in this study. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed; the outcome measurements were implant failure, peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact [DIB]), and biologic and technical complications. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival estimator; Tarone-Ware and chi-square analyses were used to evaluate correlations between the study variables. The statistical analysis was performed at the patient- and implant-level. A total of 324 narrow-diameter implants were placed in 279 patients (159 men, 120 women; age: 25 to 73 years). Four implants failed, for an overall CSR of 98.5% (patient-based) and 98.7% (implant-based) at the 10-year follow-up. The survival rate did not differ significantly with respect to patients' sex, age, smoking or parafunctional habits, bone type, prosthetic restoration, or implant location, position, or length. Among the surviving implants, a mean DIB of 0.31 ± 0.23 mm, 0.45 ± 0.27 mm, and 0.69 ± 0.28 mm was observed at the 1-, 5-, and 10-year follow-up examinations, respectively. A few biologic (1.2%) and technical complications (7.5%) were reported. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that narrow-diameter locking-taper implants represent a good treatment option for the prosthetic rehabilitation of partially and totally edentulous patients.

  12. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men ≥75 Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, Gregory S.; Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged ≥75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients

  13. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesselman Borg J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Hesselman Borg,1 Maria Westerståhl,2 Sara Lundell,1 Guy Madison,3 Ulrika Aasa1 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 3Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Objectives: To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods: We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline, when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion: The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal

  14. Adherence and Persistence Among Statin Users Aged 65 Years and Over: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Jakhu, Avtar; Zomer, Ella; Curtis, Andrea J; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Nelson, Mark; Gambhir, Manoj; Tonkin, Andrew; Liew, Danny; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-05-09

    Older people (aged ≥ 65 years) have distinctive challenges with medication adherence. However, adherence and persistence patterns among older statin users have not been comprehensively reviewed. As part of a broader systematic review, we searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CENTRAL, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database through December 2016 for English articles reporting adherence and/or persistence among older statin users. Data were analyzed via descriptive methods and meta-analysis using random-effect modeling. Data from more than 3 million older statin users in 82 studies conducted in over 40 countries were analyzed. At 1-year follow-up, 59.7% (primary prevention 47.9%; secondary prevention 62.3%) of users were adherent (medication possession ratio [MPR] or proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥ 80%). For both primary and secondary prevention subjects, 1-year adherence was worse among individuals aged more than 75 years than those aged 65-75 years. At 3 and ≥10 years, 55.3% and 28.4% of users were adherent, respectively. The proportion of users persistent at 1-year was 76.7% (primary prevention 76.0%; secondary prevention 82.6%). Additionally, 68.1% and 61.2% of users were persistent at 2 and 4 years, respectively. Among new statin users, 48.2% were nonadherent and 23.9% discontinued within the first year. The proportion of statin users who were adherent based on self-report was 85.5%. There is poor short and long term adherence and persistence among older statin users. Strategies to improve adherence and reduce discontinuation are needed if the intended cardiovascular benefits of statin treatment are to be realized.

  15. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  16. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  17. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  18. 26 CFR 1.41-3 - Base amount for taxable years beginning on or after January 3, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local law, the tax is legally imposed on the purchaser of the good or service, and the taxpayer merely... after January 3, 2001. 1.41-3 Section 1.41-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-3 Base amount for taxable years...

  19. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hok, Pavel [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Palacky University, Department of Neurology, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Rueb, Udo [Goethe University, Dr. Senckenberg Chronomedical Institute, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Steinmetz, Helmuth [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Klein, Johannes C. [Goethe University, Department of Neurology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Deichmann, Ralf [Goethe University, Brain Imaging Center, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of brain ageing: a quantitative longitudinal MRI study over 7 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Nuernberger, Lucas; Hof, Stephanie-Michelle; Reitz, Sarah C.; Hilker-Roggendorf, Ruediger; Baudrexel, Simon; Hok, Pavel; Rueb, Udo; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Johannes C.; Deichmann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    T1 relaxometry is a promising tool for the assessment of microstructural changes during brain ageing. Previous cross-sectional studies demonstrated increasing T1 values in white and decreasing T1 values in grey matter over the lifetime. However, these findings have not yet been confirmed on the basis of a longitudinal study. In this longitudinal study over 7 years, T1 relaxometry was used to investigate the dynamics of age-related microstructural changes in older healthy subjects. T1 mapping was performed in 17 healthy subjects (range 51-77 years) at baseline and after 7 years. Advanced cortical and white matter segmentation was used to determine mean T1 values in the cortex and white matter. The analysis revealed a decrease of mean cortical T1 values over 7 years, the rate of T1 reduction being more prominent in subjects with higher age. T1 decreases were predominantly localized in the lateral frontal, parietal and temporal cortex. In contrast, mean white matter T1 values remained stable. T1 mapping is shown to be sensitive to age-related microstructural changes in healthy ageing subjects in a longitudinal setting. Data of a cohort in late adulthood and the senescence period demonstrate a decrease of cortical T1 values over 7 years, most likely reflecting decreasing water content and increased iron concentrations. (orig.)

  1. A prospective study of treatment patterns and 1-year outcome of Asian age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the treatment patterns and visual outcome over one year in Asian patients with choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD-CNV and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. DESIGN: Prospective cohort, non-interventional study. METHODS: 132 treatment-naïve patients who received treatment for AMD-CNV and PCV were included. All patients underwent standardized examination procedures including retinal imaging at baseline and follow-up. AMD-CNV and PCV were defined on fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography at baseline. Patients were treated according to standard of care.We report the visual acuity (VA and optical coherence tomography (OCT measurements at baseline, month 3 and month 12 The factors influencing month 12 outcomes were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Type of treatment, number of Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF treatments, visual outcome over one year. RESULTS: Anti-VEGF monotherapy was the initial treatment in 89.1% of AMD-CNV, but only 15.1% of PCV. The mean number of anti-VEGF injections up to month 12 was 3.97 (4.51 AMD-CNV, 3.43 PCV, p = 0.021. Baseline OCT, month 3 OCT and month 3 VA were significant in determining continuation of treatment after month 3. At month 12, mean VA improved from 0.82 (∼20/132 at baseline to 0.68 (∼20/96 at month 12 (mean gain 6.5 ETDRS letters, p = 0.002. 34.2% of eyes (38/113 eyes gained ≥15 ETDRS letters and 14.4% (16/113 eyes lost ≥15 ETDRS letters. There were no significant differences in visual outcome between AMD-CNV and PCV (p = 0.51. Factors predictive of month 12 visual outcome were baseline VA, baseline OCT central macular thickness, month 3 VA and age. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variation in treatment patterns in Asian eyes with exudative maculopathy. There is significant visual improvement in all treatment groups at one year. These data highlight the need for high quality

  2. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Physical Activity Level and Physical Functionality in Nonagenarians Compared to Individuals Aged 60–74 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; Fabre, Jennifer M.; Russell, Ryan D.; King, Christina M.; DeLany, James P.; Wood, Robert H.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. Methods This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93 ± 1 years, 66.6 ± 2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI] = 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60–74 years (17 men/15 women; 70 ± 1 years, 83.3 ± 3.0 kg, BMI = 29 ± 1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Results Nonagenarians had lower absolute ( p < .001) and adjusted ( p < .007) TEE compared to participants aged 60–74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance ( p < .001) which was correlated with activity level (r = 0.68, p < .001). Conclusions When compared to individuals aged 60–74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals. PMID:17634327

  4. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of human longevity identifies a novel locus conferring survival beyond 90 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2014-01-01

    descent (≥ 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ≥ 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected...... by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103......, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less...

  6. Selective mutism: follow-up study 1 year after end of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerbeck, Beate; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are H; Kristensen, Hanne

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally considered the recommended approach for selective mutism (SM). Prospective follow-up studies of treated SM and predictors of outcome are scarce. We have developed a CBT home and school-based intervention for children with SM previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and in a randomized controlled treatment study. In the present report we provide outcome data 1 year after having completed the 6-month course of CBT for 24 children with SM, aged 3-9 years (mean age 6.5 years, 16 girls). Primary outcome measures were the teacher rated School Speech Questionnaire (SSQ) and diagnostic status. At follow-up, no significant decline was found on the SSQ scores. Age and severity of SM had a significant effect upon outcome, as measured by the SSQ. Eight children still fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM, four were in remission, and 12 children were without diagnosis. Younger children improved more, as 78% of the children aged 3-5 years did not have SM, compared with 33% of children aged 6-9 years. Treatment gain was upheld at follow-up. Greater improvement in the younger children highlights the importance of an early intervention.

  7. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Heaton, M P

    2015-01-01

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). The experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility of breeding ewes to infection after natural exposure to OPPV from birth to 39 mo of age. Sires and dams were heterozygous for TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3, producing ewe lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." These lambs were raised by mature, infected dams to ensure natural, maternal exposure to OPPV. Ewe lambs (n = 108) were kept for breeding and joined an infected flock of ewes to guarantee natural, nonmaternal exposure to OPPV. Ewes were bred to lamb at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age. Serum samples were collected at breeding, 1 mo before lambing and shortly after weaning each year to monitor infection status to 39 mo of age. During the experiment, 9 of the 108 ewes died while uninfected and data collected on these ewes were not analyzed. Infection status of the remaining 99 ewes at 39 mo of age was analyzed using logistic regression procedures. Effects of ewe type of birth, ewe type of rearing, and breed type of dam were not detected (P > 0.10), and the estimated sire variance component was nil. Ewe diplotype affected infection status (P ewes with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.10, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and confidence intervals for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were distinct from "1 1." Haplotype 3 was completely dominant to haplotype 1 at 39 mo of age. The probability of infection for ewes with either diplotype "1 3" or "3 3" averaged 8.5 times that of ewes with diplotype "1 1." Diplotype "1 3" and "3 3" ewes were highly susceptible to nonmaternal transmission of OPPV, in contrast to

  8. High-dose rapid and standard induction chemotherapy for patients aged over 1 year with stage 4 neuroblastoma: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew D J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Ellershaw, Caroline; Machin, David

    2008-03-01

    The current standard treatment for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma includes initial induction chemotherapy with a 21-day interval between induction treatments. We aimed to assess whether an intensive chemotherapy protocol that had a 10-day interval between treatments would improve event-free survival (EFS) in patients aged 1 year or over with high-risk neuroblastoma. Between Oct 30, 1990, and March 18, 1999, patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma who had not received previous chemotherapy were enrolled from 29 centres in Europe. Patients were randomly assigned to rapid treatment (cisplatin [C], vincristine [O], carboplatin [J], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], known as COJEC) or standard treatment (vincristine [O], cisplatin [P], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], ie, OPEC, alternated with vincristine [O], carboplatin [J], etoposide [E], and cyclophosphamide [C], ie, OJEC). Both regimens used the same total cumulative doses of each drug (except vincristine), but the dose intensity of the rapid regimen was 1.8-times higher than that of the standard regimen. The standard regimen was given every 21 days if patients showed haematological recovery, whereas the rapid regimen was given every 10 days irrespective of haematological recovery. Response to chemotherapy was assessed according to the conventional International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC). In responders, surgical excision of the primary tumour was attempted, followed by myeloablation (with 200 mg/m2 of melphalan) and haemopoietic stem-cell rescue. Primary endpoints were 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year EFS. Data were analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered on the clinical trials site of the US National Cancer Institute website, number NCT00365755, and also as EU-20592 and CCLG-NB-1990-11. 262 patients, of median age 2.95 years (range 1.03-20.97), were randomly assigned-132 patients to standard and 130 patients to rapid treatment. 111 patients in the standard group and 109

  9. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in women aged 65-71 years: a 3-year randomized population-based trial (OSTPRE-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, M; Tuppurainen, M; Salovaara, K; Sandini, L; Rikkonen, T; Sirola, J; Honkanen, R; Jurvelin, J; Alhava, E; Kröger, H

    2010-12-01

    The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention-Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS) was a randomized population-based open trial (n = 593). The supplementation group (n = 287) received daily cholecalciferol 800 IU + calcium 1,000 mg for 3 years while the control group (n = 306) received neither supplementation nor placebo. Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation have a positive effect on the skeleton in ambulatory postmenopausal women. vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly, and vitamin D levels are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The working hypothesis was that vitamin D and calcium supplementation could prevent bone loss in ambulatory postmenopausal women. the OSTPRE-FPS was a randomized population-based open trial with a 3-year follow-up in 3,432 women (aged 66 to 71 years). A randomly selected subsample of 593 subjects underwent BMD measurements. The supplementation group (n = 287) received daily cholecalciferol 800 IU + calcium 1,000 mg for 3 years while the control group (n = 306) received neither supplementation nor placebo. in the intention-to-treat analysis, total body BMD (n = 362) increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (0.84% vs. 0.19%, p = 0.011). The BMD change differences at the lumbar spine (p = 0.372), femoral neck (p = 0.188), trochanter (p = 0.085), and total proximal femur (p = 0.070) were statistically nonsignificant. Analyses in compliant women (≥ 80% of use) resulted in stronger and statistically significant effects at the total body and femoral regions. daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation have a positive effect on the skeleton in ambulatory postmenopausal women with adequate nutritional calcium intake.

  10. Longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of children aged 0 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Frederico Cunha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "When" and "how" the dentist intervenes have repercussions on children's physical and emotional patterns. The objective of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal behavioral analysis during dental care of babies aged 0 to 3 years. A total of 216 patients seen at the Baby Clinic of the School of Dentistry at Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, were selected. The selection criterion was attendance at ten dental care sessions at bimonthly intervals for routine procedures such as clinical examination and oral hygiene. There was a predominance of cooperative behavior compared to uncooperative behavior when each visit was analyzed separately. The behavior of the patients must have been directly influenced by their psychomotor development. Constant attendance and exposure of the baby to non-stressful dental stimuli are factors that favor a cooperative behavior.

  11. Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked31Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, LebanonAim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years. The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years.Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001, pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001, treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001, and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084.Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia

  12. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  13. Assessment of insulin like growth factor-1 and IGF binding protein-3 in healthy Indian girls from Delhi and their correlation with age, pubertal status, obesity and thyroid hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Garg, M K; Gupta, Sushil; Khurana, A K; Narang, Archna; Shukla, Manoj; Arora, Preeti; Chadha, Aditi; Nayak, Deb Datta; Manchanda, R K

    2017-07-26

    Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions. A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6-18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (pIGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism. There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.

  14. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at ageyears. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At ageyears, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At ageyears, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at ageyears was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and ageyears in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  15. Relationship between age, sex and body mass index with fundamental motor skills among 3 to 6 years-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vameghi Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem. This problem is a multi-component disease and several factors are involved in its development. The childhood obesity led to poor mastery of fundamental motor skills (FMS and failure to develop in specialized skills that required in organized sports and activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, sex and body mass index (BMI with FMS in 3 to 6 years-old children. A total of 600 preschool children (300 boys and 300 girls between the ages of 3 to 6 years old participated in this research. Subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling in five regions in Tehran. Using the Ohio State University Scale of Intra Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA FMS were assess. Body mass index (BMI was directly measured from height (m2/weight (kg for each child. The results showed that the negative correlations between jumping, skipping, hopping and throwing skills and BMI in any 3 groups children were significant (P0.05. The boys were performed better than girls in all FMS except hopping and skipping skills. In these skills the girls were better performed in all ages. These results highlight the need to provide organized opportunities which facilitate FMS and decreased high BMI levels in preschool children.

  16. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

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    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja University Polyclinic in Cienfuegos municipality from March to December 2013. Each patient completed a questionnaire including the following variables: age, sex, personal medical history, family medical history, weight, height, body mass index, presence of acanthosis nigricans, triglycerides and perimeter. Results: frequency of the phenotype was determined in 15.1 % of the participants with a slight predominance of the 18 age group (16.3 % and female sex (8.6 %. Twenty-one point six percent of the adolescents with a family history of obesity and 21.7 % of those with first-degree diabetic relatives presented the phenotype, being hypertriglyceridemia the most significant condition. Conclusions: a relationship between a family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, body mass index above the 90th percentile value and presence of the phenotype was established.

  17. Gene therapy with recombinant adeno-associated vectors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: 1 year follow-up of a phase 1 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Elizabeth P; Lai, Chooi-May; Magno, Aaron L; Wikstrom, Matthew E; French, Martyn A; Pierce, Cora M; Schwartz, Steven D; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Chalberg, Thomas W; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A; Constable, Ian J

    2015-12-12

    Neovascular, or wet, age-related macular degeneration causes central vision loss and represents a major health problem in elderly people, and is currently treated with frequent intraocular injections of anti-VEGF protein. Gene therapy might enable long-term anti-VEGF therapy from a single treatment. We tested the safety of rAAV.sFLT-1 in treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration with a single subretinal injection. In this single-centre, phase 1, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients with wet age-related macular degeneration at the Lions Eye Institute and the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (Nedlands, WA, Australia). Eligible patients had to be aged 65 years or older, have age-related macular degeneration secondary to active subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation, with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 3/60-6/24 and 6/60 or better in the other eye. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1) to receive either 1 × 10(10) vector genomes (vg; low-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group) or 1 × 10(11) vg (high-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group), or no gene-therapy treatment (control group). Randomisation was done by sequential group assignment. All patients and investigators were unmasked. Staff doing the assessments were masked to the study group at study visits. All patients received ranibizumab at baseline and week 4, and rescue treatment during follow-up based on prespecified criteria including BCVA measured on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (EDTRS) scale, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography. The primary endpoint was ocular and systemic safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01494805. From Dec 16, 2011, to April 5, 2012, we enrolled nine patients of whom eight were randomly assigned to receive either intervention (three patients in the low-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group and three patients in the high-dose rAAV.sFLT-1 group) or no treatment (two patients in the control group). Subretinal injection of r

  18. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  19. Intrauterine myelomeningocele repair postnatal results and follow-up at 3.5 years of age--initial experience from a single reference service in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaba, Wagner Jou; Cavalheiro, Sérgio; Almodim, Carlos Gilberto; Borges, Carolina Peixoto; de Faria, Tereza Cristina Carbonari; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Present the outcomes of six cases submitted to intrauterine myelomeningocele (MMC) repair. Descriptive observational study of six children submitted to antenatal surgical repair of MMC between 26 and 27 weeks gestation. All deliveries were through cesarean section. The following neonatal variables were assessed: gestational age at delivery, birth weight, Apgar scores, need for intubation, duration of hospital stay and need for postnatal shunt procedures. After 3.5 years, the children were evaluated using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale or Denver II tests and the Hoffer Ambulation Scale. All deliveries were preterm at a mean gestational age of 32 + 4 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,942 g. Two infants had Apgar scores <7 at 1 min and 1 at 5 min. Ventricular-peritoneal shunts were placed in two cases. All six children are alive: five have normal cognitive development and one has a neuropsychomotor developmental delay. Two children had normal leg movements, a sacral functional level and are community ambulators. Three children had upper lumbar anatomical level lesions and one had a lower thoracic level lesion at the time of fetal surgery. One child, with an L1-L2 anatomical level lesion, in noambulatory and fully dependent on a wheelchair for mobility. Antenatal surgical repair of MMC reduced the need for postnatal shunt placements. Despite preterm delivery, the cognitive development of most children at 3.5 years was normal. Antenatal surgery seemed to improve lower limb motor function in these cases.

  20. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Kato, Kayoko; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jia, Tao; Kalathil, Akil; Latremouille, John; Calafat, Antonia M

    2018-01-01

    Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Immunization status of children upto 3 years in rural block, Muzaffarnagar

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    Rama Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The year 2012-2013 was declared as ‘Year of intensification of Routine Immunization (IRI in India. As per CES, DLHS and AHS, Full Immunization for the children of age group of 12-23 months of Uttar Pradesh is 30.2 (DLHS 2007, 40.9 (CES 2009 and 45.3 (AHS 2010-2011. Studies have been done to assess the primary immunization status i.e. BCG, OPV3, DTP3 and Measles. Data on the Booster doses and the additional vaccine is insufficient. Objectives: To assess the status of full Immunization, Complete Immunization and the status of Immunization with regard to different vaccine and reasons for partial and No Immunization. Design & Methodology: A community based cross sectional study was done (Aug to December 31th 2014 in the field practice area of rural health and training centre (RHTC of Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar. 50% of the villages i.e. 3 villages (Bilaspur, Shernagar and Dhandhera selected by simple random sampling technique and the age group selected were up to three years of age. The data was analyzed using MS excel sheet and the software used was software Epi-info version 7.1.3. Results and Conclusion: The Full Immunization in the age group of children between 12-23 months was 65% with antigen coverage maximum for BCG (93% and lowest for Measles (68%. Reason for partial and unimmunized children were majority due to non-availability of vaccine at the centre followed by fear of AEFI. Complete Immunization in the age group between 24-36 months was 46% with MCV 2 coverage being the lowest (34%. Full Immunization in the age group of 24-36 months is significantly more than 12-23 months age group. Tendency is to have less and less immunization as the age of the child grows (P<0.05.

  2. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  3. Mini-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under Total Ultrasonography in Patients Aged Less Than 3 Years: A Single-center Initial Experience from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis in pediatric population is a serious problem with the incidence increased these years. In the management of larger stones (diameters >2 cm, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is considered to be the gold standard. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mini-PCNL under total ultrasonography in patients aged 38.5°C in five patients and reactive pleural effusion in one patient. Blood loss requiring transfusion, sepsis, adjacent organ injury, and kidney loss were not observed. Conclusions: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided mini-PCNL is feasible and safe in patients aged <3 years, without major complications or radiation exposure.

  4. Tailoring Breast Cancer Screening Intervals by Breast Density and Risk for Women Aged 50 Years or Older: Collaborative Modeling of Screening Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Schechter, Clyde B; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; van den Broek, Jeroen J; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Near, Aimee M; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Chandler, Young; de Koning, Harry J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2016-11-15

    Biennial screening is generally recommended for average-risk women aged 50 to 74 years, but tailored screening may provide greater benefits. To estimate outcomes for various screening intervals after age 50 years based on breast density and risk for breast cancer. Collaborative simulation modeling using national incidence, breast density, and screening performance data. United States. Women aged 50 years or older with various combinations of breast density and relative risk (RR) of 1.0, 1.3, 2.0, or 4.0. Annual, biennial, or triennial digital mammography screening from ages 50 to 74 years (vs. no screening) and ages 65 to 74 years (vs. biennial digital mammography from ages 50 to 64 years). Lifetime breast cancer deaths, life expectancy and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), false-positive mammograms, benign biopsy results, overdiagnosis, cost-effectiveness, and ratio of false-positive results to breast cancer deaths averted. Screening benefits and overdiagnosis increase with breast density and RR. False-positive mammograms and benign results on biopsy decrease with increasing risk. Among women with fatty breasts or scattered fibroglandular density and an RR of 1.0 or 1.3, breast cancer deaths averted were similar for triennial versus biennial screening for both age groups (50 to 74 years, median of 3.4 to 5.1 vs. 4.1 to 6.5 deaths averted; 65 to 74 years, median of 1.5 to 2.1 vs. 1.8 to 2.6 deaths averted). Breast cancer deaths averted increased with annual versus biennial screening for women aged 50 to 74 years at all levels of breast density and an RR of 4.0, and those aged 65 to 74 years with heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts and an RR of 4.0. However, harms were almost 2-fold higher. Triennial screening for the average-risk subgroup and annual screening for the highest-risk subgroup cost less than $100 000 per QALY gained. Models did not consider women younger than 50 years, those with an RR less than 1, or other imaging methods. Average-risk women

  5. [Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisch, M; Hofbeck, M; Rauch, R; Apitz, C; Sieverding, L

    2009-01-01

    Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy. Dimenhydrinate (Vomex(R)) is frequently used in the treatment of sickness and vomiting. The symptoms of overdosage present like an anticholinergic syndrome. We report on the clinical findings of an intoxication with dimenhydrinate in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with functional dilative cardiomyopathy following a congenital left ventricular diverticle. Especially in small children, with the application of 40 mg suppositories once or twice per day the maximum dose of 3.75 mg/kgBW/d is achieved.

  6. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Pozgaj Sepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundzić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-04-01

    To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.28% in southern Croatia. Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors.

  7. Persistence of immunity from 1 year of age after one or two doses of hepatitis A vaccine given to children in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espul C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Espul,1 Laura Benedetti,2 Héctor Cuello,3 Guy Houillon,4 Anvar Rasuli41Programa de Lucha Contra las Hepatitis Virales, Ministerio de Salud/Hospital Central de Mendoza, 2Programa Provincial de Inmunizaciones, Ministerio de Salud, 3Laboratorio de Virología, Hospital Central de Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina; 4Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, FranceBackground: This study was done to determine the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine in children, providing needed clinical data on the flexibility of booster administration.Methods: Participants had received one dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim™ 80 U Pediatric at 12–23 months of age or two doses of the same vaccine at 12 and 18 months of age prior to enrolment. Anti-hepatitis A antibody concentrations were measured at the first, second, and third year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A in participant families were assessed and family socioeconomic data were collected.Results: A series of 546 participants were enrolled. Of 467 (85.5% participants completing 3 years of follow-up, 365 had received a single vaccine dose and 94 had received two vaccine doses. Seropositivity (anti-HAV ≥ 10 mIU/mL at 3 years was 99.7% after one dose and 100% after two doses. At one year, geometric mean concentrations were higher after two doses (1433.9 mIU/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1108–1855 than one (209.7 mIU/mL, 95% CI 190.6–230.6. Geometric mean concentrations decreased in both groups during the study, but remained well above 10 mIU/mL through the third year. The geometric mean of 3-year to one-year anti-hepatitis A concentration ratios was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70–0.79 following one dose and 0.57 (95% CI 0.47–0.70 following two doses. The greatest decrease in geometric mean concentrations occurred during the third year, ie, 21.2% in the one-dose group and 40.8% in the two-dose group. Six participants became seronegative during follow-up and responded strongly to a

  8. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique compared to whole breast irradiation for patients aged 70 years or older: subgroup analysis from a randomized phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Saieva, Calogero; Marrazzo, Livia; Di Brina, Lucia; Pallotta, Stefania; Mangoni, Monica; Meacci, Fiammetta; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Francolini, Giulio; Desideri, Isacco; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Scotti, Vieri; Furfaro, Ilaria Francesca; Rossi, Francesca; Greto, Daniela; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Casella, Donato; Bernini, Marco; Sanchez, Luis; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Simoncini, Roberta; Nori, Jacopo; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the efficacy and the safety profile on the subset of selected early breast cancer (BC) patients aged 70 years or older from a single-center phase 3 trial comparing whole breast irradiation (WBI) to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique. Between 2005 and 2013, 520 patients aged more than 40 years old were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either WBI or APBI in a 1:1 ratio. Eligible patients were women with early BC (maximum diameter 2.5 cm) suitable for breast conserving surgery. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02104895. A total of 117 patients aged 70 years or more were analyzed (58 in the WBI arm, 59 in the APBI arm). At a median follow-up of 5-years (range 3.4-7.0), the ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate was 1.9 % in both groups. No significant difference between the two groups was identified (log-rank test p = 0.96). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates in the WBI group and APBI group were 6.1 and 1.9 %, respectively (p = 0.33). The APBI group presented significantly better results in terms of acute skin toxicity, considering both any grade (p = 0.0001) and grade 2 or higher (p = 0.0001). Our subgroup analyses showed a very low rate and no significant difference in terms of IBTR, using both WBI and APBI. A significant impact on patients compliance in terms of acute and early late toxicity was shown, which could translate in a consistent improvement of overall quality of life.

  9. Outcomes of the patellar tendon and hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in patients aged above 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury consists of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring graft. Satisfactory results have been reported so far in the younger age group. Dilemma arises regarding the suitability of ACL reconstruction in the patients aged 50 years and above. This retrospective analyses the outcome of ACL reconstruction in patients aged 50 years and above at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: 55 patients aged 50 years and above presented to our institution with symptomatic ACL tear and were managed with arthroscopic reconstruction with patellar tendon/hamstring graft. 22 patients underwent ACL reconstruction with bone- patellar tendon-bone graft and the remaining 33 with a hamstring graft. Evaluation of functional outcome was performed using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Lysholm scoring in the preoperative period, at the end of 1 year and at the final followup. Radiographic evaluation was performed using the Kellgren–Lawrence grading system. Results: The mean preoperative IKDC score was 39.7 ± 3.3. At the end of 1-year following the operation, the mean IKDC score was 73.6 ± 4.9 and at the final followup was 67.8 ± 7.7. The mean preoperative Lysholm score was 40.4 ± 10.3. At the end of 1-year following the intervention, the mean Lysholm score was 89.7 ± 2.1 and at final followup was 85.3 ± 2.5. Overall, 14 out of 42 patients who underwent radiographic assessment showed progression of osteoarthritis changes at the final followup after the intervention. Conclusion: In our study, there was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and Lysholm scores following the intervention. There was a slight deterioration in the scores at the final followup but the overall rate of satisfaction was still high and most of the patients were able to do their routine chores and light exercises suitable for their age group. Around one-third of

  10. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars)

  11. Hepatitis B seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years after completion of basic hepatitis B immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Homenta Rampengan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of hepatitis B viral (HBV infection in Indonesia is high. The most effective way to control HBV infection is by hepatitis B (HB immunization. Many studies reported that hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs seroprotection declines in children > 10 years of age. In addition many factors can influence anti-HBs titer. Objective To measure anti-HBs titer and evaluate possible factors associated with anti-HBs titer. Methods This cross sectional  study was conducted in children 10-15 years of age from ten schools at Tuminting District, Manado, North Sulawesi, from October to November 2014. All subjects had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme. By stratified random sampling, 105 children were selected as subjects. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 22. Results. From 48 schools, we selected 10 schools from which to draw a total of 105 children, but only 23 (21.9% children had detectable anti-HBs . Of all subjects, 76 (72.4%  were female, 78 (74.3%  had good nutritional status, and 98 (93.3%  had birth weight ≥2,500 grams. Data from immunization record books showed that 26 (24.8% subjects received the HB-1 vaccination at ≤7 days of age and 45 (42.9% subjects had a ≥2 month interval between the HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations. Multivariate analysis showed that administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age  and a ≥2 month interval between HB-2 and HB-3  had significant associations with anti-HB seroprotection in children. Conclusion A low proportion of subjects who had completed the hepatitis B immunization scheme had detectable anti-HBs titer (21.9%. Administration of HB-1 at ≤7 days of age and a ≥2-month interval between HB-2 and HB-3 vaccinations are important factors in anti-HB seroprotection in children aged 10-15 years.

  12. Prevalence of Dental Caries in 5 – 6 Years and 12 – 13 Years Age Group of School Children of Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Subedi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. Methods: The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratifi ed cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and fi lled teeth index and decayed, missed and fi lled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. Results: A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically signifi cant (p < 0.001. The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be signifi cant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically signifi cant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. Conclusions: The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level. Keywords: Children, dental caries, DMF index.

  13. 3-year changes in physical activity and physical performance decline over 9 years of follow-up in older adults: The InCHIANTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Bandinelli, Stefania; Del-Panta, Vieri; Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the associations of cumulative physical activity (PA) and its changes over 3-year with changes over 9 years of follow-up in physical performance in older adults. DESIGN Longitudinal. SETTING Community-based. PARTICIPANTS Men and women, aged 65 years and older, from the InCHIANTI study (N=782). MEASUREMENTS Physical performance was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6- and 9-year follow-up with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). PA was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cancer, lung disease, lower extremity osteoarthritis, depression, and Mini-mental state examination. RESULTS Over 3-year of follow-up, the prevalence of participants inactive, minimally active and active was 27.8%, 52.2% and 20.0%, respectively. The prevalence of participants who decreased, no change or increased PA over 3-year of follow-up was 37.2%, 50.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Compared with participants who spent most of the time inactive and after adjustment for potential covariates (−2.60 score, 95%CI: −2.92, −2.27), being mostly active (−1.08 score, 95%CI: −1.43, −0.73) and even minimally active (−1.33 score, 95%CI: −1.53, −1.12) over 3 years of follow-up was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score. When analyzing changes, increasing PA (−0.57 score, 95%CI: −1.01, −0.12) was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score over 9 years as compared with those who decreased PA (−2.16 score, 95%CI: −2.42, −1.89). CONCLUSION Maintaining or increasing PA levels may attenuate age-associated physical performance decline. PMID:28248412

  14. Use of a C1 Inhibitor Concentrate in Adults ≥65 Years of Age with Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Bas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in 'older adults' (those aged ≥65 years) has not been well studied. The international Berinert Patient Registry collected data on the use of intravenous plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH; Berinert......(®)/CSL Behring) in patients of any age, including many older adults. METHODS: This observational registry, conducted from 2010 to 2014 at 30 US and seven European sites, gathered prospective (post-enrollment) and retrospective (pre-enrollment) usage and adverse event (AE) data on subjects treated with pnfC1-INH....... RESULTS: The registry documented 1701 pnfC1-INH infusions in 27 older adults. A total of 1511 HAE attacks treated with pnfC1-INH administration were reported among 25 of the 27 (92.6 %) older adults. Among the older adults, mean (standard deviation [SD]) (8.8 [4.1] IU/kg) and median (6.4 IU/kg) pnfC1-INH...

  15. Increasing incidence and age at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 20-year period in Auckland (New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G B Derraik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children <15 years of age (yr in the Auckland region (New Zealand over 20 years (1990-2009. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients <15 yr diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, from an unselected complete regional cohort. RESULTS: There were 884 new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r(2 = 0.31, p = 0.009. There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr (p<0.0001, reaching 22.5 per 100,000 in 2009. However, the rise in incidence did not occur evenly among age groups, being 2.5-fold higher in older children (10-14 yr than in the youngest group (0-4 yr. The incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (p<0.0001, but the rate of increase was similar in New Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr in Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10-14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the 'accelerator hypothesis'.

  16. Association of 10-year C-reactive protein trajectories with markers of healthy aging: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Batty, G David; Steptoe, Andrew; Cadar, Dorina; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Kivimäki, Mika; Zaninotto, Paola

    2018-02-15

    Elevated systematic inflammation is a hallmark of aging, but the association of long-term inflammation trajectories with subsequent aging phenotypes has been little examined. We assessed inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) repeatedly over time and examined whether long-term changes predicted aging outcomes. A total of 2,437 men and women aged 47-87 years at baseline (1998-2001) who were participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing had CRP measured on two or three occasions between 1998 and 2009. Inflammation trajectories were computed using latent-class growth mixture modelling and were related to aging outcomes measured in 2012/2013: physical functioning, cardiometabolic, respiratory, mental health, and a composite "healthy aging" outcome. Four CRP trajectories were identified: 'stable-low' (71% of the sample) with baseline mean 1.33mg/L remaining <3mg/L; 'medium-to-high' (14%) with baseline 2.7mg/L rising to 5.3mg/L; 'high-to-medium' (10%) with baseline 6.6mg/L decreasing to 2.4mg/L; 'stable-high' (5%) with levels from 5.7 to 7.5mg/L. Relative to the stable-low trajectory, individuals in the medium-to-high had a higher risk of limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADL, Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.09; 1.51,2.88), instrumental ADL (1.62; 1.15,2.30), impaired balance (1.59; 1.20,2.11) and walking speed (1.61; 1.15,2.24), arthritis (1.55; 1.16,2.06), hypertension (1.57; 1.21,2.04), obesity (1.95; 1.36,2.80), poor respiratory function (1.84; 1.36,2.50), and depression (1.55; 1.13,2.12). A lower odds of healthy aging was observed in people in the medium-to-high (0.57; 0.40,0.79) and stable-high (0.50; 0.27,0.91) trajectories. Older people who displayed an elevation in CRP levels over a decade experienced an increased risk of adverse aging outcomes.

  17. Control of "blue carbon" storage by mangrove ageing: Evidence from a 66-year chronosequence in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcker, Romain; Gandois, Laure; Proisy, Christophe; Corenblit, Dov; Mougin, Éric; Laplanche, Christophe; Ray, Raghab; Fromard, François

    2018-06-01

    The role of mangroves in the blue carbon stock is critical and requires special focus. Mangroves are carbon-rich forests that are not in steady-state equilibrium at the decadal time scale. Over the last decades, the structure and zonation of mangroves have been largely disturbed by coastal changes and land use conversions. The amount of time since the last disturbance is a key parameter determining forest structure, but it has so far been overlooked in mangrove carbon stock projections. In particular, the carbon sequestration rates among mangrove successional ages after (re)establishment are poorly quantified and not used in large-scale estimations of the blue carbon stock. Here, it is hypothesized that ecosystem age structure significantly modulates mangrove carbon stocks. We analysed a 66-year chronosequence of the aboveground and belowground biomass and soil carbon stock of mangroves in French Guiana, and we found that in the year after forest establishment on newly formed mud banks, the aboveground, belowground and soil carbon stocks averaged 23.56 ± 7.71, 13.04 ± 3.37 and 84.26 ± 64.14 (to a depth of 1 m) Mg C/ha, respectively. The mean annual increment (MAI) in the aboveground and belowground reservoirs was 23.56 × Age -0.52 and 13.20 × Age -0.64  Mg C ha -1  year -1 , respectively, and the MAI in the soil carbon reservoir was 3.00 ± 1.80 Mg C ha -1  year -1 . Our results show that the plant carbon sink capacity declines with ecosystem age, while the soil carbon sequestration rate remains constant over many years. We suggest that global projections of the above- and belowground reservoirs of the carbon stock need to account for mangrove age structures, which result from historical changes in coastal morphology. Our work anticipates joint international efforts to globally quantify the multidecadal mangrove carbon balance based on the combined use of age-based parametric equations and time series of mangrove age maps at regional scales

  18. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  19. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  20. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  1. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

    2010-01-01

    monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the

  2. Neuropsychologic status at the age 4 years and atopy in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, J; Torrent, M; Guxens, M; Antó, J M; Guerra, S; Sunyer, J

    2009-09-01

    Mental health has been reported to be associated with allergy, but only a few cohort studies have assessed if neurodevelopment predicts atopy. To investigate if neurobehavioral status of healthy 4-year-old children was associated with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) at the same age and skin prick test results 2 years later. A population-based birth cohort enrolled 482 children, 422 of them (87%) provided neurobehavioral data, 341 (71%) had specific IgE measured at the age of 4 years; and 395 (82%) had skin prick tests completed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was defined as IgE levels higher than 0.35 kU/l to any of the three tested allergens at the age of 4 or as a positive skin prick test to any of the six tested allergens at the age of 6. McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities and California Preschool Social Competence Scale were the psychometric instruments used. Twelve percent of children at the age of 4 and 17% at the age of 6 were atopic. Neurobehavioral scores were negatively associated with 6-year-old atopy after adjustment for socio-demographic and allergic factors, A relative risk of 3.06 (95% CI: 1.30-7.24) was associated with the lowest tertile (scorings eczema at the age of 6, but not at the age of 4, were associated with neurodevelopment at the age of 4. Neuropsychologic functioning and later atopy are negatively associated in preschool age children.

  3. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  4. Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: Contributions of children's early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2017-10-01

    Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10). Mothers contributed ratings of children's externalizing behavior at all three time points. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (frequent corporal punishment and low maternal warmth) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Four developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior yielded the best balance of parsimony and fit with our longitudinal data and latent class growth analysis. Most young children followed a pathway marked by relatively low levels of symptoms that continued to decrease across the school-age years. Atypical trajectories marked chronically high, increasing, and decreasing levels of externalizing problems across early and middle childhood. Three-year-old children with low levels of effortful control were far more likely to show the chronic pattern of elevated externalizing problems than changing or low patterns. Early parental corporal punishment and maternal warmth, respectively, differentiated preschoolers who showed increasing and decreasing patterns of problem behavior compared to the majority of children. The fact that children's poor effortful regulation skills predicted chronic early onset problems reinforces the need for early childhood screening and intervention services.

  5. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  6. Hyperglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance test for 3-year prediction of clinical onset in persistently autoantibody-positive offspring and siblings of type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Eric V; Vandemeulebroucke, Evy; Weets, Ilse; Van De Velde, Ursule; Van Dalem, Annelien; Demeester, Simke; Verhaeghen, Katrijn; Gillard, Pieter; De Block, Christophe; Ruige, Johannes; Keymeulen, Bart; Pipeleers, Daniel G; Decochez, Katelijn; Gorus, Frans K

    2015-02-01

    In preparation of future prevention trials, we aimed to identify predictors of 3-year diabetes onset among oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)- and hyperglycemic clamp-derived metabolic markers in persistently islet autoantibody positive (autoAb(+)) offspring and siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The design is a registry-based study. Functional tests were performed in a hospital setting. Persistently autoAb(+) first-degree relatives of patients with T1D (n = 81; age 5-39 years). We assessed 3-year predictive ability of OGTT- and clamp-derived markers using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and Cox regression analysis. Area under the curve of clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release (AUC(5-10 min); min 5-10) was determined in all relatives and second-phase release (AUC(120-150 min); min 120-150) in those aged 12-39 years (n = 62). Overall, the predictive ability of AUC(5-10 min) was better than that of peak C-peptide, the best predictor among OGTT-derived parameters (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.89 [0.80-0.98] vs 0.81 [0.70-0.93]). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and AUC(5-10 min) provided the best combination of markers for prediction of diabetes within 3 years; (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.92 [0.84-1.00]). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, AUC(5-10 min)) (P = .001) was the strongest independent predictor and interacted significantly with all tested OGTT-derived parameters. AUC(5-10 min) below percentile 10 of controls was associated with 50-70% progression to T1D regardless of age. Similar results were obtained for AUC(120-150 min). Clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release can be used as an efficient and simple screening strategy in persistently autoAb(+) offspring and siblings of T1D patients to predict impending diabetes.

  7. Validation of the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for children aged 4 to 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Do Kyun; Jung, Jae Yun; Chang, Ikwan; Kwon, Hyuksool; Shin, Jonghwan; Paek, So Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Kwak, Young Ho

    2018-04-01

    Pain scales using faces are commonly used tools for assessing pain in children capable of communicating. However, some children require other types of pain scales because they have difficulties in understanding faces pain scales. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for 4- to 7-year-old children. This was a multicenter prospective observational study in the emergency department. Psychometric properties (convergent validity, discriminative validity, responsivity, and reliability) were compared between the "Pain Block" pain scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) to assess the validity of the "Pain Block" scale. A total of 163 children (mean age, 5.5 years) were included in this study. The correlation coefficient between the FPS-R and the Pain Block scale was 0.82 for all participants which increased with age. Agreement between the 2 pain scales was acceptable, with 95.0% of the values within the predetermined limit. The differences in mean scores between the painful group and nonpainful group were 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-4.1) and 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.6) for FPR-S and Pain Block, respectively. The pain scores for both pain scales were significantly decreased when analgesics or pain-relieving procedures were administered (difference in Pain Block, 2.4 [1.4-3.3]; and difference in FPS-R, 2.3 [1.3-3.3]). The Pain Block pain scale could be used to assess pain in 4- to 7-year-old children capable of understanding and counting up to the number 5, even if they do not understand the FPS-R pain scale.

  8. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

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    Ndugwa Christopher M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941. Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc Results Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3% had low serum zinc ( Conclusion Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.

  9. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

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    Wróblewska I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Izabela Wróblewska,1 Piotr Oleśniewicz,2 Donata Kurpas,3 Mariusz Sołtysik,2 Jerzy Błaszczuk41Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Institute of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, 3Department of Family Medicine, 4Faculty of Postgraduate Medical Training, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Lower Silesia, PolandIntroduction and objective: The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged ≥65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders.Material and methods: In the research, 217 (100% patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied.Results: The majority of the patients (59.4% were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%. The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive

  10. Poverty and behavior problems trajectories from 1.5 to 8 years of age: Is the gap widening between poor and non-poor children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-08-01

    Poverty has been associated with high levels of behavior problems across childhood, yet patterns of associations over time remain understudied. This study aims: (a) to examine whether poverty predicts changes in behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age; (b) to estimate potential selection bias for the observed associations. We used the 1998-2006 waves of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Main outcomes were maternal ratings of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression from 1.5 to 8 years of age. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the longitudinal association between poverty and behavior problems. Models were re-estimated adjusting for wave nonresponse and using multiple imputation to account for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. Poverty predicted hyperactivity and opposition in a time dependent manner. Hyperactivity [Bpoverty*age = 0.052; CI 95 % (0.002; 0.101)] and opposition [Bpoverty*age = 0.049; CI 95 % (0.018; 0.079)] increased at a faster rate up to ageyears, and then decreased at a slower rate for poor than non-poor children. Physical aggression decreased at a steady rate over time for all children [Bpoverty*age = -0.030; p = 0.064). Estimates remained similar when accounting for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. The difference between poor and non-poor children was stable over time for physical aggression, but increased with age for hyperactivity and opposition. Attrition among poor children did not compromise the validity of results.

  11. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia.Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years.A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts.Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  12. Age-Based Differences in the Genetic Determinants of Glycemic Control: A Case of FOXO3 Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Qian, Yu; Zheng, Chenguang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, Keyan; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a trait of healthy ageing and is crucial to the elderly, but less consideration has been given to the age composition in most studies involving genetics and hyperglycemia. Seven variants in FOXO3 were genotyped in three cohorts (n = 2037; LLI, MI_S and MI_N; mean age: 92.5 ± 3.6, 45.9 ± 8.2 and 46.8 ± 10.3, respectively) to compare the contribution of FOXO3 to fasting hyperglycemia (FH) between long-lived individuals (LLI, aged over 90 years) and middle-aged subjects (aged from 35-65 years). A different genetic predisposition of FOXO3 alleles to FH was observed between LLI and both of two middle-aged cohorts. In the LLI cohort, the longevity beneficial alleles of three variants with the haplotype "AGGC" in block 1 were significantly protective to FH, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C and HOMA-IR. Notably, combining multifactor dimensionality reduction and logistic regression, we identified a significant 3-factor interaction model (rs2802288, rs2802292 and moderate physical activity) associated with lower FH risk. However, not all of the findings were replicated in the two middle-aged cohorts. Our data provides a novel insight into the inconsistent genetic determinants between middle-aged and LLI subjects. FOXO3 might act as a shared genetic predisposition to hyperglycemia and lifespan.

  13. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

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    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district , Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Mengistu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Mengistu1 Mulugeta Shegaze2 Kifle Woldemichael3 Hailay Gesesew3,4 Yohannes Markos5 1Department of Zonal Health Office, Gamo Goffa Zone, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 4Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007 of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia.Objective: To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors.Results: The overall prevalence of

  15. Cognitive impairment at age 5 years in very preterm infants born following premature rupture of membranes.

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    Mura, Thibault; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Larroque, Béatrice; Galtier, Florence; Marret, Stephane; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Truffert, Patrick; Kuhn, Pierre; Fresson, Jeanne; Thiriez, Gérard; Arnaud, Catherine; Mercier, Gregoire; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Ledesert, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and cognitive impairment in 5-year-old children born very preterm. The Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels Study is a population-based cohort of children followed up from birth to age 5 years recruited in 9 French regions in 1997. We analyzed data from singletons born between 24 and 32 weeks gestation categorized into 4 groups according to etiology of prematurity: infants born after PPROM, after idiopathic preterm labor, in a vascular context (Vasc), and to women with other complications (Other). Cognitive development at age 5 years was assessed using the Mental Processing Composite score of the Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children. Among the 1051 children followed up to age 5 years, the mean Mental Processing Composite score was 93.6 ± 19.7, and 13.3% of the children (140 of 1051) had cognitive impairment. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of cognitive impairment among infants in the PPROM group was not significantly different than that in the idiopathic preterm labor group (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.62-1.92) and the Other group (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.75-2.47), but was lower than that in the Vasc group (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.16-2.97). In the PPROM group, the risk of cognitive impairment was greater when the latency period (ie, time from rupture to delivery) was <3 days (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.07-5.02). Preterm infants born after PPROM are not at increased risk for cognitive impairment in childhood, but the time between PPROM and birth may influence that risk. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health correlates of overweight and obesity in adults aged 50 years and over: results from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Obesity and health in Europeans aged > or = 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2008-05-03

    To examine the association between overweight/obesity and several self-reported chronic diseases, symptoms and disability measures. Data from eleven European countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe were used. 18,584 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50 years and over with BMI > or = 18.5 (kg/m2) were included. BMI was categorized into normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) and obesity (BMI > or = 30). Dependent variables were 13 diagnosed chronic conditions, 11 health complaints, subjective health and physical disability measures. For both genders, multiple logistic regressions were performed adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and behaviour risks. The odds ratios for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, arthritis, joint pain and swollen legs were significantly increased for overweight and obese adults. Compared to normal-weight individuals, the odds ratio (OR) for reporting > or = 2 chronic diseases was 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) for obese men and 2.7 (95% CI 2.2-3.1) for obese women. Overweight and obese women were more likely to report health symptoms. Obesity in men (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and overweight (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6) and obesity (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) in women, were associated with poorer subjective health (i.e. a decreased risk of reporting excellent, very good or good subjective health). Disability outcomes were those showing the greatest differences in strength of association across BMI categories, and between genders. For example, the OR for any difficulty in walking 100 metres was non-significant at 0.8 for overweight men, at 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for obese men, at 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) for overweight women, and at 3.5 (95% CI 2.6-4.7) for obese women. These results highlight the impact of increased BMI on morbidity and disability. Healthcare stakeholders of the participating countries should be aware of the substantial burden that obesity places on the general health

  17. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Navarre stabilized in the last eight years.

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    Forga, Luis; Tamayo, Ibai; Chueca, María; Ibáñez, Berta; Sainz de Los Terreros, Amaya; Goñi, María José

    2018-05-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus raises a number of controversies. Our study aim was to contribute to answer the following questions: Is incidence of T1DM increasing? Is age at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus decreasing? Which are the sex differences? Which are the characteristics in adults? A cross-sectional descriptive study using data from a primary source and 3 secondary sources from Navarre collected between 01/01/2009 and 12/31/2016. Annual incidence rates and incidence rate expressed as 100,000 person-years were estimated in the study period by age and sex group. The comparison of the sex and age incidence was made estimating the incidence rate using Poisson's regression methods. The completeness of the register was 96.08%. During the 8 years analyzed, 428 new cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus were reported (incidence: 8.4/100,000 person-years, 95% CI: 7.6-9.2). Incidence has remained stable and is higher in the group under 15 years old (21.5) than in adults (5.9). Males aged 10-14 years and females aged 5-9 years were the groups with the highest incidence. Incidence then decreased with increasing age. Type 1 diabetes mellitus predominates in males aged 10-45 years, and no changes were seen in age at onset when analized by four-year periods. Navarre shows a very high incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood and a low incidence in adulthood. Peak incidence is seen earlier in girls, but the disease predominates in males. Neither incidence nor age at onset have changed. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Senescence in the aging process [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Richard GA Faragher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of ‘senescent’ cells has long been proposed to act as an ageing mechanism. These cells display a radically altered transcriptome and degenerative phenotype compared with their growing counterparts. Tremendous progress has been made in recent years both in understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling entry into the senescent state and in the direct demonstration that senescent cells act as causal agents of mammalian ageing. The challenges now are to gain a better understanding of how the senescent cell phenotype varies between different individuals and tissues, discover how senescence predisposes to organismal frailty, and develop mechanisms by which the deleterious effects of senescent cells can be ameliorated.

  19. Persistence of cow's milk allergy beyond two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A; Santos, A; Pinheiro, J A

    2010-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) epidemiology seems to be changing over time, with an increase in prevalence and persistence. Our aim was to characterise a population of children with CMA beyond two years of age, followed up in a Paediatric Allergy Clinic at the tertiary care level. Retrospective study of children with persistent CMA diagnosed from January 1997 to June 2006. Medical records were analysed regarding: clinical presentation, follow-up, treatment and acquisition of tolerance. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2007 for Windows. Seventy-nine children were included, with mean age at first symptoms of 3 months. The symptoms were immediate in 93%, with cutaneous (87.3%), gastrointestinal (55.7%) and respiratory (25.3%) manifestations. During the follow-up period, 30% developed atopic eczema, 52% asthma and 35% rhinoconjunctivitis. A family history of atopy was identified in 53%. The majority presented increased serum total IgE (376+/-723 KU/l) and positive skin prick test (SPT) to cow's milk (CM) (79%). SPT to goat's milk was positive in 2/3 of cases. Fifty-five percent had at least one accidental exposure to CM (severe reactions in 6%). During CM elimination diet, 35% were initially given an extensively hydrolysed formula, 17% a soy formula, and 48% both. By the age of 10 years, 44% of children persisted with CMA. Our population of CM allergic children presented immediate symptoms with cutaneous expression in the majority. Severe reactions were common on accidental exposure. By the age of 10 years, 44% maintained CMA, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary follow-up. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. [Comparative analyze on hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys among population aged 1-29 years in different epidemic regions of China in 1992 and 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Sun, X J; Bi, S L; Liang, X F; Wang, H Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95 % CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95 %CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting. Results: 34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95 %CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95 % CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95 %CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95 % CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95 %CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95 % CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born

  1. [Relationship of plasma ghrelin, IGF-1 and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaying; Song, Guangyao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Baoping; Zhao, Xiumian; Yin, Jianying

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relationship of Ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin with the growth and development of 2 -7 year-old children with small for gestational age (SGA) at birth. The levels of ghrelin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin and glucose were measured in the children with preterm SGA and term SGA and compared with the children with preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and term AGA. The correlation of ghrelin with IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and insulin was analyzed. Plasma ghrelin in preterm SGA was higher than that in term SGA (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin in preterm AGA and term SGA was higher than that in term AGA (P development of preterm and SGA children, regardless of the magnitude of their catch up growth. As a re-regulatory factor to insulin, ghrelin regulates the energy metabolism in a form of negative feedback.

  2. Food intake and nutrition in children 1-4 years of age in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuanalo de la Cerda, Heriberto E; Ochoa Estrada, Ernesto; Tuz Poot, Felipe R; Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT in Spanish) reported high rates of under-nutrition in children of Yucatan. Is food intake the main cause of under-nutrition in children of the state of Yucatan, Mexico? Identify the primary causes of under-nutrition in pre-school children in Yucatan. A sample of 111 children (59 girls and 52 boys) aged 1-4 years representing Yucatan was taken from a database of ENSANUT 2006 and another national survey, a federal poverty mitigation programme for the state of Yucatan, Mexico entitled "Oportunidades". A human ecology approach together with life history theory was used to analyse anthropometric indices and food intake data from the ENSANUT 2006 and "Oportunidades". Height and weight were significantly correlated to age and total food intake. No correlations were found between age and anthropometric indices or food intake rates. The children in the sample had adequate protein intake but deficient energy intake. No correlation was identified between nutritional status and food intake rates. Pre-schoolers with higher weight-for-height values achieved greater height-for-age. These relationships can be explained by life history theory in that energy intake was used either for maintenance (combating and recovering from infections) or growth. The poor relationship between food intake rates and nutritional status is probably explained by the interaction between high disease incidence and insufficient energy intake. These conditions are endemic in Yucatan due to widespread poor housing, water and sanitation conditions.

  3. Increasing incidence and age at diagnosis among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus over a 20-year period in Auckland (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Reed, Peter W; Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children Auckland region (New Zealand) over 20 years (1990-2009). We performed a retrospective review of all patients new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r(2) = 0.31, p = 0.009). There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (pNew Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis. There has been a steady increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children Auckland over 20 years. Contrary to other studies, age at diagnosis has increased and the greatest rise in incidence occurred in children 10-14 yr. There was little change in BMI SDS in this population, providing no support for the 'accelerator hypothesis'.

  4. Tympanogram findings in patients with cleft palates aged six months to seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, A.; Widiarni, D.; Alviandi, W.; Tamin, S.; Mansyur, M.

    2017-08-01

    Cleft palate is one of the most common congenital craniofacial deformities. Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a middle ear disease having a prevalence of almost 90% in patients with cleft palates. Tympanometry is a fast, safe, non-invasive, and easy tool for diagnosing middle ear disease qualitatively and quantitatively. Studies have been conducted using tympanometry to detect middle ear conditions in patients with cleft palates, but no research has studied tympanogram findings in patients with cleft palates in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to determine the tympanogram findings in Indonesian children aged six months to seven years with cleft palates. This is a cross-sectional study of 30 patients (17 males and 13 females) with Veau classification of palatal clefts aged six months to seven years (median 26.5 months) who underwent tympanometry examinations using a 226 Hztympanometer. Tympanograms were classified using the Jerger/Liden classification. Examinations of 58 ears found that type B tympanograms occurred most frequently (70.7%). The quantitative values of tympanometry analyzed included SAA (0.1-0.2 cm3), TPP value (-197.2-(-146.8 daPa)), Vec value (0.5-0.6 cm3), and gradient value (0.03-0.07 cm3). Using the Fisher test, a significant relationship was found between age and type of tympanogram (p = 0.0039) with the risk of type B and C tympanograms in infants (6-60 months) as high as 4.8 times that of children without cleft palates. The type B tympanogram was most frequently seen in patients with cleft palates aged six months to seven years old with the quantitative values of tympanometry lower than the normal values. Therefore, there was a significant difference in the type of tympanogram seen with age.

  5. Fall in C-Peptide During First 4 Years From Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes: Variable Relation to Age, HbA1c, and Insulin Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Gitelman, Steven; DiMeglio, Linda A; Boulware, David; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to describe the natural history of residual insulin secretion in Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet participants over 4 years from diagnosis and relate this to previously reported alternative clinical measures reflecting β-cell secretory function. Data from 407 subjects from 5 TrialNet intervention studies were analyzed. All subjects had baseline stimulated C-peptide values of ≥0.2 nmol/L from mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs). During semiannual visits, C-peptide values from MMTTs, HbA1c, and insulin doses were obtained. The percentage of individuals with stimulated C-peptide of ≥0.2 nmol/L or detectable C-peptide of ≥0.017 nmol/L continued to diminish over 4 years; this was markedly influenced by age. At 4 years, only 5% maintained their baseline C-peptide secretion. The expected inverse relationships between C-peptide and HbA1c or insulin doses varied over time and with age. Combined clinical variables, such as insulin-dose adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1C) and the relationship of IDAA1C to C-peptide, also were influenced by age and time from diagnosis. Models using these clinical measures did not fully predict C-peptide responses. IDAA1C ≤9 underestimated the number of individuals with stimulated C-peptide ≥0.2 nmol/L, especially in children. Current trials of disease-modifying therapy for type 1 diabetes should continue to use C-peptide as a primary end point of β-cell secretory function. Longer duration of follow-up is likely to provide stronger evidence of the effect of disease-modifying therapy on preservation of β-cell function. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frédéric; Gonthier, Régis

    2011-03-01

    preservation of cognitive abilities is required to have a good quality of life. The predictive value of cognitive functioning at 65 years old on successful ageing 6 years later is not established. nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT), the Benton visual retention test and the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) and a subjective one (Goldberg's anxiety scale, Mac Nair's scale and a Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate memory abilities change in the last 5 years). six hundred and eighty-six questionnaires could be analysed. The mean age was 72.9 ± 1.2 years old with 59% of women and 99% lived at home. Well-being was negatively correlated with the FCSRT (r = -0.08, P = 0.0318) but positively related with the Benton (r = 0.09, P = 0.0125) and the similarities tests (r = 0.09, P = 0.0118). There is a negative correlation between anxious and cognitive complaints measured at baseline, and successful ageing indicators 6 years later. preservation of cognitive abilities at the age of retirement can predict a successful ageing 6 years later. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00759304.

  7. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children.

  8. Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertéus Forslund, H; Klingström, S; Hagberg, H; Löndahl, M; Torgerson, J S; Lindroos, A K

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted. In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year. Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase (-1.1 vs +0.4 snacks/day, respectively, Ptreatment (3M vs 3+3M=-4.1+/-6.1 vs -5.9+/-9.4 kg; P=0.31). Changes in metabolic variables did not differ between the groups, except for high-density lipoprotein that increased in the 3M group but not in 3+3M group (Psnacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss.

  9. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-01-01

    boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined...... comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished...... difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport accidents—especially in children aged 5–9 years...

  10. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Bolann, Bjørn J.; Ndugwa, Christopher M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementatio...

  11. Estimated incidence of pertussis in people aged <50 years in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chang; Balderston McGuiness, Catherine; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Blanchette, Christopher M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Kainan; Buck, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of pertussis vaccination in the United States (US) in the 1940s has greatly reduced its burden. However, the incidence of pertussis is difficult to quantify, as many cases are not laboratory-confirmed or reported, particularly in adults. This study estimated pertussis incidence in a commercially insured US population aged pertussis or cough illness using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes, a commercial outpatient laboratory database for patients with a pertussis laboratory test, and the Centers for Disease Control influenza surveillance database. US national pertussis incidence was projected using 3 methods: (1) diagnosed pertussis, defined as a claim for pertussis (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3) during 2008–2013; (2) based on proxy pertussis predictive logistic regression models; (3) using the fraction of cough illness (ICD-9 033.0, 033.9, 484.3, 786.2, 466.0, 466.1, 487.1) attributed to laboratory-confirmed pertussis, estimated by time series linear regression models. Method 1 gave a projected annual incidence of diagnosed pertussis of 9/100,000, which was highest in those aged pertussis of 649/100,000, approximately 58–93 times higher than method 1 depending on the year. These estimations, which are consistent with considerable underreporting of pertussis in people aged pertussis burden. PMID:27246119

  12. [Somatic and psychomotor development of preterm infants at the age of 2 years, with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwinta, Przemko; Klimek, Małgorzata; Pietrzyk, Jacek J

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of psychomotor and somatic development at the age of 2 years of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Case -- control study. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital. 62 preterm infants born before 32 weeks of gestation, with mean birth weight equaled to 1112 g were included into 2 groups: group A -- with BPD (n=31), group B (control) -- matched by sex, birth weight, gestational age (n=31). Evaluation of reaching milestones, neurological examination at 3, 9, 12, 18-24 months, Psyche-Cattel tests at 12 and 24 months, hearing and visions examinations, head, chest circumference, length and weight at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months. Age of unsupported sitting and walking, intelligence quotient (IQ), cerebral palsy, hearing and sight impairment. Reaching motor milestones were similar in the both groups (unsupported sitting (mean) 10.4 vs. 8.7 months, unsupported walking: 15.1 vs. 13.9 months). Cerebral palsy occurred more (non-significantly) frequently in group A than in group B (7/31 vs. 2/31, p=0.15). Significantly lower IQ was found in group A at the age of 1 year in comparison with group B (x +/- SEM: 79.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 86.1 +/- 1.5, p=0.03) and at the age of 2 years (x +/- SEM: 89.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 96.0 +/- 2.1, p=0.06). Weight, length, head and chest circumferences at the term of delivery were similar in the both groups, but at the age of 9 and 24 months the group A children weighted less than group B (respectively: 7432 vs. 8128 g, 10010 vs. 11116; pdevelopment of preterm newborns.

  13. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Potier, Brigitte; Heberden, Christine; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    The literature on the influence of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) on brain aging has grown exponentially during the last decade. Many avenues have been explored but no global picture or clear evidence has emerged. Experimental studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA is involved in many neurobiological processes that are involved in neurotransmission and neuroprotection, indicating that these PUFAs may prevent age-related brain damage. Human studies have revealed only a weak link between ω-3 PUFA status and cognitive aging, whereas interventional studies have yet to confirm it. The purpose of this review is to analyze the developments in the area during the last 2 years. Human brain MRI studies have confirmed previous findings that ω-3 PUFA can protect the brain during aging; two intervention studies obtained clear evidence. We also analyzed the experimental data clarifying the involvement of ω-3 PUFA in neurotransmission, neuroprotection (including prevention of peroxidation, inflammation, and excitotoxicity), and neurogenesis, thereby helping the brain cope with aging. These recent human and experimental studies provide support for and clarification of how ω-3 PUFA protect against brain aging and highlight the main lines for future research.

  15. A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A

    2018-03-01

    Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-4.1

  16. Changes in diet from age 10 to 14 years and prospective associations with school lunch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, Eleanor M; Corder, Kirsten L; Jones, Andy; Ambrosini, Gina L; White, Martin; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-09-01

    There is limited evidence on how diet changes over the transition from primary to secondary school. In this study we investigated changes in diet from age 10 (2007) to age 14 years (2011) and the contribution of school-time consumption and school lunch choice to such changes. The 351 participants with dietary data (4 day food record) available at baseline (age 10 years) and follow-up (age 14 years) were included. Multi-level regression models were fitted for absolute or change in food and nutrient intake, cross-classified by primary and secondary school attended as appropriate, with adjustment for covariates and mis-reporting. From age 10 to age 14 years, children decreased energy intake from sugars (-2.6% energy (%E)) (standard error (SE) 0.44) and from saturated fats (-0.54%E (SE 0.18)), decreased fruit (-3.13 g/MJ (SE 1.04)) and vegetables (-1.55 g/MJ (SE 0.46)) consumption and increased sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) (4.66  g/MJ (SE 1.87)) and fries (1.31  g/MJ (SE 0.39)) consumption. Intake of snack foods, SSBs, and fries, but also fruits and vegetables was higher outside school hours. Prospective change from non-school lunch to school lunch, compared to maintaining non-school lunch consumption, was associated with decreased consumption of savoury snacks (-8.32 g/day (SE 2.03)), increased consumption of fries (12.8 g/day (SE 4.01)) and decreased consumption of fruit (-25.16 g/day (SE 11.02)) during school hours. Changes in diet from age 10 to age 14 years differed within and outside of school hours. Consumption of a school lunch, compared to lunch obtained elsewhere, was associated with negative as well as positive changes in diet, suggesting that any efforts to encourage school lunch take-up need to be accompanied by further efforts to improve school lunch provision to meet nutritional guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  18. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ryan, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 ± 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 ± 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 ± 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-∞) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment-related toxicity.

  19. Development of the social brain from age three to twelve years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Hilary; Lisandrelli, Grace; Riobueno-Naylor, Alexa; Saxe, Rebecca

    2018-03-12

    Human adults recruit distinct networks of brain regions to think about the bodies and minds of others. This study characterizes the development of these networks, and tests for relationships between neural development and behavioral changes in reasoning about others' minds ('theory of mind', ToM). A large sample of children (n = 122, 3-12 years), and adults (n = 33), watched a short movie while undergoing fMRI. The movie highlights the characters' bodily sensations (often pain) and mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions), and is a feasible experiment for young children. Here we report three main findings: (1) ToM and pain networks are functionally distinct by age 3 years, (2) functional specialization increases throughout childhood, and (3) functional maturity of each network is related to increasingly anti-correlated responses between the networks. Furthermore, the most studied milestone in ToM development, passing explicit false-belief tasks, does not correspond to discontinuities in the development of the social brain.

  20. Effects of early auditory experience on the spoken language of deaf children at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E

    2006-06-01

    By age 3, typically developing children have achieved extensive vocabulary and syntax skills that facilitate both cognitive and social development. Substantial delays in spoken language acquisition have been documented for children with severe to profound deafness, even those with auditory oral training and early hearing aid use. This study documents the spoken language skills achieved by orally educated 3-yr-olds whose profound hearing loss was identified and hearing aids fitted between 1 and 30 mo of age and who received a cochlear implant between 12 and 38 mo of age. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the effects of age, duration, and type of early auditory experience on spoken language competence at age 3.5 yr. The spoken language skills of 76 children who had used a cochlear implant for at least 7 mo were evaluated via standardized 30-minute language sample analysis, a parent-completed vocabulary checklist, and a teacher language-rating scale. The children were recruited from and enrolled in oral education programs or therapy practices across the United States. Inclusion criteria included presumed deaf since birth, English the primary language of the home, no other known conditions that interfere with speech/language development, enrolled in programs using oral education methods, and no known problems with the cochlear implant lasting more than 30 days. Strong correlations were obtained among all language measures. Therefore, principal components analysis was used to derive a single Language Factor score for each child. A number of possible predictors of language outcome were examined, including age at identification and intervention with a hearing aid, duration of use of a hearing aid, pre-implant pure-tone average (PTA) threshold with a hearing aid, PTA threshold with a cochlear implant, and duration of use of a cochlear implant/age at implantation (the last two variables were practically identical because all children were tested between 40 and 44

  1. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  2. [Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2,500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental continuity of oppositional defiant disorder subdimensions at ages 8, 10, and 13 years and their distinct psychiatric outcomes at age 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Yvonne M; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2013-09-01

    To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Data were collected from 6,328 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in women above 30 years of age in Minoudar, Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Barikani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN is one of the most important causes of early mortality and a risk factor of many diseases such as cerebrovascular and coronary artery diseases and renal failure. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN in women above 30 years of age in Qazvin, Iran.    METHODS: In a cross- sectional study in Minoudar (Qazvin, Iran, 328 women who aged above 30 years old were selected using simple random sampling. Their sitting blood pressure was measured twice and the mean values were recorded. Their height and weight were also measured and their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Data was collected in a questionnaire including age, education, smoking, alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCP and salt consumption, and history of HTN and its treatment. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test in SPSS16. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.    RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 47.3 ± 1.1 years. Total frequency of HTN was 32%. In addition, 59.2% of hypertensive individuals were aware of their disease. While 48.1% of them were receiving treatment, only 21.3% had controlled blood pressure. Salt intake was determined as none, moderate, and high in 9.1%, 63.7%, and 27.1% of the participants, respectively. Most subjects (71.6% did not exercise, 12.8% exercised less than 2 hours a week and 15.5% exercised more than 2 hours a week. Overall, 8.8% of the participants had used OCP. None of the subjects had used alcohol. Overweight and obesity were detected in 38.7% and 40.8% of the studied women, respectively. There were significant relations between age and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01. Moreover, salt intake was significantly related with high systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.02.    CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of hypertensive participants did not know about their disease and did not have controlled blood pressure. Most women

  5. Comparison of Readmission Rates After Acute Myocardial Infarction in 3 Patient Age Groups (18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 Years) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Pandey, Ambarish; Agusala, Vijay; Kumbhani, Dharam J; Das, Sandeep R; Berry, Jarett D; de Lemos, James A; Girotra, Saket

    2017-11-15

    Postacute myocardial infarction (AMI) readmissions are common among Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years) and are associated with significant resource utilization. However, patterns of AMI readmissions for younger age groups in the United States are not known. In the Nationwide Readmissions Database, a nationally representative all-payer database of inpatient hospitalizations, we identified 212,171 index AMI hospitalizations in January to November 2013, weighted to represent 478,247 hospitalizations nationally (mean age 66.9 years, 38% women, 29% low income). This included 26,516 cases in the 18 to 44 age group, 183,703 in the 45 to 64 age group, and 268,027 in the ≥65 age group. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 14.5% and varied across age groups (9.7% [18 to 44], 11.2% [45 to 64], and 17.3% [≥65]). The cumulative cost of 30-day readmissions was $1.1 billion, of which $365 million was spent on those age. In multivariable hierarchical models, the risk of readmission was higher in women and in low-income patients, but the effect varied by age (p value for age-gender and age-income interactions age groups. Further, patients in all age groups continue to have a high hospitalization burden beyond the typical 30-day readmission period, with an overall 24% post-AMI 90-day readmission rate. In conclusion, readmissions in young and middle-aged AMI survivors pose a substantial burden on patients and on U.S. health-care resources. Women and low-income patients with AMI, particularly those in younger age groups, are more frequently readmitted, and readmissions continue to burden the health-care system beyond the typical 30-day window. Future investigations would need to be targeted toward a better understanding and improvement of the rehospitalization burden for vulnerable patient groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative studies of saponins in 1-3-year-old main roots, fibrous roots, and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng, and identification of different parts and growth-year samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Chao-Qun; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2013-04-01

    Notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa, and K (N-R1, N-R4, N-Fa, and N-K), as well as ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1 (G-Rg1, G-Rb1, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rf, G-Rg2 and G-Rh1) in 47 Notoginseng samples including 1-, 2- and 3-year-old main roots, rhizomes and fibrous roots of Panax notoginseng were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method. Total contents (%) of the 11 saponins were 9.82-14.57 for 2-year old and 14.20-16.00 for 3-year-old rhizomes; 2.72-4.50 for 2-year-old and 1.98-4.92 for 3-year-old fibrous roots; 1.75-3.05 for 1-year-old whole roots; and 3.71-8.98 for 2-year-old and 7.03-11.23 for 3-year-old main roots. Contents of most saponins and total content of 11 saponins were in the order 3- >2- >1-year-old main root samples. G-Rf content, sum of G-Rf and G-Rh1 were, respectively, 0.08-0.18 and 0.14-0.32 for 2- or 3-year-old rhizomes, and 0.01-0.07 and 0.03-0.10 for 2- or 3-year-old main roots. Combined contents of N-R1, G-Rg1 and G-Rb1 were 5.78-9.37 in 3-year-old main roots, and 2.99-7.13 in 2-year-old main roots, of which nearly one-third of samples were lower than the limit (5 %) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Those of 2- or 3-year-old fibrous roots (1.47-3.83) and 1-year-old whole roots (1.41-2.44) were much lower than the limit, and were considered not suitable for use as Notoginseng. Two-year-old main roots are not appropriate for collection as Notoginseng. Different parts and growth years of P. notoginseng can be identified from each another according to differences in saponin content.

  7. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini; Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis; Andronikou, Styliani

    2005-01-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length (± SD) of 56±4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9±4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3±4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2±4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6±4.6, 62.8±4.3, and 62.3±4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  8. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  9. HbA1c, diabetes and cognitive decline: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fanfan; Yan, Li; Yang, Zhenchun; Zhong, Baoliang; Xie, Wuxiang

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and subsequent cognitive decline over a 10 year follow-up period. Data from wave 2 (2004-2005) to wave 7 (2014-2015) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analysed. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline (wave 2) and reassessed every 2 years at waves 3-7. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate longitudinal associations. The study comprised 5189 participants (55.1% women, mean age 65.6 ± 9.4 years) with baseline HbA 1c levels ranging from 15.9 to 126.3 mmol/mol (3.6-13.7%). The mean follow-up duration was 8.1 ± 2.8 years and the mean number of cognitive assessments was 4.9 ± 1.5. A 1 mmol/mol increment in HbA 1c was significantly associated with an increased rate of decline in global cognitive z scores (-0.0009 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0014, -0.0003), memory z scores (-0.0005 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0009, -0.0001) and executive function z scores (-0.0008 SD/year, 95% CI -0.0013, -0.0004) after adjustment for baseline age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, BMI, education, marital status, depressive symptoms, current smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, CHD, stroke, chronic lung disease and cancer. Compared with participants with normoglycaemia, the multivariable-adjusted rate of global cognitive decline associated with prediabetes and diabetes was increased by -0.012 SD/year (95% CI -0.022, -0.002) and -0.031 SD/year (95% CI -0.046, -0.015), respectively (p for trend cognitive decline with diabetes. Significant longitudinal associations between HbA 1c levels, diabetes status and long-term cognitive decline were observed in this study. Future studies are required to determine the effects of maintaining optimal glucose control on the rate of cognitive decline in people with diabetes.

  10. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chevalier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior” (Chevalier et al., 2016 [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75–94 years (median 80 years, 52% male living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. Keywords: Older drivers, Speed, Road safety, Naturalistic, In-vehicle monitoring, Device

  11. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  12. Has life satisfaction in Norway increased over a 20-year period? Exploring age and gender differences in a prospective longitudinal study, HUNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysberg, Frode; Gjerstad, PåL; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Innstrand, Siw Tone; Høie, Magnhild Mjåvatn; Arild Espnes, Geir

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in overall life satisfaction for different age groups and between genders over a 20-year period. Data from 1984 to 2008 were extracted from a large prospective longitudinal health study of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT), Norway. The study included more than 176,000 participants ranging from 20 to 70+ years of age. Data were analysed using logistic regression and adjusted for gender. The analyses revealed an increase in life satisfaction for all age groups from 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) to 1995-1997 (HUNT 2), with the highest levels being reached at 2006-2008 (HUNT 3). For all age groups, the data showed an increase of about 20% for the period from 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) to 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). From 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) to 2006-2008 (HUNT 3), the increase in overall life satisfaction was 16% for the younger age groups, and about 32% for the older age groups (40-69 and 70+ years). Women's scores for overall life satisfaction were higher for nearly all age groups when compared to men using HUNT 3 as a reference. These findings suggest an increase in life satisfaction for all age groups from 1984 to 2008, especially for the older age group (40-69 and 70+ years). The data indicate that women score higher on life satisfaction for most age groups as compared to men.

  13. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  14. Young age under 60 years is not a contraindication to treatment with definitive dose escalated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klayton, Tracy L.; Ruth, Karen; Horwitz, Eric M.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Kutikov, Alexander; Chen, David Y.T.; Sobczak, Mark; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is widely believed that younger prostate cancer patients are at greater risk of recurrence following radiotherapy (RT). Methods: From 1992 to 2007, 2168 (395 age ⩽60) men received conformal RT alone for prostate cancer at our institution (median dose = 76 Gy, range: 72–80). Multivariable analysis (MVA) was used to identify significant predictors for BF and PCSM. Cumulative incidence was estimated using the competing risk method (Fine and Gray) for BF (Phoenix definition) and PCSM to account for the competing risk of death. Results: With a median follow-up of 72.2 months (range: 24.0–205.1), 8-year BF was 27.1% for age ⩽60 vs. 23.7% for age >60 (p = 0.29). Eight-year PCSM was 3.0% for age ⩽60 vs. 2.0% for age >60 (p = 0.52). MVA for BF identified initial PSA [adjusted HR = 1.7 (PSA 10–20), 2.6 (PSA >20), p 12 months), p < 0.01] as significant, but not age or ADT <12 months. MVA for PCSM identified Gleason score [adjusted HR = 3.0 (G8–10), p = 0.01] and T-stage [adjusted HR = 8.7 (T3-4), p < 0.01] as significant, but not age, PSA, or ADT. Conclusion: This is the largest, most mature study of younger men treated with RT for prostate cancer that confirms young age is not prognostic for BF.

  15. TUG1 promotes lens epithelial cell apoptosis by regulating miR-421/caspase-3 axis in age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxing; Song, Huiyang; Chen, Lei; Yang, Weihua; Nan, Kaihui; Lu, Peirong

    2017-07-01

    Age-related cataract is among the most common chronic disorders of ageing and the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells contributes to non-congenital cataract development. We amid to explore the role of TUG1 and miR-421 in the age-related cataract. The expression level of TUG1, miR-421 and caspase-3 were detected by RT-qPCR. The apoptotic-related protein, caspase-3, Bax and blc-2 were analyzed by western blot. We performed ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to induce SAR01/04 cell apoptosis which was analyzed by flow cytometry. RIP pull-down and luciferase reporter assay were used to verified the combination and regulating among TUG1, miR-421 and caspase-3. Here, we observed that the expression level of TUG1 and caspase-3 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract were significantly higher and miR-421 was significantly lower than that in the normal anterior lens capsules. The apoptosis-related protein, caspase-3, Bax and blc-2 were abnormal expression in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract tissue. Our data showed that the expression level of TUG1 and caspase-3 and cell apoptosis rate in SAR01/04 cells treated with UV irradiation was remarkably higher than that in the control. TUG1 negatively regulated miR-421 expression and promoted UV irradiation-induced SAR01/04 cell apoptosis. However, miR-421 inhibitor and pcDNA-caspase-3 could reverse the action of the SRA01/04 cell apoptosis by si-TUG1, which suggested TUG1 promoted UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulating miR-421 expression. Furthermore, this study confirmed TUG1 could been in combination with miR-421, and TUG1 and caspase-3 were both a directly target of miR-421. TUG1 modulated lens epithelial cell apoptosis through miR-421/caspase-3 axis. These findings will offer a novel insight into the pathogenesis of cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Associations of Lens Power With Age and Axial Length in Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Zhang, Bo; Hong, Yuan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between lens power and age as well as the relationship between lens power and axial length (AL) in Chinese children and adolescents. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included AL, cycloplegic refraction, and Pentacam measurements. The crystalline lens power was calculated using Bennett's formula and then compared among the children of different age groups, refractive statuses, and AL categories. The association of lens power and AL was analyzed using multiple regression. A total of 1992 children and adolescents aged 6- to 18-years old were included. The difference in lens power was greater before 10-years old, followed by a relatively smaller difference in children aged 10 to 14 years and the difference in lens power came to a near plateau in adolescents after 14-years old. The negative association between lens power and AL was found to be more evident in nonmyopes than in myopes irrespective of age (younger than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.499, myopes: β = -0.872; older than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.288, myopes: β = -0.390, all P power in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years exhibited three stages. The association between lens power and AL differed between the nonmyopes and myopes. These findings suggested that less reduction in lens power might be associated with both growing age and increasing AL in myopes.

  17. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  18. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Rubin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert T Rubin1,2, Richard H Rahe31Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2UCLA Bruin Masters Swim Club, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Portland VA Hospital Community-Based Outpatient Center, Salem, OR, USAAbstract: The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a “user-friendly” aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on “breath control”, and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly

  19. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  1. Assessment and classification of psychopathology in epidemiological research of children 0-3 years of age: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L

    2004-01-01

    , such as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary results seem...... promising. The demands made on diagnostic assessment procedures in epidemiological research of children 0-3 years of age can be met by a combination of well-established research instruments, such as the CBCL, with in-depth clinical assessment procedures, such as the Bayley Scales and the ERA, and diagnostic...... classification by DC 0-3....

  2. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jin Moon

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD and sarcopenia.We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation.Mean age, body mass index (BMI, and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p < 0.001. In addition, a correlation analysis showed that GFR and ASM/Wt had significant correlations in both men and women. Logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, BMI, caloric intake, log(physical activity, vitamin D level, and log(HOMA-IR, showed that the odds ratio for sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3-5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02-3.68 in men but was not statistically significant in women.The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD.

  3. Social resources and cognitive ageing across 30 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... a negative association. Marital status (at ages 50 and 60) and loneliness at age 70 were the only social resources associated with cognitive change; married individuals and those not feeling lonely experienced less cognitive decline. When the social resources showing significant associations were considered...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...

  4. Association between the prevalence of depression and age in a large representative German sample of people aged 53 to 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Lechner, Sabine; Niehoff, Doro; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Stegmaier, Christa; Raum, Elke

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between the prevalence of clinically significant depression and age in a large representative sample of elderly German people. In the second follow-up (2005-2007) of the ESTHER cohort study, the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) as well as a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire were administered to a representative sample of 8270 people of ages 53 to 80 years. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was estimated using a GDS cut-off score of 5/6. Prevalence rates were estimated for the different age categories. Association between depression and age was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, co-morbid medical disorders, education, marital status, physical activity, smoking, self-perceived cognitive impairment, and anti-depressive medication. Of the participants, 7878 (95.3%) completed more than twelve GDS items and were included in the study. The prevalence of clinically significant depression was 16.0% (95%CI = [15.2; 16.6]). The function of depression prevalence dependent on age group showed a U-shaped pattern (53-59: 21.0%, CI = [18.9; 23.3]; 60-64: 17.7%, CI = [15.7; 19.7]; 65-69: 12.6%, CI = [11.2; 14.0]; 70-74: 14.4%, CI = [12.6; 16.0]; 75-80: 17.1%, CI = [14.9; 19.4]). Adjusted odds ratios showed that the chances of being depressive decrease with the age category but remain relatively stable for people aged 65 and over. The prevalence of depression in the elderly seems to be associated with the age category. Adjusted odds ratios showed that people aged 60 and older had lower chances of being depressive than people aged 53 to 59 years. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mild traumatic brain injury: a description of how children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age perform leisure activities after 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Cecilia; Andersson, Elisabeth Elgmark

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to describe how children and youths perform leisure activities, 1 year after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Basis is to compile previously collected material; patients were extracted from a prospective randomized controlled trial of MTBI. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 73 children and youths between 16 and 18 years of age. The entire group administrated the Interest Checklist at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Statistical significant difference was found in 31 of 50 different activities. The result showed that children and youths did not return to perform leisure activities. Fewer returned in the intervention group than in the control group. An occupational therapist can help children and youths to have balance in their life and continue a functional life after a MTBI. Continued research is needed, how to prevent MTBI and how to support children and youths to continue with leisure activities.

  6. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship between serum ferritin levels and sarcopenia in Korean females aged 60 years and older using the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that elevated serum ferritin is associated with several metabolic disorders. However, there is no reported study assessing any association between serum ferritin and sarcopenia despite the close relationship between sarcopenia and metabolic disorders. We investigated whether serum ferritin was associated with sarcopenia in older Koreans. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data acquired in the second and third years (2008-9) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In total, 952 men (mean age 69.0 years) and 1,380 women (mean age 69.3 years) aged 60 years and older completed a body composition study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum ferritin levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal mass as a percentage of body weight that was less than two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Serum ferritin levels were lower in women than in men. Women with sarcopenia showed a higher level of serum ferritin than women without sarcopenia (men: without sarcopenia 115.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 134.4 ng/mL vs. women: without sarcopenia 70.7 ng/mL and with sarcopenia 85.4 ng/mL). The prevalence of sarcopenia increased as the tertile of serum ferritin increased. However, statistical significance was only seen in elderly women (1(st) tertile 6.3%, 2(nd) tertile 8.0%, 3(rd) tertile 12.0%; p = 0.008). Without adjustment, compared with those in the lowest tertile of serum ferritin level, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio of 2.02 (95% confidence interval = 1.26-3.23) for sarcopenia in women. After adjusting for known risk factors, the OR for sarcopenia was 1.74 (95% CI = 1.02-2.97) in women. There was no statistically significant association between sarcopenia and serum ferritin tertiles in men. Elevated serum ferritin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in women but not in men from a representative sample

  8. Body size of young Australians aged five to 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, N E; Maller, R A; Gilmour, A I

    1986-10-20

    In 1983-1984, 4578 Perth primary and secondary schoolchildren were studied. The selected sample was broadly representative of the ethnic groups that make up the Perth population and of the different social ranks within that population. The age, sex, weight, height, country of birth of the child and the parents, and occupation of the father were recorded for each subject. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) increased with age. Age and sex were the most important determinants of body size. However, children of lower social rank and those with a southern European background were over-represented among the overweight children (greater than the 90th centile for BMI), particularly in adolescence. Children with an Asian background who were 11 years of age and younger were over-represented among the underweight children (less than or equal to the 10th centile for BMI). Results from this study indicate a continuing, though small (1.5 cm to 1.6 cm), secular increase in height over the past 13 to 14 years.

  9. Infant BMI peak as a predictor of overweight and obesity at age 2 years in a Chinese community-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Nwaru, Bright I; Hua, Jing; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhuochun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has proven to be a useful indicator for predicting childhood obesity risk in American and European populations. However, it has not been assessed in China. We characterised infant BMI trajectories in a Chinese longitudinal cohort and evaluated whether BMI peak can predict overweight and obesity at age 2 years. Methods Serial measurements (n=6–12) of weight and length were taken from healthy term infants (n=2073) in a birth cohort established in urban Shanghai. Measurements were used to estimate BMI growth curves from birth to 13.5 months using a polynomial regression model. BMI peak characteristics, including age (in months) and magnitude (BMI, in kg/m2) at peak and prepeak velocities (in kg/m2/month), were estimated. The relationship between infant BMI peak and childhood BMI at age 2 years was examined using binary logistic analysis. Results Mean age at peak BMI was 7.61 months, with a magnitude of 18.33 kg/m2. Boys (n=1022) had a higher average peak BMI (18.60 vs 18.07 kg/m2, pBMI and 1 month increase in peak time, the risk of overweight at age 2 years increased by 2.11 times (OR 3.11; 95% CI 2.64 to 3.66) and 35% (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.50), respectively. Similarly, higher BMI magnitude (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.00 to 3.61) and later timing of infant BMI peak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity at age 2 years. Conclusions We have shown that infant BMI peak is valuable for predicting early childhood overweight and obesity in urban Shanghai. Because this is the first Chinese community-based cohort study of this nature, future research is required to examine infant populations in other areas of China. PMID:28988164

  10. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  11. Predictive Value of Different Expressions of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1) for Adverse Outcomes in a Cohort of Adults Aged 80 and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegendörfer, Eralda; Vaes, Bert; Andreeva, Elena; Matheï, Catharina; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) is proposed as a marker of healthy ageing and FEV 1 expressions that are independent of reference values have been reported to be better at predicting mortality in older adults. We assess and compare the predictive value of different FEV 1 expressions for mortality, hospitalization, and physical and mental decline in adults aged 80 and older. Population-based, prospective, cohort study. The BELFRAIL study, Belgium. A total of 501 community-dwelling adults aged 80 and older (mean age 84.7 years). Baseline FEV 1 expressed as percent predicted (FEV 1 PP) and z-score (FEV 1 Z) using the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 reference values; over lowest sex-specific percentile (FEV 1 Q), and height squared (FEV 1 /Ht 2 ) and cubed (FEV 1 /Ht 3 ). Mortality data until 5.1 ± 0.2 years from baseline; hospitalization data until 3.0 ± 0.25 years. Activities of daily living, battery of physical performance tests, Mini-Mental State Examination, and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and after 1.7 ± 0.2 years. Individuals in the lowest quartile of FEV 1 expressions had higher adjusted risk than the rest of study population for all-cause mortality (highest hazard ratio 2.05 [95% Confidence Interval 1.50-2.80] for FEV 1 Q and 2.01 [1.47-2.76] for FEV 1 /Ht 3 ), first hospitalization (highest hazard ratio 1.63 [1.21-2.16] for FEV 1 /Ht 2 and 1.61[1.20-2.16] for FEV 1 /Ht 3 ), mental decline (highest odds ratio 2.80 [1.61-4.89] for FEV 1 Q) and physical decline (only FEV 1 /Ht 3 with odds ratio 1.93 [1.13-3.30]). Based on risk classification improvement measures, FEV 1 /Ht 3 and FEV 1 Q performed better than FEV 1 PP. In a cohort of adults aged 80 and older, FEV 1 expressions that are independent of reference values (FEV 1 /Ht 3 and FEV 1 Q) were better at predicting adverse health outcomes than traditional expressions that depend on reference values, and should be used in further research on FEV 1 and aging

  12. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD.

  13. Biological age as a health index for mortality and major age-related disease incidence in Koreans: National Health Insurance Service – Health screening 11-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang YG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Gon Kang,1 Eunkyung Suh,2 Jae-woo Lee,3 Dong Wook Kim,4 Kyung Hee Cho,5 Chul-Young Bae1 1Department of R&D, MediAge Research Center, Seongnam, Republic of South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, CHA University, Chaum, Seoul, Republic of South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of South Korea; 4Department of Policy Research Affairs, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Republic of South KoreaPurpose: A comprehensive health index is needed to measure an individual’s overall health and aging status and predict the risk of death and age-related disease incidence, and evaluate the effect of a health management program. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the validity of estimated biological age (BA in relation to all-cause mortality and age-related disease incidence based on National Sample Cohort database.Patients and methods: This study was based on National Sample Cohort database of the National Health Insurance Service – Eligibility database and the National Health Insurance Service – Medical and Health Examination database of the year 2002 through 2013. BA model was developed based on the National Health Insurance Service – National Sample Cohort (NHIS – NSC database and Cox proportional hazard analysis was done for mortality and major age-related disease incidence.Results: For every 1 year increase of the calculated BA and chronological age difference, the hazard ratio for mortality significantly increased by 1.6% (1.5% in men and 2.0% in women and also for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke, and cancer incidence by 2.5%, 4.2%, 1.3%, 1.6%, and 0.4%, respectively (p<0.001.Conclusion: Estimated BA by the developed BA model based on NHIS – NSC database is expected to be

  14. Clinicopathological features of patients with breast cancer aged 70 years or over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aydin; Karatas, Fatih; Sahin, Suleyman; Erdem, Gokmen U; Altundag, Kadri

    2017-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer (BC) increases in parallel with increasing age. Despite the increased disease burden in elderly patients, there is still a great uncertainty regarding "how to manage" BC in aging-population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological features and treatment approaches of patients with BC aged 70 years or over. The medical records of 4413 patients with BC followed between 1994-2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 4413 patients, 238 with stage I to III disease aged 70 years or over at BC diagnosis were enrolled into this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the age as group 1 (70-79 years, N=192) and group 2 (80 or over, N=46). Clinicopathological features of patients including tumor histology, grade, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, tumor size, lymph node involvement (LNI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion (PNI), clinical stage, type of surgery, treatments and comorbid diseases were evaluated. The median age was 74 for group 1 (range 70-79) and 82 for group 2 (range 80-92). Excluding tumor size and grade, no statictically significant difference was found between the two groups according to histopathological characteristics. Patients in group 2 had more commonly larger T stage (T4), and less frequently presented with grade I tumor (p=0.014 and p=0.044, respectively). Modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were more commonly performed in group 1 (p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). In contrast, neoadjuvant treatment was more frequently applied in group 2 (p=0.003). There was no difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between the groups (p=0.012), however, median overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in group 1 (p=0.03). Excluding the tumor grade and tumor size, both groups had similar histopathological features. However, patients aged between 70-79 years were likely to

  15. Relationship between Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Sarcopenia in Korean Aged 40 Years and Older Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV-2, 3, and V-1, 2), 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Soo Young; Chung, Jae Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, few studies have examined the relationship between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sarcopenia. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. In total, 11,625 subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined based on values of appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight (ASM/Wt) two standard deviations below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated using the CKD-EPI equation. Mean age, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA-IR were higher and caloric intake, physical activity, and vitamin D level were lower in the sarcopenia groups in both men and women. As the stage of CKD increased, the prevalence of sarcopenia increased, even in the early stages of CKD (normal and CKD1, 2, and 3-5: 2.6%, 5.6%, and 18.1% in men and 5.3%, 7.1%, and 12.6% in women, respectively; p sarcopenia with respect to CKD 3-5 was 1.93 (95% CI = 1.02-3.68) in men but was not statistically significant in women. The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in elderly Korean patients with even mildly reduced kidney function. Stage of CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of sarcopenia in men but not women. Thus, we should evaluate the risk of sarcopenia and work to prevent it, even in patients with early CKD.

  16. Repeatability of stance phase kinematics from a multi-segment foot model in people aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model described by Leardini et al. [2] in people aged 50 years or older. Twenty healthy adults participated (mean age 65.4 years SD 8.4). A repeated measures study design was used with data collected from four testing sessions on two days from two observers. Intra (within-day and between-day) and inter-observer coefficient of multiple correlations revealed moderate to excellent similarity of stance phase joint range of motion (0.621-0.975). Relative to the joint range of motion (ROM), mean differences (MD) between sessions were highest for the within-day comparison for all planar ROM at the metatarsus-midfoot articulation (sagittal plane ROM 5.2° vs. 3.9°, MD 3.1°; coronal plane ROM 3.9 vs. 3.1°, MD 2.3°; transverse plane ROM 6.8° vs. 5.16°, MD 3.5°). Consequently, data from the metatarsus-midfoot articulation in the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (IOR) foot model in adults aged over 50 years needs to be considered with respect to the findings of this study. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acid-base status at birth, spontaneous motor behaviour at term and 3 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at age 4 years in full-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, J; Feron, FJM; Hendriksen, JGM; van Hall, M; Gavilanes-Jiminez, DWD; Hadders-Algra, M; Vles, JSH

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between acid-base status and quality and quantity of General Movements (GMs) at birth and quality of GMs at age 3 months and motor, cognitive and behavioural functioning at the age of 4 years. Methods: From a cohort of 84 term children

  18. Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuscia, Anna; Mills, Melinda C

    2017-07-01

    between ART and NC groups. Growth curve models (random-coefficient, latent trajectory models) were used to study the effect of ART, confounding parental characteristics and health outcomes at birth, both at a baseline level of cognitive ability at age 3 years and on its growth rate. At age 3 and 5 years, children conceived with the aid of ART have higher verbal cognitive abilities than NC children (P children's cognitive development. The sample size of the ART cohort of children is small across each time period (N = 150-180) in comparison with NC children (N = 10 496-11 955). Owing to a limited sample size, we are also unable to compare IVF versus ICSI treatment. With the increasing use of IVF and ICSI, these results indicate that there are no detrimental effects on children's early cognitive outcomes up to age 11 years, and highlight the importance of parental characteristics. Funding for this project was provided by the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7 2007-2013) (No. 320116 Families and Societies), ESRC/NCRM SOCGEN Grant (ES/N0011856/1) and the SOCIOGENOME ERC Consolidator Grant (ERC-2013-CoG-615603) (to M.C.M.). The authors have no competing interests to declare. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  19. [Pertussis trend in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiánová, K; Šebestová, H; Beneš, Č; Zavadilová, J; Křížová, P; Kříž, B

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the epidemiological situation of pertussis in children under one year of age in the Czech Republic in 1997-2013. The study cohort consisted of children under one year of age with laboratory confirmed pertussis reported to the communicable disease system from 1997 to 2013. A total of 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age over the study period. Selected demographic data, need for hospitalization, and vaccination history were evaluated in the study cohort. Children under one year of age have shown a steady upward trend in reported cases of pertussis since the 1990s. The reported incidence of pertussis in this age group was the lowest in 1998 (1.1/100,000 population) and the highest in 2013 (31.3/100,000). In 1997-2013, 265 pertussis cases were reported in children under one year of age, 128 females and 137 males, to the communicable disease system in the Czech Republic. Most of these children, nearly 77%, developed pertussis within the first four months of life. Of the 265 children, 79% were not vaccinated before the onset of the disease and 21% were immunized with at least one dose of pertussis vaccine before developing the disease. As many as 75% of the children with pertussis needed hospitalization. Most of them, nearly 81%, were hospitalized with pertussis in the first four months of life and 90% of them in the first six months of life. In 1997-2013, an upward trend was observed in pertussis cases in children under one year of age. Most children developed the disease within the first four months of life while not vaccinated against pertussis. This fact unambiguously supports the "cocoon" strategy, i.e. vaccination of the closest contacts of the child, and a booster dose at 25 years of age. At the same time, a question arises whether to provide vaccination to pregnant women.

  20. A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Cunha, Clóvis Arns da; Cunha, Rejane B; Arguello, D Fermin; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Sanchez, Nervo; Barria, Eduardo Ortega

    To estimate acute otitis media incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. Acute otitis media episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. During September 2008-March 2010, of 1,136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55.0% were ≤2 years of age, 52.3% males, 94.7% white, and 69.2% had previously received pneumococcal vaccine in private clinics. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 95.7 (95% confidence interval: 77.2-117.4) overall, 105.5 (95% confidence interval: 78.3-139.0) in children ≤2 years of age and 63.6 (95% confidence interval: 43.2-90.3) in children 3-5 years of age. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 86.3 (95% confidence interval: 65.5-111.5) and 117.1 (95% confidence interval: 80.1-165.3) among vaccinated and unvaccinated children, respectively. Nearly 68.9% of parents reported worsening of their overall quality of life. Acute otitis media incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride used for 3 years in women with androgenetic alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ids H Boersma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride in women with androgenetic alopecia has been the subject of debate. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride on hair loss in women with androgenetic alopecia over a period of 3 years. Methods: From a database containing systematically retrieved data on 3500 women treated for androgenetic alopecia between 2002 and 2012 with finasteride 1.25 mg or dutasteride 0.15 mg, a random sample stratified for age and type of medication was taken to yield 30 women in two age categories: below and above 50 years, and for both medications. Hair thickness of the three thinnest hairs was measured from standardized microscopic images at three sites of the scalp at the start of the treatment and after 3 years of continuous medication intake. The macroscopic images were evaluated independently by three European dermatologists/hair experts. The diagnostic task was to identify the image displaying superior density of the hair. Results: Both age categories showed a statistically significant increase in hair thickness from baseline over the 3-year period for finasteride and dutasteride (signed rank test, P = 0.02. Hair thickness increase was observed in 49 (81.7% women in the finasteride group and in 50 (83.3% women in the dutasteride group. On average, the number of post-treatment images rated as displaying superior density was 124 (68.9% in the finasteride group, and 118 (65.6% in the dutasteride group. Dutasteride performed statistically significantly better than finasteride in the age category below 50 years at the central and vertex sites of the scalp. Conclusions: Finasteride 1.25 mg and dutasteride 0.15 mg given daily for 3 years effectively increased hair thickness and arrested further deterioration in women with androgenetic alopecia.

  2. Outcomes of basilar artery occlusion in patients aged 75 years or older in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Compter, Annette; Tanne, David; Engelter, Stefan T; Audebert, Heinrich; Thijs, Vincent; de Freitas, Gabriel; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2012-11-01

    Patients with an acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) have a high risk of long-lasting disability and death. Only limited data are available on functional outcome in elderly patients with BAO. Using data from the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study, we aimed to determine outcomes in patients ≥75 years. Primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 4-6). Secondary outcomes were death, insufficient vessel recanalization (defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score 0-1) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Patients were divided into four age-groups, based on quartiles: 18-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years. Outcomes were compared between patients ≥75 years and patients aged 18-54 years. Risk ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). We included 619 patients [18-54 years n = 153 (25 %), 55-64 years n = 133 (21 %), 65-74 years n = 171 (28 %), and ≥75 years n = 162 (26 %)]. Compared with patients aged 18-54 years, patients ≥75 years were at increased risk of poor functional outcome [aRR 1.33 (1.14-1.55)] and death [aRR 2.47 (1.75-3.51)]. Nevertheless, 35/162 (22 %, 95 % CI 15-28 %) of patients ≥75 years had good functional outcome. No significant differences between age groups were observed for recanalization rate and incidence of SICH. Although patients ≥75 years with BAO have an increased risk of poor outcome compared with younger patients, a substantial group of patients ≥75 years survives with a good functional outcome.

  3. Developmental associations between victimization and body mass index from 3 to 10 years in a population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualter, Pamela; Murphy, Suzanne M; Abbott, Janice; Gardner, Kathryn J; Japel, Christa; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-03-01

    In the current prospective study, we investigated (1) whether high and low BMI in early childhood puts a child at risk of victimization by their peers, and (2) whether being victimized increases BMI over the short- and long-term, independent of the effect of BMI on victimization. We also examined whether gender moderated these prospective associations. Participants were 1,344 children who were assessed yearly from ages 3 to 10 years as part of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). BMI predicted annual increases in victimization for girls aged 6 years and over; for boys aged 7 and 8 years of age, higher BMI reduced victimization over the school year. Further, victimization predicted annual increases in BMI for girls after age 6 years. When these short-term effects were held constant, victimization was also shown to have a three and 5-year influence on annual BMI changes for girls from age 3 years. These short- and long-term cross-lagged effects were evident when the effects of family adversity were controlled. The findings support those from previous prospective research showing a link between higher BMI and victimization, but only for girls. Further, being victimized increased the likelihood that girls would put on weight over time, which then increased future victimization. The implications of these prospective findings for interventions are considered. Aggr. Behav. 42:109-122, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Early primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: maternal hyperimmunoglobulin therapy improves outcomes among infants at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Silvia; Manara, Renzo; Milanese, Laura; Da Roit, Anna; Forner, Gabriella; Salviato, Eleonora; Citton, Valentina; Magno, Fioretta Marciani; Orzan, Eva; Morando, Carla; Cusinato, Riccardo; Mengoli, Carlo; Palu, Giorgio; Ermani, Mario; Rinaldi, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Gussetti, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Early CMV infection carries a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome (sensorineural hearing loss or neurological deficits). Intravenous hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) therapy seems to be promising, but its efficacy needs further investigation. Since 2002, we have enrolled consecutively all pregnant women with early (ie, before gestational week 17) CMV infection. Beginning in 2007, all women were offered treatment with HIG (200 UI per kilogram of maternal weight, in a single intravenous administration). Outcome of infants was evaluated at the age of 1 year. Of the 592 women with early primary CMV infection, amniocentesis for CMV DNA detection was performed for 446. Of the 92 CMV-positive fetuses, pregnancy was terminated for 24, HIG was administered to mothers of 31, and no treatment was received by mothers of 37. Fetuses of treated mothers did not differ from fetuses of nontreated mothers according to mother's age, gestational week of infection, CMV load, or detection of abnormal ultrasonography findings. At the 1-year evaluation, 4 of 31 infants with treated mothers (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-25%) and 16 of 37 infants with nontreated mothers (43%; 95% CI, 27%-59%) presented with poor outcomes (P primary CMV infection before gestational week 17.

  5. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cantisani Di Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position, type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding.

  6. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  7. The prevalence of obesity in chilhood 6-15 years of age in denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Semiz, Serap; Özdemir, Özmert M.a.; Özdemir, Ayşegül Sözeri

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the increasing frequency of obesity is observed worldwide. It is understood thatobesity among children and adolescents can persist into adulthood. Therefore, these subjects shouldbe diagnosed earlier and should be treated as indicated. For this purpose we planned to investigate theprevalence of obesity in children 6-15 years old in Denizli.Eight hundred and fifty children between 6-15 years of age (389 girls, 461 boys, mean age 10.7±2.3years) in Denizli were enrolled in t...

  8. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Sleep quality at 3 months postpartum considering maternal age: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shih-Yi; Ko, Yi-Li; Jou, Hei-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2018-03-01

    Poor sleep quality is related to old age among the general population, but few studies have focused on postpartum women of advanced maternal age. The present study aimed to describe and compare sleep quality between women younger or older than 35 years of age at 3 months postpartum, and to examine the related factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 160 postpartum women who had given birth at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. The participants were assigned to two groups according to age (≥35 years, n=80; and 20-34 years, n=80). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index with a cut-off score of 5. The prevalence of poor sleep quality at 3 months postpartum was higher in older mothers (61.6%) than in younger mothers (38.4%, psleep quality was positively correlated with the severity of postpartum physical symptoms, lack of exercise, and room-sharing with infants. After adjustment for those variables, older mothers were three times more likely to have poor sleep quality than younger mothers (odds ratio=3.08; 95% confidence interval 1.52-6.23). Health care providers should pay attention to sleep problems among postpartum women, especially mothers of advanced maternal age. In particular, health care providers should evaluate sleep quality among postpartum women, instruct them not to share the bed with their infants at night, perform exercise, and manage their postpartum physical symptoms to improve the sleep quality. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drusen Volume and Retinal Pigment Epithelium Abnormal Thinning Volume Predict 2-Year Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgar, Francisco A; Yuan, Eric L; Sevilla, Monica B; Chiu, Stephanie J; Farsiu, Sina; Chew, Emily Y; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the value of novel measures of retinal pigment epithelium-drusen complex (RPEDC) volume to predict 2-year disease progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-five AMD and 122 non-AMD participants enrolled in the Age Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral-Domain (SD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) study. High-density SD OCT macular volumes were obtained at yearly study visits. The RPEDC abnormal thickening (henceforth, OCT drusen) and RPEDC abnormal thinning (RAT) volumes were generated by semiautomated segmentation of total RPEDC within a 5-mm-diameter macular field. Volume change and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for progression to advanced AMD with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or central geographic atrophy (GA). Complete volumes were obtained in 265 and 266 AMD eyes and in 115 and 97 control eyes at baseline and at year 2, respectively. In AMD eyes, mean (standard deviation) OCT drusen volume increased from 0.08 mm(3) (0.16 mm(3)) to 0.10 mm(3) (0.23 mm(3); P < 0.001), and RAT volume increased from 8.3 × 10(-4) mm(3) (20.8 × 10(-4) mm(3)) to 18.4 × 10(-4) mm(3) (46.6 × 10(-4) mm(3); P < 0.001). Greater baseline OCT drusen volume was associated with 2-year progression to CNV (P = 0.002). Odds of developing CNV increased by 31% for every 0.1-mm(3) increase in baseline OCT drusen volume (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63; P = 0.013). Greater baseline RAT volume was associated with significant 2-year increase in RAT volume (P < 0.001), noncentral GA (P < 0.001), and progression to central GA (P < 0.001). Odds of developing central GA increased by 32% for every 0.001-mm(3) increase in baseline RAT volume (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53; P < 0.001). In non-AMD eyes, all volumes were significantly lower than AMD eyes and showed no significant 2-year change. Macular OCT drusen and RAT volumes increased significantly in AMD eyes over 2 years

  11. Tandem high-dose chemotherapy and auto-SCT for malignant brain tumors in children under 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K W; Lim, D H; Lee, S H; Yoo, K H; Koo, H H; Kim, J H; Suh, Y-L; Joung, Y S; Shin, H J

    2013-07-01

    In an effort to improve survival and reduce late adverse effects of radiation therapy (RT), 25 children SCT following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. RT was either not given or deferred until 3 years of age if the patient was in CR after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT. Tumors relapsed or progressed in nine patients (five during induction treatment), and two of these patients survived after receiving salvage treatment, including RT. Two patients died due to toxicities during tandem HDCT/auto-SCT. A total of 16 patients survived to a median follow-up period of 52 months (range 18-96) from the time of diagnosis. Four of these patients did not receive RT, two received local RT (L-RT), three received craniospinal RT (CSRT), and seven received both L-RT and CSRT. The 5-year OS and EFS rates were 67.8±9.4% and 55.5±10.0%, respectively. Neuroendocrine and neurocognitive functions evaluated 3 years after tandem HDCT/auto-SCT were acceptable. Our results indicate that tandem HDCT/auto-SCT may improve survival in young children with malignant brain tumors with an acceptable level of risk of long-term toxicity.

  12. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. Purpose: To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ2-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Results: Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks. PMID:28620634

  13. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  14. Atopic dermatitis and concomitant disease patterns in children up to two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Maria; Lannerö, Eva; Wickman, Magnus; Nordvall, S Lennart; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    There are few prospective studies of atopic dermatitis and co-existing diseases such as respiratory infections in children up to 2 years of age. Using annual questionnaires, we studied the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis and concomitant symptoms indicating other atopic diseases and respiratory infections in 0-2-year-old children in a prospective birth cohort of 4089 children. We found associations between atopic dermatitis and asthma (ratio of proportion 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.80), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (RP 2.25, CI 1.77-2.85), adverse reactions to foods (RP 3.20, CI 2.83-3.62), urticaria (RP 2.04, CI 1.80-2.31), acute otitis media (RP 1.13, CI 1.05-1.21), more than one pneumonia during the first and/or second year of life (RP 2.17, CI 1.14-4.15), and use of antibiotics at least twice yearly (RP 1.29, CI 1.07-1.56). The association between atopic dermatitis and respiratory infections persisted after stratification for asthma. There was a higher proportion of atopic disease manifestations, but not respiratory infections, in children with onset of atopic dermatitis during the first year of life than during the second. The study shows that during the first 2 years of life there is a significant association not only between atopic dermatitis and other atopic disease manifestations, but also between atopic dermatitis and respiratory infections manifested in an increased rate of acute otitis media, pneumonia and use of antibiotics.

  15. The Level of Autoantibodies Targeting Eukaryote Translation Elongation Factor 1 α1 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2L3 in Nondiabetic Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee G. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of novel type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM antibodies targeting eukaryote translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 autoantibody (EEF1A1-AAb and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2L3 autoantibody (UBE2L3-AAb has been shown to be negatively correlated with age in T1DM subjects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age affects the levels of these two antibodies in nondiabetic subjects.MethodsEEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic control subjects (n=150 and T1DM subjects (n=101 in various ranges of age (18 to 69 years were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cutoff point for the presence of each autoantibody was determined based on control subjects using the formula: [mean absorbance+3×standard deviation].ResultsIn nondiabetic subjects, there were no significant correlations between age and EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels. However, there was wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels among control subjects <40 years old; the prevalence of both EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb in these subjects was 4.4%. When using cutoff points determined from the control subjects <40 years old, the prevalence of both autoantibodies in T1DM subjects was decreased (EEFA1-AAb, 15.8% to 8.9%; UBE2L3-AAb, 10.9% to 7.9% when compared to the prevalence using the cutoff derived from the totals for control subjects.ConclusionThere was no association between age and EEF1A1-AAb or UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic subjects. However, the wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels apparent among the control subjects <40 years old should be taken into consideration when determining the cutoff reference range for the diagnosis of T1DM.

  16. 3 to 5 Years Later: Long-term Effects of Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingectomy on Ovarian Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturella, Roberta; Lico, Daniela; Borelli, Massimo; Imbrogno, Maria G; Cevenini, Gabriele; Zupi, Errico; Zullo, Fulvio; Morelli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary data on the effects of prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy (PBS) show that postoperative ovarian function is preserved up to 3 months after surgery. The confirmation of PBS safety on ovarian function even many years after surgery is essential to reassure the medical community that this new strategy, recently proposed for the prevention of ovarian cancer, is at least able to avoid the risk of premature surgical menopause. We investigated whether the addition of PBS during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) causes long-term effects on ovarian function. An observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy. Seventy-nine patients who underwent TLH plus salpingectomy between September 2010 and September 2012 at our institution have been recalled to be submitted to ovarian reserve evaluation in February 2015. Eight of 79 women refused to participate in this follow-up study. The ovarian age of PBS patients has been determined through OvAge (OvAge sr., Catanzaro, Italy), a statistical model that combines antimüllerian hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, 3-dimensional antral follicle count, vascular index, flow index, and vascular flow index values. The control group consisted of a large population of 652 healthy women (with intact uterus and adnexa) previously enrolled to build the OvAge model. Comparisons between ovarian ages of PBS patients and the control group have been assessed by analysis of covariance linear statistical modeling. The main outcome measurement was the differences in the behavior within OvAge/age relation between PBS and control women. Descriptive statistics of those 71 enrolled PBS patients are the following: age, 49.61 ± 2.15 years; OvAge, 49.22 ± 2.57 years; follicle-stimulating hormone, 43.02 ± 19.92 mU/mL; antimüllerian hormone, 0.12 ± 0.20 ng/mL; 3-dimensional antral follicle count, 1.91 ± 1.28; vascular index

  17. A 3-year surveillance on causes of death or reasons for euthanasia of domesticated dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Liao, Albert Taiching; Chu, Pei-Yi; Zhai, Shao-Hua; Yen, I-Feng; Liu, Chen-Hsuan

    2017-11-01

    Over the last 2 decades, there has been growing interest in research on the mortality of domesticated pets. These studies relied on an effective data-collecting system. During 2012-2014, a real-time reporting system was designed for mortality data in owned dogs and cats. The present retrospective study aimed to report on the causes of death (CODs) or reasons for euthanasia (RFEs) in domesticated dogs in Taiwan, and to investigate CODs/RFEs segregated by demographic variables. Data from 2306 domesticated dogs were acquired during the 3-year period in the present study. The median age at death of the study population was 10.2 years (median interquartile range 7.0-14.0; range 0.0-25.0). Crossbred, female, and neutered dogs showed greater ages at death than other groups. The most common COD/RFE was neoplasia, followed by multiple organ involvement (MOI) and cardiovascular diseases. Segregated by cut-off ages, the most common COD/RFE was infection among dogs younger than 3 years or 1year, and neoplasia among dogs at or older than 3 years or 1year of age; the most common COD/RFE was neoplasia among dogs younger than median age, and MOI among dogs at or older than median age. Segregated by geographic variables, the ranking and frequency of CODs/RFEs displayed different patterns between the capital city/non-capital areas, and among areas stratified by human population densities. The study provides various insights into age at death and CODs/RFEs in owned-dog population in Taiwan, and provides new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of water management and fertilizer application on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs uptake in paddy rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Itoh, Sumio; Kihou, Nobuharu; Matsunami, Hisaya; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on "1"3"7Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs ("1"3"3Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting "1"3"7Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil "1"3"7Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"3Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period

  19. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  20. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  1. Phase II, randomized, open, controlled study of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in children aged 3 to 9 years: follow-up of safety and immunogenicity persistence at 24 months post-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Baldó, José-María; Planelles-Catarino, Maria Victoria; Garcés-Sánchez, María; Ubeda, Isabel; Jubert-Rosich, Angels; Marès, Josep; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Moris, Philippe; Teko, Maurice; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Gillard, Paul

    2015-03-01

    An AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine elicited broad and persistent immune responses with an acceptable safety profile up to 6 months following the first vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. In this follow-up of the Phase II study, we report immunogenicity persistence and safety at 24 months post-vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. The randomized, open-label study assessed two doses of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 influenza vaccine (1·9 μg or 3·75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) formulated with AS03A or AS03B (11·89 mg or 5·93 mg tocopherol, respectively). Control groups received seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Safety was assessed prospectively and included potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs). Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay 12 and 24 months after vaccination; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed. (NCT00502593). The safety population included 405 children. Over 24 months, five events fulfilled the criteria for pIMDs, of which four occurred in H5N1 vaccine recipients, including uveitis (n = 1) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), which were considered to be vaccine-related. Overall, safety profiles of the vaccines were clinically acceptable. Humoral immune responses at 12 and 24 months were reduced versus those observed after the second dose of vaccine, although still within the range of those observed after the first dose. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity was strong, and CD4(+) T cells with a TH 1 profile were observed. Two doses of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children showed low but persistent humoral immune responses and a strong persistence of cell-mediated immunity, with clinically acceptable safety profiles up to 24 months following first vaccination. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...... in Denmark, we were also able to investigate prior disease and symptoms. During the 7-year study period there was an average of 1.11 million persons aged 1-18 years. There were a total of 1504 deaths (214 deaths per year) from 7.78 million person-years. A total of 114 (7.5%) were sudden and unexpected...

  3. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  4. Functional Outcomes at AgeYears of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the

  5. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  6. Fracture Incidence and Characteristics in Young Adults Aged 18 to 49 Years: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Melton, L Joseph; Achenbach, Sara J; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee

    2017-12-01

    Although fractures in both the pediatric and, especially, the elderly populations have been extensively investigated, comparatively little attention has been given to the age group in between. Thus, we used the comprehensive (inpatient and outpatient) data resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to determine incidence rates for all fractures among young adult (age range, 18 to 49 years) residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2009 to 2011, and compared the distribution of fracture sites and causes in this young adult cohort with those for older residents aged 50 years or older. During the 3-year study period, 2482 Olmsted County residents aged 18 to 49 years experienced 1 or more fractures. There were 1730 fractures among 1447 men compared with 1164 among 1035 women, and the age-adjusted incidence of all fractures was 66% greater among the men (1882 [95% confidence interval 1793-1971] versus 1135 [95% CI 1069-1201] per 100,000 person-years; p age ≥50 years who sustained a fracture in 2009 to 2011. Younger residents (aged 18 to 49 years), when compared with older residents (aged ≥50 years), had a greater proportion of fractures of the hands and feet (40% versus 18%) with relatively few fractures observed at traditional osteoporotic fracture sites (14% versus 43%). Vertebral fractures were still more likely to be the result of moderate trauma than at other sites, especially in younger women. In conclusion, whereas pediatric and elderly populations often fracture from no more than moderate trauma, young adults, and more commonly men, suffer fractures primarily at non-osteoporotic sites due to more significant trauma. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Vitrectomy in patients over 90 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Muto, Tomoyuki Ide, Makoto Chikuda, Shigeki Machida Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Japan Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate vitrectomy procedures performed in patients over 90 years of age at the Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital (Koshigaya, Japan.Patients and methods: Vitrectomies were performed in nine eyes of nine patients who were over 90 years of age between May 2010 and March 2015. Factors such as the underlying vitreoretinal disease, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, surgical time, postoperative body position, need for a second surgery, systemic disease, and intraoperative changes in systemic conditions have been evaluated.Results: The most common cause of the underlying vitreoretinal disease was vitreous hemorrhage derived from age-related macular degeneration and posterior dislocation of the lens secondary to a posterior capsular rupture (two cases each. The mean values for the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA were 2.15 preoperatively and 1.46 postoperatively (P=0.020, Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The mean surgical time was 109 minutes. Prone position was needed in two cases, and no second surgeries were needed. The most common cause of systemic disease was hypertension, which was found in six cases. Transient hypertension was found in two cases during surgery, and these patients were treated using intravenous calcium blocker injections.Conclusion: Patients over 90 years of age who underwent vitrectomy procedures did not have serious problems, except transient hypertension during surgery. The BCVA significantly improved. These results indicated that vitrectomies could be performed successfully in patients over 90 years of age. Keywords: vitrectomy, underlying vitreoretinal disease, transient hypertension

  8. RISK FOR LOW VISUAL ACUITY AFTER 1 AND 2 YEARS OF TREATMENT WITH RANIBIZUMAB OR BEVACIZUMAB FOR PATIENTS WITH NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westborg, Inger; Albrecht, Susanne; Rosso, Aldana

    2017-11-01

    To investigate how patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab respond to treatment in daily clinical practice. Data from the Swedish Macula Register on the treatment received by 3,912 patients during 2011 to 2014 is reported. Patients' characteristics at the first visit, visual acuity, number of injections, and reason for terminating the treatment if applicable are discussed. Furthermore, the risk of having poor vision (visual acuity under 60 Early Treatment Diabetes Retinopathy Study letters or approximately 20/60 Snellen) is calculated for the treated eye after 1 year and 2 years. The treatment outcome depends on the visual acuity at the first visit. For patients with visual acuity more than 60 letters, the risk of having a visual acuity lower than 60 letters after 1 year or 2 years of treatment is approximately 20%. However, for patients with low visual acuity at diagnosis (fewer than 60 letters), the risk is approximately 60%. The risk of having a visual acuity lower than 60 letters does not depend on the choice of treatment drug. Treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injections mainly maintains the visual acuity level, and only approximately 20% and 40% of the patients required vision rehabilitation after 1 year and 2 years, respectively.

  9. The Inflammatory Transcription Factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 Drive Age-Associated Transcriptional Changes in the Human Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brown, Zach K.; Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Higgins, John P.; Kim, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    Human kidney function declines with age, accompanied by stereotyped changes in gene expression and histopathology, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are largely unknown. To identify potential regulators of kidney aging, we compared age-associated transcriptional changes in the human kidney with genome-wide maps of transcription factor occupancy from ChIP-seq datasets in human cells. The strongest candidates were the inflammation-associated transcription factors NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3, the activities of which increase with age in epithelial compartments of the renal cortex. Stimulation of renal tubular epithelial cells with the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (a STAT3 activator), IFNγ (a STAT1 activator), or TNFα (an NFκB activator) recapitulated age-associated gene expression changes. We show that common DNA variants in RELA and NFKB1, the two genes encoding subunits of the NFκB transcription factor, associate with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in gene association studies, providing the first evidence that genetic variation in NFκB contributes to renal aging phenotypes. Our results suggest that NFκB, STAT1 and STAT3 underlie transcriptional changes and chronic inflammation in the aging human kidney. PMID:26678048

  10. Differential effects of mental and physical health and coping style on work ability: a 1-year follow-up study among aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijke, H. van de; Leijten, F.R.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Robroek, S.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Burdorf, A.; Taris, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether mental and physical health relate differently to work ability and whether these associations vary with coping style. METHODS: A 1-year longitudinal study was conducted among 8842 employees aged 45 to 64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability

  11. Parental styles and religious values among teenagers: a 3-year prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to assessing parental styles at Time 1, we also controlled for a number of Time 1 variables thought to possibly influence Time 2 religious values, namely, self-esteem, trait hope, and students' levels of conscientiousness. Time 1 measures (except self-esteem) were significantly correlated with Time 2 religious values, but only parental authoritativeness and hope significantly predicted religious values. The authors discuss these results with reference to the nature of parental styles and hope and their impact on religious values.

  12. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-01-01

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. PMID:25489996

  13. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries