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Sample records for age-related myocardial metabolic

  1. Age-related in-hospital mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, A.R.; Rafique, S.; Ahmed, R.Z.; Anjum, A.H.; Tarin, S.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction among different age groups. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 460 admitted patients of acute myocardial infarction who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into four age groups. Group-I included patients in 20-40 years, group-II (41-50 years), group-III (51-60 years) and group-IV (>60 years). Mortality was compared between different age groups by Chi-square and linear-regression models. Results: The total in-hospital mortality was 16.7%. It gradually increased from 5.6% in group-I (20-40 years) patients to 21% in group-IV (>60 years) patients. While mortality in groups group-II (41-50 years) and group-III (51-60 years) patients was 16.7% and 18.6% respectively. A marked increase in mortality was noted with increase in age. Group- IV (>60 years) patients presented 2 hours late to the hospital than the group-I (20-40 years) patients. There was no statistical difference in site of infarction in different age groups. Old age (group-IV i.e. >60 years old) was more associated with heart failure (higher Killip class) on presentation. Lesser number of patients in group-IV received thrombolytic therapy than group-I. Only 31.09% patients in group-IV and 62.5% patients in group-I received streptokinase therapy respectively. Conclusion: In patients with acute myocardial infarction age was a powerful independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and complications. (author)

  2. NAD(+) metabolism: A therapeutic target for age-related metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouchiroud, Laurent; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a central metabolic cofactor by virtue of its redox capacity, and as such regulates a wealth of metabolic transformations. However, the identification of the longevity protein silent regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin protein

  3. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause

  4. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  5. Exercise counteracts aging-related memory impairment: a potential role for the astrocytic metabolic shuttle

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    Sheng-Feng eTsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas.

  6. Obesity, lutein metabolism, and age-related macular degeneration: a web of connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the United States. Currently there is no effective cure for this disease. Risk factors include decreased lutein and zeaxanthin status and obesity. Obesity is also an increasing public health concern. The alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity further exacerbates the public health concern of AMD. The mechanism by which obesity increases the risk of AMD may be related to the physiologic changes that occur with this condition. These include increased oxidative stress, changes in the lipoprotein profile, and increased inflammation. These changes would also result in an increased destruction and a decreased circulatory delivery of lutein and zeaxanthin to the macula of the eye. Therefore, the mechanism by which obesity is related to AMD risk may be through indirect effects on changes in lutein and zeaxanthin status and metabolism.

  7. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to monitor collagen metabolism after thrombolytic therapy. Sequential measurements of serum aminoterminal type-III procollagen propeptide (S-PIIINP) and carboxyterminal type-I procollagen propeptide (S-PICP) were made in 62 patients suspected of acute myocardial.......05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...... for at least 6 months. Furthermore, fibrin-specific and nonspecific thrombolytic agents appear to affect collagen metabolism differently....

  8. Sex- and age-related differences of myocardial perfusion at rest assessed with multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Christina; Kühl, J Tobias; Zacho, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease in women differs from men, which could reflect sex-related differences of normal physiology. Cardiac CT angiography provides a noninvasive method to assess both regional and transmural myocardial perfusion in addition to coronary atherosclerosis....

  9. Diagnostic value of exercise induced 18F-FDG myocardial metabolism scintigraphy in myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rui; He Zuoxiang; Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Tian Yueqin; Guo Feng; Wei Hongxing; Wu Yongjian; Qin Xuewen; Gao Runlin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of exercise induced myocardial imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in myocardial ischemia. Methods: Twenty-six patients with known or suspected coronary artery, disease (CAD) and with no prior myocardial infarction underwent simultaneous myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging following intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methoxy-isobutylisonitrile ( 99 Tc m -sestamibi) and 18 F-FDG at peak exercise. Subsequently rest perfusion imaging and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in all patients. Exercise 18 F-FDG myocardial imaging was compared with 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging and CAG. Results: In 22 patients with ≥50% narrowing over l coronary artery, 18 had perfusion abnormalities (sensitivity 82%), whereas 20 had abnormal myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake (sensitivity 91%, P>0.05). Patients with reversible (12 cases) or partial reversible (3 cases) perfusion abnormalities had increased myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake in abnormal perfusion segments. Compared with CAG, perfusion defect was seen in myocardial segments corresponding to 25 vascular territories of 51 vessels with ≥50% narrowing in 22 patients in 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging (sensitivity 49%), whereas increased 18 F-FDG uptake was seen in 34 vascular territories (sensitivity 67%, P=0.008). Conclusions: Exercise induced myocardial ischemia can be imaged directly with 18 F-FDG. Combined exercise 18 F-FDG and 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging provides a better assessment of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as compared with exercise-rest perfusion imaging. (authors)

  10. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  11. Association between dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism and age related changes in brain glucose metabolism.

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    Nora D Volkow

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with reductions in brain glucose metabolism in some cortical and subcortical regions, but the rate of decrease varies significantly between individuals, likely reflecting genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that the variant of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 gene (VNTR in exon 3, which has been associated with novelty seeking and sensitivity to environmental stimuli (negative and positive including the beneficial effects of physical activity on longevity, influence the effects of aging on the human brain. We used positron emission tomography (PET and [(18F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18FDG to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function under baseline conditions (no stimulation in 82 healthy individuals (age range 22-55 years. We determined their DRD4 genotype and found an interaction with age: individuals who did not carry the 7-repeat allele (7R-, n = 53 had a significant (p<0.0001 negative association between age and relative glucose metabolism (normalized to whole brain glucose metabolism in frontal (r = -0.52, temporal (r = -0.51 and striatal regions (r = -0.47, p<0.001; such that older individuals had lower metabolism than younger ones. In contrast, for carriers of the 7R allele (7R+ n = 29, these correlations with age were not significant and they only showed a positive association with cerebellar glucose metabolism (r = +0.55; p = 0.002. Regression slopes of regional brain glucose metabolism with age differed significantly between the 7R+ and 7R- groups in cerebellum, inferior temporal cortex and striatum. These results provide evidence that the DRD4 genotype might modulate the associations between regional brain glucose metabolism and age and that the carriers of the 7R allele appear to be less sensitive to the effects of age on brain glucose metabolism.

  12. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

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    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  13. Age-related changes in the structural parameters of the heart and myocardial remodeling in chronic heart failure in women with overweight and obesity

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    P. P. Bidzilya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to different authors, the representation of women in the structure of chronic heart failure (CHF ranges from 50% to 60%, however, in clinical studies the number of participants in the female reaches only 20–30%. Aim. To study age-related changes in the structural parameters of the heart and myocardial remodeling in CHF. 216 women of different age groups who have had CHF I–III functional class on the background of normal, overweight and abdominal obesity I–III degree were examined. Methods and results. Structural parameters of the heart and the condition of cardiac remodeling were estimated with echocardiography. Found that in CHF in women with overweight and obesity with age increasing is a more significant dilatation of cardiac chambers, myocardial hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the calcination of valve apparatus. In most cases myocardial remodeling were presented by concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Conclusion. This demonstrates negative impact of increasing age on the restructuring of the heart in conditions of CHF in women with overweight and obesity.

  14. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and age-related metabolic retinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during ...

  15. Age-related mortality, clinical heart failure, and ventricular fibrillation in 4259 Danish patients after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask-Madsen, C; Jensen, G; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    % for patients less than or = 80 years old. Two thirds of patients > or = 80 years old had heart failure, and cardiogenic shock was twice as common in this age group than in patients 60-69 years. Heart failure was a strong independent risk......AIMS: To evaluate the prognosis of patients > or = 80 years old, we analysed a large, community-based population with acute myocardial infarction who received intensive observation and similar pharmacotherapy regardless of age. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 12-year period, before the introduction......, factor for post-discharge mortality, particularly in the oldest age groups. Four out of eight patients > or = 80 years survived one year if discharged alive after experiencing in-hospital ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION: The life-saving potential of preventing or treating heart failure seems...

  16. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2...

  17. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L; Kim, Myung K; Beaven, Michael A; Burgin, Alex B; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H

    2012-02-03

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-Related Defects in Erythrocyte 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Metabolism in Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Yury G.; Reddy, V. Prakash; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Ahmad, Ausaf; Benberin, Valery V.; Kosenko, Elena A.; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common dementing illness. Metabolic defects in the brain with aging contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. These changes can be found systematically and thus can be used as potential biomarkers. Erythrocytes (RBCs) are passive “reporter cells” that are not well studied in AD. In the present study, we analyzed an array of glycolytic and related enzymes and intermediates in RBCs from patients with AD and non-Alzheimer dementia (NA), age-matched controls (AC) an...

  19. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

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    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  20. Age-related defects in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Yury G; Reddy, V Prakash; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Ahmad, Ausaf; Benberin, Valery V; Kosenko, Elena A; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common dementing illness. Metabolic defects in the brain with aging contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. These changes can be found systematically and thus can be used as potential biomarkers. Erythrocytes (RBCs) are passive "reporter cells" that are not well studied in AD. In the present study, we analyzed an array of glycolytic and related enzymes and intermediates in RBCs from patients with AD and non-Alzheimer dementia (NA), age-matched controls (AC) and young adult controls (YC). AD is characterized by higher activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and bisphosphoglycerate mutase and bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase in RBCs. In our study, we observed that glycolytic and related enzymes displayed significantly lower activities in AC. However, similar or significantly higher activities were observed in AD and NA groups as compared to YC group. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels were significantly decreased in AD and NA patients. The pattern of changes between groups in the above indices strongly correlates with each other. Collectively, our data suggested that AD and NA patients are associated with chronic disturbance of 2,3-DPG metabolism in RBCs. These defects may play a pivotal role in physiological processes, which predispose elderly subjects to AD and NA.

  1. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

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    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  2. Age related changes in NAD+ metabolism oxidative stress and Sirt1 activity in wistar rats.

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    Nady Braidy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ has emerged as a key regulator of metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Apart from its role as an important redox carrier, NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for NAD-dependent enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, an important DNA nick sensor, and NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, Sirtuins which play an important role in a wide variety of processes, including senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, and aging. We examined the effect of aging on intracellular NAD+ metabolism in the whole heart, lung, liver and kidney of female wistar rats. Our results are the first to show a significant decline in intracellular NAD+ levels and NAD:NADH ratio in all organs by middle age (i.e.12 months compared to young (i.e. 3 month old rats. These changes in [NAD(H] occurred in parallel with an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls (o- and m- tyrosine formation and decline in total antioxidant capacity in these organs. An age dependent increase in DNA damage (phosphorylated H2AX was also observed in these same organs. Decreased Sirt1 activity and increased acetylated p53 were observed in organ tissues in parallel with the drop in NAD+ and moderate over-expression of Sirt1 protein. Reduced mitochondrial activity of complex I-IV was also observed in aging animals, impacting both redox status and ATP production. The strong positive correlation observed between DNA damage associated NAD+ depletion and Sirt1 activity suggests that adequate NAD+ concentrations may be an important longevity assurance factor.

  3. Tomoscintigraphic assessment of myocardial metabolic heterogenity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Hess, T.; Weiss, M.; Noelpp, U.; Mueller, G.; Hoeflin, F.; Kinser, J.

    1983-01-01

    I-123-omega-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) was evaluated for myocardial scanning in 59 healthy volunteers and 133 patients, using a 7-pinhole collimator. Early (uptake) and late (retention) images were compared visually. Regional HDA elimination was also followed semiquantitatively based on the calculation of a retention-over-uptake ratio, R(phi), derived from the maximal counts/pixel in 60 midventricular slice sectors. The healthy heart concentrated HDA homogeneously in all segments with no difference between early and late images. The minimal R(phi), taken as representative of that myocardium with the best function, was unchanged after maximal ergometer stress and with dipyramidole-induced hyperperfusion. A circumscribed decreased HDA uptake is the clear-cut criterion for an abnormal finding. HDA tomography of the myocardium had an 86% sensitivity for myocardial infarcts (MIs) up to 4 wk old, and 83% for myocardial scars (MSs). Comparing early and late tomograms, we find a cool-warm sequence more often with acute and subacute MIs. A cool-cool or a cold-cold sequence dominated with MSs. HDA tomoscintigraphy cannot replace TI-201 for the evaluation of regional coronary reserve in coronary heart disease

  4. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

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    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  5. Novel therapeutic approaches to correct retinal metabolic abnormalities in primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pathogenic aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, i.e., the role of free radicals inducing oxidative damage of the retina and optic nerve, are discussed. Factors that activate free radical reactions as well as multilevel antioxidant protection system are reviewed. Data derived from studies on current antioxidants that are used to treat and prevent dry AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage are compared. Neuroprotection for glaucoma will be considered soon as a basis for its treatment. B vitamins are generally included into therapeutic algorithms for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While being metabolic therapeutics, they stimulate adaptive compensatory mechanisms and reduce the severity of various pathological processes, e.g., hypoxia, lipid peroxidation etc. Neurotrophic, antioxidant, and regenerative effects of B vitamins as wells as their involvement in metabolism, myelinsynthesis and other processes are of special importance for ophthalmologists. Currently, several vitamin and mineral supplements that differ in composition, dosage, and schedule are approved in Russia. SuperOptic, a biologically activeadditive, contains more free lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (500 μg as well as potent antioxidants (vitamin E and vitamin C, microelements (zinc and copper, and balanced vitamin B complex. These components play an important role in ocular health. SuperOptic can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of AMD and glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

  6. Regional myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.; Tillisch, J.H.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography has been shown to distinguish between reversible and irreversible ischemic tissue injury. Using this technique, 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction were studied within 72 hours of onset of symptoms to evaluate regional blood flow and glucose metabolism with nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia and fluorine (F)-18 deoxyglucose, respectively. Serial noninvasive assessment of wall motion was performed to determine the prognostic value of metabolic indexes for functional tissue recovery. Segmental blood flow and glucose utilization were evaluated using a circumferential profile technique and compared with previously established semiquantitative criteria. Relative N-13 ammonia uptake was depressed in 32 left ventricular segments. Sixteen segments demonstrated a concordant decrease in flow and glucose metabolism. Regional function did not change over time in these segments. In contrast, 16 other segments with reduced blood flow revealed maintained F-18 deoxyglucose uptake consistent with remaining viable tissue. The average wall motion score improved significantly in these segments (p less than 0.01), yet the degree of recovery varied considerably among patients. Coronary anatomy was defined in 9 of 13 patients: patent infarct vessels supplied 8 of 10 segments with F-18 deoxyglucose uptake, while 10 of 13 segments in the territory of an occluded vessel showed concordant decreases in flow and metabolism (p less than 0.01). Thus, positron emission tomography reveals a high incidence of residual tissue viability in ventricular segments with reduced flow and impaired function during the subacute phase of myocardial infarction. Absence of residual tissue metabolism is associated with irreversible injury, while preservation of metabolic activity identifies segments with a variable outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography ( 13 N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique

  8. Metabolic syndrome but not obesity measures are risk factors for accelerated age-related glomerular filtration rate decline in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Vidar T N; Schei, Jørgen; Solbu, Marit D; Jenssen, Trond G; Melsom, Toralf; Eriksen, Bjørn O

    2018-05-01

    Rapid age-related glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline increases the risk of end-stage renal disease, and a low GFR increases the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. High body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, but their role in accelerating age-related GFR decline independent of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes is not adequately understood. We studied body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for accelerated GFR decline in 1261 middle-aged people representative of the general population without diabetes, cardiovascular disease or kidney disease. GFR was measured as iohexol clearance at baseline and repeated after a median of 5.6 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined as fulfilling three out of five criteria, based on waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean GFR decline rate was 0.95 ml/min/year. Neither the body mass index, waist circumference nor waist-hip ratio predicted statistically significant changes in age-related GFR decline, but individuals with baseline metabolic syndrome had a significant mean of 0.30 ml/min/year faster decline than individuals without metabolic syndrome in a multivariable adjusted linear regression model. This association was mainly driven by the triglyceride criterion of metabolic syndrome, which was associated with a significant 0.36 ml/min/year faster decline when analyzed separately. Results differed significantly when GFR was estimated using creatinine and/or cystatin C. Thus, metabolic syndrome, but not the body mass index, waist circumference or waist-hip ratio, is an independent risk factor for accelerated age-related GFR decline in the general population. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of revascularization on myocardial perfusion, metabolism and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, Joachim; Krois, Markus; Eichhorn, Bernd; Fehske, Wolfgang; Likungu, James; Kirchhoff, P.G.; Luederitz, Berndt; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated with sequential SPECT-scintigraphy after administration of 200 MBq of 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) at peak submaximal exercise. Twenty patients underwent coronary angioplasty (PTCA) from which 14 had control coronary arteriography (CA) and left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV). Nineteen patients underwent bypass graft surgery (ACB) and stress sonography. Semi-quantification of uptake (Up, related to perfusion) and turnover (Tr, linked to metabolism) was obtained by segmental comparison of oblique slices. About 90% of the reperfused myocardial segments in the PTCA-group and 76% in the ACB-group showed an improvement of uptake after therapy (RUp). Out of these, 50% and 66% exhibited increased turnover (RTr) after PTCA or ACB, respectively. The remaining segments had persistingly pathologic RTr indicating a dissociation of improvement of perfusion and metabolism after therapy. Pathologic RTr was highly correlated with regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) after therapy in both groups. In the ACB-group improvement in RTr was correlated with improved RWM at rest and stress in 86% and 92%, respectively, whereas no improvement in RTr was correlated with impared function in 100% and 52%, respectively. IPPA-studies show potential to provide information about changes of perfusion and metabolism after reperfusion and IPPA-turnover is a good predictor of the pattern of contractile function. (author)

  10. Impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 on myocardial glucose metabolism revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan; Brock, Birgitte; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    . The potentially beneficial effect of GLP-1 stimulation may rely on, among others, improved myocardial glucose metabolism. This review focuses on the dogma that GLP-1 receptor stimulation may provide beneficial cardiovascular effects, possibly due to enhanced myocardial energetic efficiency, by increasing...

  11. Myocardial hipertrophy in hypertensive patients with and without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Branislava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Beside arterial hypertension as the most important factor of a myocardial hypertension development, very important risk factors are obesity, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, etc. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS on left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with arterial hypertension. Methods. We checked medical records for 138 patients with arterial hypertension, and compared them with the control group of 44 normotensive subjects. The patients with arterial hypertension were divided into two groups considering the presence of MetS: with MetS (59 patients, and without MetS (79 patients. We defined MetS as presence of three (or more within five criteria: central obesity (> 102 cm male, > 88 cm female, raised triglycerides (> 1.7 mmol/L, or drug treatment for elevated triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (< 1.03 mmol/L male, < 1.3 mmol/L female, raised blood pressure (> 130 mmHg systolic, > 90 mmHg diastolic, raised fasting glucose (> 6.11 mmol/L, or drug treatment for elevated glucose level. In each group routine laboratory, echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Results. We found statisticaly significant higher left ventricular mass in both subgroups hypertensive patients in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05. We did not find statistically significant difference (227.31±63.44 vs 219±59.5, p > 0.05 in left ventricular mass between these two groups of patients. In the patients with arterial hypertension and MetS we found hypertrophy more frequently than in the subgroup without MetS (43/57 vs 34/69, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Our results suggest that associated cardiometabolic risks increase the prevalence of myocardial hypertrophy, but do not influence left ventricular mass.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Gustatory, Homeostatic, Reward, and Memory Processing of Sweet Taste in the Metabolic Syndrome: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Haase, Lori; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Age affects the human taste system at peripheral and central levels. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors (e.g., abdominal obesity and hypertension) that co-occur, increase with age, and heighten risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cognitive decline. Little is known about how age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger state interact to influence how the brain processes information about taste. We investigated brain activation during the hedonic evaluation of a pleasant, nutritive stimulus (sucrose) within regions critical for taste, homeostatic energy regulation, and reward, as a function of the interactions among age, metabolic syndrome, and hunger condition. We scanned young and elderly adults, half with risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome twice: Once fasted overnight and once after a preload. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data indicated significant effects of age as well as interactive effects with metabolic syndrome and hunger condition. Age-related differences in activation were dependent on the hunger state in regions critical for homoeostatic energy regulation and basic as well as higher order sensory processing and integration. The effects of age and metabolic syndrome on activation in the insula, orbital frontal cortex, caudate, and the hypothalamus may have particularly important implications for taste processing, energy regulation, and dietary choices.

  13. Assessment of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with angina pectoris and diabetes mellitus using 123I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuki; Tanabe, Takuji; Yuba, Tatsuya; Doue, Tomoki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Katoh, Shuuji; Sugihara, Hiroki; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of myocardial ischemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) on the myocardial fatty acid metabolism using 123 I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy. We performed 123 I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy in 50 patients with myocardial ischemia and without DM (AP), in 30 patients with myocardial ischemia and DM (AP+DM), 12 patients with DM and without myocardial ischemia (DM), and in 10 normal subjects (N). Myocardial uptake rate of 123 I-BMIPP was obtained using the time activity curve. Myocardial washout rate of 123 I-BMIPP was calculated using the polar images of early and delayed SPECT images. Myocardial uptake rate of 123 I-BMIPP (%) were AP: 4.9±0.6, AP+DM: 5.5±0.5, DM 5.7±0.5 and N: 5.0±0.4. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial uptake rate was increased in AP+DM and DM. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate (%) were AP: 30.2±4.3, AP+DM: 24.5±3.9, DM: 16.1±2.8 and N: 19.4±3.2. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was increased in AP and AP+DM. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was increased particularly in patients with multi-vessels disease. 123 I-BMIPP myocardial washout rate was decreased in DM. The present study suggested that diabetes mellitus increased myocardial fatty acid uptake and decreased myocardial fatty acid washout, and that myocardial ischemia increased myocardial fatty acid washout. (author)

  14. Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: impaired myocardial energy metabolism in regions with reduced 99mTc-MIBI accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moka, D; Baer, F M; Theissen, P; Schneider, C A; Dietlein, M; Erdmann, E; Schicha, H

    2001-05-01

    Reduced regional technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) accumulation in patients with chronic non-Q-wave infarction (NQWI) but without significant coronary artery stenosis indicates non-transmural damage of the myocardial wall. The aim of this study was to characterise cardiac energy metabolism after NQWI using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and to compare the biochemical remodelling with changes in regional 99mTc-MIBI uptake and with morphological and functional parameters assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients with a history of NQWI, exclusion of significant coronary artery stenosis (energy metabolism. Spectroscopic measurements were performed in the infarct-related myocardial region. Corresponding gradient-echo MR images and myocardial 99mTc-MIBI single-photon emission tomography images were acquired for exact localisation of the infarct region. All examinations were performed at rest under anti-ischaemic medication. Data were compared with those of patients in whom coronary artery disease had been excluded by angiography (group B, n=10). All patients of group A displayed anterior wall hypokinesia in the infarcted area on both ventriculography and MRI, with a reduced myocardial accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI (66.3%+/-11.8% vs 95.6%+/-2.2% in group B). The mean wall thickness during the complete cardiac cycle (9.5+/-1.8 mm vs 13.1+/-1.1 mm in group B, Penergy metabolism.

  15. [Age-related aspects of the extent of lipid metabolism and post-traumatic stress disorders among veterans of modern warfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgashov, M N; Miakotnykh, V S; Pal'tsev, A I

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of violations of lipid metabolism and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 161 patients of 25-69 years, veterans of the military actions on the territory of Afghanistan and the Northern Caucasus were investigated. The dependence of the formation of dyslipidemia and related changes of atherosclerosis in the young age on neuroendocrine effects, accompanying the effects of combat stress and promoting accelerated aging was determined. On the other hand, with the time, after 15-25 years after participating in hostilities, the intensity of PTSD and its influence on the development of violations of lipid spectrum may decline. The leading role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia goes to age-related changes, accompanying a process of accelerated aging of veterans of combat operations, and to pathological disorders of metabolism in liver associated with alcohol abuse and the consequences of infectious diseases.

  16. Impact of metabolic syndrome on ST segment resolution after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Saatçı Yaşar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been shown that metabolic syndrome is associated with poor short-term outcome and poor long-term survival in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome on ST segment resolution in patients received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 161 patients, who were admitted to our clinics with acute ST-elevated-myocardial infarction and received thrombolytic therapy within 12 hours of chest pain. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Resolution of ST segment elevation was assessed on the baseline and 90-minute electrocardiograms. ST segment resolution ≥70% was defined as complete resolution.Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 56.5% of patients. The proportion of patients with metabolic syndrome who achieved complete ST segment resolution after thrombolysis was significantly lower than that of patients without metabolic syndrome (32.9% versus 58.6%, p=0.001. On multivariate analysis metabolic syndrome was the only independent predictor of ST segment resolution (p=0.01, Odds ratio=2.543, %95 CI:1.248-5.179Conclusion: The patients with metabolic syndrome had lower rates of complete ST segment resolution after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. This finding may contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Caloric restriction counteracts age-related changes in the activities of sorbitol metabolizing enzymes from mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic sorbitol-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in young and old mice. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower in old CR mice than in old controls. Young CR mice showed decreased aldose reductase activity and a trend towards decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase when compared to controls. Metabolites of the pathway, namely sorbitol, glucose and fructose were decreased by CR in young and old mice. Pyruvate levels were decreased by CR in both young and old mice, while lactate decreased only in old CR. Malate levels increased in old CR but remained unchanged in young CR, when compared with controls. Accordingly, the lactae/pyruvate and malate/pyruvate ratios in young and old CR mice were increased, indicating increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP redox couples, respectively. The results indicate that decreased glucose levels under CR conditions lead to decreased sorbitol pathway enzyme activities and metabolite levels, and could contribute to the beneficial effects of long-term CR through decreased sorbitol levels and NADPH sparing. PMID:18953666

  18. Japanese medaka: a non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying sex and age-related bone metabolism in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admane H Shanthanagouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In human, a reduction in estrogen has been proposed as one of the key contributing factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Rodents are conventional models for studying postmenopausal osteoporosis, but the major limitation is that ovariectomy is needed to mimic the estrogen decline after menopause. Interestingly, in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes, we observed a natural drop in plasma estrogen profile in females during aging and abnormal spinal curvature was apparent in old fish, which are similar to postmenopausal women. It is hypothesized that estrogen associated disorders in bone metabolism might be predicted and prevented by estrogen supplement in aging O. latipes, which could be corresponding to postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In O. latipes, plasma estrogen was peaked at 8 months old and significantly declined after 10, 11 and 22 months in females. Spinal bone mineral density (BMD and micro-architecture by microCT measurement progressively decreased and deteriorated from 8 to 10, 12 and 14 months old, which was more apparent in females than the male counterparts. After 10 months old, O. latipes were supplemented with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2, a potent estrogen mimic at 6 and 60 ng/mg fish weight/day for 4 weeks, both reduction in spinal BMD and deterioration in bone micro-architecture were significantly prevented. The estrogenic effect of EE2 in O. latipes was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four key estrogen responsive genes in the liver. In general, bone histomorphometric analyses indicated significantly lowered osteoblasts and osteoclasts numbers and surfaces on vertebrae of EE2-fed medaka. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate osteoporosis development associated with natural drop in estrogen level during aging in female medaka, which could be attenuated by estrogen treatment. This small size fish is a unique alternative non-mammalian vertebrate model for studying estrogen-related molecular

  19. Noninvasive assessment of canine myocardial oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Myears, D.W.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial metabolism would be highly desirable to evaluate pathogenetic mechanisms of heart disease and their response to therapy. It was previously demonstrated that the metabolism of radiolabeled acetate, a readily utilized myocardial substrate predominantly metabolized to carbon dioxide (CO2) by way of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, provides a good index of oxidative metabolism in isolated perfused rabbit hearts because of tight coupling between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, in a prelude to human studies, the relation between myocardial clearance of carbon-11 (11C)-labeled acetate and myocardial oxygen consumption was characterized in eight intact dogs using positron emission tomography. Anesthetized dogs were studied during baseline conditions and again during either high or low work states induced pharmacologically. High myocardial extraction and rapid blood clearance of tracer yielded myocardial images of excellent quality. The turnover (clearance) of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium was biexponential with the mean half-time of the dominant rapid phase averaging 5.4 +/- 2.2, 2.8 +/- 1.3 and 11.1 +/- 1.3 min in control, high and low work load studies, respectively. No significant difference was found between the rate of clearance of 11C radioactivity from the myocardium measured noninvasively with positron emission tomography and the myocardial efflux of 11CO2 measured directly from the coronary sinus. The rate of clearance of the 11C radioactivity from the heart correlated closely with myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001) as well as with the rate-pressure product (r = 0.95, p less than 0.001). Hence, the rate of oxidation of 11C-acetate can be determined noninvasively with positron emission tomography, providing a quantitative index of oxidative metabolism under diverse conditions

  20. Identification of a sustainable two-plant diet that effectively prevents age-related metabolic syndrome and extends lifespan in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Liu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Chih-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Man; Kang, Jing X

    2018-01-01

    The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner. In the "longevity village" of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides. Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the "HB diet") provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits. Aged mice allowed ad libitum access to the HB diet not only had longer life spans and improved cognitive function but were also protected against age-related metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation compared to aged mice fed a control Western diet. Furthermore, longevity-related genes (including 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and forkhead box O3) were significantly up-regulated, while aging-related genes (including mammalian target of rapamycin and nuclear factor kappa B) were down-regulated. These results demonstrate that the HB diet is capable of promoting health and longevity, and present a sustainable source of healthy foods that can help control the prevalence of chronic diseases and reduce agricultural impact on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time course of regional myocardial glucose metabolism after transient ischemia assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshizaki, Hiroshi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of glucose metabolism in ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 90 or 180 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Twelve hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion, myocardial blood flow (MBF) and glucose metabolism were assessed (with H[sub 2][sup 15]O and [sup 18]F-FDG, respectively) by positron emission tomography (PET) under the fasting state, and the metabolic findings were compared with the histologic examination. Glucose metabolism in ischemic regions was inversely related to the amount of tissue necrosis 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion (r=-0.89 and r=-0.82, respectively). The perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern was seen in the area with less than 10 percent necrosis 12 hours after reperfusion, but this pattern disappeared after 4 weeks. The area with 10 to 50 percent necrosis showed the mismatch pattern until 4 weeks after reperfusion, and in the area with more than 50 percent necrosis, perfusion-metabolism concordantly decreased. Thus, metabolic index assessed early after reperfusion by PET identified myocardial viability, and the perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern sustained in relation to the degree of ischemic injury. Since some regions estimated to be irreversible by PET were viable by the histologic examination, PET study might underestimate the myocardial viability. (author).

  2. Alteration in metabolic signature and lipid metabolism in patients with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Shin, Min-Jeong; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolites are indispensable regulators of physiological and pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the complex changes in lipid metabolites and metabolism that occur in patients with these conditions are incompletely understood. We performed lipid profiling to identify alterations in lipid metabolism in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI). Global lipid profiling was applied to serum samples from patients with CAD (angina and MI) and age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the patients with CAD and normal controls. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lysoPE) species containing unsaturated fatty acids and free fatty acids were associated with an increased risk of CAD, whereas species of lysoPC and lyso-alkyl PC containing saturated fatty acids were associated with a decreased risk. Additionally, PC species containing palmitic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, and ceramide were associated with an increased risk of MI, whereas PE-plasmalogen and phosphatidylinositol species were associated with a decreased risk. In MI patients, we found strong positive correlation between lipid metabolites related to the sphingolipid pathway, sphingomyelin, and ceramide and acute inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). The results of this study demonstrate altered signatures in lipid metabolism in patients with angina or MI. Lipidomic profiling could provide the information to identity the specific lipid metabolites under the presence of disturbed metabolic pathways in patients with CAD.

  3. Genomic and metabolic disposition of non-obese type 2 diabetic rats to increased myocardial fatty acid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Devanathan

    Full Text Available Lipotoxicity of the heart has been implicated as a leading cause of morbidity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. While numerous reports have demonstrated increased myocardial fatty acid (FA utilization in obese T2DM animal models, this diabetic phenotype has yet to be demonstrated in non-obese animal models of T2DM. Therefore, the present study investigates functional, metabolic, and genomic differences in myocardial FA metabolism in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. The study utilized Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats at the age of 24 weeks. Each rat was imaged with small animal positron emission tomography (PET to estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF and myocardial FA metabolism. Echocardiograms (ECHOs were performed to assess cardiac function. Levels of triglycerides (TG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA were measured in both plasma and cardiac tissues. Finally, expression profiles for 168 genes that have been implicated in diabetes and FA metabolism were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR arrays. GK rats exhibited increased NEFA and TG in both plasma and cardiac tissue. Quantitative PET imaging suggests that GK rats have increased FA metabolism. ECHO data indicates that GK rats have a significant increase in left ventricle mass index (LVMI and decrease in peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' compared to Wistar rats, suggesting structural remodeling and impaired diastolic function. Of the 84 genes in each the diabetes and FA metabolism arrays, 17 genes in the diabetes array and 41 genes in the FA metabolism array were significantly up-regulated in GK rats. Our data suggest that GK rats' exhibit increased genomic disposition to FA and TG metabolism independent of obesity.

  4. Correlation between myocardial Thallium-201 kinetics, myocardial lactate metabolism and coronary angiographic findings in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrath, P.; Mathey, D.; Thiel, U.; Kupper, W.; Bleifeld, W.; Mantz, R.; Vorbringer, H.; Schneider, C.

    1980-01-01

    In 20 patients with idiopathic hypertrophic obstructive and nonobstructive cardiomyopathy (IHSS), biphasic Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed. Regional myocardial Thallium-201 kinetics of these patients were analysed by a semiquantitative computerized method and compared with those of 6 normal subjects. In 12 of 18 with IHSS and no coronary artery disease 26 regions of interest with irreversible and 6 regions of interest with reversible Thallium-201 defects could be detected. Most of the Thallium-201 defects were localized in the interventricular septum. The defects were not related to the age of the patients and there was no relationship between the occurence of reversible Thallium-201 defects and pathological myocardial lactate extraction rate during maximal atrial pacing measured in 14 patients. The percentage (6.8%) of irreversible defect regions in patients with LV outflow obstruction at rest (n = 13) was more than twice higher compared to those (n = 5, 3.2%) without LV outflow obstruction or no provocative pressure gradient, resp. These data suggest that IHSS often associated with regional ischemic myocardial fibrosis despite normal coronary arteries. Therefore in these patients Thallium scintigraphy cannot be used as a noninvasive screening method to exclude or prove coronary artery disease. (orig.) [de

  5. Effects of hepatic triglyceride content on myocardial metabolism in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; Jonker, Jacqueline T.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lubberink, Mark; de Jong, Hugo W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; de Roos, Albert; Heine, Robert J.; Twisk, Jos W.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Diamant, Michaela; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hepatic triglyceride content and both myocardial function and metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in T2DM. Central obesity and hepatic steatosis, both hallmark

  6. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and metabolism for assessment of myocardial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Identifying preserved myocardial viability in the presence of severe regional left ventricular dysfunction is becoming increasingly more important for clinical decision-making to better select those patients with coronary artery disease who will benefit most from revascularization. 201 Tl remains the most commonly employed radionuclide for detecting both ischemia and viability. A severe persistent defect with 201 Tl uptake compared to peak to improved perfusion and corresponding improved function after revascularisation. Detection of defect reversibility on 201 Tl imaging is enhanced by 'reinjection' of a second 201 Tl dose after acquisition of redistribution images. Initial and 4-hour rest/redistribution imaging has proven most usefull for detection of viability in the resting state in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The greater the extent of preoperative viability, the greater is the improvement in regional and global function after revascularisation. 99 Tc sestamibi has also been demonstrated to be extracted by myocardial cells in proportion to regional blood flow in the presence of viable myocities. Although this agrnt does not redistribute after intravenous injection, its >50% uptake of the tracer implies viablility and predicts improved regional function after revascularisation. Finally positron emission tomography with 18 F fluorodeoxoglucose (FDG) is perhaps the most sensitive noninvasive imaging technique for detection of viability in stunned or hibernating myocardium. A mismatch pattern between regional flow and FDG uptake as approximately an 80-85% positive preicted value for predicting improved function in asynergic myocardial regions after revascualarisation

  7. Danqi Pill regulates lipid metabolism disorder induced by myocardial ischemia through FATP-CPTI pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Wang, Qiyan; Shi, Tianjiao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wu, Yan; Han, Jing; Guo, Shuzhen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-21

    Danqi Pill (DQP), which contains Chinese herbs Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Panax notoginseng, is widely used in the treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) in China. Its regulatory effects on MI-associated lipid metabolism disorders haven't been comprehensively studied so far. We aimed to systematically investigate the regulatory mechanism of DQP on myocardial ischemia-induced lipid metabolism disorders. Myocardial ischemia rat model was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. The rat models were divided into three groups: model group with administration of normal saline, study group with administration of DanQi aqueous solution (1.5 mg/kg) and positive-control group with administration of pravastatin aqueous solution (1.2 mg/kg). In addition, another sham-operated group was set as negative control. At 28 days after treatment, cardiac function and degree of lipid metabolism disorders in rats of different groups were measured. Plasma lipid disorders were induced by myocardial ischemia, with manifestation of up-regulation of triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). DQP could down-regulate the levels of TG, LDL, Apo-B and HMGCR. The Lipid transport pathway, fatty acids transport protein (FATP) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) were down-regulated in model group. DQP could improve plasma lipid metabolism by up-regulating this lipid transport pathway. The transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which regulate lipid metabolism, were also up-regulated by DQP. Furthermore, DQP was able to improve heart function and up-regulate ejection fraction (EF) by increasing the cardiac diastolic volume. Our study reveals that DQP would be an ideal alternative drug for the treatment of dyslipidemia which is induced by myocardial ischemia.

  8. Radioiodinated free fatty acids; can we measure myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Duwel, C.M.B.; Roos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of radioiodinated free fatty acids for ''metabolic imaging'', the kinetics and distribution pattern of metabolites of heptadecanoic acid I 131 (HDA I 131) were studied in canine myocardium throughout metabolic interventions. In control dogs and in dogs during glucose/insulin and sodium lactate infusion, biopsy specimens were taken during a go-min period after HDA I 131 administration and analyzed. Clearly distinct patterns of distribution and elimination were seen during the metabolic interventions, indicating the usefulness of iodinated fatty acids for metabolic studies. (orig.)

  9. Milrinone and levosimendan during porcine myocardial ischemia -- no effects on calcium overload and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, B; Johansson, G; Abrahamsson, P; Gupta, A; Tydén, H; Wouters, P; Haney, M

    2013-07-01

    Although inotropic stimulation is considered harmful in the presence of myocardial ischaemia, both calcium sensitisers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may offer cardioprotection. We hypothesise that these cardioprotective effects are related to an acute alteration of myocardial metabolism. We studied in vivo effects of milrinone and levosimendan on calcium overload and ischaemic markers using left ventricular microdialysis in pigs with acute myocardial ischaemia. Anaesthetised juvenile pigs, average weight 36 kg, were randomised to one of three intravenous treatment groups: milrinone 50 μg/kg bolus plus infusion 0.5 μg/kg/min (n = 7), levosimendan 24 μg/kg plus infusion 0.2 μg/kg/min (n = 7), or placebo (n = 6) for 60 min prior to and during a 45 min acute regional coronary occlusion. Systemic and myocardial haemodynamics were assessed, and microdialysis was performed with catheters positioned in the left ventricular wall. (45) Ca(2+) was included in the microperfusate in order to assess local calcium uptake into myocardial cells. The microdialysate was analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and for (45) Ca(2+) recovery. During ischaemia, there were no differences in microdialysate-measured parameters between control animals and milrinone- or levosimendan-treated groups. In the pre-ischaemic period, arterial blood pressure decreased in all groups while myocardial oxygen consumption remained stable. These findings reject the hypothesis of an immediate energy-conserving effect of milrinone and levosimendan during acute myocardial ischaemia. On the other hand, the data show that inotropic support with milrinone and levosimendan does not worsen the metabolic parameters that were measured in the ischaemic myocardium. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R

    1994-04-01

    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  11. Is myocardial fatty acid metabolism different between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive hypertrophy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    To investigate characteristics of fatty acid metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), we performed myocardial imaging with 123 I-iodophenyl-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in 24 HCM patients, 13 patients with hypertensive hypertrophy (HT) and 10 normal subjects. Rest myocardial imaging with 123 I-BMIPP was obtained at 20 minutes and 3 hours after 123 I-BMIPP injection. Rest 201 Tl imaging was also performed. In addition to ordinary tomography, whole body imaging was performed to calculate %Uptake (percentage of cardiac uptake of the isotope to total injected dose). As global indexes of fatty acid metabolism, we calculated two parameters; Uptake Ratio (%Uptake of 123 I-BMIPP normalized by myocardial perfusion) and WOR (percent reduction of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP within 3 hours). Regional abnormality was evaluated by visual assessment of ordinary tomograms and by BMIPP/Tl map. BMIPP/Tl map was made from Bull's-eye maps of 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl, and it represented 123 I-BMIPP uptake normalized by myocardial perfusion of each pixel which constructed the image. %Uptake of 123 I-BMIPP was not different among three groups. Uptake Ratio was significantly (p HT (1.03±0.08)>HCM (0.87±0.09). WOR of 123 I-BMIPP was accerelated in HCM (12.7±4.7%) and HT (10.2±2.9%) compared with normal (5.1±3.1%) (p 123 I-BMIPP distribution was found in 17 of 24 patients (71%) including 3 patients with equivocal abnormality. In HT patients, only equivocal abnormality was observed in 23%. In BMIPP/Tl map, abnormality was observed in 92% of HCM and 8% of HT. Although global myocardial fatty acid metabolism was equally disturbed both in HCM and HT, regional abnormality of fatty acid metabolism was observed preferetially in HCM. This indicated myocardial fatty acid metabolism was not identical between HCM and HT. (author)

  12. Impact of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on myocardial structure and microvasculature of men with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yii Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with impaired diastolic function and increased heart failure risk. Animal models and autopsy studies of diabetic patients implicate myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, altered myocardial microvascular structure and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are associated with altered myocardial structure, microvasculature, and expression of AGEs and receptor for AGEs (RAGE in men with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed histological analysis of left ventricular biopsies from 13 control, 10 diabetic and 23 metabolic syndrome men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who did not have heart failure or atrial fibrillation, had not received loop diuretic therapy, and did not have evidence of previous myocardial infarction. Results All three patient groups had similar extent of coronary artery disease and clinical characteristics, apart from differences in metabolic parameters. Diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure than controls, and diabetic patients had reduced mitral diastolic peak velocity of the septal mitral annulus (E', consistent with impaired diastolic function. Neither diabetic nor metabolic syndrome patients had increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis (picrosirius red, or increased immunostaining for collagen I and III, the AGE Nε-(carboxymethyllysine, or RAGE. Cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius, and arteriolar dimensions did not differ between the three patient groups, whereas diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients had reduced perivascular fibrosis. Conclusions Impaired diastolic function of type 2 diabetic and metabolic syndrome patients was not dependent on increased myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, alteration of the

  13. Investigation of (/sup 18/F)2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Robinson, G.; MacDonald, N.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1978-12-01

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was studied as a glucose analog for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species dependence (dog, monkey, man), and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of FDG was 3 to 4% of injected dose in dog and monkey, and 1 to 4% in man, compared with brain uptakes of 1.5 to 3% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey, and 4 to 8% in man. The myocardial metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in the nonfasting (glycolytic) state was 2.8 times that in the fasting (ketogenic) state. Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after a meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t/sub 1/2/ of 0.2 to 0.3 min, followed by a t/sub 1/2/ of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had half-times of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. With the ECAT positron tomograph, high image-contrast ratios were found between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1, man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1, man 20/1), and heart and liver (dog 15/1, man 10/1). The FDG was taken up rapidly by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4-hr period. The FDG exhibited excellent imaging properties. Average counting rates of 12K, 20K, and 40K c/min-mCi injected are obtained in human subjects with high, medium, and low resolutions of the ECAT tomograph. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with EACT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man.

  14. Investigation of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Robinson, G.; MacDonald, N.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) was studied as a glucose analog for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species dependence (dog, monkey, man), and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of FDG was 3 to 4% of injected dose in dog and monkey, and 1 to 4% in man, compared with brain uptakes of 1.5 to 3% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey, and 4 to 8% in man. The myocardial metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in the nonfasting (glycolytic) state was 2.8 times that in the fasting (ketogenic) state. Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after a meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t/sub 1/2/ of 0.2 to 0.3 min, followed by a t/sub 1/2/ of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had half-times of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. With the ECAT positron tomograph, high image-contrast ratios were found between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1, man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1, man 20/1), and heart and liver (dog 15/1, man 10/1). The FDG was taken up rapidly by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4-hr period. The FDG exhibited excellent imaging properties. Average counting rates of 12K, 20K, and 40K c/min-mCi injected are obtained in human subjects with high, medium, and low resolutions of the ECAT tomograph. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with EACT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

  15. Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease in Overweight and Obesity With and Without Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Overweight and obesity likely cause myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD); however, whether coexisting metabolic syndrome is a necessary condition is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that overweight and obesity with and without metabolic syndrome...... syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios for incident MI and IHD according to combinations of BMI category and absence or presence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: During a median of 3.6 years' follow-up, we recorded 634 incident MI and 1781 incident IHD events. For MI, multivariable adjusted...... hazard ratios vs normal weight individuals without metabolic syndrome were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00-1.61) in overweight and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.34-2.63) in obese individuals without metabolic syndrome and 1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.02) in normal weight, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.35-2.15) in overweight, and 2.33 (95% CI, 1...

  16. In vivo metabolic phenotyping of myocardial substrate metabolism in rodents: differential efficacy of metformin and rosiglitazone monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I; Finck, Brian N; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Sharp, Terry; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J; Welch, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetic patients, with alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism being a likely contributor. We aimed to assess noninvasively the efficacy of metformin and rosiglitazone monotherapy in normalizing myocardial substrate metabolism in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study used 18 male ZDF rats (fa/fa) with 6 rats in each group: an untreated group; a group treated with metformin (16.6 mg/kg/d), and a group treated with rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg). Each rat was scanned at age 14 weeks (baseline) and subsequently at 19 weeks with small-animal positron emission tomography to estimate myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) and myocardial utilization (MFAU), oxidation (MFAO), and esterification (MFAE). Treatment lasted for 5 weeks after baseline imaging. At week 19, rats were euthanized and hearts were extracted for expression analysis of select genes encoding for GLUT transporters and fatty acid transport and oxidation genes. In addition, echocardiography measurements were obtained at weeks 13 and 18 to characterize cardiac function. Metformin had no significant effect on either MGU or MFAU and MFAO. In contrast, rosiglitazone tended to enhance MGU and significantly reduced MFAU and MFAO. Rosiglitazone-induced increase in glucose uptake correlated significantly with increased expression of GLUT4, whereas diminished MFAO correlated significantly with decreased expression of FATP-1 and MCAD. Finally, changes in fractional shortening as a measure of cardiac function were unchanged throughout the study. Treatment with rosiglitazone enhanced glucose utilization and diminished MFAO, thus reversing the metabolic phenotype of the diabetic heart.

  17. Detection of regional derangements in myocardial metabolism by positron computed tomography in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Perloff, J.K.; Schwaiger, M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy is unique in genetically targeting for disease a specific region of myocardium: the postero-basal left ventricular wall. Postmortem examinations revealed focal fibrous degenerations in the postero-basal segment, while the coronary arteries were usually not affected. A predystrophic metabolic fault has been postulated for this region. This hypothesis was tested with positron computed tomography as a new means for the noninvasive study of regional myocadial perfusion and metabolism and to determine the incidence of regional and global left ventricular dysfunction and perfusion abnormalities using Thallium-201 and gated blood pool imaging. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated with N-13 ammonia while regional myocardial glucose uptake was studied with the glucose analog F-18 DG. The sensitivity of each diagnostic test for detecting cardiac involvement in Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy was evaluated. It was highest for ammonia and glucose imaging and it was low for Thallium and radionuclide blood pool imaging

  18. Systems biology-based analysis implicates a novel role for vitamin D metabolism in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Margaux A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vitamin D has been shown to have anti-angiogenic properties and to play a protective role in several types of cancer, including breast, prostate and cutaneous melanoma. Similarly, vitamin D levels have been shown to be protective for risk of a number of conditions, including cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, as well as numerous autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A study performed by Parekh et al. was the first to suggest a role for vitamin D in age-related macular degeneration (AMD and showed a correlation between reduced serum vitamin D levels and risk for early AMD. Based on this study and the protective role of vitamin D in diseases with similar pathophysiology to AMD, we examined the role of vitamin D in a family-based cohort of 481 sibling pairs. Using extremely phenotypically discordant sibling pairs, initially we evaluated the association of neovascular AMD and vitamin D/sunlight-related epidemiological factors. After controlling for established AMD risk factors, including polymorphisms of the genes encoding complement factor H (CFH and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2/HtrA serine peptidase (ARMS2/HTRA1, and smoking history, we found that ultraviolet irradiance was protective for the development of neovascular AMD (p = 0.001. Although evaluation of serum vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was higher in unaffected individuals than in their affected siblings, this finding did not reach statistical significance. Based on the relationship between ultraviolet irradiance and vitamin D production, we employed a candidate gene approach for evaluating common variation in key vitamin D pathway genes (the genes encoding the vitamin D receptor [VDR]; cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 [CYP27B1]; cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 [CYP24A1]; and CYP27A1 in this same family-based cohort. Initial

  19. [Modifications in myocardial energy metabolism in diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, A

    2001-11-01

    The capacity of cardiac myocyte to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. Because FA is the main heart fuel (although the most expensive one in oxygen, and prompt to induce deleterious effects), this process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Several pathological situations are associated with an accumulation of FA or derivatives, or with an excessive b-oxidation. The diabetic cardiomyocyte is characterised by an over consumption of FA. The control of the FA/glucose balance clearly appears as a new strategy for cytoprotection, particularly in diabetes and requires a reduced FA contribution to ATP production. Cardiac myocytes can control FA mitochondrial entry, but display weak ability to control FA uptake, thus the fate of non beta-oxidized FA appear as a new impairment for the cell. Both the trigger and the regulation of cardiac contraction result from membrane activity, and the other major FA function in the myocardium is their role in membrane homeostasis, through the phospholipid synthesis and remodeling pathways. Sudden death, hypercatecholaminemia, diabetes and heart failure have been associated with an altered PUFA content in cardiac membranes. Experimental data suggest that the 2 metabolic pathways involved in membrane homeostasis may represent therapeutic targets for cytoprotection. The drugs that increase cardiac phospholipid turnover (trimétazidine, ranolazine,...) display anti-ischemic non hemodynamic effect. This effect is based on a redirection of FA utilization towards phospholipid synthesis, which decrease their availability for energy production. A nutritional approach gave also promising results. Besides its anti-arrhythmic effect, the dietary docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce FA energy consumption and hence oxygen demand. The cardiac metabolic pathways involving FA should be considered as a whole, precariously balanced. The diabetic heart being characterised by

  20. Influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on coronary microvascular function after a recent myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the association between abnormal glucose metabolism and abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity after AMI is high among patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, ...... (140 microg/kg/min) to obtain the hyperemic flow profiles. The CFR was defined as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak diastolic coronary flow velocities. RESULTS: Median CFR was 1.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4 to 2.4], and 109 (60%) patients had a CFR...

  1. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  2. Characterization of Japanese standards for myocardial sympathetic and metabolic imaging in comparison with perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yamashina, Shohei; Sakata, Kazuyuki; Momose, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Jun; Kumita, Shinichiro; Kawano, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The standard patterns of myocardial radiotracer distribution of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 123 I-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) should be defined in a Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to present and provide data on the characteristics of MIBG and BMIPP with respect to myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. The normal database included 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-BMIPP imaging and a 99 mTc-sestamibi/tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion study. The projection images were transferred by digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format and reconstructed and analyzed with polar maps. The projection data from multiple centers were successfully transferred to a common format for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. When the average values were analyzed using a 17-segment model, MIBG uptake in the inferior and apical wall appeared to be slightly lower than anterior uptake (P 99m Tc-tracer uptake (P<0.05). Myocardial sympathetic nerve and metabolic scintigraphy data that were specific for the Japanese population were generated and found to be different from that of perfusion tracers. The normal database can serve as a standard for nuclear cardiology work conducted in Japan. (author)

  3. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise 201 Tl and rest 123 I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise 201 Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed 201 Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise 201 Tl defects (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  4. L-[4-11C]aspartic acid: enzymatic synthesis, myocardial uptake, and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, J.R.; Egbert, J.E.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Baumgartner, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sterile, pyrogen-free L-[4- 11 C]aspartic acid was prepared from 11 CO 2 using phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glutamic/oxaloacetic acid transaminase immobilized on Sepharose supports to determine if it is a useful indicator for in vivo, noninvasive determination of myocardial metabolism. An intracoronary bolus injection of L-[4- 11 C]aspartic acid into dog myocardium showed a triexponential clearance curve with maximal production of 11 CO 2 100 s after injection. Inactivation of myocardial transaminase activity modified the tracer clearance and inhibited the production of 11 CO 2 . Positron-computed tomography imaging showed that the 11 C activities retained in rhesus monkey myocardium are higher than those observed in dog heart after intravenous injection of L-[4- 11 C]aspartic acid. These findings demonstrated the rapid incorporation of the carbon skeleton of L-aspartic acid into the tricarboxylic acid cycle after enzymatic transamination in myocardium and suggested that L-[4- 11 C]aspartic acid could be of value for in vivo, noninvasive assessment of local myocardial metabolism

  5. The metabolic disturbances of isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats based on a tissue targeted metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-tao; Jia, Hong-mei; Chang, Xing; Ding, Gang; Zhang, Hong-wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2013-11-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but the precise mechanism of its pathogenesis remains obscure. To achieve the most comprehensive screening of the entire metabolome related to isoproterenol (ISO) induced-MI, we present a tissue targeted metabonomic study using an integrated approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Twenty-two metabolites were detected as potential biomarkers related to the formation of MI, and the levels of pantothenic acid (), lysoPC(18:0) (), PC(18:4(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)/18:0) (), taurine (), lysoPC(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z)) (), threonine (), alanine (), creatine (), phosphocreatine (), glucose 1-phosphate (), glycine (), xanthosine (), creatinine () and glucose () were decreased significantly, while the concentrations of histamine (), L-palmitoylcarnitine (), GSSG (), inosine (), arachidonic acid (), linoelaidic acid (), 3-methylhistamine () and glycylproline () were increased significantly in the MI rats compared with the control group. The identified potential biomarkers were involved in twelve metabolic pathways and achieved the most entire metabolome contributing to the injury of the myocardial tissue. Five pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycolysis, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and histidine metabolism, were significantly influenced by ISO-treatment according to MetPA analysis and suggested that the most prominent changes included inflammation, interference of calcium dynamics, as well as alterations of energy metabolism in the pathophysiologic process of MI. These findings provided a unique perspective on localized metabolic information of ISO induced-MI, which gave us new insights into the pathogenesis of MI, discovery of targets for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  6. The Endocannabinoid System Affects Myocardial Glucose Metabolism in the DOCA-Salt Model of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Polak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Recent interest in the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents has revealed the involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and insulin action are commonly detected in hypertensive animals. Thus, potential antihypertensive drugs should be investigated with respect to modulation of glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the ECS activation after chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (URB597 administration on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as parameters of myocardial glucose metabolism in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, an animal model of secondary hypertension. Methods: Hypertension was induced by DOCA (25mg/kg injections and addition of 1% NaCl in the drinking water for six weeks. Chronic activation of the ECS was performed by URB597 (1mg/kg injections for two weeks. We examined fasting plasma levels of insulin (ELISA, glucose and intramyocardial glycogen (colorimetric method. Expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT1, 4 and selected proteins engaged in GLUT translocation as well as glucose metabolism were determined using Western blotting. Results: Hypertension induced hypoinsulinemia with concomitant lack of significant changes in glycemia, reduced intramyocardial glycogen content and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH expression in the cardiac muscle. Importantly, chronic URB597 administration in the hypertensive rats increased insulin concentration, elevated plasmalemmal GLUT1 and GLUT4 expression and concomitantly improved myocardial glycogen storage. Conclusion: Chronic administration of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor has potential protective properties on myocardial glucose metabolism in hypertension.

  7. [Markers for early detection of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism after acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gea-García, J H; Benali, L; Galcerá-Tomás, J; Padilla-Serrano, A; Andreu-Soler, E; Melgarejo-Moreno, A; Alonso-Fernández, N

    2014-03-01

    Undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism is often seen in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, although there is no consensus on which patients should be studied with a view to establishing an early diagnosis. The present study examines the potential of certain variables obtained upon admission to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of Arrixaca University Hospital (Murcia), Spain. A total of 138 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute myocardial infarction and without known or de novo diabetes mellitus. After one year, oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. Clinical and laboratory test parameters were recorded upon admission and one year after discharge. Additionally, after one year, oral glucose tolerance tests were made, and a study was made of the capacity of the variables obtained at admission to diagnose diabetes, based on the ROC curves and multivariate analysis. Of the 138 patients, 112 (72.5%) had glucose metabolic alteration, including 16.7% with diabetes. HbA1c was independently associated with a diagnosis of diabetes (RR: 7.28, 95%CI 1.65 to 32.05, P = .009), and showed the largest area under the ROC curve for diabetes (0.81, 95%CI 0.69 to 0.92, P = .001). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, HbA1c helps identify those individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism after one year. Thus, its determination in this group of patients could be used to identify those subjects requiring a more exhaustive study in order to establish an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids on myocardial performance, metabolism and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pinotti

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in saturated fatty acids are one of the most important causes of atherosclerosis in men, and have been replaced with diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA for the prevention of this disorder. However, the effect of UFA on myocardial performance, metabolism and morphology has not been completely characterized. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of a UFA-rich diet on cardiac muscle function, oxidative stress, and morphology. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a control (N = 8 or a UFA-rich diet (N = 8 for 60 days. Myocardial performance was studied in isolated papillary muscle by isometric and isotonic contractions under basal conditions after calcium chloride (5.2 mM and ß-adrenergic stimulation with 1.0 µM isoproterenol. Fragments of the left ventricle free wall were used to study oxidative stress and were analyzed by light microscopy, and the myocardial ultrastructure was examined in left ventricle papillary muscle. After 60 days the UFA-rich diet did not change myocardial function. However, it caused high lipid hydroperoxide (176 ± 5 vs 158 ± 5, P < 0.0005 and low catalase (7 ± 1 vs 9 ± 1, P < 0.005 and superoxide-dismutase (18 ± 2 vs 27 ± 5, P < 0.005 levels, and discrete morphological changes in UFA-rich diet hearts such as lipid deposits and mitochondrial membrane alterations compared to control rats. These data show that a UFA-rich diet caused myocardial oxidative stress and mild structural alterations, but did not change mechanical function.

  9. Investigation of 18F-2-deoxyglucose for the measure of myocardial glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Selin, C.; Huang, S.C.; Robinson, G.; MacDonald, N.; Schelbert, H.R.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    18 F labeled 2-deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) was studied as a glucose analog. Myocardial uptake and retention, blood clearance, species (dog, monkey, man) dependence and effect of diet on uptake were investigated. Normal myocardial uptake of 18 FDG was 3 to 4% in dog and monkey and 1 to 4% of injected dose in man compared to brain uptake of 2% in dog, 5 to 6% in monkey and 4 to 8% in man. The metabolic rate (MR) for glucose in non-fasting (glycolytic state) was 2.8 times greater than in fasting (ketogenic state). Human subjects showed higher myocardial uptake after a normal meal than after meal containing mostly free fatty acids (FFA). Blood clearance was rapid with initial clearance t 1 / 2 of 0.2 to 0.3 min followed by a t 1 / 2 of 8.4 +- 1.2 min in dog and 11.6 +- 1.1 min in man. A small third component had a t 1 / 2 of 59 +- 10 min and 88 +- 4 min in dog and man, respectively. High image contrast ratios between heart and blood (dog 3.5/1; man 14/1), heart and lung (dog 9/1; man 20/1), heart and liver (dog 15/1; man 10/1) were found with the ECAT positron tomograph. 18 FDG was found to be rapidly taken up by the myocardium without any significant tissue clearance over a 4 hour period. 18 FDG is transported, phosphorylated to 18 FDG-6-PO 4 and trapped in myocardial cells in the same manner as has been found for brain and exhibits excellent imaging properties. Determination of glucose and FFA MR in vivo with ECT provides a method for investigation and assessment of changing aerobic and anaerobic metabolic rates in ischemic heart disease in man

  10. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined.

  11. Deoxyglucose method for the estimation of local myocardial glucose metabolism with positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratib, O.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Henze, E.; Selin, C.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    The deoxyglucose method originally developed for measurements of the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose has been investigated in terms of its application to studies of the heart with positron computed tomography (PCT) and FDG. Studies were performed in dogs to measure the tissue kinetics of FDG with PCT and by direct arterial-venous sampling. The operational equation developed in our laboratory as an extension of the Sokoloff model was used to analyze the data. The FDG method accurately predicted the true MMRGlc even when the glucose metabolic rate was normal but myocardial blood flow (MBF) was elevated 5 times the control value or when metabolism was reduced to 10% of normal and MBF increased 5 times normal. Improvements in PCT resolution are required to improve the accuracy of the estimates of the rate constants and the MMRGlc

  12. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined

  13. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei

    1998-01-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  14. Myocardial glucose metabolism assessed by positron emission tomography and the histopathologic findings of microvessels in syndrome X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Osamichi; Kajinami, Kouji; Ishikawa, Yoshimaro; Ueda, Tadashi; Tsugawa, Hiroichi; Kanemitsu, Seiyu; Okubo, Shinji; Takekoshi, Noboru

    2004-01-01

    Syndrome X has been recognized as a disease that is primarily reflected in the cardiac microvasculature. Myocardial metabolism in this condition has been studied, but not in relation to small vessel pathology. In order to examine the relationship between myocardial metabolism and small vessel pathology, 24 consecutive patients with syndrome X (7 men, 17 women; mean age 58 years) were evaluated by the thallium exercise stress test, positron emission tomography using F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG), and an endomyocardial biopsy. All patients showed either diffuse or focal increase in the myocardial uptake of FDG, but only 17 patients (71%) showed hypoperfused areas with partial or complete redistribution in the thallium study. Quantification of myocardial FDG uptake revealed that the value in syndrome X patients was 10-fold higher than in controls (p<0.0001). Histopathological examination revealed that in syndrome X there is an extensive increase in smooth muscle cells and thickening of the vascular wall, even in capillary vessels, and the small vessel lumen was markedly narrowed. There was a significant inverse correlation between FDG myocardial uptake and the microvessel luminal area. In syndrome X patients, myocardial FDG uptake is increased extensively, which is strongly associated with narrowed myocardial microvasculature. (author)

  15. Application of 123I-labelled long-chained fatty acids for the study of myocardial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, F.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Machulla, H.J.; Stoecklin, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioiodine-labelled fatty acids are useful tracers for myocardial imaging. The present study extends myocardial scintigraphy with ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid to measuring myocardial metabolism. 4 normal individuals and 6 patients with cardiac disease received i.v. 1-2 mCi ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid. Immediately fast serial scintigrams of the myocardium were taken for 30 minutes. Disappearance of the tracer, and appearance of anorganic 123-I, was measured in the peripheral blood. The myocardial images were of high quality later than 5 minutes after injection. By correcting for anorganic 123-I in the peripheral blood and the interstitium, the turnover of tracer in the myocardial cells could be measured. Activity was lost from the myocardium with a half time between 14 and 32 minutes. Within regions of old myocardials infarctions the half time of tracer loss was prolonged. The data clearly indicate the feasibility of using ω-123-I-heptadecanoic acid for measuring myocardial metabolism. (author)

  16. Atorvastatin Improves Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction by Interfering with Collagen Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Karla; Pereira do Carmo, Helison Rafael; Galluce Torina, Anali; Diógenes de Carvalho, Daniela; Carvalho Sposito, Andrei; de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; da Mota Silveira-Filho, Lindemberg; Martins de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Therapeutic strategies that modulate ventricular remodeling can be useful after acute myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, statins may exert effects on molecular pathways involved in collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks would lead to changes in collagen metabolism and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of MI. Methods Male Wistar rats were used in this study. MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Animals were randomized into three groups, according to treatment: sham surgery without LAD ligation (sham group, n = 14), LAD ligation followed by 10mg atorvastatin/kg/day for 4 weeks (atorvastatin group, n = 24), or LAD ligation followed by saline solution for 4 weeks (control group, n = 27). After 4 weeks, hemodynamic characteristics were obtained by a pressure-volume catheter. Hearts were removed, and the left ventricles were subjected to histologic analysis of the extents of fibrosis and collagen deposition, as well as the myocyte cross-sectional area. Expression levels of mediators involved in collagen metabolism and inflammation were also assessed. Results End-diastolic volume, fibrotic content, and myocyte cross-sectional area were significantly reduced in the atorvastatin compared to the control group. Atorvastatin modulated expression levels of proteins related to collagen metabolism, including MMP1, TIMP1, COL I, PCPE, and SPARC, in remote infarct regions. Atorvastatin had anti-inflammatory effects, as indicated by lower expression levels of TLR4, IL-1, and NF-kB p50. Conclusion Treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks was able to attenuate ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy after MI in rats, perhaps in part through effects on collagen metabolism and inflammation. Atorvastatin may be useful for limiting ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemic events. PMID:27880844

  17. Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy without echocardiographic abnormalities evaluated by myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiologic process in patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST, T changes but without echocardiographic abnormalities was investigated by myocardial perfusion imaging and fatty acid metabolic imaging. Exercise stress 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) imaging and rest 123 I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging were performed in 59 patients with electrocardiographic hypertrophy including 29 without apparent cause including hypertension and echocardiographic hypertrophy, and 30 with essential hypertension. Coronary angiography was performed in 6 patients without hypertension and 4 with hypertension and biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventricular apex from 6 patients without hypertension. Myocardial perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP images were classified into 3 types: normal, increased accumulation of the isotope at the left ventricular apex (high uptake) and defect. Transient perfusion abnormality and apical defect observed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging were more frequent in patients without hypertension than in patients with hypertension (32% vs. 17%, p=0.04671 in perfusion; 62% vs. 30%, p=0.0236 in 123 I-BMIPP). Eighteen normotensive patients with apical defect by 123 I-BMIPP imaging included 3 of 10 patients with normal perfusion at exercise, 6 of 10 patients with high uptake and 9 of 9 patients with perfusion defect. The defect size revealed by 123 I-BMIPP imaging was greater than that of the perfusion abnormality. Coronary stenoses were not observed and myocardial specimens showed myocardial disarray with hypertrophy. Moreover, 9 patients with hypertension and apical defects by 123 I-BMIPP showed 3 different types of perfusion. Many patients without hypertension show a pathologic process similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Perfusion and 123 I-BMIPP imaging are useful for the identification of these patients. (author)

  18. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid /sup 14/C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides.

  19. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid 14 C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides. (orig.)

  20. A possible relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in rabbits during myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL R. DE AGUIAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique. The animals were monitored during surgery by pH and lactate levels. Transcription analysis of the pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzymes were performed by qRT-PCR, and glycogen quantification was determined enzymatically. Pyruvate kinase transcription increased during ischemia, followed by glycogen consumption content. The gluconeogenesis increased in control and ischemia moments, suggesting a relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. This result shows the significant contribution of these substrates in the organ energy supply and demonstrates the capacity of the heart to adapt the metabolism after this injury, sustaining the homeostasis during short-term myocardial ischemia.

  1. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic complications on myocardial nutrient metabolism, blood flow, and oxygen consumption: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade W Todd

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT, and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs, 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs, 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs, and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs. Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography. Results Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS was lower (p Conclusion Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin. Trial Registration NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851

  2. Immunosenescence of the CD8(+) T cell compartment is associated with HIV-infection, but only weakly reflects age-related processes of adipose tissue, metabolism, and muscle in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Langkilde, Anne; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2015-01-01

    of immunosenescence is not well established. Studying immunosenescence in HIV-infection could give insight into its role in ageing processes. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate whether ART-treated HIV-infected patients exhibit immunosenescence; and whether immunosenescence is associated with age......BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected patients exhibit systemic inflammation, early onset of age-related diseases, and features of immunosenescence. The role of inflammation in the development of age-related diseases is widely recognized. However, the role......-related processes of inflammation, metabolism, adipose tissue, and muscle. T cell immunosenescence and exhaustion were assessed by flow cytometry analysis of CD8 (+) cells from 43 ART-treated HIV-infected patients (HIV(+)) and ten Controls using markers of differentiation: CD27/CD28; maturation: CD27/CD45RA...

  3. Fenofibrate Therapy Restores Antioxidant Protection and Improves Myocardial Insulin Resistance in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome and Myocardial Ischemia: The Role of Angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ibarra-Lara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation promotes oxidative stress which increases the risk of cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome (MetS and favors local insulin resistance. Fibrates regulate RAS improving MetS, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of fenofibrate treatment on the myocardic signaling pathway of Angiotensin II (Ang II/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 and its relationship with oxidative stress and myocardial insulin resistance in MetS rats under heart ischemia. Control and MetS rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; and (c fenofibrate-treated myocardial infarction (MI-F. Treatment with fenofibrate significantly reduced triglycerides, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C, insulin levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR in MetS animals. MetS and MI increased Ang II concentration and AT1 expression, favored myocardial oxidative stress (high levels of malondialdehyde, overexpression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, decreased total antioxidant capacity and diminished expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase and inhibited expression of the insulin signaling cascade: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (PkB, also known as Akt/Glut-4/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. In conclusion, fenofibrate treatment favors an antioxidant environment as a consequence of a reduction of the Ang II/AT1/NOX4 signaling pathway, reestablishing the cardiac insulin signaling pathway. This might optimize cardiac metabolism and improve the vasodilator function during myocardial ischemia.

  4. Time-course of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism after coronary reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, H.; Pachinger, O.; Ogris, E.; Probst, P.; Kaindl, F.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the relationship and time-course of myocardial perfusion and behaviour of fatty acid uptake and clearance following reperfusion, the authors studied 19 patients after successful intracoronary thrombolysis with Tl-201 and I-123 hepta-decanoic acid (HDA) and planar imaging. Pts were studied acute (A: 48 hours), early (E:6-8 days) and late (L:6-12 months). %-defect size and relative tracer uptake were determined for both markers as well as t1/2 of the early clearance phase for HDA. Late Tl was done as stress test study after dipyridamole infusion. As in a previous report acute HDA uptake-defects were larger than Tl (38 +- 10% vs 24 +- 9%, p<0.05) suggesting a larger area of metabolic impairment than outlined by perfusion. HDA and Tl uptake at A correlated significantly (p<0.01, r=0.86) but HDA uptake was 19% lower than Tl and not different at E and L. Tl stress studies exhibited in 74% reversible ischemia in the area of ''metabolic recovery''. The authors conclude that early after reperfusion uptake of HDA is frequently impaired despite improved perfusion suggesting metabolic derangement showing a slow recovery over time. A multiple tracer approach including metabolic markers may improve the characterization of reperfused myocardium

  5. Effects of simultaneous and optimized sequential cardiac resynchronization therapy on myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Stuart D; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya; Burnes, John E; Hill, Michael R S; Kemp, Brad J; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Hayes, David L; Gibbons, Raymond J

    2008-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can improve left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and function. Recent data suggest the energy cost of such improvement is favorable. The effects of sequential CRT on myocardial oxidative metabolism (MVO(2)) and efficiency have not been previously assessed. Eight patients with NYHA class III heart failure were studied 196 +/- 180 days after CRT implant. Dynamic [(11)C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET) and echocardiography were performed after 1 hour of: 1) AAI pacing, 2) simultaneous CRT, and 3) sequential CRT. MVO(2) was calculated using the monoexponential clearance rate of [(11)C]acetate (k(mono)). Myocardial efficiency was expressed in terms of the work metabolic index (WMI). P values represent overall significance from repeated measures analysis. Global LV and right ventricular (RV) MVO(2) were not significantly different between pacing modes, but the septal/lateral MVO(2) ratio differed significantly with the change in pacing mode (AAI pacing = 0.696 +/- 0.094 min(-1), simultaneous CRT = 0.975 +/- 0.143 min(-1), and sequential CRT = 0.938 +/- 0.189 min(-1); overall P = 0.001). Stroke volume index (SVI) (AAI pacing = 26.7 +/- 10.4 mL/m(2), simultaneous CRT = 30.6 +/- 11.2 mL/m(2), sequential CRT = 33.5 +/- 12.2 mL/m(2); overall P simultaneous CRT = 4.29 +/- 1.72 mmHg*mL/m(2)*10(6), sequential CRT = 4.79 +/- 1.92 mmHg*mL/m(2)*10(6); overall P = 0.002) also differed between pacing modes. Compared with simultaneous CRT, additional changes in septal/lateral MVO(2), SVI, and WMI with sequential CRT were not statistically significant on post hoc analysis. In this small selected population, CRT increases LV SVI without increasing MVO(2), resulting in improved myocardial efficiency. Additional improvements in LV work, oxidative metabolism, and efficiency from simultaneous to sequential CRT were not significant.

  6. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  7. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Lu

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the

  8. Age-Related Inducibility of Carboxylesterases by the Antiepileptic Agent Phenobarbital and Implications in Drug Metabolism and Lipid Accumulation 1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Da; Chen, Yi-Tzai; Yang, Dongfang; Yan, Bingfang

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CES) constitute a class of hydrolytic enzymes that play critical roles in drug metabolism and lipid mobilization. Previous studies with a large number of human liver samples have suggested that the inducibility of carboxylesterases is inversely related with age. To directly test this possibility, neonatal (10 days of age) and adult mice were treated with the antiepileptic agent phenobarbital. The expression and hydrolytic activity were determined on six major carboxylesterases including ces1d, the ortholog of human CES1. Without exception, all carboxylesterases tested were induced to a greater extent in neonatal than adult mice. The induction was detected at mRNA, protein and catalytic levels. Ces1d was greatly induced and found to rapidly hydrolyze the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel and support the accumulation of neutral lipids. Phenobarbital represents a large number of therapeutic agents that induce drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in a species-conserved manner. The higher inducibility of carboxylesterases in the developmental age likely represents a general phenomenon cross species including human. Consequently, individuals in the developmental age may experience greater drug-drug interactions. The greater induction of ces1d also provides a molecular explanation to the clinical observation that children on antiepileptic drugs increase plasma lipids. PMID:22513142

  9. The characteristics of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Naoki; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the characteristics of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Myocardial imaging with 123 I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed in 28 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD), 13 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) and 8 normal controls (NC). The patients with HCM consisted of 13 patients of asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 7 patients of diffuse hypertrophy (Diffuse-HCM) and 8 patients of apical hypertrophy (APH). Planar and SPECT images of BMIPP were acquired 15 minutes and 4 hours after tracer injection. Resting 201 Tl SPECT images and echocardiography were also performed on other days. We calculated heart/mediastinum count ratio and washout rate of BMIPP by using planar image. In patients with LVH, the incidence of reduced BMIPP uptake was more frequent than that of reduced 201 Tl uptake. In delayed images, more than 60% of patients with LVH reduced BMIPP uptake, especially remarkable for patients with ASH and APH. The washout rate of all cardiac hypertrophic disorders was tended to be higher than that of normal subjects. Reduced BMIPP uptake was frequently found in septal portion of anterior and inferior wall in patients with ASH, in inferior wall in patients with Diffuse-HCM and HHD, in apex in patients with APH and AS. These results suggest that BMIPP scintigraphy can differentiate three types of cardiac hypertrophy. (author)

  10. Assessment of myocardial metabolism by PET - a sophisticated dream or clinical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    This symposium reviewed radionuclide techniques for the noninvasive study of regional myocardial metabolism and spanned a wide range of topics. New radiotracers for probing different metabolic pathways or selected biochemical reaction steps were presented. New information on tracers already in use was forthcoming. Because the imaging device can measure only concentrations of radiolabel in tissue, other studies examined relationships between uptake and turnover of radioactivity in tissue as an externally observed signal, the chemical fate of the label, and the biologic process under study. Other studies formulated these relationships through tracer compartment models, which are fundament to quantifying regional physiologic processes externally. Other investigations applied radiotracer methods to experimental models of cardiac disease to patients. They described findings of regional or global alterations in substrate metabolism. These observations highlighted the potential clinical value of this new methodology. At the same time, several of these observations remain at present without mechanistic explanation; yet they form the foundation on which working hypotheses can be built, which in turn can be tested in vivo. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of myocardial metabolism by PET - a sophisticated dream or clinical reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H R

    1986-08-01

    This symposium reviewed radionuclide techniques for the noninvasive study of regional myocardial metabolism and spanned a wide range of topics. New radiotracers for probing different metabolic pathways or selected biochemical reaction steps were presented. New information on tracers already in use was forthcoming. Because the imaging device can measure only concentrations of radiolabel in tissue, other studies examined relationships between uptake and turnover of radioactivity in tissue as an externally observed signal, the chemical fate of the label, and the biologic process under study. Other studies formulated these relationships through tracer compartment models, which are fundament to quantifying regional physiologic processes externally. Other investigations applied radiotracer methods to experimental models of cardiac disease to patients. They described findings of regional or global alterations in substrate metabolism. These observations highlighted the potential clinical value of this new methodology. At the same time, several of these observations remain at present without mechanistic explanation; yet they form the foundation on which working hypotheses can be built, which in turn can be tested in vivo.

  12. NMR studies of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkels, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study several aspects of myocardial energy metabolism and ionic homeostasis during ischemia and reperfusion were investigated in isolated perfused rat hearts, regionally ischemic rabbit hearts, and ex vivo human donor hearts during long term hypothermic cardioplegia. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR) spectroscopy was used as a powerful tool to non-destructively follow the time course in changes in intracellular high-energy phosphates, (creatine phosphate and ATP), inorganic phosphate, and pH. In addition, changes in intracellular free magnesium were followed during ischemia and reperfusion. Sodium-23 ( 23 Na) NMR spectroscopy was used to study intracellular sodium during ischemia and reperfusion and during calcium-free perfusion. (author). 495 refs.; 33 figs.; 11 tabs

  13. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira de, E-mail: andrealmeida@cardiol.br [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil); Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Choi, Eui-Young; Opdahl, Anders; Fernandes, Verônica R. S. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Colin O. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bluemke, David A. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lima, João A. C. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (ε{sub CC}) and longitudinal strain (ε{sub LL}), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower ε{sub CC} and lower ε{sub LL} than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub CC} (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub LL} after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular ε{sub CC} and ε{sub LL}, markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%.

  14. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira de; Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Choi, Eui-Young; Opdahl, Anders; Fernandes, Verônica R. S.; Wu, Colin O.; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, João A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (ε CC ) and longitudinal strain (ε LL ), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower ε CC and lower ε LL than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε CC (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε LL after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular ε CC and ε LL , markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%

  15. Increases in myocardial workload induced by rapid atrial pacing trigger alterations in global metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan T Turer

    Full Text Available To determine whether increases in cardiac work lead to alterations in the plasma metabolome and whether such changes arise from the heart or peripheral organs.There is growing evidence that the heart influences systemic metabolism through endocrine effects and affecting pathways involved in energy homeostasis.Nineteen patients referred for cardiac catheterization were enrolled. Peripheral and selective coronary sinus (CS blood sampling was performed at serial timepoints following the initiation of pacing, and metabolite profiling was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS.Pacing-stress resulted in a 225% increase in the median rate·pressure product from baseline. Increased myocardial work induced significant changes in the peripheral concentration of 43 of 125 metabolites assayed, including large changes in purine [adenosine (+99%, p = 0.006, ADP (+42%, p = 0.01, AMP (+79%, p = 0.004, GDP (+69%, p = 0.003, GMP (+58%, p = 0.01, IMP (+50%, p = 0.03, xanthine (+61%, p = 0.0006], and several bile acid metabolites. The CS changes in metabolites qualitatively mirrored those in the peripheral blood in both timing and magnitude, suggesting the heart was not the major source of the metabolite release.Isolated increases in myocardial work can induce changes in the plasma metabolome, but these changes do not appear to be directly cardiac in origin. A number of these dynamic metabolites have known signaling functions. Our study provides additional evidence to a growing body of literature on metabolic 'cross-talk' between the heart and other organs.

  16. Angiographically demonstrated coronary collaterals predict residual viable myocardium in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. A regional metabolic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Masumi; Ii, Masaaki; Nakakoji, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Angiographical demonstration of coronary collateral circulation may suggest the presence of residual viable myocardium. The development of coronary collaterals was judged according to Rentrop's classification in 37 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 13 control patients with chest pain syndrome. The subjects with myocardial infarction were divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with the main branch of the left coronary artery clearly identified by collateral blood flow from the contralateral coronary artery [Coll (+) group, male/female 10/7, mean age 56.6 years] and 20 patients with obscure coronary trunk [Coll (-) group, male/female 16/4, mean age 54.9 years]. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and examination of local myocardial metabolism were carried out by measuring the flux of lactic acid under dipyridamole infusion load. Coronary stenosis of 99% or total occlusion was found in only 5 of 20 patients (25%) in the Coll (-) group but in 16 of 17 patients (94%) in the Coll (+) group (p<0.001). Redistribution of myocardial scintigraphy was found in 11 of 15 patients (73%) in the Coll (+) group, but only 3 of 18 patients (17%) in the Coll (-) group (p<0.01). The myocardial lactic acid extraction rate was -13.2±17.0% in the Coll (+) group, but 9.1±13.2% in the Coll (-) group (p<0.001). These results suggest that coronary collateral may contribute to minimizing the infarct area and to prediction of the presence of viable myocardium. (author)

  17. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  18. Age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lily K; Eaton, Angie

    2013-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after age 50 years. It is a multifactorial disease involving a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, metabolic, and functional factors. Besides smoking, hypertension, obesity, and certain dietary habits, a growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and the immune system may play a key role in the development of the disease. AMD may progress from the early form to the intermediate form and then to the advanced form, where two subtypes exist: the nonneovascular (dry) type and the neovascular (wet) type. The results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study have shown that for the nonneovascular type of AMD, supplementation with high-dose antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene) and zinc is recommended for those with the intermediate form of AMD in one or both eyes or with advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in one eye. As for the neovascular type of the advanced AMD, the current standard of therapy is intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. In addition, lifestyle and dietary modifications including improved physical activity, reduced daily sodium intake, and reduced intake of solid fats, added sugars, cholesterol, and refined grain foods are recommended. To date, no study has demonstrated that AMD can be cured or effectively prevented. Clearly, more research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology as well as to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Age-related mechanism and its relationship with secondary metabolism and abscisic acid in Aristotelia chilensis plants subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villagra, Jorge; Rodrigues-Salvador, Acácio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Cohen, Jerry D; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie M

    2018-03-01

    Drought stress is the most important stress factor for plants, being the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. Plants have developed complex mechanisms for preventing water loss and oxidative stress such as synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins, which might help plants to cope with abiotic stress as antioxidants and for scavenging reactive oxygen species. A. chilensis (Mol.) is a pioneer species, colonizing and growing on stressed and disturbed environments. In this research, an integrated analysis of secondary metabolism in Aristotelia chilensis was done to relate ABA effects on anthocyanins biosynthesis, by comparing between young and fully-expanded leaves under drought stress. Plants were subjected to drought stress for 20 days, and physiological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were performed. The relative growth rate and plant water status were reduced in stressed plants, with young leaves significantly more affected than fully-expanded leaves beginning from the 5th day of drought stress. A. chilensis plants increased their ABA and total anthocyanin content and showed upregulation of gene expression when they were subjected to severe drought (day 20), with these effects being higher in fully-expanded leaves. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between transcript levels for NCED1 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase) and UFGT (UDP glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase) with ABA and total anthocyanin, respectively. Thus, this research provides a more comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that allow plants to cope with drought stress. This is highlighted by the differences between young and fully-expanded leaves, showing different sensibility to stress due to their ability to synthesize anthocyanins. In addition, this ability to synthesize different and high amounts of anthocyanins could be related to higher NCED1 and MYB expression and ABA levels

  20. Effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmaier, S; Weyland, A; Buhre, W; Stephan, H; Rieke, H; Filoda, K; Sonntag, H

    1998-10-01

    Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in PaCO2 on myocardial blood flow (MBF), metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics in patients before elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In 10 male anesthetized patients, measurements of MBF, myocardial contractility, metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics were made in a randomized sequence at PaCO2 levels of 30, 40, and 50 mmHg, respectively. The MBF was measured using the Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as a tracer. End-diastolic left ventricular pressure and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were assessed using a manometer-tipped catheter. The cardiac index significantly changed with varying PaCO2 levels (hypocapnia, - 9%; hypercapnia, 13%). This reaction was associated with inverse changes in systemic vascular resistance index levels. The MBF significantly increased by 15% during hypercapnia, whereas no change was found during hypocapnia. Myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were not affected by varying PaCO2 levels. In anesthetized patients with coronary artery disease, short-term variations in PaCO2 have significant effects on MBF but do not influence global myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake. Changes in systemic hemodynamics associated with respiratory alkalosis and acidosis are caused by changes in systemic vascular resistance rather than by alterations in myocardial contractility.

  1. Evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Aoyama

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to assess the usefulness of myocardial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT for evaluating myocardial metabolic status in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and the therapeutic efficacy of alcohol septal ablation (ASA in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM.Thirty HCM patients (64.4±10.5 years, 14 male, 12 hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy [HNCM], 16 HOCM, and 2 dilated phase of HCM underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT. 18F-FDG uptake was semi-quantitatively evaluated using an uptake score in each 17 segment and the entire LV or regional standardized uptake value (SUV.18F-FDG uptake was observed mostly in a hypertrophied myocardium in HNCM patients, whereas 18F-FDG was extensively accumulated beyond the hypertrophied myocardium in HOCM patients. There was a positive correlation between the summed uptake score of 18F-FDG and high-sensitive troponin T level in HNCM patients (r = 0.603, p = 0.049, whereas the score was positively correlated with brain natriuretic peptide level (r = 0.614, p = 0.011 in HOCM patients. In 10 patients who received ASA, the maximum SUV of the entire LV was significantly reduced from 5.6±2.6 to 3.2±2.1 (p = 0.040 after ASA. Reduction of that maximum SUV was particularly significant in the lateral region (from 5.5±2.6 to 2.9 ±2.2, p = 0.024 but not significant in the anteroseptal region (from 4.5±2.6 to 2.9±1.6, p = 0.12.Extensive 18F-FDG uptake beyond the hypertrophied myocardium was observed in HOCM. ASA attenuates 18F-FDG uptake in a remote lateral myocardium.

  2. Successive myocardial fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Usefulness as a prognostic indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Sindoh, Takashi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Honda, Minoru

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of fatty acid metabolic imaging in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), we performed myocardial imaging with 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP). We studied 23 patients with DCM who were admitted because of congestive heart failure (CHF) and after discharge the stable condition persisted for more than one year. BMIPP imaging was obtained when CHF recovered (first study) and the second study was performed one year after the first study. From BMIPP imaging we calculated % Uptake (percentage of cardiac uptake of isotope to total injected dose) and Defect Score (degree and extent of regional abnormality in BMIPP uptake, DS). In the first study, we performed myocardial imaging with 201 Tl to calculate Uptake Ratio of BMIPP (% Uptake of BMIPP divided by % Uptake of 201 Tl, UR). During the follow up period of 18.2±9.5 months (4.5-39.6 months) after the second study, cardiac event developed in 8 patients (cardiac death; 4, deterioration of CHF; 4). On univariate analysis, the following indices differed significantly between the event and event-free groups; left ventricular end-systolic dimension, graded DS, UR and % Uptake of 201 Tl at the first study, % Uptake of BMIPP and DS at the second study, difference of % Uptake of BMIPP and DS between the first and second study, and newly designed index from graded DS of the first study and its change in the second study (Defect Index, DI). Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that DI (p=0.0026) and age (p=0.0262) were independent predictors of cardiac event. In patients with DI≥3, the relative risk of cardiac event was 25.0 times greater than that in patients with DI≤2. These data suggested that the extent and degree of regional abnormality of BMIPP uptake (DS) and its changes with time were useful for evaluating the prognosis in patients with DCM even though a clinically stable condition is persisting. (author)

  3. Evaluation of carbohydrate cardiac metabolism by the 18FDG and positron emission tomography in the myocardial infarction with healthy coronaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, D.; Quennelle, F.; Babatasi, G.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C.; Bouvard, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional myocardial metabolism of glucose (RMMG) by positron emission tomography (PET) with fluoro-de-oxy-glucose ( 18 FDG) in patients having myocardial infarction with healthy coronaries (MIHC). Four patients (4M, age: 41 ± 12 years) have presented: MI with a coronarography showing no significant lesions on the epicardial arteries, an irreversible anterior hypo-perfusion, moderated at 201 Tl scintigraphy and an isotopic FEVG 18 FDG. The dynamical images allow measuring RMMG and the static image to define the regions of interest on ventricular transaxial cross sections. A myocardial region embodying the totality of VG, including the septal, anterior and lateral regions and an intracavitary region are handy delimited. A model with 3 compartments is applied to the time-activity curves measured in the VG (input function) and in the myocardium (Patlak's method) and allows measuring the RMMG. The mean value of RMMG, measured along the VG, is significantly diminished as compared with that measured in healthy subjects. In conclusion, the PET based on 18 FDG shows that the myocardial carbohydrate metabolism is altered in patients afflicted with MIHC

  4. Assessment of myocardial metabolism with iodine-123 heptadecanoic acid: effect of decreased fatty acid oxidation on deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethy, P.C.; Chatelain, P.; Papageorgiou, I.; Schubiger, A.; Lerch, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogs are of potential use for the noninvasive delineation of regional alterations of fatty acid metabolism by gamma imaging. Since radioactivity from extracted iodine-123 heptadecanoic acid [( 123I]HDA) is released from the myocardium in form of free radioiodide (123I-) the present study was performed to determine whether deiodination of [123I]HDA is related to free fatty acid metabolism. Myocardial production of free radioiodide was measured in rat hearts in vitro and in vivo both under control conditions and after inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. In isolated rat hearts perfused at constant flow with a medium containing [123I]HDA, release of 123I- was markedly reduced during cardioplegia and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid transfer with POCA by 67% (p less than 0.005) and 72% (p less than 0.005), respectively. In fasted rats in vivo, 1 min after i.v. injection of [123I]HDA, 51 +/- 5% of myocardial radioactivity was recovered in the aqueous phase, containing free iodide, of myocardial lipid extracts. Aqueous activity was significantly decreased in fed (20 +/- 2%; p less than 0.002) and POCA pretreated (30 +/- 3.7%; p less than 0.05) animals exhibiting reduced oxidation of [14C]palmitate. Thus, deiodination of [123I]HDA was consistently reduced during inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in vitro and in vivo. The results apply to the interpretation of myocardial clearance curves of terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogs

  5. Myocardial glucose metabolism is different between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertensive heart disease associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Nobuyuki; Kagaya, Yutaka; Ishide, Nobumasa; Takeyama, Daiya; Yamane, Yuriko; Chida, Masanobu; Otani, Hiroki; Shirato, Kunio; Ido, Tatsuo.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial glucose metabolism has been shown to be heterogeneous in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We tested the hypothesis that myocardial glucose metabolism differs between patients with HCM and those with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy. We studied 12 patients with HCM, 7 HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy using 18 F 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography. We calculated % FDG fractional uptake in the interventricular septum and posterolateral wall. Heterogeneity of FDG uptake was evaluated by % interregional coefficient of variation of FDG fractional uptake in each wall segment. In both the interventricular septum and posterolateral wall, % FDG fractional uptake was not significantly different between the two groups. The % interregional coefficient of variation for both interventricular septum (10.6±1.6 vs. 4.1±0.5, p<0.01) and posterolateral wall (5.9±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.5, p< 0.05) was significantly larger in patients with HCM than in HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy. Echocardiography demonstrated that the degree of asymmetrical septal hypertrophy was similar between the two groups. These results suggest that myocardial glucose metabolism may be more heterogeneous in patients with HCM compared to HHD patients associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, although the left ventricular shape is similar. The difference in the heterogeneity might have resulted from differences in the pathogeneses of the two diseases. (author)

  6. The influence of lactate and dipyridamole on myocardial fatty acid metabolism in man, traced with 123I-17-iodoheptadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwel, C.M.B.; Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Roos, J.P.; Westera, G.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in myocardial metabolism can be detected externally by registration of time-activity curves after administration of radioiodinated fatty acids. In this scintigraphic study the influence of lactate on fatty acid metabolism was investigated in the normal human myocardium, traced with 123 I-17-iodoheptadecanoic acid ( 123 I-17-HDA). In patients (paired, n=7) lactate loading decreased the uptake of 123 I-17-HDA significantly from 27 (control:22-36) to 20 counts/min/pixel (16-31; p 123 I-17-HDA scintigraphy of the heart. (orig.) [de

  7. Influence of revascularization on myocardial perfusion, metabolism and function evaluated with I-123-IPPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Krois, M.; Eichhorn, B.; Feske, W.; Likungu, J.; Kirchhoff, P.J.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated with sequential SPECT-scintigraphy after administration of 200 MBq of 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) at peak submaximal exercise. Twenty patients underwent coronary angioplasty (PTCA) from which 14 had control coronary arteriography (CA) and left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV). Nineteen pts underwent bypass graft surgery (ACB) and stress sonagraphy. Semi-quantification of uptake (Up related to perfusion) and turnover (Tr) was obtained by segmental comparison of oblique slices. About 90% of the reperfused myocardial segments in the PTCA-group and 76% in the ACB-group showed an improvement of uptake after therapy (RUp). Of these, 50% and 66% exhibited increased turnover (RTr) after PTCA or ACB. Pathologic RTr was highly correlated with regional wall motion abnormalities after therapy in both groups. In the ACB-group presence of improvement of RTr was correlated with improved RWM at rest and stress. IPPA-studies show potential to provide information about changes of perfusion and metabolism after reperfusion and IPPA-turnover is a good predictor of the pattern of contractile function

  8. [Influence of ademol on NO metabolism indices in rats with modeling myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakivs'kyĭ, O A; Pavlov, S V; Bukhtiiarova, N V

    2013-01-01

    It was established in experiments on the rats in the acute period of modeling pituitrin-isadrin myocardial infarction the formation of nitrogen monoxide decreases along with its accelerated transformation into peroxynitrite. It was evidenced by more than double inhibition of NO synthase activity in the myocardium and by decreasing the amount of nitrates on the background of the increasing level of peroxynitrites' marker--nitrotyrosine by 246.6% at an average. Experimental therapy of rats by ademol which is a derivate of adamantan (1-adamantiloxy-3-morpholino-2 propanol hydrochloride) better than by corvitin normalizes the processes of synthesis of nitric oxide. At the same time ademol probably exceeded the reference drug in ability to increase NO synthase activity and amount of nitrate, and promoted a decrease of the level of nitrotyrosine in the myocardium on the average by 36.3; 50.6 and 12.7%, respectively. Corrective influence of ademol on indicators of metabolism in NO system under the conditions of acute cardiac ischemia indicates to promicing development of domestic cardioprotector on its base.

  9. Regional rates of myocardial fatty acid metabolism: Comparison with coronary angiography and ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, N.; Vattimo, A.; Bertelli, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 50 patients, 1 mCi 123 I phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was injected at peak ergometric stress and 1500 frames were acquired (1 frame/s) with a high count rate gamma camera. Parametric images of rates of decrease and increase for different time intervals after stress were compared with coronary angiography and LV ventriculography, separately evaluating the 3 main coronary territories: 18/150 territories supplied by normal coronaries presented rather homogeneous regional clearing rates, whereas a gradual decrease in clearing rates towards the end of the territory (frequently with peripheral defects) was seen in all 87/150 territories with significant coronary narrowing. In local correspondence to clearing defects, initial IPPA accumulations could be observed with later onset of clearing between 10 and 25 min. In all 44/150 territories presented abnormal clearing rates, mostly with a patchy pattern, with normal coronary anatomy, but all except one had LV dysfunction and a clinical diagnosis of cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus or hypertensive disease. Twenty four of the 41 patients with CAD had, in correspondence to a prior myocardial infarction, minimum or missing metabolic activity frequently in circumscribed zones, partly separated by bridges of still viable tissue with preserved but reduced clearing rates. (orig.)

  10. Regional rates of myocardial fatty acid metabolism: comparison with coronary angiography and ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, N; Wagner, R K; Hallermeier, J; Daus, H J; Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P

    1990-01-01

    In 50 patients, 1 mCi 123I phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was injected at peak ergometric stress and 1500 frames were acquired (1 frame/s) with a high count rate gamma camera. Parametric images of rates of decrease and increase for different time intervals after stress were compared with coronary angiography and LV ventriculography, separately evaluating the 3 main coronary territories: 18/150 territories supplied by normal coronaries presented rather homogeneous regional clearing rates, whereas a gradual decrease in clearing rates towards the end of the territory (frequently with peripheral defects) was seen in all 87/150 territories with significant coronary narrowing. In local correspondence to clearing defects, initial IPPA accumulations could be observed with later onset of clearing between 10 and 25 min. 44/150 territories presented abnormal clearing rates, mostly with a patchy pattern, with normal coronary anatomy, but all except one had LV dysfunction and a clinical diagnosis of cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus or hypertensive disease. Twenty four of the 41 patients with CAD had, in correspondence to a prior myocardial infarction, minimum or missing metabolic activity frequently in circumscribed zones, partly separated by bridges of still viable tissue with preserved but reduced clearing rates.

  11. Simultaneous estimates of regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism by the developing chick heart using [201]thallium and [14C] 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostreva, D.R.; Wood, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism in the developing heart. Simultaneous estimates of regional myocardial blood flow and glucose metabolism have been made in the adult rat by Yonekura et al using [ 201 ] Thallium (THAL) and [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiography. Since glucose is the primary cardiac metabolic substrate during development, glucose utilization is also an estimate of myocardial metabolism. Examination and comparison of the THAL and DG autoradiographs revealed that there is an uncoupling of blood flow and metabolism in the developing chick heart. Areas of the heart which had marked glucose utilization did not always have marked blood flow. Regions of the heart which had marked blood flow but very little glucose utilization were the interventricular septum and the apex. One explanation for this disparity is that although blood flow may be established in these regions, normal cardiac function requiring significant substrate utilization may not be fully developed

  12. Myocardial oxygenation and transmural lactate metabolism during experimental acute coronary stenosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonschior, P; Gonschior, G M; Conzen, P F; Hobbhahn, J; Goetz, A E; Peter, K; Brendel, W

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of surface tissue pO2 (ptO2) with surface electrodes is increasingly applied in experimental medicine. Its use on the beating heart may seem to be problematic because transmural gradients of tissue pO2 would reduce the validity of pO2 determinations in the epicardial layers. This study attempted to determine whether ptO2 may be a valid and sensitive indicator of transmural myocardial oxygenation. In order to measure ptO2, two eight-channel Clark-type electrodes were placed on a beating porcine left ventricle (n = 13). Measurements were made at different degrees of acute stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). A 24-F cannula was inserted into the great cardiac vein, draining the poststenotic myocardium to obtain coronary venous blood samples. Transmural metabolic changes were detected simultaneously by coronary venous blood gas parameters and lactate levels. Epicardial tissue pO2 was 49 +/- 2 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) before stenosis and decreased to a mean value of 25 +/- 2 mm Hg during stenosis. Different degrees of LAD stenosis (ptO2 range: 12-35 mm Hg) were substantial enough to alter arterio-coronary venous lactate difference (avd lactate) from +0.31 +/- 0.07 mmol/l (control) to -0.62 +/- 0.15 mmol/l (stenosis). A significant linear correlation between changes of ptO2 (delta ptO2) and changes of avd lactate (delta avd lactate) resulted (y = 0.59 + 0.62x; r = 0.86; p less than or equal to 0.001). However, linear regression analysis between delta ptO2 correlated with the corresponding data from coronary venous pO2 (delta pO2cv) oxygen content (delta O2contcv), and oxygen saturation (delta O2satcv) showed no significant correlations. We conclude that measurement of ptO2 is a sensitive and valuable indicator of transmural oxygenation in ischemic myocardium, whereas pO2cv, O2contcv and O2satcv do not seem to be valid predictors of ischemia in myocardial oxygenation.

  13. Effects of ranolazine on ischemic threshold, coronary sinus blood flow, and myocardial metabolism in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, J P; Bøtker, H E; Thomassen, A; Nielsen, T T

    1997-07-01

    Cytoprotection or metabolic modulation is a new principle in the treatment of angina pectoris. The effect of ranolazine (a cytoprotective drug) on ischemic threshold, coronary sinus blood flow, and myocardial metabolism was evaluated by means of two pacing sequences in nine male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in eight male controls. Ranolazine was given as an intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion; the mean total dose was 32.7 mg and 31.7 mg in patients and controls, respectively. Angina pectoris was relieved in two patients after ranolazine but pacing time to pain was unchanged in the remaining patients. Maximal ST depression was lower (p = 0.02), but pacing time to maximal and to 1-mm ST depression remained unchanged after the drug. Ranolazine had no overall influence on coronary sinus blood flow, cardiac oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and heart rate. Cardiac uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) was reduced (p = 0.01), and net uptakes of glucose (p = 0.07) and lactate (p = 0.06) tended to be lower after ranolazine in CAD patients and controls. Ranolazine had no direct influence on cardiac exchange of glutamate, alanine, and citrate or on the arterial concentration of any metabolite. In the present study ranolazine had minimal clinical effects. A decrease in myocardial FFA utilization, however, allows greater myocardial glucose oxidation, which may increase the energy production in relation to oxygen availability.

  14. Assessment of myocardial metabolic flexibility and work efficiency in human type 2 diabetes using 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thiapalmitate, a novel PET fatty acid tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, K J; Hutchins, G D; Perry, K; Territo, W; Chisholm, R; Acton, A; Glick-Wilson, B; Considine, R V; Moberly, S; DeGrado, T R

    2016-03-15

    Altered myocardial fuel selection likely underlies cardiac disease risk in diabetes, affecting oxygen demand and myocardial metabolic flexibility. We investigated myocardial fuel selection and metabolic flexibility in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using positron emission tomography to measure rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation {16-[(18)F]fluoro-4-thia-palmitate (FTP)} and myocardial perfusion and total oxidation ([(11)C]acetate). Participants underwent paired studies under fasting conditions, comparing 3-h insulin + glucose euglycemic clamp conditions (120 mU·m(-2)·min(-1)) to 3-h saline infusion. Lean controls (n = 10) were compared with glycemically controlled volunteers with T2DM (n = 8). Insulin augmented heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke index in both groups (all P work efficiency was lower in T2DM (P = 0.006) and decreased in both groups with the insulin-induced increase in work and shift in fuel utilization (P = 0.01). Augmented fatty acid oxidation is present under baseline and insulin-treated conditions in T2DM, with impaired insulin-induced shifts away from fatty acid oxidation. This is accompanied by reduced work efficiency, possibly due to greater oxygen consumption with fatty acid metabolism. These observations suggest that improved fatty acid suppression, or reductions in myocardial fatty acid uptake and retention, could be therapeutic targets to improve myocardial ischemia tolerance in T2DM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The effect of right ventricular pacing on myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency: relation with left ventricular dyssynchrony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukkonen, Heikki; Saraste, Antti; Koistinen, Juhani [Turku University Hospital, Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Tops, Laurens; Bax, Jeroen [Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Naum, Alexander [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) apical pacing induces dyssynchrony by a left bundle branch block type electrical activation sequence in the heart and may impair left ventricular (LV) function. Whether these functional changes are accompanied by changes in myocardial perfusion, oxidative metabolism and efficiency, and the relation with the induction of LV dyssynchrony are unknown. Our study was designed to investigate the acute effects of RV pacing on these parameters. Ten patients with normal LV ejection fraction and VVI/DDD pacemaker were studied during AAI pacing/sinus rhythm without RV pacing (pacing-OFF) and with RV pacing (pacing-ON) at the same heart rate. Dynamic [{sup 15}O]water and [{sup 11}C]acetate positron emission tomography was used to measure perfusion and oxidative metabolism (k{sub mono}) of the LV. An echocardiographic examination was used to assess LV stroke volume (SV) and LV dyssynchrony. Myocardial efficiency of forward work was calculated as systolic blood pressure x cardiac output/LV mass/k{sub mono}. RV pacing decreased SV in all subjects (mean decrease 13%, from 76 {+-} 7 to 66 {+-} 7 ml, p = 0.004), but global perfusion and k{sub mono} were unchanged. The efficiency tended to be lower with pacing-ON (70 {+-} 20 vs 81 {+-} 21 mmHg l/g, p = 0.066). In patients with dyssynchrony during pacing (n = 6) efficiency decreased by 23% (from 78 {+-} 25 to 60 {+-} 14 mmHg l/g, p = 0.02), but in patients without dyssynchrony no change in efficiency was detected. Accordingly, heterogeneity in myocardial perfusion and oxidative metabolism was detected during pacing in patients with dyssynchrony but not in those without dyssynchrony. RV pacing resulted in a significant decrease in SV. However, deleterious effects on LV oxidative metabolism and efficiency were observed only in patients with dyssynchrony during RV pacing. (orig.)

  16. Creatine Depletion and Altered Fatty Acid Metabolism in Diseased Human Hearts: Clinical Investigation Using 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and 123I BMIPP Myocardial Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, I.; Mitsunami, K.; Matsuo, S.; Horie, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the heart, the creatine kinase system plays an important role in energy reserves, and myocardial energy production essentially depends upon fatty acid metabolism. Purpose: To examine myocardial creatine (CR) concentration and altered cardiac fatty acid metabolism in various forms of heart disease. Material and Methods: Myocardial CR concentration of the septum was measured by gated 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), applying a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence in 34 patients with heart disease. Of these patients, 14 underwent 123 I BMIPP (radioactive fatty acid analogue) myocardial scintigraphy to evaluate myocardial fatty acid metabolism. Cardiac 123 I BMIPP uptake was calculated as the heart-to-mediastinum count ratio. Results: Myocardial CR concentration correlated positively with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography (R = 0.61, P 123 I BMIPP uptake also correlated positively with LVEF (initial image, R 0.60, P 123 I BMIPP uptake (initial image, R = 0.77, P<0.01; delayed image, R = 0.82, P<0.001; n = 14). Conclusion: Our study suggests an association between CR depletion and impaired fatty acid metabolism in various forms of heart diseases

  17. Impact of metabolic disorders on the relation between overweight/obesity and incident myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S S; Andersson, C; Berger, S M

    2015-01-01

    and smoking, the risk of the composite outcome of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was assessed with metabolic disorders (i.e. hypertensive conditions, abnormal glucose metabolism and/or dyslipidaemia) included as time-dependent variables. RESULTS: The population comprised 261,489 women with median...

  18. Assessment of the metabolic effects of the ionophore grisorixin on myocardial cells in culture with 14-C-labelled substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maublant, J.C.; Gachon, P.; Ross, M.R.; Davidson, W.D.; Mena, I.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of myocardial cells were utilized to verify the hypothesis that the ionophore grisorixin could facilitate the anaerobic and impair the aerobic metabolism in the myocardium. This was suggested by previous experiments in which the authors found an increase in the cardiac work without increase in the oxygen consumption, while the myocardial uptake of 123-Iodo-hexadecenoic acid was decreased. Tissue cultures were prepared by trypsinization of the myocardium of two to four-day old newborn mice. The cultures were incubated with 14-C-glucose (n=10), 14-C-octanoate (n=14) or 14-C-acetate (n=12). Except for the controls (n=19), they also received 1 μg/ml of an alcoholic solution of grisorixin or 200 μl of 60% alcohol. The cultures were then placed in a circuit with a closed circulation of air which passed through a vibrating reed electrometer for detection of the beta radiations of the 14-CO/sub 2/ liberated by the 14-C labelled substrates. The activity was permanently recorded for measurements of the rate of consumption of these substrates. Compared to the control values, the metabolic rate with grisorixin was significantly decreased for octanoate (77 +- 22 vs 169 +- 62 rho mole/min/mg prot, rho<0.01) and acetate (2.7 +- 1.0 vs 6.0 +- 1.3 rho mole/min/mg prot, rho<0.01). The results for glucose were 1.05 +- 0.24 vs 0.88 +- 0.24 n mole/min/mg prot, (rho<0.10). Alcohol alone produced no significant effect except on the octanoate consumption. These results provide direct evidence that grisorixin favors the anaerobic pathway in the metabolism of the myocardial cells

  19. Study of myocardial fatty acid metabolism of inactive sportsmen with 123-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) in the framework of complex cardiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Pszota, Agnes; Karman, Miklos; Szakacs, Agnes; Nemeth, Laszlo; Boeszermenyi, Ernoe; Erdelyi, Kalman; Buzassy, Gyoergy; Csendes, Eva

    1986-01-01

    8 inactive sportsmen and 8 heavy physical workers with similar mean age (36 years) and mean body surface (2 m 2 ) were analysed functionally and metabolically for myocardial hypertrophy. 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) scintigraphy and kinetics were carried out with methods of Feinendegen and Dudczak and using Hungarian gamma-camera. In both groups good correlation was found between the myocardial uptake of 123 I-HDA and 201 Tl. Regional alterations of myocardial perfusion during ergometric load were analyzed and compared to alterations of the ECG and echo. (author)

  20. Clinical evaluation of 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yueqin; Wei Hongxing; Guo Xinhua; Guo Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that consist of a collection of independent factors at risk of developing coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A total of 251 patients [mean age (59 ± 10) years, 179 men, 72 women] were included in this study. All patients underwent exercise and rest 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography. Results: Of the 163 patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 116 showed abnormal 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging; and among the 88 patients with normal coronary angiography, 82 showed normal myocardial perfusion imaging. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary artery disease detection were 71% (116/163), 93% (82/88) and 79% (198/251), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 95% (116/122) and 64% (82/129), respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging has important clinical value for detecting coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome. (authors)

  1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Myocardial metabolism of 123I-BMIPP during low-flow ischaemia in an experimental model: comparison with myocardial blood flow and 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Nohara, Ryuji; Hirai, Taku; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sasayama, Shigetake; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Magata, Yasuhiro; Tadamura, Eiji; Konishi, Junji

    2001-01-01

    Risk stratification of coronary artery disease may provide a basis for selection of treatment to prevent myocardial events and to assist functional recovery. Iodine-123 (ρ-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) is a radioiodinated fatty acid analogue for single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging, and several reports have demonstrated that the abnormal uptake of 123 I-BMIPP is associated with wall motion abnormality and severe coronary artery stenosis. Clarification of the contribution of fatty acids to myocardial metabolism would be highly valuable in recognising this critical condition. In this study, we investigated the myocardial uptake of 123 I-BMIPP under low-flow ischaemia, and compared it with the uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). Using open chest dogs, the flow of the left anterior descending coronary artery was controlled using a pneumatic occluder in order to maintain a 30%-40% reduction of Doppler flow. 123 I-BMIPP and 18 F-FDG were injected into the left atrium after 90 min of ischaemia (protocols 1 and 3). Canine hearts were excised after 120 min of ischaemia for the measurement of radioactivity. In protocol 2, 123 I-BMIPP alone was injected and hearts were excised 8 min after the injection. A time-course biopsy study was also performed at the same time (protocol 3). Wall thickening was evaluated using a wall tracker module. The uptake of 18 F-FDG increased significantly in the ischaemic region (232%±135% vs non-ischaemic, P 18 F-FDG did not correlate well with the severity of MBF. On the other hand, 123 I-BMIPP uptake decreased gradually (78.9%±23.6%, P 123 I-BMIPP was associated not only with wall motion abnormality but also with the severity of MBF. In the biopsy study (protocol 3), the radioactivity of either 123 I-BMIPP or 18 F-FDG correlated well with the MBF at the time of tracer injection and was similar to post-mortem analysis. It is concluded that 18 F-FDG is a valid tool for identifying

  3. Effects of Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine on Rabbit Myocardial Energetic Metabolism and Mitochondria Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗海; 姚尚龙; 李晴

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To compare the cardiotoxicity induced by ropivacaine and bupivacaine and to investigatethe mechanism of cardiotoxicity, 24 mature New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into controlgroup (group C), ropivacaine group (group R) and bupivacaine group (group B). Hearts were drawnout rapidly from the anesthetized animals and cardiac perfusion was performed immediately. Ropiva-caine 500 ng/ml (group R) or bupivacaine 500 ng/ml (group B) was added to the perfusion solution.Ventricular myocardial ATP, ADP and AMP were measured with high performance liquid chro-matogram. The ability of myocardial mitochondria oxidation to pyruvate or palmitoylcarnitine wasdetected with Clark electrode. Our results showed that myocardial ATP and ADP decreased signifi-cantly (P<0. 05) in group R and most significantly (P<0. 01) in group B as compared with groupC. Myocardial ATP and ADP decreased most significantly (P<0. 01) in group B as compared withgroup R. The changes of myocardial AMP revealed significant difference among three groups. Thechanges of pyruvate oxidation exibited no significant difference among the three groups. Palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation decreased markedly (P<0. 05) in group R and most significantly (P<0. 01) ingroup B as compared with group C. The present study indicated that the inhibition of lipid substrateoxidation may be responsible for the cardiotoxicity induced by bupivacaine and ropivacaine. The car-diotoxicity induced by ropivacaine is far more less than bupivacaine.

  4. Validation of 99mTc-labeled '4+1' fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtschink, Peter; Stehr, Sebastian N.; Walther, Martin; Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Weichsel, Johannes; Pexa, Annette; Dieterich, Peter; Wunderlich, Gerd; Binas, Bert; Kropp, Joachim; Deussen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Our group has synthesized technetium-labeled fatty acids (FA) that are extracted into the myocardium and sequestered due to heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) binding. In this article, we further address the detailed subcellular distribution and potential myocardial metabolism of [ 99m Tc]'4+1' FA. Methods: Experiments were conducted using isolated hearts of Wistar rats, as well as of wild-type and H-FABP -/- mice. Myocardium samples underwent subcellular fractionation [subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SM), intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IM), cytosol with microsomes, and nuclei and crude membranes] and analysis by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The largest fraction of tissue radioactivity was associated with cytosol [79.69±8.88% of infused dose]. About 9.07±0.95% and 3.43±1.38% of the infused dose were associated with SM and IM fractions, respectively. In the rat heart, etomoxir, an inhibitor of carnitin-palmitoyl transferase I, did not significantly decrease radioactivity associated with mitochondrial fractions, whereas myocardial extraction of [ 123 I]-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (13.26% vs. 49.49% in controls) and the radioactivity associated with the SM and IM fractions were blunted. The percentage of the infused dose in the mitochondrial and crude fractions increased with the number of NH-amide groups of the FA derivative. Absence of H-FABP significantly decreased radioactivity count in the cytosolic fraction (P 99m Tc]'4+1' FA could be detected in any isolated heart. Conclusions: Myocardial [ 99m Tc]'4+1' FA extraction reflects binding to H-FABP and membrane structures (including the mitochondrial membrane). However, the compounds do not undergo mitochondrial metabolism because they do not reach the mitochondrial matrix.

  5. Temporal Changes in Phosphatidylserine Expression and Glucose Metabolism after Myocardial Infarction: An in Vivo Imaging Study in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Lehner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET for in vivo monitoring of phosphatidylserine externalization and glucose metabolism can potentially provide early predictors of outcome of cardioprotective therapies after myocardial infarction. We performed serial [68Ga]annexin A5 PET (annexin-PET and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET after myocardial infarction to determine the time of peak phosphatidylserine externalization in relation to impaired glucose metabolism in infracted tissue. Annexin- and FDG-PET recordings were obtained in female (C57BL6/N mice on days 1 to 4 after ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD artery. [68Ga]annexin A5 uptake (%ID/g in the LAD artery territory increased from 1.7 ± 1.1 on day 1 to 5.0 ± 3.3 on day 2 and then declined to 2.0 ± 1.4 on day 3 (p = .047 vs day 2 and 1.6 ± 1.4 on day 4 (p = .014 vs day 2. These results matched apoptosis rates as estimated by autoradiography and fluorescein staining. FDG uptake (%ID/g declined from 28 ± 14 on day 1 to 14 ± 3.5 on day 4 (p < .0001 vs day 1. Whereas FDG-PET revealed continuous loss of cell viability after permanent LAD artery occlusion, annexin-PET indicated peak phosphatidylserine expression at day 2, which might be the optimal time point for therapy monitoring.

  6. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  7. Myocardial metabolism during anaesthesia with propofol--low dose fentanyl for coronary artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeyen, K. M.; de Hert, S. G.; Erpels, F. A.; Adriaensen, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the haemodynamic and myocardial effects of propofol-fentanyl anaesthesia in 12 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery during the pre-bypass period. The induction dose of propofol was 1.5 mg kg-1 and mean infusion rate during maintenance was 4.48 mg kg-1 h-1 (range

  8. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  9. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Differential Effects Of Octanoate And Heptanoate On Myocardial Metabolism During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In An Infant Swine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Oddnumbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant betaoxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Methods: Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-hour ECMO were received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA) or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol/kg body wt/min as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5 per group). The 13-Carbon (13C)-labeled substrates ([2-13C]lactate, [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate and [U-13C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 minutes before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the 13C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]/[ADP] ratio compared with other http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jpen Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition For Peer Review groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC as well as heptanoate. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in fractional protein synthesis rate. Conclusion: Octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate, while preserving protein synthesis.

  11. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  12. Utility of adenosine PET (perfusion/metabolic) imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.C.; Esterbrooks, D.M.; Shiue, C.; Mohiuddin, S.; Hilleman, D.; Frick, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the diagnostic role of adenosine (AI) proton emission tomography (PET) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and thrombolytic therapy using adenosine as a coronary vasodilator. The authors performed rest/stress myocardial perfusion and metabolic image studies (using N-13 NH 3 and F-18 FDG) in 14 patients within 1 week after thrombolytic therapy for an AMI. AI (140 μg/kg/min for 6 minutes) used a pharmacologic stressor resulted only in transient and well-tolerated side effects. Sensitivities and specificities of the rest/stress perfusion imaging and coronary angiographic results (performed within 1 week) are as follows: LAD, 87.5% and 83.3%; LCX, 100% and 100%; RCA, 100% and 83.3%; and overall, 94.4% and 91.3%. Resting NH 3 /FDG mismatch (hypoperfused viable myocardium) was seen in 2/14 patients in infarct-related (IR) and 3/14 patients in non-IR stenoses

  13. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 ± 0.99 vs. 3.38 ± 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  14. Noninvasive and simple method for the estimation of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by PET and 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Norio; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide

    1994-01-01

    To estimate regional myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlu) with positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), non invasive simple method has been investigated using dynamic PET imaging in 14 patients with ischemic heart disease. This imaging approach uses a blood time-activity curve (TAC) derived from a region of interest (ROI) drawn over dynamic PET images of the left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA) and aorta. Patlak graphic analysis was used to estimate k 1 k 3 /(k 2 +k 3 ) from serial plasma and myocardial radioactivities. FDG counts ratio between whole blood and plasma was relatively constant (0.91±0.02) both throughout the time and among different patients. Although TACs derived from dynamic PET images gradually increased at later phase due to spill over from the myocardium into the cavity, three were good agreements between the estimated K complex values obtained from arterial blood sampling and dynamic PET imaging (LV r=0.95, LA r=0.96, aorta r=0.98). These results demonstrate the practical usefulness of a simplified and noninvasive method for the estimation of rMRGlu in humans by PET. (author)

  15. Beta-methyl[1-11C]heptadecanoic acid: a new myocardial metabolic tracer for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livni, E.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Levy, S.; Brownell, G.L.; Strauss, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have tagged heptadecanoic acid with C-11 at the carboxyl group and have inserted a methyl radical in the beta position to inhibit beta oxidation of the fatty acid; we have then explored the tracer's potential as an indicator of myocardial metabolism for use with the positron tomograph. In this preliminary evaluation, biodistribution studies were made in rats and dogs, and imaging of normal and infarcted dogs was performed. At 30 min the tissue distribution studies in rats and dogs showed, respectively. 1.9% and 8.3% uptake in the heart. Sequential images of the canine heart exhibited a remarkable uptake, peaking at 16-18 min and retaining the same level of activity over the one-hour study period. Images of the heart after LAD ligation showed an area of diminished uptake corresponding to the region of infarction. Thus this agent has the basic properties required for potential use in the assessment and quantitation of free fatty-acid metabolism in the heart in a manner similar to the measurement of glucose metabolism in the brain with 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

  16. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the dir...

  17. The Contribution of Different Components in QiShenYiQi Pills® to Its Potential to Modulate Energy Metabolism in Protection of Ischemic Myocardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chen Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart diseases remain a challenge for clinicians. QiShenYiQi pills® (QSYQ has been reported to be curative during coronary heart diseases with modulation of energy metabolism as one of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we detected the effect of QSYQ and its components on rat myocardial structure, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity and energy metabolism, and heart function after 30 min of cardiac ischemia, with focusing on the contribution of each component to its potential to regulate energy metabolism. Results showed that treatment with QSYQ and all its five components protected myocardial structure from damage by ischemia. QSYQ also attenuated release of myocardial cTnI, and restored the production of ATP after cardiac ischemia. AS-IV and Rb1, but not Rg1, R1, and DLA, had similar effect as QSYQ in regulation of energy metabolism. These results indicate that QSYQ may prevent ischemia-induced cardiac injury via regulation of energy metabolism, to which each of its components contributes differently.

  18. Myocardial Po2 does not limit aerobic metabolism in the postischemic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Youngran

    2016-01-15

    Reperfused hypertrophic hearts are prone to develop reflow abnormalities, which are likely to impair O2 return to the myocardium. Yet, reflow deficit may not be the only factor determining postischemic oxygenation in the hypertrophic heart. Altered O2 demand may also contribute to hypoxia. In addition, the extent to which myocardial Po2 dictates energy and functional recovery in the reperfused heart remains uncertain. In the present study, moderately hypertrophied hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, and the recovery time courses of pH and high-energy phosphates were followed by (31)P NMR. (1)H NMR measurement of intracellular myoglobin assessed tissue O2 levels. The present study found that the exacerbation of hypoxia in the postischemic spontaneously hypertensive rat heart arises mostly from impaired microvascular supply of O2. However, postischemic myocardial Po2, at least when it exceeds ∼18% of the preischemic level, does not limit mitochondrial respiration and high-energy phosphate resynthesis. It only passively reflects changes in the O2 supply-demand balance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Patency of the infarct-related coronary artery--a pertinent factor in late recovery of myocardial fatty acid metabolism among patients receiving thrombolytic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walamies, M; Virtanen, V; Koskinen, M; Uusitalo, A

    1994-09-01

    The decrease in mortality among patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction is greater than would be expected from the improvement in left ventricular contractile function alone; thus some additional advantage of recanalization of the infarct-related coronary artery probably exists. Changes in the post-infarction myocardial metabolic state with respect to artery patency have not been studied with a gamma camera previously. A single-photon emission tomography scan using the fatty acid analogue para-123I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid was performed at rest before hospital discharge on nine patients with first anterior myocardial infarction. All patients had received intravenous thrombolytic therapy at the beginning of the insult. The semiquantitative analysis of the left ventricle included a total of 44 segments in each patient. The test was repeated 3 months later, with the patients divided into two groups: six patients had an angiographically patent left anterior descending coronary artery (group A), and three an occluded artery (group B). In group A the number of myocardial segments with abnormal (acid uptake was initially 20.2 +/- 4.7 (mean +/- SD) and was reduced to 11.3 +/- 6.1 during the follow-up (95% confidence interval of the decrease 16.0-1.7 segments). In group B the number of these aberrant segments was fairly constant (21.7 +/- 13.1, initial test, and 21.3 +/- 13.3, retest). Our preliminary results suggest that even when thrombolytic therapy fails to prevent myocardial infarction, myocardial fatty acid metabolism has a better change of recovering if the relevant coronary artery has regained its patency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Myocardial metabolism, perfusion, wall motion and electrical activity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perloff, J.K.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiomyopathy of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy originates in the posterobasal left ventricle and extends chiefly to the contiguous lateral wall. Ultrastructural abnormalities in these regions precede connective tissue replacement. We postulated that a metabolic fault coincided with or antedated the subcellular abnormality. Accordingly, regional left ventricular metabolism, perfusion and wall motion were studied using positron computed tomography and metabolic isotopes supplemented by thallium perfusion scans, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography. To complete the assessment, electrocardiograms, vectorcardiograms, 24 hour taped electrocardiograms and chest x-rays were analyzed. Positron computed tomography utilizing F-18 2-fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) provided the first conclusive evidence supporting the hypothesis of a premorphologic regional metabolic fault. Thus, cardiac involvement in duchenne dystrophy emerges as a unique form of heart disease, genetically targeting specific regions of ventricular myocardium for initial metabolic and subcellular changes. Reported ultrastructural abnormalities of the impulse and conduction systems provide, at least in part, a basis for the clinically observed sinus node, intraatrial, internodal, AV nodal and infranodal disorders

  1. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  2. The metabolic and renal effects of adrenaline and milrinone in patients with myocardial dysfunction after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringlake, Matthias; Wernerus, Marit; Grünefeld, Julia; Klaus, Stephan; Heinze, Hermann; Bechtel, Matthias; Bahlmann, Ludger; Poeling, Jochen; Schön, Julika

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Myocardial dysfunction necessitating inotropic support is a typical complication after on-pump cardiac surgery. This prospective, randomized pilot study analyzes the metabolic and renal effects of the inotropes adrenaline and milrinone in patients needing inotropic support after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods During an 18-month period, 251 patients were screened for low cardiac output upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission after elective, isolated CABG surgery. Patients presenting with a cardiac index (CI) of less than 2.2 liters/minute per square meter upon ICU admission – despite adequate mean arterial (titrated with noradrenaline or sodium nitroprusside) and filling pressures – were randomly assigned to 14-hour treatment with adrenaline (n = 7) or milrinone (n = 11) to achieve a CI of greater than 3.0 liters/minute per square meter. Twenty patients not needing inotropes served as controls. Hemodynamics, plasma lactate, pyruvate, glucose, acid-base status, insulin requirements, the urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobuline, and creatinine clearance were determined during the treatment period, and cystatin-C levels were determined up to 48 hours after surgery (follow-up period). Results After two to four hours after ICU admission, the target CI was achieved in both intervention groups and maintained during the observation period. Plasma lactate, pyruvate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, plasma glucose, and insulin doses were higher (p milrinone or control conditions. The urinary excretion of alpha-1-microglobuline was higher in the adrenaline than in the control group 6 to 14 hours after admission (p milrinone or the control group after 48 hours (p milrinone – is associated with unwarranted metabolic and renal effects. Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00446017. PMID:17470271

  3. Evaluation of the metabolism in rat hearts of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, K R; Owen, B A; Goodman, M M; Knapp, Jr, F F

    1987-01-01

    The biological fate of two new radioiodinated 3-methyl-branched fatty acids has been evaluated in rat hearts following intravenous administration. Methyl-branching was introduced in (15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) to inhibit ..beta..-oxidation. The goals of these studies were to correlate the effects of methyl-branching on the incorporation of these agents into the various fatty acid pools and subcellular distribution profiles, and to relate these data to the myocardial retention properties. The properties of BMIPP and DMIPP were compared with the 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid straight-chain analogue (IPP). Differences in the heart retention of the analogues after intravenous administration in rats correlated with differences observed in subcellular distribution patterns. The dimethyl DMIPP analogue showed the longest retention and the highest association with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions (34%, 38%) 30 min after injection. These data are in contrast to the rapid clearance of the straight-chain IPP analogue which showed much lower relative association with the mitochondria and microsomes (18%, 15%). The distribution patterns of each analogue in the various lipid pools appeared consistent with the expected capacity of the analogues to be metabolized by ..beta..-oxidation. In contrast to the rapid oxidation of the straight-chain IPP analogue, the 3-monomethyl BMIPP analogue appeared to undergo slower oxidation and clearance, whereas the dimethyl-branched DMIPP analogue was apparatently not catabolized by the myocardium. All three analogues showed some incorporation into triglycerides. The metabolism patterns of the branched analogues reported here may provide useful information in the description of the mechanisms by which BMIPP and DMIPP are retained in rat myocardium.

  4. Synthesis and tissue distribution of fluorine-18 labeled trifluorohexadecanoic acids. Considerations in the development of metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochapsky, S.S.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile method for the synthesis of trifluoro fatty acids, potential metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents, has been developed. Two trifluorohexadecanoic (palmitic) acids have been prepared [6,6,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (I) and 7,7,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (II)], each of which bears two of the fluorine atoms as a gem-difluoromethylene unit on the fatty acid chain (at C-6 or C-7) and the third at the ω (C-16) position. The metabolic stability of carbon-fluorine bonds suggests the gem-difluoro group may block the β-oxidation pathway, while the terminal fluorine could be the site for labeling with fluorine-18. The convergent synthetic approach utilizes a 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane derived from 10-undecenal or 9-decenal, which is alkylated with the OBO (oxabicyclooctyl) ester of 5-bromopentanoic acid or 6-bromohexanoic acid, respectively. Hydroboration-oxidation and alcohol protection are followed by halofluorination to convert the 1,3-dithiane system to a gem-difluoro group. The third fluorine is introduced by fluoride ion displacement of a trifluoromethanesulfonate. This synthesis is adapted to the labeling of these trifluoro fatty acids with the short-lived radionuclide fluorine-18 (t 1/2 = 110 min), with the third fluorine introduced as fluoride ion in the penultimate step. The radiochemical syntheses proceed in 3-34% radiochemical yield (decay corrected), with an overall synthesis and purification time of 90 min. Tissue distribution studies in rats were performed with I and II, as well as with 16-[ 18 F]fluoropalmitic acid (III), [ 11 C]palmitic acid, and [ 11 C]octanoic acid. The heart uptake of the fluoropalmitic acids decreases with substitution, the 2-min activity level for 16-fluoropalmitic acid being 65% and that for both 6,6,16-and 7,7,17-trifluoropalmitic acids being 30% that of palmitic acid

  5. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  6. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  7. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  8. Patency of the infarct-related coronary artery - a pertinent factor in late recovery of myocardial fatty acid metabolism among patients receiving thrombolytic therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walamies, M.; Virtanen, V.; Koskinen, M.; Uusitalo, A.

    1994-01-01

    A single-photon emission tomography scan using the fatty acid analogue para- 123 I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid was performed at rest before hospital discharge on nine patients with first anterior myocardial infarction. All patients had received intravenous thrombolytic therapy at the beginning of the insult. The semiquantitative analysis of the left ventricle included a total of 44 segments in each patient. The test was repeated 3 months later, with the patients divided into two groups: six patients had an angiographically patent left anterior descending coronary artery (group A), and three an occluded artery (group B). In group A the number of myocardial segments with abnormal (<70% of maximum) fatty acid uptake was initially 20.2±4.7 (mean±SD) and was reduced to 11.3±6.1 during the follow-up (95% confidence interval of the decrease 16.0-1.7 segments). In group B the number of these aberrant segments was fairly constant (21.7±13.1, initial test, and 21.3±13.3, retest). Our preliminary results suggest that even when thrombolytic therapy fails to prevent myocardial infarction, myocardial fatty acid metabolism has a better change of recovering of the relevant coronary artery has regained its patency. (orig.)

  9. Patency of the infarct-related coronary artery - a pertinent factor in late recovery of myocardial fatty acid metabolism among patients receiving thrombolytic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walamies, M. (Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)); Virtanen, V. (Dept. of Medicine, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)); Koskinen, M. (Dept. of Hospital Physics, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland)); Uusitalo, A. (Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Tampere Univ. Hospital (Finland))

    1994-09-01

    A single-photon emission tomography scan using the fatty acid analogue para-[sup 123]I-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid was performed at rest before hospital discharge on nine patients with first anterior myocardial infarction. All patients had received intravenous thrombolytic therapy at the beginning of the insult. The semiquantitative analysis of the left ventricle included a total of 44 segments in each patient. The test was repeated 3 months later, with the patients divided into two groups: six patients had an angiographically patent left anterior descending coronary artery (group A), and three an occluded artery (group B). In group A the number of myocardial segments with abnormal (<70% of maximum) fatty acid uptake was initially 20.2[+-]4.7 (mean[+-]SD) and was reduced to 11.3[+-]6.1 during the follow-up (95% confidence interval of the decrease 16.0-1.7 segments). In group B the number of these aberrant segments was fairly constant (21.7[+-]13.1, initial test, and 21.3[+-]13.3, retest). Our preliminary results suggest that even when thrombolytic therapy fails to prevent myocardial infarction, myocardial fatty acid metabolism has a better change of recovering of the relevant coronary artery has regained its patency. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in the area of fill-in after thallium reinjection in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Fujino, Susumu; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1995-01-01

    Myocardial fatty acid utilization in the area with thallium fill-in after reinjection was assessed using 123 I-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl) 3R, S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). We studied 22 patients with prior myocardial infarction that revealed persistent defects on standard exercise-redistribution thallium imaging. In each patient, exercise-redistribution-reinjection thallium imaging was performed. Within two weeks of the thallium study, resting BMIPP imaging was performed 20 min after injection of BMIPP (148 MBq). Following qualitative analysis of the obtained thallium and BMIPP images, quantitative analysis was performed on the basis of relative regional uptake. Of 199 myocardial segments that showed persistent defects on exercise-redistribution images, 73 segments showed apparent fill-in on the reinjection images (fill-in positive), and the remaining 126 segments did not (fill-in negative). When BMIPP images were compared with the corresponding thallium reinjection images, reduced BMIPP uptake compared with thallium was frequently observed in the area of fill-in positive segments (65 of 73 segments, 89%). Quantitative analysis also showed decrease in BMIPP activity compared to thallium activity in the area of fill-in (49.7±16.1 vs. 65.8±16.0%, p<0.001). In contrast, only 24 of the 126 fill-in negative segments (19%) showed lower BMIPP uptake than thallium. These results suggest that impaired fatty acid utilization in the area of thallium new fill-in after reinjection already exists at resting condition. Thus, BMIPP imaging combined with exercise-redistribution-reinjection thallium imaging provides insights to understanding fatty acid utilization in ischemic but viable myocardium identified by thallium reinjection in patients with prior myocardial infarction. (author)

  11. Positron emission tomography with [11C]-acetate for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, I.S.; Litvinov, M.M.; Rozhkova, G.G.; Leont'eva, I.V.; Sebeleva, I.A.; Tumanyan, M.R.; Koledinskij, D.G.; Sukhorukov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic potentials of positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C]-acetate as applied to mitochondrial disorders in children with cardiomyopathies (CMP) are evaluated. PET examinations are performed in 17 patients of the mean age of 7.5 ± 3.1 years with CMP. A dynamic study with [ 11 C]-acetate is conducted to evaluate the Krebs cycle activity. The experiments have indicated to a fewer accumulation of [ 11 C]-acetate and to its slower clearance in the ischemic zone as compared with the normal myocardium. The Krebs cycle activity has been reduced. By means of PET with [ 11 C]-acetate the oxidation rate constant of the Krebs cycle and the [ 11 C]-acetate-activity clearance half-time can be quantified. This makes possible to assess the extent of oxidative metabolism malfunction, including the case of perfusion reduction [ru

  12. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  13. The metabolic syndrome and risk of myocardial infarction in familial hypertension (hypertension heredity in Malmö evaluation study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Artur; Burri, Philippe; Hulthén, Lennart; Melander, Olle

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether three main definitions of the metabolic syndrome (MetS)--WHO, National Cholesterol Education Program--Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation--identify the same individuals and are able to predict incident myocardial infarction (MI) in families with essential hypertension. The tested definitions were prospectively related to data on MI in a cohort of approximately 1700 individuals with overt essential hypertension and their normotensive first-degree relatives. At baseline, 616 participants had MetS, yet only 209 of them (33.9%) were identified by all definitions, and compatibility rate for each pair of definitions was approximately 50%. During follow-up (Tmean approximately 6.6 years) 53 participants developed MI and they were generally older and more dysmetabolic than the rest of the cohort. There were also more men, smokers and diabetic individuals in this group. After adjustment for all conventional cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes, only the National Cholesterol Education Program definition could predict the increased risk of MI [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.0, P = 0.01]. Among individual MetS components, incident MI was independently associated with three of them: low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.09-3.78, P = 0.025) insulin resistance (OR = 2.02, CI = 1.08-3.78, P = 0.028) and increased albumin excretion rate (OR = 1.24, CI = 0.99-1.55, P = 0.060). The presence of MetS in hypertensive and genetically hypertension prone individuals may signal the increased risk of future MI. However, only the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria appear to have a sufficient predictive accuracy.

  14. The preventive effects of lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D; Yoon, S-J; Lim, D-S; Gong, Y-H; Ko, S; Lee, Y-H; Lee, H S; Park, M-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, Y A

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS), as a precursor of diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease, is increasing steadily worldwide. We examined the preventive effects of lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of DM and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in MS. Observational study on disease occurrence after lifestyle intervention. The lifestyle intervention was administered to subjects with MS participating in a metropolitan lifestyle intervention program for 1 year. The same numbers of non-participating age- and sex-matched subjects with MS were randomly extracted from national health examination data. After intervention or examination, new occurrences of hypertension, DM, and AMI were identified through the national health insurance claims data during 1 year. For DM and AMI, multivariate logistic regression analysis for the factors affecting each disease was performed. In the intervention group and the control group (14,918 in each group), the occurrence of hypertension was 555 (6.07%) and 751 (8.33%), the occurrence of DM was 324 (2.55%) and 488 (3.89%), the occurrence of dyslipidemia was 321 (2.59%) and 373 (2.72%), and the occurrence of AMI was 13 (0.09%) and 26 (0.17%), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratios for intervention were 0.752 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.644-0.879) and 0.499 (95% CI: 0.251-0.992) for DM and AMI, respectively, indicating that lifestyle intervention has a preventive effect. Lifestyle intervention in MS has preventive effects on the occurrence of DM and AMI, and long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate these preventive effects in more detail. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A Score-Based Approach to 18F-FDG PET Images as a Tool to Describe Metabolic Predictors of Myocardial Doxorubicin Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bauckneht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To verify the capability of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. Methods: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease (DXR dose: 40–50 mg/m2 per cycle, and were retrospectively enrolled. Inclusion criteria implied the presence of both pre- and post-chemotherapy clinical evaluation encompassing electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiography. Myocardial metabolism at pre-therapy PET was evaluated according to both standardized uptake value (SUV- and score-based approaches. The capability of the score-based image assessment to predict the occurrence of cardiac toxicity with respect to SUV measurement was then evaluated. Results: In contrast to the SUV-based approach, the five-point scale method does not linearly stratify the risk of the subsequent development of cardiotoxicity. However, converting the five-points scale to a dichotomic evaluation (low vs. high myocardial metabolism, FDG-PET/CT showed high diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of cardiac toxicity (specificity = 100% and sensitivity = 83.3%. In patients showing high myocardial uptake at baseline, in which the score-based method is not able to definitively exclude the occurrence of cardiac toxicity, myocardial SUV mean quantification is able to further stratify the risk between low and intermediate risk classes. Conclusions: the score-based approach to FDG-PET/CT images is a feasible method for predicting DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. This method might improve the inter-reader and inter-scanner variability, thus allowing the evaluation of FDG-PET/CT images in a multicentral setting.

  16. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism indices dynamic in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity in 6 months and 1 year after myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Kravchun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays conservative therapy and reperfusion techniques, which include thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention considered as the main strategies for the acute coronary syndrome treatment. Aim. To assess carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity in 6 months and 1 year after myocardial revascularization. Methods and results. 58 patients who underwent thrombolytic therapy and 32 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were examined. Glucose level was determined by glucose oxidation method, insulin – by ELISA and lipid profile – according to the standard biochemical methods. It was established that in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and obesity positive effect was defined in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by reducing of serum glucose level, insulin, total cholesterol, low and very low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and increasing of high density lipoproteins, cholesterol in 6 months and 1 year after reperfusion therapy. Significant differences in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the examined patients, depending on the type of reperfusion therapy, have not been detected in 6 months and 1 year after revascularization. Conclusion. Comparative analysis of different methods of myocardial revascularization did not show any advantages of them.

  17. Potentiation of intraocular absorption and drug metabolism of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops: drug interaction with sight threatening lipid peroxides in the treatment for age-related eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Cataract is the dominant cause of blindness worldwide. Studies of the morphological structure and biophysical changes of the lens in human senile cataracts have demonstrated the disappearance of normal fiber structure in the opaque region of the lens and the disintegration of the lens fiber plasma membrane in the lens tissue. Morphological and biochemical techniques have revealed the regions in human cataractous lenses in which the plasma membrane derangement occurs as the primary light scattering centers which cause the observed lens opacity. Human cataract formation is mostly considered to be a multifactorial disease; however, oxidative stress might be one of the leading causes for both nuclear and cortical cataract. Phospholipid molecules modified with oxygen, accumulating in the lipid bilayer, change its geometry and impair lipid-lipid and protein-lipid interactions in lenticular fiber membranes. Electron microscopy data of human lenses at various stages of age-related cataract document that these disruptions were globules, vacuoles, multilamellar membranes, and clusters of highly undulating membranes. The opaque shades of cortical cataracts represent cohorts of locally affected fibres segregated from unaffected neighbouring fibres by plasma membranes. Other potential scattering centers found throughout the mature cataract nucleus included variations in staining density between adjacent cells, enlarged extracellular spaces between undulating membrane pairs, and protein-like deposits in the extracellular space. These affected parts had membranes with a fine globular aspect and in cross-section proved to be filled with medium to large globular elements. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a pathogenetic and causative factor of cataract. Increased concentrations of primary molecular LPO products (diene conjugates, lipid hydroperoxides, fatty acid oxy-derivatives) and end fluorescent LPO products were detected in the lipid moieties of the aqueous humor samples and human

  18. Involvement of Proteasome and Macrophages M2 in the Protection Afforded by Telmisartan against the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the involvement of proteasome and macrophages M2 in the protection afforded by telmisartan against the acute myocardial infarction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats with metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats were treated for three weeks with telmisartan at doses of 7 and 12 mg/kg/day. After treatment, rats were subjected to a 25 min occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 2 h reperfusion (I/R. At the end of the I/R period, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and echocardiographic evaluations were done. Telmisartan treatment (7 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg reduced the myocardial infarct size, the expression of proteasome subunits 20S and 26S, and the protein ubiquitin within the heart. The compound has led to an increased M2 macrophage phenotype within the cardiac specimens and a modification of the cardiac cytokine and chemokine profile. This was functionally translated in improved cardiac performance as evidenced by echography after 2 h reperfusion. 7 mg/kg/day telmisartan was sufficient to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF of the rat heart recorded after I/R (e.g., vehicle 38 ± 2.2%; telmisartan 54 ± 2.7% and was sufficient to improve the diastolic function and the myocardial performance index up to values of 0.6 ± 0.01 measured after I/R.

  19. Influence of high energy phosphate metabolism in postischemic myocardial dysfunction using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Influencia dos fosfatos de alta energia na funcao ventricular em pacientes com infarto do miocardio avaliada pela resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalil Filho, Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1998-05-01

    The recovery of left ventricular function after reperfusion is delayed in general by several hours, days or weeks and this phenomenon is known as myocardial stunning. One of the theories to explain the pathogenesis of this postischemic myocardial dysfunction is the production of not enough energy by mitochondria, leading to decreased adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) levels. We evaluated the influence of high energy phosphate metabolism in postischemic myocardial dysfunction, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, successfully reperfused, within the first six hours from the onset of the symptoms. Twenty-nine patients were studied in the acute phase (on average four days after the onset of myocardial infarction) and 21 repeated the examination in the follow-up phase (average 39 days). Regional left ventricular function was evaluated by cine-resonance and high energy phosphate metabolism by phosphorus-31 spectroscopy, using the phosphocreatine {beta} ATP (P Cr/{beta}ATP) ratio. The existence of myocardial stunning was suggested by the improvement of the related regional contractility during the follow-up. The contractility improved in the septal wall from 2.46{+-} 0.68 to 1.54 {+-} 0.78 (p<0.001), in the anteroseptal wall from 2.0 {+-} 0.89 to 1.40 {+-} 0.75 (p<0.001) and in the anterior wall from 2.37 {+-} 0.71 to 1.41 {+-} 0.59 (p<0.001). The P Cr/{beta}ATP ratio did not change from acute to follow-up phase (1.51 {+-} 0.17 vs. 1.53 {+-} 0.17; p = 0.6). This study suggests that decreased high energy phosphate metabolism after reperfusion does not have an important role in the genesis of the myocardial stunning in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. (author) 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Fatty acid metabolism in symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse but without coronary artery disease - comparison with 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, E.; Schicha, H.; Neumann, P.; Emrich, D.; Tebbe, U.

    1987-01-01

    Using 123 I-ω-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) and 201 Tl, respectively, myocardial fatty acid metabolism and perfusion were studied in 51 symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) as diagnosed by ventriculography, and no evidence of coronary artery disease. Twelve subjects with normal coronary arteries and normal ventriculogram served as a control group for the evaluation of elimination kinetics of HDA. In the control group, the mean elimination half-life was 26.1±3.6 min, whereas the patients with MVP had a mean value of 25.0±6.4 min. In patients with MVP, a high incidence concerning abnormalities of accumulation and/or elimination of HDA occurred, namely accumulation defects in 31% and both prolonged and shortened elimination half-lives in 16% and 29%, respectively. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using 201 Tl showed abnormalities in 76%. Correlations were found between decreased uptake of HDA and prolonged elimination half-life as well as defects by 201 Tl, presumably due to ischemia based on small-vessel disease or abnormalities of cellular metabolism. (orig.) [de

  1. Pacing and the non-invasive evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism by means of 17-123I-heptadecanoic acid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwel, C.M.B.; Visser, F.C.; Eenige, M.J. van; Roos, J.P.; Roos, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) oxidation depends among other things on exogeneous NEFA supply and energy demand. In 6 patients with a multi-programmable pacemaker scintigraphy with 17- 123 Iodo-heptadecanoic acid (17- 123 I-HDA) was performed to investigate NEFA metabolism at two levels: at a control level (basal heart rate 69±6) and at increased pace frequency (104±5). In both situations the derived time-activity curves, measured during a period of 75 min, were fitted with a monoexponential plus a constant curve: A(t) = A(0).exp (-t In2/T1/2)+C. The half-time value, the uptake measured as the peak activity and the relative size of the oxidation pool were determined. The median of the half-time value did not change: 24 min (range 19-31) in the control heart rate study and 22 min (19-27) during the increased pace frequency study. The median of the uptake increased significantly from 33 cpm/pixel/2 mCi/100 kg (23-34) to 40 cpm/pixel/2 mCi/100 kg (35-42; p 123 I-HDA. This result suggests that radioiodinated NEFA may be a valuable tool to quantify non-invasively the level of the myocardial NEFA metabolism in the human heart. (orig.) [de

  2. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yun Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter changes (WMC are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC.

  3. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  4. Investigations into the myocardial metabolism of 123-I-ω-HDA in patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse and previously proven to have no coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 53 patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) where coronary heart disease (CHD) had previously been excluded by angiography the myocardial metabolism of fatty acids was examined at rest using metabolic myocardial scintigraphy (MMS) and 123-I-ω-HDA as tracer substance. The results were correlated with those obtained by other methods of investigation (findings at rest and during exercise from ECG recordings, tests using a flow-guided catheter and radionuclide ventriculography, further from echocardiography as well as myocardial Tl redistribution scintiscanning during exercise). For purposes of reference, MMS was additionally carried out in twelve normal individuals subjected to coronary angiography to exclude both MVP and CHD. The results of this study would appear to suggest that the pathological findings revealed by myocardial Tl scintigraphy in patients showing symptoms of MVP cannot invariably be classified as 'false' but are at least to some extent attributable to impaired myocardial perfusion, vitality or metabolism. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Association between abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism and cardiac-derived death among patients undergoing hemodialysis: results from a cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Masao; Tamaki, Nagara; Nishimura, Masato; Haze, Kazuo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kusano, Eiji; Akiba, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tokuichiro; Hase, Hiroki; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Tomoaki; Kumita, Shinichiro; Nagai, Yoji; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Momose, Mitsuru; Miyakoda, Keiko; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2013-03-01

    Detecting myocardial ischemia in hemodialysis patients is crucial given the high incidence of silent ischemia and the high cardiovascular mortality rates. Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism as determined by imaging with (123)I-labeled BMIPP (β-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid) might be associated with cardiac-derived death in hemodialysis patients. Prospective observational study. Asymptomatic hemodialysis patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, but without known coronary artery disease, were followed up for 3 years at 48 Japanese hospitals (406 men, 271 women; mean age, 64 years). Baseline BMIPP summed scores semiquantified using a 17-segment 5-point system (normal, 0; absent, 4). Cardiac-derived death, including cardiac and sudden death. HRs were estimated using a Cox model for associations between BMIPP summed scores and cardiac-derived death, adjusting for potential confounders of age, sex, body mass index, dialysis duration, and cardiovascular risk factors. Rates of all-cause mortality and cardiac-derived death were 18.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Cardiac-derived death (acute myocardial infarction [n = 10], congestive heart failure [n = 13], arrhythmia [n = 2], valvular heart disease [n = 1], and sudden death [n = 20]) accounted for 36.8% of all-cause deaths. Cardiac-derived death (n = 46) was associated with age, history of heart failure, and BMIPP summed scores of 4 or higher (HR, 2.9; P death-free survival rates were 95.7%, 90.6%, and 78.8% when BMIPP summed scores were 3 or lower, 4-8, and 9 or higher, respectively. BMIPP summed score also was a predictor of all-cause death (HR, 1.6; P = 0.009). Sudden death of unknown cause was considered to have been cardiac derived, although a coronary origin was not confirmed. Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism is associated with cardiac-derived death in hemodialysis patients. BMIPP single-proton emission computed tomography appears clinically useful for predicting cardiac-derived death

  6. The period-age relation for cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    The list of 119 cepheid-members of 55 clusters and associations of the Magellanic Clouds, the Galaxy, and M31 is given. The period-age relation is found from the data on 64 cepheids in 29 clusters for which the age determinations are available, the ages of extragalactic clusters were determined mainly from their integral colours. The U-B colours are found to be of much better age parameters than the B-V ones. The composite period-age relation agrees well with the theoretical one. The observed dispersion of the period-age relation leads to an estimate of the age dispersion about 1x10 7 years in the associations. Some peculiarities of the cepheids with the shortest periods amongst others in the same clusters are probably explained if they are overtone pulsators. The period-age relation may be used for an investigation of the recent history of star formation in the galaxies. This relation allows to determine the age gradient across the spiral arm in M31 which is in agreement with the density wave theory predictions. The distribution of cepheids in our Galaxy and neighbouring galaxies is consistent with the conception of star formation lasting for some dozen million years in cells with a dimension of some hundreds of parsecs

  7. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research.

  8. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Age-Related Macular Degeneration Sections What Is Macular Degeneration? How is AMD ... What Does Macular Degeneration Look Like? What Is Macular Degeneration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la degeneración macular ...

  9. Myocardial energy metabolism during global ischemia and reperfusion in SHR hypertrophic rat heart assessed by 31P-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirotani, Hitoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Katayama, Osamu; Nishioka, Takazumi; Oku, Hidetaka

    1983-01-01

    An experiment regarding myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was performed under various conditions in SHR hypertrophic and WKY non-hypertrophic rat hearts. An effect of cardioplegia was evaluated in the following 4 conditions, that is, Group 1: hypothermia only, Group 2: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of GIK solution, Group 3: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of cold blood cardioplegia, Group 4: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of cold blood cardioplegia and administration of coenzyme Q 10 prior to isolation of the heart. 1) In WKY heart, ATP contents after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia at 15 0 C decreased to 25% in Group 1,42% in Group 2,52% in Group 3 and 62% in Group 4, and the contents after 30 minutes reperfusion increased to 42, 50, 60 and 75%, respectively. On the other hand, in SHR heart, ATP contents decreased to 22, 38, 40 and 41% but no trend of recovery was present. 2) Creatine phosphate content in SHR heart was 50% of that in WKY heart during isolated perfusion. Creatine phosphate decreased to zero after 30 minutes myocardial ischemia. In WKY heart, the content was recovered to over 100% by 30 minutes reperfusion after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia in all groups. On the contrary, in SHR heart, the contents increased to only 10, 15, 22 and 41%, in 4 groups, respectively. 3) In WKY heart, pH fell to 6.2, 6.7, 6.8 and 6.8, in 4 groups, respectively, a fter 90 minutes myocardial ischemia, and returned to the preischemic value of 7.2 after 30 minutes reperfusion in all groups. In SHR heart, pH fell to 6.1 in group 1, 6.3 in group 2, 6.4 in group 3 and 6.7 in group 4 after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia and the values returned to 6.5, 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8, respectively, after 30 minutes reperfusion. The latter values were lower than preischemic value of 7.0. (J.P.N.)

  10. Myocardial energy metabolism during global ischemia and reperfusion in SHR hypertrophic rat heart assessed by /sup 31/P-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirotani, Hitoshi; Oka, Hiroshi; Katayama, Osamu; Nishioka, Takazumi; Oku, Hidetaka [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1983-12-01

    An experiment regarding myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was performed under various conditions in SHR hypertrophic and WKY non-hypertrophic rat hearts. An effect of cardioplegia was evaluated in the following 4 conditions, that is, Group 1: hypothermia only, Group 2: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of GIK solution, Group 3: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of cold blood cardioplegia, Group 4: hypothermia with intermittent infusion of cold blood cardioplegia and administration of coenzyme Q/sub 10/ prior to isolation of the heart. 1) In WKY heart, ATP contents after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia at 15/sup 0/ C decreased to 25% in Group 1,42% in Group 2,52% in Group 3 and 62% in Group 4, and the contents after 30 minutes reperfusion increased to 42, 50, 60 and 75%, respectively. On the other hand, in SHR heart, ATP contents decreased to 22, 38, 40 and 41% but no trend of recovery was present. 2) Creatine phosphate content in SHR heart was 50% of that in WKY heart during isolated perfusion. Creatine phosphate decreased to zero after 30 minutes myocardial ischemia. In WKY heart, the content was recovered to over 100% by 30 minutes reperfusion after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia in all groups. On the contrary, in SHR heart, the contents increased to only 10, 15, 22 and 41%, in 4 groups, respectively. 3) In WKY heart, pH fell to 6.2, 6.7, 6.8 and 6.8, in 4 groups, respectively, a fter 90 minutes myocardial ischemia, and returned to the preischemic value of 7.2 after 30 minutes reperfusion in all groups. In SHR heart, pH fell to 6.1 in group 1, 6.3 in group 2, 6.4 in group 3 and 6.7 in group 4 after 90 minutes myocardial ischemia and the values returned to 6.5, 6.6, 6.7 and 6.8, respectively, after 30 minutes reperfusion. The latter values were lower than preischemic value of 7.0.

  11. A preliminary feasibility study of simultaneous dual-isotope imaging with a solid-state dedicated cardiac camera for evaluating myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Toshiyuki; Utanohara, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kurihara, Makiko; Iguchi, Nobuo; Umemura, Jun; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT imaging with 201Tl and (123)I-β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is used to study the perfusion-metabolism mismatch. It predicts post-ischemic functional recovery by detecting stunned myocardium. On the other hand, (99m)Tc-MIBI is another radioisotope widely used in myocardial perfusion imaging because of its better image quality and lower radiation exposure than 201Tl. However, since the photopeak energies of (99m)Tc and (123)I are very similar, crosstalk hampers the simultaneous use of these two radioisotopes. To overcome this problem, we conducted simultaneous dual-isotope imaging study using the D-SPECT scanner (Spectrum-Dynamics, Israel) which has a novel detector design and excellent energy resolution. We first conducted a basic experiment using cardiac phantom to simulate the condition of normal perfusion and impaired fatty acid metabolism. Subsequently, we prospectively recruited 30 consecutive patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, and performed (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging within 5 days after reperfusion. Images were interpreted by two experienced cardiovascular radiologists to identify the infarcted and stunned areas based on the coronary artery territories. As a result, cardiac phantom experiment revealed no significant crosstalk between (99m)Tc and (123)I. In the subsequent clinical study, (99m)Tc-MIBI/(123)I-BMIPP dual-isotope imaging in all participant yielded excellent image quality and detected infarcted and stunned areas correctly when compared with coronary angiographic findings. Furthermore, we were able to reduce radiation exposure to significantly approximately one-eighth. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated the practical application of simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism by (99m)Tc-MIBI and (123)I-BMIPP using a D-SPECT cardiac scanner. Compared with conventional (201)Tl

  12. The effect of device-based cardiac contractility modulation therapy on myocardial efficiency and oxidative metabolism in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goliasch, Georg; Khorsand, Aliasghar; Sochor, Heinz; Schmidinger, Herwig; Graf, Senta; Schuetz, Matthias; Karanikas, Georgios; Khazen, Cesar; Wolzt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a device-based therapy that involves delivery of nonexcitatory electrical signals resulting in improved ventricular function and a reversal of maladaptive cardiac fetal gene programmes. Our aim was to evaluate whether acute application of CCM leads to an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO 2 ) in patients with chronic heart failure using 11 C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). We prospectively enrolled 21 patients with severe heart failure. 11 C-acetate PET was performed before and after activation of the CCM device. In 12 patients an additional stress study with dobutamine was performed. Under resting conditions, the values of myocardial blood flow (MBF), MVO 2 and work metabolic index (WMI, reflecting myocardial efficiency) with the CCM device activated did not differ significantly from the values with the device deactivated. MBF was 0.81 ± 0.18 ml min -1 g -1 with the device off and 0.80 ± 0.15 ml min -1 g -1 with the device on (p = 0.818), MVO 2 was 6.81 ± 1.69 ml/min/100 g with the device off and 7.15 ± 1.62 ml/min/100 g with the device on (p = 0.241) and WMI was 4.94 ± 1.14 mmHg ml/m 2 with the device off and 5.21 ± 1.36 mmHg ml/m 2 with the device on (p = 0.344). Under dobutamine stress, the values of MBF, MVO 2 and WMI with the CCM device activated did not differ from the values with the device deactivated, but were significantly increased compared with the values obtained under resting conditions. These results indicate that CCM does not induce increased MVO 2 , even under stress conditions. (orig.)

  13. The effect of device-based cardiac contractility modulation therapy on myocardial efficiency and oxidative metabolism in patients with heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliasch, Georg; Khorsand, Aliasghar; Sochor, Heinz; Schmidinger, Herwig; Graf, Senta [Vienna General Hospital/Medical University of Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Schuetz, Matthias; Karanikas, Georgios [Vienna General Hospital/Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Khazen, Cesar [Vienna General Hospital/ Medical University of Vienna, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Wolzt, Michael [Vienna General Hospital/Medical University of Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Vienna General Hospital/ Medical University of Vienna, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a device-based therapy that involves delivery of nonexcitatory electrical signals resulting in improved ventricular function and a reversal of maladaptive cardiac fetal gene programmes. Our aim was to evaluate whether acute application of CCM leads to an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO{sub 2}) in patients with chronic heart failure using {sup 11}C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). We prospectively enrolled 21 patients with severe heart failure. {sup 11}C-acetate PET was performed before and after activation of the CCM device. In 12 patients an additional stress study with dobutamine was performed. Under resting conditions, the values of myocardial blood flow (MBF), MVO{sub 2} and work metabolic index (WMI, reflecting myocardial efficiency) with the CCM device activated did not differ significantly from the values with the device deactivated. MBF was 0.81 {+-} 0.18 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1} with the device off and 0.80 {+-} 0.15 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1} with the device on (p = 0.818), MVO{sub 2} was 6.81 {+-} 1.69 ml/min/100 g with the device off and 7.15 {+-} 1.62 ml/min/100 g with the device on (p = 0.241) and WMI was 4.94 {+-} 1.14 mmHg ml/m{sup 2} with the device off and 5.21 {+-} 1.36 mmHg ml/m{sup 2} with the device on (p = 0.344). Under dobutamine stress, the values of MBF, MVO{sub 2} and WMI with the CCM device activated did not differ from the values with the device deactivated, but were significantly increased compared with the values obtained under resting conditions. These results indicate that CCM does not induce increased MVO{sub 2}, even under stress conditions. (orig.)

  14. Test-retest repeatability of myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency using standalone dynamic 11C-acetate PET and multimodality approaches in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Nils Henrik; Harms, Hendrik Johannes; Kim, Won Yong; Nielsen, Roni; Tolbod, Lars P; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Wiggers, Henrik; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sörensen, Jens

    2018-05-31

    Myocardial efficiency measured by 11 C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has successfully been used in clinical research to quantify mechanoenergetic coupling. The objective of this study was to establish the repeatability of myocardial external efficiency (MEE) and work metabolic index (WMI) by non-invasive concepts. Ten healthy volunteers (63 ± 4 years) were examined twice, one week apart, using 11 C-acetate PET, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and echocardiography. Myocardial oxygen consumption from PET was combined with stroke work data from CMR, echocardiography, or PET to obtain MEE and WMI for each modality. Repeatability was estimated as the coefficient of variation (CV) between test and retest. MEE CMR , MEE Echo , and MEE PET values were 21.9 ± 2.7%, 16.4 ± 3.7%, and 23.8 ± 4.9%, respectively, P PET values were 4.42 ± 0.90, 4.07 ± 0.63, and 4.58 ± 1.13 mmHg × mL/m 2  × 10 6 , respectively, P = .45. Repeatability for MEE CMR was superior compared with MEE Echo but did not differ significantly compared with MEE PET (6.3% vs 12.9% and 9.4%, P = .04 and .25). CV values for WMI CMR , WMI Echo , and WMI PET were 10.0%, 14.8%, and 12.0%, respectively, (P = .53). Non-invasive measurements of MEE using 11 C-acetate PET are highly repeatable. A PET-only approach did not differ significantly from CMR/PET and might facilitate further clinical research due to lower costs and broader applicability.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Changes of Myocardial Angiogenesis and Energy Metabolism in Postinfarction and Diabetic Damage of Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Afanasiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of changes in myocardial activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and capillary density distribution in the experimental models of diabetic and postinfarction damage of rat heart was performed. Data showed that decrease in LDH and SDH activities was observed in both pathologies which can suggest abnormal processes of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in cardiac mitochondria. Activity of LDH and SDH in combined pathologies was comparative with the corresponding values of these parameters in control group. The authors hypothesize that these differences can be caused by specifics of myocardial vascularization. The results of the study showed that an increase in capillary density was found in all groups of rats with pathologies compared with control group. However, no significant differences in the intensity of angiogenesis processes were found between groups with pathologies.

  16. Validation of 99mTc-labeled '4+1' fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtschink, Peter; Stehr, Sebastian N.; Walther, Martin; Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen; Weichsel, Johannes; Pexa, Annette; Dieterich, Peter; Wunderlich, Gerd; Binas, Bert; Kropp, Joachim; Deussen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: 13 C, 18 F and 123 I fatty acids (FA) are used for myocardial imaging. Recently, our group showed that [ 99m Tc]-labeled '4+1' FA are extracted into the rat and guinea pig myocardium. The present study evaluates determinants of myocardial uptake and whole body biodistribution of these FA derivatives. Methods: Studies were performed with isolated perfused hearts of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with a FAT/CD36 deficiency, as well as with heart type FA binding protein knockout mice (H-FABP) -/- and H-FABP +/+ . Eight 4+1- 99m Tc-FA were applied for 3 min followed by 1-min washout. A mathematical model was used to analyze FA dynamics and binding to proteins. Whole-body distribution was studied in rats with and without Tween 80. In vitro fractionation studies with [ 99m Tc]-FA assessed red blood cell uptake as well as association with plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: Myocardial extraction was 19.0-33.0% of the infused dose in isolated WKY and 15.2-26.4% in SHR hearts. However, H-FABP -/- showed a marked reduction of tracer extraction [2.8±0.6%ID (percent injected dose) vs. 17±2%ID P 99m Tc-FA with albumin reduced ventricular extraction (P 99m Tc]-FA 4+1 derivatives is dependent on H-FABP. These substances may therefore provide a new tool to specifically assess regional myocardial changes of H-FABP.

  17. Interventions for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....

  18. Prevention of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ian Yat Hin; Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula.

  19. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979

  20. Effects of catecholamines on rat myocardial metabolism. II. Influence of catecholamines on 32p-incorporation into rat myocardial adenylic nucleotides and their turn-over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouze, P; Gaudemer, Y; Gautheron, D

    1975-01-01

    1. The influence of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on 32Pi incorporation into intracellular phosphate and adenylic nucleotides has been studied on rat myocardium slices; consequently, the turn-over of nucleotides could be determined and compared under the influence of these two hormones. 2. In order to specify the site of action of these catecholamines, several inhibitors and activators of energetic metabolism were included in the incubation medium: 3'5'-AMP, caffein, ouabain, oligomycin, rotenone + antimycin. 3. Both catecholamines favour Pi exchanges between intra and extracellular spaces; ATP turn-over is greatly increased, while ADP turn-over is slightly decreased, and 32P-incorporation into ADP is increased. 4. 3'5'-AMP and caffein are without effect on Pi penetration; however, caffein increases catecholamine effects on this penetration. ATP turn-over is slightly increased by 3'5'-AMP or caffein. 5. Ouabain decreases ATP turn-over but does not prevent the adrenaline induced acceleration. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport decrease ATP-turn-over severely; this inhibition is not released by catecholamines. 6. It is concluded that the catecholamine effects observed are dependent on the oxidative phosphorylations process. The increase of Pi exchange by catecholamines may be related to the increase of extracellular space and cation translocations we observed with the hormones.

  1. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  2. Persistent abnormal coronary flow reserve in association with abnormal glucose metabolism affects prognosis in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    baseline CFR (P = 0.004), S' (P = 0.045) and abnormal glucose metabolism (P = 0.001) were predictors of a decreased CFR at 3 months of follow-up. In multivariate analyses abnormal glucose metabolism (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.9-14.4; P = 0.001) remained a predictor of decreased CFR at follow-up, furthermore...

  3. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  5. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Psychophysical function in age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neelam, Kumari

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the late stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM), is the leading cause of blind registration in developed countries. The visual loss in AMD occurs due to dysfunction and death of photoreceptors (rods and cones) secondary to an atrophic or a neovascular event. The psychophysical tests of vision, which depend on the functional status of the photoreceptors, may detect subtle alterations in the macula before morphological fundus changes are apparent ophthalmoscopically, and before traditional measures of visual acuity exhibit deterioration, and may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring patients with ARM. Furthermore, worsening of these visual functions over time may reflect disease progression, and some of these, alone or in combination with other parameters, may act as a prognostic indicator for identifying eyes at risk for developing neovascular AMD. Lastly, psychophysical tests often correlate with subjective and relatively undefined symptoms in patients with early ARM, and may reflect limitation of daily activities for ARM patients. However, clinical studies investigating psychophysical function have largely been cross-sectional in nature, with small sample sizes, and lack consistency in terms of the grading and classification of ARM. This article aims to comprehensively review the literature germane to psychophysical tests in ARM, and to furnish the reader with an insight into this complex area of research.

  7. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Function's evaluation, perfusion and metabolism by positron emission tomography associated with multislice tomography (PET/CT) in patient with previous diagnosis to myocardial necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, Roxana; Aramayo, Natalia; Osorio, Amilcar

    2010-01-01

    A 64-years-old male patient with previous diagnosis of myocardial necrosis as assessed by myocardial perfusion gated single photon emission computed tomography (gSPECT) with 3-vessel-disease, left ventricular dysfunction and symptomatic by epigastric pain. The patient was referred for myocardial viability assessment by positron emission tomography (PET) to define clinical management decision. (authors) [es

  10. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Study of myocardial metabolism with 123I-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) in the State Hospital for Cardiology, Balatonfuered, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Pszota, Agnes; Karman, Miklos; Szakacs, Agnes; Nemeth, Laszlo; Kraxner, Lajosne

    1986-01-01

    Human 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) myocardial topographical and kinetic investigations were introduced in 1984 in Hungary. Background correction was carried out both by the Feinendegen-Freundlich method, using a calibration factor after a second Na 123 I injection, and Dudczak's method with a single 123 I-HDA injection with evaluation based on biexponential compartment analysis which is very similar to that of van Eenige and co-workers. Not only HDA-uptake scan was carried out but also the analogue time data of the kinetic parameters were assessed. There is no need of the second injection which is verified by the value of about 1.0 of the calibration factor. (author)

  12. Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Hanumantra, Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2006-05-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effect of the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The rats were divided into eight groups: Control, isoproterenol, ferulic acid alone, ascorbic acid alone, ferulic acid+ascorbic acid, ferulic acid+isoproterenol, ascorbic acid+isoproterenol and ferulic acid+ascorbic acid+isoproterenol. Ferulic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.t.) and ascorbic acid (80 mg/kg b.w.t.) both alone and in combination was administered orally for 6 days and on the fifth and the sixth day, isoproterenol (150 mg/kg b.w.t.) was injected intraperitoneally to induce myocardial injury to rats. Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, free and ester cholesterol in both serum and cardiac tissue. A rise in the levels of phospholipids, lipid peroxides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Further, a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein in serum and in the phospholipid levels, in the heart of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats was observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes: total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase. Pre-cotreatment with the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels to near normal when compared to individual treatment groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  13. Assessment of 123I-β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial scintigraphy in patients of chronic right ventricular overload. Fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    An investigation on the right ventricular pressure level and the abnormalities in the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium was made using 123 I-βmethyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial SPECT in patients with chronic right ventricular overloading. Twenty patients who presented with right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of 35 mmHg or more were used as the subjects. Dual myocardial SPECT with 201 TlCl (Tl) and BMIPP was carried out for the subjects and RVc/LVc, a ratio of radioactivity count incorporated in the right ventricular free wall to the left one was determined for Tl and BMIPP. And the correlations between RVc/LVc and RVSP, and RVc/LVc and RVSP/LVSP were examined. The subjects were classified into 3 groups based on the RVSP levels and the count ratio, BMIPP/Tl was compared among the three groups. With respect of Tl uptake, there were significant, positive correlations between RVc/LVc and RVSP (correlation coefficient r=0.51, p<0.05) and between RVc/LVc and RVSP/LVSP (correlation coefficient r=0.59, p<0.01). On the other hand, no significant correlation was found between them with respect of the uptake of BMIPP. The BMIPP/Tl ratio in the group with higher than 80 mmHg of RVSP was 0.82±0.06, which was significantly lower than the ratio's for two groups of less than 80 mmHg; 0.91±0.07 and 0.98±0.04 in the group with 35-49 and 50-79 mmHg of RVSP, respectively. These results show that when compared with BMIPP, Tl is superior for the estimation of right ventricular pressure. For the patients with right ventricular overloading, it was suggested that when RVSP reaches 80 mmHg or more, there appear some disorders in the fatty acid metabolism in the right ventricular myocardium. (author)

  14. CD36 Protein Influences Myocardial Ca2+ Homeostasis and Phospholipid Metabolism CONDUCTION ANOMALIES IN CD36-DEFICIENT MICE DURING FASTING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietka, T. A.; Sulkin, M.S.; Kuda, Ondřej; Wang, W.; Zhou, D.; Yamada, K. A.; Yang, K.; Su, X.; Gross, R. W.; Nerbonne, J. M.; Efimov, I. R.; Abumrad, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 46 (2012), s. 38901-38912 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : calcium * cyclic AMP (cAMP) * heart * phospholipid * phospholipid metabolism * polyunsaturated fatty acids * CD36 deficiency * SERCA2a * sudden death Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  15. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  16. Age-related changes in mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M A; Woda, A; Bourdiol, P; Hennequin, M

    2017-04-01

    The paper reviews human mastication, focusing on its age-related changes. The first part describes mastication adaptation in young healthy individuals. Adaptation to obtain a food bolus ready to be swallowed relies on variations in number of cycles, muscle strength and volume of emitted saliva. As a result, the food bolus displays granulometric and rheological properties, the values of which are maintained within the adaptive range of deglutition. The second part concerns healthy ageing. Some mastication parameters are slightly modified by age, but ageing itself does not impair mastication, as the adaptation possibilities remain operant. The third part reports on very aged subjects, who display frequent systemic or local diseases. Local and/or general diseases such as tooth loss, salivary defect, or motor impairment are then indistinguishably superimposed on the effects of very old age. The resulting impaired function increases the risk of aspiration and choking. Lastly, the consequences for eating behaviour and nutrition are evoked. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Radiation therapy: age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Carlos A Medina; Ehlers, Justis P

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe irreversible vision loss in patients over the age of 50 years in the developed world. Neovascular AMD (NVAMD) is responsible for 90% of the cases with severe visual loss. In the last decade, the treatment paradigm for NVAMD has been transformed by the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Despite the excellent results of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, frequent injections remain a necessity for most patients. The burden of these frequent visits as well as the cumulative risks of indefinite intravitreal injections demand continued pursuit of more enduring therapy that provides similar functional results. Radiotherapy has been studied for two decades as a potential therapy for NVAMD. Because of its antiangiogenic properties, radiation therapy remains a promising potential adjunctive resource for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to NVAMD. This review considers the past, present and future of radiation as a treatment or combination treatment of NVAMD. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripp, Stephan; Stammen, Johannes; Petersen, Claudia; Hartmann, Axel; Willers, Reinhart; Althaus, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the benefit from radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration in a single-arm longitudinal study. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 1998, 39 patients with occult and 33 patients with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were irradiated with 16 Gy. Fluorescein angiography and measurements of visual acuity were performed before and 3, 6, and 12 months after irradiation. Results: Complete follow-up data for 1 year were available from 69 patients. The mean patient age was 72 years (range 49-92). Vision decreased in 43, was stable in 18, and improved in 8 cases. The mean vision deteriorated significantly (p=0.02, Wilcoxon test), particularly within the first 3 months. Patients with occult CNV did significantly better than did those with classic CNV (p=0.03). The proportion of patients retaining vision ≥0.2 fell from 65% to 42% (p <0.01), for classic and occult CNV from 50% to 23%, and for occult CNV from 77% to 56% (p<0.02), respectively. CNV size increased in 30 patients and was stable in 38. Neither age (p=0.17) nor gender (p=0.21, chi-square test) influenced prognosis. Four patients reported transitional complaints. Conclusion: Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy with 16 Gy is well tolerated. However, vision and reading ability were not preserved in most patients

  19. Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Tang, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    Aging is a natural consequence of a society developing process. Although many adults retain good hearing as they aging, hearing loss related with age-presbycusis which can vary in severity from mild to substantial is common among elderly persons. There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age-related changes in the auditory system as well as in the central nervous systems. Many studies have been dedicated to the illustration of risk factors accumulating presbycusis such as heritability, environment factors, medical conditions, free radical (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA. Left untreated, presbycusis can not only lead sufferers to reduced quality of life, isolation, dependence and frustration, but also affect the healthy people around. These can be partly corrected using hearing aids, but it is not enough, more and more strategies of treatment based on the findings associating with presbycusis should be added rather than using single hearing aids. We review here the pathophysiology; heritability, susceptibility genes and other risk factors including environmental, medical, especially free radical (ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA; and some strategies of treatment, as well as promising rehabilitations associating with presbycusis.

  20. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  1. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  2. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p corrupted with spillover.

  3. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  4. Statins for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2015-02-11

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the included studies. Two RCTs with 144 total participants met the selection criteria

  5. Comparison of CYP2D metabolism and hepatotoxicity of the myocardial metabolic agent perhexiline in Sprague-Dawley and Dark Agouti rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, Giovanni; Somogyi, Andrew A; Milne, Robert W; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2015-01-01

    1. Perhexiline, a chiral anti-anginal agent, may be useful to develop new cardiovascular therapies, despite its potential hepatotoxicity. 2. This study compared Dark Agouti (DA) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, as models of perhexiline's metabolism and hepatotoxicity in humans. Rats (n = 4/group) received vehicle or 200 mg/kg/d of racemic perhexiline maleate for 8 weeks. Plasma and liver samples were collected to determine concentrations of perhexiline and its metabolites, hepatic function and histology. 3. Median (range) plasma and liver perhexiline concentrations in SD rats were 0.09 (0.04-0.13) mg/L and 5.42 (0.92-8.22) ng/mg, respectively. In comparison, DA rats showed higher (p < 0.05) plasma 0.50 (0.16-1.13) mg/L and liver 24.5 (9.40-54.7) ng/mg perhexiline concentrations, respectively, 2.5- and 3.7-fold higher cis-OH-perhexiline concentrations, respectively (p < 0.05), and lower plasma metabolic ratio (0.89 versus 1.55, p < 0.05). In both strains, the (+):(-) enantiomer ratio was 2:1. Perhexiline increased plasma LDH concentrations in DA rats (p < 0.05), but had no effect on plasma biochemistry in SD rats. Liver histology revealed lower glycogen content in perhexiline-treated SD rats (p < 0.05), but no effects on lipid content in either strain. 4. DA rats appeared more similar to humans with respect to plasma perhexiline concentrations, metabolic ratio, enantioselective disposition and biochemical changes suggestive of perhexiline-induced toxicity.

  6. Effects of catecholamines on rat myocardial metabolism. I. Influence of catecholamines on energy-rich nucleotides and phosphorylated fraction contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouze, P; Gaudemer, Y

    1975-01-01

    1. The influence of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) on energy metabolism of the rat myocardium has been studied by incubating slices of this tissue with these hormones and by following the levels of the different phosphorylated fractions and adenylic nucleotides. 2. Similar effects are obtained with both hormones, adrenaline being more effective. 3. Catecholamines decrease significantly the total amount of phosphate while Pi content increases during the first 10 minutes of incubation; labile and residual phosphate contents increase at the beginning of incubation and decrease to the initial values afterwards. 4. ATP and ADP levels decrease significantly with both hormones; however, the effect of noradrenalin on the ATP level needs a longer time of incubation. The ATP/ADP ratios decrease after 5 minutes incubation and the total adenylic nucleotide content is severely decreased (35 per cent with adrenalin, after 20 minutes incubation). 5. Similar results have been obtained with other tissues; these results can explain the decrease of aerobic metabolism we observed under the same conditions.

  7. Myocardial metabolism of 123I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Nohara, Ryuji; Hirai, Taku; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    123 I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of 123 I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48±19% vs 66±14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73±13% vs 85±8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0±20.0% to 15.8±9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3±21.9% to 71.3±10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight into the pathophysiology of

  8. Myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nohara, Ryuji [The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Hirai, Taku [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Nara Hospital, Nara (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Fukui Medical University, Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 123}I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48{+-}19% vs 66{+-}14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73{+-}13% vs 85{+-}8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0{+-}20.0% to 15.8{+-}9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3{+-}21.9% to 71.3{+-}10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight

  9. Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS ) in evaluation of myocardial metabolism. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, M.; Walecki, J.; Michalak, E.; Bilinska, Z.; Ruzyllo, W.

    2002-01-01

    Primary dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of unknown etiology and it leads to serious cardiac insufficiency. Abnormalities in cardiac metabolism can play an important role in clinical manifestation and prognosis in this group. The aim of this study was an attempt to assess cardiac metabolism using proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance method (1H MRS) and to find a relationship between cardiac metabolites and functional class NYHA and left ventricular function parameters obtained by echocardiography. Proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance was performed in 15 patients with angiographically documented idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 12 healthy volunteers with voxel localized at interventricular septum area. The contents of total creatine (CR) e.g. creatine+phosphocreatine, lipids (LIP) lactates (LAC) and their ratios (CR1A, CR2A, CR1/H20, CR2/H20, CR2/CR1, LIPA, LIP/H20, LIP/CR1, LACA, LAC/H20, LAC/CR1) were examined. Patents with dilated cardiomyopathy had significantly lower level of creatine CR1A (5.04I0.88 vs. 5.94I1.15, p<0.02) and ratios LIP/H20 (4.34I2.3 vs. 15.46I20.39, p<0.04) and LIP/CR1 (24.49I21.26 vs. 34.08I13.36, p<0.05) compared to healthy volunteers. Significant correlations between NYHA functional class and ratios CR2/CR1, CR2/H20 (r=0.59 p<0.038, r=0.59 p<0.02) and between %EFLV and LIP/CR1 (r=0.64, p<0.036), as well as between the duration of the disease (CTCH) and LIP/CR1 (r=0.67, p<0.046) were found. Preliminary study with proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance (1H MRS) showed impairment cardiac metabolism in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. A tendency to lowered values of creatine, lipids and some ratios of these metabolites were observed in dilated cardiomyopathy group compared to healthy subjects. Our results needs further study. (author)

  10. Visible Age-Related Signs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2014-01-01

    developed MI. Presence of frontoparietal baldness, crown top baldness, earlobe crease, and xanthelasmata was associated with increased risk of IHD or MI after multifactorial adjustment for chronological age and well-known cardiovascular risk factors. The risk of IHD and MI increased stepwise with increasing...... risk of IHD and MI increased with increasing number of visible age-related signs. CONCLUSIONS: Male pattern baldness, earlobe crease, and xanthelasmata-alone or in combination-associate with increased risk of ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction independent of chronological age and other...

  11. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, M.; Vinciguerra, M.; Daghighi, M.; Ozcan, B.; Akbarkhanzadeh, V.; Sheedfar, F.; Amini, M.; Mazza, T.; Pazienza, V.; Motazacker, M.M.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rooij, F.W. De; Sijbrands, E.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and

  13. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Oezcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W. M.; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and

  14. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rahimi (Mehran); M. Vinciguerra (Manlio); M. Daghighi (Mojtaba); B. Özcan (Behiye); V. Akbarkhanzadeh (Vishtaseb); F. Sheedfar (Fareeba); M. Amini (Marzyeh); T. Mazza (Tommaso); V. Pazienza (Valerio); M.M. Motazacker (Mohammad); T. Mahmoudi (Tokameh); F.W.M. de Rooij (Felix); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue

  15. Metabolomics Study of Resina Draconis on Myocardial Ischemia Rats Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Pattern Recognition Methods and Metabolic Pathway Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resina draconis (bright red resin isolated from Dracaena cochinchinensis, RD has been clinically used for treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI for many years. However, the mechanisms of its pharmacological action on MI are still poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma metabolic profiles of MI and investigate the mechanisms of RD on MI using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics combined with pattern recognition methods and metabolic pathway analysis. Twenty metabolite markers characterizing metabolic profile of MI were revealed, which were mainly involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, and so forth. After RD treatment, however, levels of seven MI metabolite markers, including phytosphingosine, sphinganine, acetylcarnitine, cGMP, cAMP, L-tyrosine, and L-valine, were turned over, indicating that RD is likely to alleviate MI through regulating the disturbed vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and BCAA metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the mechanisms of RD for treating MI, from a metabolomics point of view. Our findings are very valuable to gain a better understanding of MI metabolic profiles and provide novel insights for exploring the mechanisms of RD on MI.

  16. Detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment by I-123 {beta}-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go [Nishiyodo Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Chiba, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1997-08-01

    The subjects consisted of 6 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 2 each with refractory pulmonary tuberculosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary embolism, 1 each with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (Eisenmenger complex), Ebstein anomaly, and endocardial defect, and 7 healthy controls. SPECT imaging with Tl-201 (Tl) and I-123 BMIPP, and Tc-99m RBC first pass and gated blood pool scintigraphy were performed. Based on Tl planar images, the subjects were classified into 3 groups: 7 patients with no RV visualization (Group A), 11 with moderate RV visualization (Group B) and 9 with marked RV visualization (Group C). As a semi-quantitative evaluation by a myocardial SPECT, 3 regions in 3 representative short axial images were divided into 9 segments, each of which was graded from 0 to +3, and their sum was calculated as the RV score. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and the left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained by Tc-99m RBC cardiac scintigraphy. The groups with marked visualization of the right ventricle had lower RVEF, and there was a good correlation between the RVEF and the RV score with both a and BMIPP. Although a good correlation was demonstrated between the RV score with Tl and BMIPP in Groups A and B, in Group C, in which there was marked RV Tl visualization, the RV score with BMIPP was significantly smaller than with Tl. These findings suggest that impaired fatty acid metabolism may exist in severely hypertrophic right ventricle due to RV overload. (K.H.)

  17. Detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism in right ventricular hypertrophy. Assessment by I-123 β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ih; Goto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Go; Chiba, Hiroshi; Okada, Tomoya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko.

    1997-01-01

    The subjects consisted of 6 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 2 each with refractory pulmonary tuberculosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary embolism, 1 each with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (Eisenmenger complex), Ebstein anomaly, and endocardial defect, and 7 healthy controls. SPECT imaging with Tl-201 (Tl) and I-123 BMIPP, and Tc-99m RBC first pass and gated blood pool scintigraphy were performed. Based on Tl planar images, the subjects were classified into 3 groups: 7 patients with no RV visualization (Group A), 11 with moderate RV visualization (Group B) and 9 with marked RV visualization (Group C). As a semi-quantitative evaluation by a myocardial SPECT, 3 regions in 3 representative short axial images were divided into 9 segments, each of which was graded from 0 to +3, and their sum was calculated as the RV score. The right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF and the left ventricular ejection fraction were obtained by Tc-99m RBC cardiac scintigraphy. The groups with marked visualization of the right ventricle had lower RVEF, and there was a good correlation between the RVEF and the RV score with both a and BMIPP. Although a good correlation was demonstrated between the RV score with Tl and BMIPP in Groups A and B, in Group C, in which there was marked RV Tl visualization, the RV score with BMIPP was significantly smaller than with Tl. These findings suggest that impaired fatty acid metabolism may exist in severely hypertrophic right ventricle due to RV overload. (K.H.)

  18. A comparison of extension and severity of perfusion, glucose metabolism and wall motion abnormalities in recent myocardial infarction on patients with and without revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.; Massardo, T.; Coll, C.; Redondo, F.; Jofre, J.; Redondo, F.; Sierralta, P.; Humeres, P.; Yovanovich, J.; Chamorro, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To compare the extension and severity in perfusion, glucose metabolism and contractility abnormalities in recent myocardial infarction, assessed by different imaging modalities, and to evaluate these functional parameters in patients with and without revascularization (REV). Materials and methods: We assessed 49 patients with a first MI (58 ±12 years; 82 % males) using 1) [Tl201] rest SPECT, 2) [Tl201] redistribution (red) SPECT, 3) [F18]FDG SPECT and 4) 2D echocardiograms at a mean of 9.2 days, range: 1-24; 29 (59%) patients had been REV by means of PTCA or CABG and 20 (41%) underwent only medical therapy. All had angiogram. Images were analyzed blindly, employing the same polar map which included 17 segments in the four sets of studies. Both, the number of segments involved and their severity (normal, mild, moderate or markedly abnormal) using a semiquantitative score from 1 to 4 were tabulated. Results: In the total group (n=833 segments), the abnormal segments in echo were 302 (36%), in Tl rest 231 (28%), in Tl red 223 (26%) and in FDG 202 (24%), (p<0.001 echo vs all other). Regarding severity score, the median (s.d.) values were: 2.6 (0.5); 2.9 (0.9); 2.8 (1.2) and 2.9 (1.2), respectively (p<0.01 echo vs all other). In REV patients (n=493), the lesion size was 154 segments (31%), 116 (23%), 112 (23%) and 100 (20%), respectively. In those without REV (n=340) the number of abnormal segments were 148 (44%), 115 (34%), 111 (33%) and 102 (30%) respectively (p<0.004, REV vs no REV). McNemar, Student t tests were used in the comparisons. Conclusion: In recent MI, echo abnormalities were bigger in size (up to 13%) than the perfusion and metabolic defects, but less severe (down to 10%) compared to radionuclide procedures, possibly due to stunning. Non REV patients presented with greater extension (up to 11%) and more severity (up to 22%) than REV ones in any of the imaging modalities, explained by therapy effect. Both, echo and radionuclide techniques appear

  19. A comparison of extension and severity of perfusion, glucose metabolism and wall motion abnormalities in recent myocardial infarction on patients with and without revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of Chile Clinical Hospital (Chile); Department of Nuclear Medicine of Santa Maria Clinic (Chile); Massardo, T; Coll, C; Redondo, F; Jofre, J; Sierralta, P [Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of Chile Clinical Hospital (Chile); Humeres, P [Department of Nuclear Medicine of Santa Maria Clinic (Chile); Yovanovich, J [Cardiovascular Center of the University of Chile Clinical Hospital (Chile); Chamorro, H [Cardiovascular Center of Santa Maria Clinic, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    Aim: To compare the extension and severity in perfusion, glucose metabolism and contractility abnormalities in recent myocardial infarction, assessed by different imaging modalities, and to evaluate these functional parameters in patients with and without revascularization (REV). Materials and methods: We assessed 49 patients with a first MI (58 {+-}12 years; 82 % males) using 1) [Tl201] rest SPECT, 2) [Tl201] redistribution (red) SPECT, 3) [F18]FDG SPECT and 4) 2D echocardiograms at a mean of 9.2 days, range: 1-24; 29 (59%) patients had been REV by means of PTCA or CABG and 20 (41%) underwent only medical therapy. All had angiogram. Images were analyzed blindly, employing the same polar map which included 17 segments in the four sets of studies. Both, the number of segments involved and their severity (normal, mild, moderate or markedly abnormal) using a semiquantitative score from 1 to 4 were tabulated. Results: In the total group (n=833 segments), the abnormal segments in echo were 302 (36%), in Tl rest 231 (28%), in Tl red 223 (26%) and in FDG 202 (24%), (p<0.001 echo vs all other). Regarding severity score, the median (s.d.) values were: 2.6 (0.5); 2.9 (0.9); 2.8 (1.2) and 2.9 (1.2), respectively (p<0.01 echo vs all other). In REV patients (n=493), the lesion size was 154 segments (31%), 116 (23%), 112 (23%) and 100 (20%), respectively. In those without REV (n=340) the number of abnormal segments were 148 (44%), 115 (34%), 111 (33%) and 102 (30%) respectively (p<0.004, REV vs no REV). McNemar, Student t tests were used in the comparisons. Conclusion: In recent MI, echo abnormalities were bigger in size (up to 13%) than the perfusion and metabolic defects, but less severe (down to 10%) compared to radionuclide procedures, possibly due to stunning. Non REV patients presented with greater extension (up to 11%) and more severity (up to 22%) than REV ones in any of the imaging modalities, explained by therapy effect. Both, echo and radionuclide techniques appear

  20. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  1. Myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Jyoji; Yasuda, Hisakazu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy and 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy were utilized for the diagnoses of the presence, the region, and the extent of myocardial infarction. Exercise 201 Tl myocardial scintigrams and exercise radionuclide ventriculography were utilized for diagnosis of coronary artery lesions in angina pectoris. Radionuclide ventriculography was used to investigate effects of coronary artery lesions on cardiac function and hemodynamics. In order to select adequate treatments for myocardial infarction and estimate the prognosis, it was necessary to detect the presence, the region, and the extent of acute myocardial infarction and to investigate effects of partial infarction on hemodynamics by using radionuclide imaging. Exercise myocardial scintigraphy could be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly for diagnosis of coronal artery disease. Therefore, this method could be applied widely. It was possible to use this method as a screening test of coronary artery diseases for the diagnoses of asymptomatic patients who showed ST changes in ECG, the patients with cardiac neurosis and the patency after a reconstructive surgery of coronary artery. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  3. Myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1982-01-01

    Among the various methods of image diagnosis of the cardiovascular disorder, nuclear cardiology provides noninvasive means for evaluation of myocardial perfusion as well as morphological and functional informations. In this article, clinical application and image diagnosis of myocardial scintigraphy including Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography with Tl-201, acute myocardial infarction scintigraphy with Tc-99m-pyrophosphate and Ga-67 imaging of the heart, were discussed. Multiplanar imaging of the heart with Tl-201 after stress and at redistribution was the accepted method for detection and evaluation of the ischemic heart disease. Although it achieved high sensitivity and specificity for ischemic heart disease, detection of the small ischemia and quantation of the regional Tl-201 accumulation were difficult with conventional multiplanar imaging. Application of emission computed tomography improved detectability and quantitativity of the ischemia. However, 7-pinhole tomography did not increase the diagnostic accuracy significantly. It had limited clinical applicability due to poor quantitativity in spite of improved image contrast and its tomographic nature. Advantage and limitation of these tomographic imaging and multiplanar imaging were discussed. Problems and prognostic significance of pyrophosphate imaging of the acute myocardial infarction were also discussed. Visualization of the heart with Ga-67 was helpful for identification of the tumor or inflammation of the heart as well as evaluation of the effect of the therapy. (author)

  4.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  5. Age-Related Maculopathy: a biochemical and immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAge-related maculopathy (ARM) is an age-related degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, the macula lutea (yellow spot). Essentially, ARM is a clinical diagnosis based on funduscopical changes. It is customary nowadays to call the late stages of ARM, geographic atrophy

  6. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  7. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  8. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  9. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  10. Myocardial scintigraphy: methods and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy comprises perfusion imaging using TI-201 or - more recently - Tc-99m-labeled compounds with high affinity to myocytes. Imaging with these agents has become an important procedure in the detection of coronary artery disease, particularly in patients with non-diagnostic stress-ECG, in the functional evaluation of coronary stenoses after angiographical documentation in order to meet the adequate therapy decision, in therapy monitoring and follow-up, in the post infarction assessment of myocardial viability and differentiation between severe ischemia and scar and, occasionally, in acute ischemia. The use of positron emitters does not offer significant advantages for mere perfusion imaging, but is indispensable for the scintigraphic investigation of certain aspects of myocardial metabolism, particularly for the differentiation of viable ischemic wall segments from irreversibly damaged tissue. Imaging of myocardial necrosis has been improved by the introduction of labeled antimyosin antibody fragments and offers a considerable clinical potential in the diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiac transplant rejection. Neurohumoral aspects are increasingly involved in our understanding of myocardial failure. Scintigraphy of innervation/neurotransmission contributes to the investigation of pathophysiological alterations in myocardial insufficiency and in heart transplants. (orig.) [de

  11. The Age-Related Changes in Cartilage and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongPing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is closely associated with aging, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent publications were reviewed to elucidate the connection between aging and OA. With increasing OA incidence, more senior people are facing heavy financial and social burdens. Age-related OA pathogenesis is not well understood. Recently, it has been realized that age-related changes in other tissues besides articular cartilage may also contribute to OA development. Many factors including senescence-related secretory phenotypes, chondrocytes’ low reactivity to growth factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs may all play key roles in the pathogenesis of age-related OA. Lately, epigenetic regulation of gene expression was recognized for its impact on age-related OA pathogenesis. Up to now, few studies have been reported about the role of miRNA and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA in age-related OA. Research focusing on this area may provide valuable insights into OA pathogenesis. OA-induced financial and social burdens have become an increasingly severe threat to older population. Age-related changes in noncartilage tissue should be incorporated in the understanding of OA development. Growing attention on oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide more important clues for the better understanding of the age-related OA.

  12. Impacts of age-related failures on nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Krantz, E.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging-related failure data from nine light water reactor safety, support, and power conversion systems have been extracted from an operational data base. Systems and components within the systems that are most affected by aging are identified. In addition, information on aging-related root causes of component failures has been extracted for service water and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. Engineering insights are presented, and preliminary quantification of the importance of aging-related root causes for a service water system is provided

  13. [Current concepts in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of central blindness in elderly population of the western world. The pathogenesis of this disease, likely multifactorial, is not well known, although a number of theories have been put forward, including oxidative stress, genetic interactions, hemodynamic imbalance, immune and inflammatory processes. The understanding of age-related macular degeneration pathogenesis will give rise to new approaches in prevention and treatment of the early and late stages of both atrophic and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  14. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangshao; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry

    2006-12-01

    Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an event of global myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, which is associated with severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and fatal outcome. Evidence has demonstrated that mammalian hibernation is triggered by cyclic variation of a delta-opiate-like compound in endogenous serum, during which the myocardial metabolism is dramatically reduced and the myocardium tolerates the stress of ischemia and reperfusion without overt ischemic and reperfusion injury. Previous investigations also proved that the delta-opioid agonist elicited the cardioprotection in a model of regional ischemic intact heart or myocyte. Accordingly, we were prompted to search for an alternative intervention of pharmacologically induced myocardial hibernation that would result in rapid reductions of myocardial metabolism and therefore minimize the myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prospective, controlled laboratory study. University-affiliated research laboratory. In the series of studies performed in the established rat and pig model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the delta-opioid receptor agonist, pentazocine, was administered during ventricular fibrillation. : The myocardial metabolism reflected by the concentration of lactate, or myocardial tissue PCO2 and PO2, is dramatically reduced during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These are associated with less severe postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction and longer duration of postresuscitation survival. delta-Opioid-induced pharmacologic myocardial hibernation is an option to minimize the myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  15. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  16. Review Article Therapeutic Potential of Statins in Age-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-09

    Aug 9, 2011 ... Keywords: Age-related macular, Non-invasive treatment, Pleiotropic effects, Prevention, Statins. Received 14 June ... two types: non-exudative or “dry', characterised by .... Dam Eye Study in Wisconsin, statin use at the 10-.

  17. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  19. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  20. Glucose and age-related changes in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    Epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, enhances memory in young rats and mice and apparently does so, at least in part, by increasing blood glucose levels. Like epinephrine, administration of glucose enhances cognitive functions in humans and rodents, including reversing age-related impairments in learning and memory. Epinephrine responses to training are increased in aged rats but the subsequent increase in blood glucose levels is severely blunted. The absence of increases in blood glucose levels during training might contribute to age-related deficits in learning and memory. Also, extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus are depleted during spontaneous alternation testing to a far greater extent in aged than in young rats. Importantly, systemic injections of glucose block the depletion in the hippocampus and also enhance performance on the alternation task. Thus, the extensive depletion of extracellular glucose during training in aged rats may be associated with age-related memory impairments, an effect that might be related to - or may exacerbate - the effects on learning and memory of an absence of the increases in blood glucose levels to training as seen in young rats. Together, these findings suggest that age-related changes in both peripheral and central glucose physiology contribute to age-related impairments in memory.

  1. Validation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled '4+1' fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtschink, Peter [Institute of Physiology, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: peter_mirtschink@web.de; Stehr, Sebastian N. [Department of Anesthesiology, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Walther, Martin; Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Hans-Juergen [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Weichsel, Johannes; Pexa, Annette; Dieterich, Peter [Institute of Physiology, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Wunderlich, Gerd [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Binas, Bert [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kropp, Joachim [Department of Nuclear Medicine Carl-Thiem Hospital Cottbus, 03048 Cottbus (Germany); Deussen, Andreas [Institute of Physiology, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: {sup 13}C, {sup 18}F and {sup 123}I fatty acids (FA) are used for myocardial imaging. Recently, our group showed that [{sup 99m}Tc]-labeled '4+1' FA are extracted into the rat and guinea pig myocardium. The present study evaluates determinants of myocardial uptake and whole body biodistribution of these FA derivatives. Methods: Studies were performed with isolated perfused hearts of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with a FAT/CD36 deficiency, as well as with heart type FA binding protein knockout mice (H-FABP){sup -/-} and H-FABP{sup +/+}. Eight 4+1-{sup 99m}Tc-FA were applied for 3 min followed by 1-min washout. A mathematical model was used to analyze FA dynamics and binding to proteins. Whole-body distribution was studied in rats with and without Tween 80. In vitro fractionation studies with [{sup 99m}Tc]-FA assessed red blood cell uptake as well as association with plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: Myocardial extraction was 19.0-33.0% of the infused dose in isolated WKY and 15.2-26.4% in SHR hearts. However, H-FABP{sup -/-} showed a marked reduction of tracer extraction [2.8{+-}0.6%ID (percent injected dose) vs. 17{+-}2%ID P<.001]. Uptake in red blood cells (<1.2%ID) and incorporation into lipoproteins were negligible. Incubation of {sup 99m}Tc-FA with albumin reduced ventricular extraction (P<.001) into the range of established iodinated FA tracers. polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monooleate improved the heart-to-liver ratio in the biodistribution studies. Conclusions: Myocardial uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]-FA 4+1 derivatives is dependent on H-FABP. These substances may therefore provide a new tool to specifically assess regional myocardial changes of H-FABP.

  2. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  3. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Rutger W.; Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Lubberink, Mark; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; de Roos, Albert; Kamp, Otto; Paulus, Walter J.; Heine, Robert J.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac disease is the leading cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone has been associated with improved cardiac outcome but also with an elevated risk of heart failure. We determined the effects of pioglitazone on myocardial function in relation to cardiac high-energy

  4. CD38 Dictates Age-Related NAD Decline and Mitochondrial Dysfunction through an SIRT3-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Pereira, Juliana; Tarragó, Mariana G; Chini, Claudia C S; Nin, Veronica; Escande, Carlos; Warner, Gina M; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Schoon, Renee A; Reid, Joel M; Galina, Antonio; Chini, Eduardo N

    2016-06-14

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decrease during aging and are involved in age-related metabolic decline. To date, the mechanism responsible for the age-related reduction in NAD has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that expression and activity of the NADase CD38 increase with aging and that CD38 is required for the age-related NAD decline and mitochondrial dysfunction via a pathway mediated at least in part by regulation of SIRT3 activity. We also identified CD38 as the main enzyme involved in the degradation of the NAD precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) in vivo, indicating that CD38 has a key role in the modulation of NAD-replacement therapy for aging and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of myocardial fatty acid metabolism with left ventricular function and perfusion in cardiomyopathies. By 123I-BMIPP SPECT and 99mTc-tetrofosmin electrocardiographically gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chunlei; Shuke, Noriyuki; Okizaki, Atsutaka

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate myocardial fatty acid metabolism and its relationship with left ventricular (LV) function and perfusion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Thirty-nine patients with cardiomyopathies (58±14 y), comprising 15 DCM and 24 HCM, and 9 age-matched healthy controls were studied with 123 I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) electrocardiographically gated SPECT. As parameters of myocardial fatty acid metabolism, the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and global washout of BMIPP were calculated from early and delayed planar images, while regional BMIPP uptake and washout were calculated from SPECT. In TF study, the H/M (H/M-TF) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated as global parameters of perfusion and function, while regional TF uptake and wall thickening index were calculated as regional parameters of perfusion and function using the Quantitative Gated SPECT software. The differences in the parameters and the correlations between the parameters from the 2 studies were investigated by one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis. BMIPP uptake was decreased (p 0.05), but showed a significant correlation with H/M-TF (p 0.05) but had a significant correlation with regional perfusion (p<0.0001) in DCM. In HCM, regional BMIPP parameters showed significant multiple linear correlations with both regional function (p<0.005) and perfusion (p<0.0001). According to the partial correlation coefficients, delayed regional BMIPP uptake was the most significant factor for predicting regional function in HCM, while early regional BMIPP uptake was the only or the most significant factor for predicting regional perfusion in DCM and HCM, respectively. In DCM, BMIPP uptake and washout could not reflect LV function. In HCM, regional delayed BMIPP uptake might be useful for evaluating regional function. In DCM and HCM, early BMIPP uptake might be

  6. Genetics Home Reference: age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life. Because affected individuals have trouble understanding speech, the condition affects their ability to communicate. It can contribute to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Age-related hearing loss also causes safety issues if individuals become ...

  7. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  8. Age-related maculopathy: A genetic and epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the 19th century, age-related maculopathy (ARM) was described for the first time as an agerelated abnormality of the macula lutea. ARM consists of a variety of clinical signs, from the early stages with soft distinct drusen, indistinct drusen and pigment alterations up to the late

  9. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, Johanna M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G.; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Foster, Paul J.; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Ajana, Soufiane; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Arndt, Verena; Bhatia, Vaibhav; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Biarnés, Marc; Borrell, Anna; Bühren, Sebastian; Calado, Sofia M.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dammeier, Sascha; de Jong, Eiko K.; de la Cerda, Berta; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Diether, Sigrid; Emri, Eszter; Endermann, Tanja; Ferraro, Lucia L.; Garcia, Míriam; Heesterbeek, Thomas J.; Honisch, Sabina; Bergen, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in

  11. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  12. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Context: Age-related bone loss is associated with progressive changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption. Both trabecular and periosteal bone formation decline with age in both sexes, which contributes to bone fragility and increased risk of f...

  13. Age-related differences in muscular capacity among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the age-related changes in muscular capacity in a working population, and to investigate whether these changes are dependent on sports participation. Methods: Data were used from the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress and health (n = 1,800). At

  14. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  15. Age-related macular degeneration in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, pattern and ocular morbidity associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case files of all new patients aged 50 years and above seen between January 1997 and December 2004 were reviewed.

  16. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  17. Age Related Variations in The Architecture of Caprine Haemal Nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age related variations in the architecture of caprine haemal nodes were studied in West African dwarf goats aged between 1-24 months. Variations were observed in the thickness of the capsule, the content and organization of the cortical and medullary parenchyma as well as the stroma. In young goats age between 1-4 ...

  18. Gene-diet interactions in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50% of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation...

  19. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD...

  20. Ranibizumab vs. aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Hedegaard, Morten; Chan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although a reduced aflibercept (2.0 mg) injection frequency relative to the approved dosing posology is included in national treatment guidelines for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is limited evidence of its comparative efficacy. The objective was to compare...

  1. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  2. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  3. Impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress contributes to aging-related ischemic intolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Gu

    Full Text Available Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo and aged (22-24 mo mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator (all P<0.05. However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05. The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1(+/- knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1(+/- hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance.

  4. Food for thought: the role of appetitive peptides in age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Jim R; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Reagan, Lawrence P

    2013-06-01

    Through their well described actions in the hypothalamus, appetitive peptides such as insulin, orexin and leptin are recognized as important regulators of food intake, body weight and body composition. Beyond these metabolic activities, these peptides also are critically involved in a wide variety of activities ranging from modulation of immune and neuroendocrine function to addictive behaviors and reproduction. The neurological activities of insulin, orexin and leptin also include facilitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and enhancement of cognitive performance. While patients with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes have greater risk of developing cognitive deficits, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for, or contribute to, age-related cognitive decline are poorly understood. In view of the importance of these peptides in metabolic disorders, it is not surprising that there is a greater focus on their potential role in cognitive deficits associated with aging. The goal of this review is to describe the evidence from clinical and pre-clinical studies implicating insulin, orexin and leptin in the etiology and progression of age-related cognitive decline. Collectively, these studies support the hypothesis that leptin and insulin resistance, concepts normally associated with the hypothalamus, are also applicable to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  6. Lipids, lipid genes, and incident age-related macular degeneration: the three continent age-related macular degeneration consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analysis. setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES),

  7. Coronary artery angioplasty for treatment of peri-operative myocardial ischaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obal, D.; Kindgen-Milles, D.; Schoebel, F.; Schlack, W.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of elderly patients with severe co-existing medical diseases undergo major surgery. With these patients there is also an accompanying risk of age-related cardiovascular complications such as life-threatening myocardial ischaemia. We present a patient who suffered a myocardial

  8. Radioiodinated tracers for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.V.; Corbett, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficient production of high purity radioiodine (123I) and new efficient radiolabeling techniques have allowed the development of new classes of cardiovascular radiopharmaceuticals. These include 123I-labeled fatty acids to assess myocardial metabolism, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for myocardial neuronal activity, labeled monoclonal antibodies for myocardial necrosis, and labeled lipoproteins for receptor concentration. 123I-labeled fatty acids and MIBG are under clinical investigation with encouraging results. 123I- and 111In-labeled fragments of monoclonal antibodies to myosin have been used for imaging myocardial necrosis in humans. The development of radiotracers for imaging of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors is still in the experimental stage. Recent advances in imaging instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals have resulted in cardiac imaging applications beyond blood pool ventriculography, perfusion, and infarct-avid imaging. Developments of radioiodine (123I)-labeled agents promise to play an important role in the assessment of myocardial metabolism, neuronal activity, and receptor concentration. The chemistry of iodine is well defined compared with that of 99mTc; therefore, iodine isotopes are well suited for labeling biologically important molecules. Among the iodine isotopes, 123I has nearly ideal nuclear properties for nuclear medical applications with a 13.3-hour half-life (T1/2) and 159 keV gamma emission (83%). Despite the nearly ideal chemical and nuclear properties of 123I, the widespread application of 123I-based radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice has been limited by high production costs (123I is produced in a cyclotron), relatively limited availability, and the presence of undesirable radionuclidic impurities (124I, T1/2 = 4.2 days; 125I, T1/2 = 60 days; 126I, T1/2 = 13.1 days). 77 references

  9. A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva Olga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the worldwide population means there is a growing need for research on the biology of ageing. DNA damage is likely a key contributor to the ageing process and elucidating the role of different DNA repair systems in ageing is of great interest. In this paper we propose a data mining approach, based on classification methods (decision trees and Naive Bayes, for analysing data about human DNA repair genes. The goal is to build classification models that allow us to discriminate between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes, in order to better understand their different properties. Results The main patterns discovered by the classification methods are as follows: (a the number of protein-protein interactions was a predictor of DNA repair proteins being ageing-related; (b the use of predictor attributes based on protein-protein interactions considerably increased predictive accuracy of attributes based on Gene Ontology (GO annotations; (c GO terms related to "response to stimulus" seem reasonably good predictors of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; (d interaction with the XRCC5 (Ku80 protein is a strong predictor of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; and (e DNA repair genes with a high expression in T lymphocytes are more likely to be ageing-related. Conclusions The above patterns are broadly integrated in an analysis discussing relations between Ku, the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, ageing and lymphocyte development. These patterns and their analysis support non-homologous end joining double strand break repair as central to the ageing-relatedness of DNA repair genes. Our work also showcases the use of protein interaction partners to improve accuracy in data mining methods and our approach could be applied to other ageing-related pathways.

  10. Age-Related Neurodegeneration and Memory Loss in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Lockrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a condition where a complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy causes variable intellectual disability, and progressive memory loss and neurodegeneration with age. Many research groups have examined development of the brain in DS individuals, but studies on age-related changes should also be considered, with the increased lifespan observed in DS. DS leads to pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD by 40 or 50 years of age. Progressive age-related memory deficits occurring in both AD and in DS have been connected to degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Inflammation and oxidative stress are early events in DS pathology, and focusing on these pathways may lead to development of successful intervention strategies for AD associated with DS. Here we discuss recent findings and potential treatment avenues regarding development of AD neuropathology and memory loss in DS.

  11. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  12. Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Tranquilli Leali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old and aged (26- month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.

  13. Reviewing fluid systems for age-related degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company has developed the component degradation assessment tool (CoDAT), an expert system, that aids in handling and evaluating the large amounts of data required to support the license renewal process for nuclear power station fluid systems. In 1990, CoDAT evaluated the Yankee Nuclear Power Station fluid systems for age-related degradation. Its results are now being used to help focus the plant's maintenance programs and manage the expected degradation. CoDAT uses 'If-Then' rules, developed from industry codes, standards and publications, to determine the potential for 19 age-related degradation mechanisms. Other nuclear utilities pursuing the license renewal option also could use CoDAT. (author)

  14. The age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of all finishers significantly (P Bike Masters" appears to start earlier compared with other ultraendurance sports.

  15. Hot Topics in Pharmacogenetics of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss and is primarily treated with nutritional supplementation as well as with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for certain patients with neovascular disease. AMD is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. In addition, treatment outcomes from nutritional supplementation and anti-VEGF agents vary considerably. Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that there may be pharmacogenetic influences on these treatments. Many series have reported individual associations with variants in complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and other loci. However, at this time there are no validated associations. With respect to AMD, pharmacogenetics remains an intriguing area of research but is not helpful for routine clinical management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Heart Failure as an Aging-Related Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei

    2018-01-27

    The molecular pathophysiology of heart failure, which is one of the leading causes of mortality, is not yet fully understood. Heart failure can be regarded as a systemic syndrome of aging-related phenotypes. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway, both of which are key regulators of aging, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Circulating C1q was identified as a novel activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, promoting systemic aging-related phenotypes including sarcopenia and heart failure. On the other hand, p53 induces the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in the failing heart. In these molecular mechanisms, the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes (e,g,. endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, macrophages) deserves mentioning. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology underlying heart failure, focusing on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway.

  17. Expertise and age-related changes in components of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H; Horn, J

    2001-06-01

    In a sample of 263 male GO players at 48 levels of expertise and ranging from 18 to 78 years of age, it was found that factors of expertise deductive reasoning (EDR) and expertise working memory (EWM) were independent of factors of fluid reasoning (Gf) and short-term working memory (STWM) that, along with cognitive speed (Gs), have been found to characterize decline of intelligence in adulthood. The main effects of analyses of cross-sectional age differences indicated age-related decline in EDR and EWM as well as in Gf, STWM, and Gs. However, interaction and partialing analyses indicated that decline in EDR and EWM decreased to no decline with increase in level of expertise. The results thus suggest that with increase in factors known to raise the level of expertise--particularly, intensive, well-designed practice--there may be no age-related decline in the intelligence that is measured in the abilities of expertise.

  18. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  19. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men excee...

  20. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ...

  1. Complement pathway biomarkers and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2016-01-01

    In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ‘inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration. PMID:26493033

  2. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI.

  3. Detection of myocardial metabolic abnormalities by 18F-FDG PET/CT and corresponding pathological changes in beagles with local heart irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rul [Nursing College of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Song, Jianbo; Wu, Zhi Fang; Liu, Jian Zhang; Hao, Xin Zhong; Li, Sijin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Guo, Min [Dept. of Cardiology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (China); Li, Jianguo [Dept. of Radiological and Environmental Medicine, China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-08-15

    To determine the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of radiation-induced myocardial damage in beagles by comparing two pre-scan preparation protocols as well as to determine the correlation between abnormal myocardial FDG uptake and pathological findings. The anterior myocardium of 12 beagles received radiotherapy locally with a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy. 18F-FDG cardiac PET/CT was performed at baseline and 3 months after radiation. Twelve beagles underwent two protocols before PET/CT: 12 hours of fasting (12H-F), 12H-F followed by a high-fat diet (F-HFD). Regions of interest were drawn on the irradiation and the non-irradiation fields to obtain their maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Then the ratio of the SUV of the irradiation to the non-irradiation fields (INR) was computed. Histopathological changes were identified by light and electron microscopy. Using the 12H-F protocol, the average INRs were 1.18 ± 0.10 and 1.41 ± 0.18 before and after irradiation, respectively (p = 0.021). Using the F-HFD protocol, the average INRs were 0.99 ± 0.15 and 2.54 ± 0.43, respectively (p < 0.001). High FDG uptake in irradiation field was detected in 33.3% (4/12) of 12H-F protocol and 83.3% (10/12) of F-HFD protocol in visual analysis, respectively (p = 0.031). The pathology of the irradiated myocardium showed obvious perivascular fibrosis and changes in mitochondrial vacuoles. High FDG uptake in an irradiated field may be related with radiation-induced myocardial damage resulting from microvascular damage and mitochondrial injury. An F-HFD preparation protocol used before obtaining PET/CT can improve the sensitivity of the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with radiotherapy.

  4. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular and Cortical Bone Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT, micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT, imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  6. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2013-01-01

    The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT), imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  7. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  8. Identification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using OCT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Punal M., Dr; Krishna, Nanditha; Ashwini, V.; Prathibha, H. M.

    2018-02-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration is the most leading retinal disease in the recent years. Macular degeneration occurs when the central portion of the retina, called macula deteriorates. As the deterioration occurs with the age, it is commonly referred as Age-related Macular Degeneration. This disease can be visualized by several imaging modalities such as Fundus imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique and many other. Optical Coherence Tomography is the widely used technique for screening the Age-related Macular Degeneration disease, because it has an ability to detect the very minute changes in the retina. The Healthy and AMD affected OCT images are classified by extracting the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) layer of the images using the image processing technique. The extracted layer is sampled, the no. of white pixels in each of the sample is counted and the mean value of the no. of pixels is calculated. The average mean value is calculated for both the Healthy and the AMD affected images and a threshold value is fixed and a decision rule is framed to classify the images of interest. The proposed method showed an accuracy of 75%.

  9. 1H-NMR-based metabolic analysis of human serum reveals novel markers of myocardial energy expenditure in heart failure patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Du

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Elevated myocardial energy expenditure (MEE is related with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, and has also been documented as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, the serum small-molecule metabolite profiles and pathophysiological mechanisms of elevated MEE in heart failure (HF are still lacking. Herein, we used 1H-NMR-based metabolomics analysis to screen for potential biomarkers of MEE in HF. METHODS: A total of 61 subjects were enrolled, including 46 patients with heart failure and 15 age-matched controls. Venous serum samples were collected from subjects after an 8-hour fast. An INOVA 600 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with Carr-Purcell-Melboom-Gill (CPMG pulse sequence was employed for the metabolomics analysis and MEE was calculated using colored Doppler echocardiography. Metabolomics data were processed using orthogonal signal correction and regression analysis was performed using the partial least squares method. RESULTS: The mean MEE levels of HF patients and controls were 139.61±58.18 cal/min and 61.09±23.54 cal/min, respectively. Serum metabolomics varied with MEE changed, and 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate were significantly elevated with the increasing MEE. Importantly, these three metabolites were independent of administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, β-receptor blockers, diuretics and statins (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that in patients with heart failure, MEE elevation was associated with significant changes in serum metabolomics profiles, especially the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and succinate. These compounds could be used as potential serum biomarkers to study myocardial energy mechanism in HF patients.

  10. Risks of newly onset hemorrhagic stroke in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Ju Annabelle; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang

    2017-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing blindness in the elderly. It shares many common possible pathogenic mechanisms with cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have discussed the association between AMD and stroke, but the results were inconsistent. Our aim was to determine the associations between neovascular AMD and the risk of stroke in the Taiwanese population. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used claims data from National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged more than 45 years without stroke, myocardial infarction, or any AMD were selected from 2001 to 2008 and followed until 2010. The index date was defined as the date of nAMD diagnosis (ICD-9 code, 362.52). The comparison group was patients without an nAMD diagnosis with age- and sex-matched to nAMD subjects at a ratio of up to 10 to 1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used. The incidence of stroke events (ICD-9 codes, 430-434) and their subtypes (hemorrhagic and ischemic) were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included acute myocardial infarction (AMI), composite AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a higher risk of developing stroke, with an adjusted HR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68). A higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.70, 95% CI, 1.03-2.83) was also found. No significant differences were observed in ischemic stroke, the composite of AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a significantly higher risk of developing stroke, which was driven mainly by the increased risk of developing the hemorrhagic subtype. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Dietary soya protein improves intra-myocardial lipid deposition and altered glucose metabolism in a hypertensive, dyslipidaemic, insulin-resistant rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, María E; Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of replacing dietary casein by soya protein on the underlying mechanisms involved in the impaired metabolic fate of glucose and lipid metabolisms in the heart of dyslipidaemic rats chronically fed (8 months) a sucrose-rich (62·5 %) diet (SRD). To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were fed an SRD for 4 months. From months 4 to 8, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed an SRD in which casein was substituted by soya. The control group received a diet with maize starch as the carbohydrate source. Compared with the SRD-fed group, the following results were obtained. First, soya protein significantly (Psoya protein significantly increased (Psoya protein upon the altered pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism in the heart muscle of this rat model.

  12. Myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1989-01-01

    To investigate myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia, we performed exercise stress myocardial tomography with thallium-201 (Tl) in 85 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise stress myocardial tomography was obtained both immediately after exercise and three hours later. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence (Symptomatic Group, n=36) or absence (Silent Group, n=49) of chest pain during exercise stress. Clinical features (age, gender and history of myocardial infarction) and arteriographically determined severity of CAD were the same in both groups. The extent of myocardial ischemia (% Ischemia) estimated by exercise stress myocardial tomography was the same in each group (30±10 % in Silent Group, 28±12 % in Symptomatic Group, NS). The severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was expressed as a minimal value of myocardial Tl washout rate (minimal WOR) of each patient. Although exercise heart rate was identical in both groups, minimal WOR in Silent Group was significantly higher than that of Symptomatic Group (4±10% vs -16±14%, p<0.001). The study in patients who exhibited both silent and symptomatic ischemia showed the same results. These findings suggest that the severity of ischemia is a fundamental factor in determining the presence or absence of pain during exercise induced ischemia. (author)

  13. Age-related deterioration of rod vision in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2010-08-18

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and, more specifically, photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid-deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5-year-old mice compared with 4-month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a twofold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by twofold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods, providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization.

  14. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E.

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Yonekawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  16. Figure ground discrimination in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Guyader, Nathalie; Guerin, Anne; Despretz, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel

    2011-03-01

    To investigate impairment in discriminating a figure from its background and to study its relation to visual acuity and lesion size in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with neovascular AMD and visual acuity Figure/ground segregation is impaired in patients with AMD. A white space surrounding an object is sufficient to improve the object's detection and to facilitate figure/ground segregation. These results may have practical applications to the rehabilitation of the environment in patients with AMD.

  17. Age related macular degeneration - modern diagnostic and therapeutic preventive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gogelová, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing objects clearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that alows seeing of fine details. AMD occurs in two form: dry and wet. In dry AMD, the light sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. As fewer cells in the macula are able to function, people will see details less c...

  18. New developments in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon da Cruz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that over 3 million people (9% of global blindness are blinded by age-related macular degeneration (AMD. AMD affects people over the age of 55. There are two main types of AMD, dry and wet. In dry AMD, patients slowly lose vision through progressive atrophy of the macular tissue. Wet, or exudative, AMD, is associated with new blood vessels called subretinal neovascular membranes (or SRNVM and affected patients lose vision more rapidly due to fluid leakage and haemorrhage at the macula.

  19. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  20. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  1. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  2. Age-related changes in crowding and reading speed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Patel, Bhavika N.; Kwon, MiYoung

    2017-01-01

    Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6???3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2???7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance betwee...

  3. Age-related retinopathy in NRF2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in retinal antioxidant and detoxification responses. The purposes of this study were to determine whether NRF2-deficient mice would develop AMD-like retinal pathology with aging and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Eyes of both wild type and Nrf2(-/- mice were examined in vivo by fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG. Structural changes of the outer retina in aged animals were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence labeling. Our results showed that Nrf2(-/- mice developed age-dependent degenerative pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Drusen-like deposits, accumulation of lipofuscin, spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV and sub-RPE deposition of inflammatory proteins were present in Nrf2(-/- mice after 12 months. Accumulation of autophagy-related vacuoles and multivesicular bodies was identified by electron microscopy both within the RPE and in Bruch's membrane of aged Nrf2(-/- mice.Our data suggest that disruption of Nfe2l2 gene increased the vulnerability of outer retina to age-related degeneration. NRF2-deficient mice developed ocular pathology similar to cardinal features of human AMD and deregulated autophagy is likely a mechanistic link between oxidative injury and inflammation. The Nrf2(-/- mice can provide a novel model for mechanistic and translational research on AMD.

  4. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  5. Age Related Changes in Hematological Values of Myanmar Local Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandar Oo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The hematological parameters were used to monitor the health status and its components also changed according to the ages. However, there were no reports for this issues in Myanmar local dogs. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the age-related changes on the hematological parameters of local puppies in Myanmar. Ten local puppies with the age of 2-3 month old were used in this experiment, which was lasted for 8 weeks.The daily clinical examinations were conducted throughout the entire experimental period for general health check-up. Haematological parameters (Total WBC count and its differential counts, and RBC, HCT, MCV, HGB, MCH, MCHC and platelets were measured bi-weekly with Abacus Vet-5 automate haematology analyser. According to the results, the total WBC and eosinophil counts were not significantly different (P>0.05, while lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils were significantly different (P0.05 throughout the experimental periods. Thus, the age-related changes were observed on cell counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils in Myanmar local puppies.

  6. Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Eva; Harries, Lorna W

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases. Isoform choice is controlled by a battery of splicing regulatory proteins, which include the serine arginine rich (SRSF) proteins and the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) classes of genes. These important splicing regulators have been implicated in age-related disease, and in the ageing process itself. This review will outline the important contribution of splicing regulator proteins to ageing and age-related disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AGE RELATED CHANGES OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjushree Chakravarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disease of the cervix is a common clinical condition in females, worldwide and especially in a developing country like India. The study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the cervix. AIM The study was done to observe the age related changes in the cervix and compare the same with the different studies done by the previous workers around the world so as to help clinicians to diagnose the pathologies of this part of the female reproductive system better. MATERIALS AND METHOD The specimens were divided into three groups viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal. Twenty specimens were collected of each group. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was employed to find out the significant difference between the mean value. SUMMARY A study of the 60 specimens collected were done to find the morphological parameters of each group viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal and the findings of each group were compared to one another and were related to the finding of previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of the three groups and these differences tallied with that of the previous workers.

  9. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petrarca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Petrarca, Timothy L JacksonDepartment of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET. Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002, with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections.Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, neovascular, radiation therapy, epimacular brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, anti-VEGF

  10. Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies exist on the use of surface electromyogram (EMG) signal features to detect age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. Motor unit remodeling leads to declined muscle strength and force steadiness during submaximal contractions which are factors for risk of falls in the elderly. This study investigated the remodeling phenomena in the Tibialis Anterior using sample entropy and higher order statistics. Eighteen young (26.1 ± 2.9 years) and twelve elderly (68.7 ± 9.0 years) participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of the ankle at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and their Tibialis Anterior (TA) EMG was recorded. Sample entropy, Gaussianity and Linearity Test statistics were calculated from the recorded EMG for each MVC. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normality, and either a two-tail student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine significant difference in the EMG features between the young and old cohorts. Results show age-related motor unit remodeling to be depicted by decreased sample entropy (p <; 0.1), increased non-Gaussianity (p <; 0.05) and lesser degree of linearity in the elderly. This is due to the increased sparsity of the MUAPs as a result of the denervation-reinnervation process, and the decrease in total number of motor units.

  11. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978

  12. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Chikako; Mori, Hideo; Akuta, Keizou [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    1998-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of low-dose radiation on age-related macular degeneration in 8 affected eyes. Radiation was applied using photons at 4 MV. Each eye received 10 fractions of 2 Gy per day over 2 weeks. At 6 months after treatment, funduscopic or angiographic findings had either improved or remained unchanged in all the eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 5 eyes (63%) and deteriorated in 1 eye (13%). At the last examination, fundus findings had improved in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 1 eye (13%) and deteriorated in 5 eyes (63%). The visual acuity had improved or unchanged in 2 eyes each (25%) and deteriorated in 4 eyes (50%). There has been no negative side effects of radiation. Above findings show that low-dose radiation is potentially beneficial for subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularizations in age-related macular degeneration on a short term basis. (author)

  13. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrogen-13-labeled ammonia for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.F.; Fill, H.R.; Harper, P.V.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclotron-produced nitrogen-13 (half-life 10 min), as labeled ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/), has been evaluated as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent. The regional myocardial uptake of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ has been shown to be proportional to regional tissue perfusion in animal studies. Intravenously administered /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ is rapidly cleared from the circulation, being extracted by the liver (15 percent), lungs, myocardium (2 percent--4 percent), brain, kidney, and bladder. Myocardial ammonia is metabolized mainly to glutamine via the glutamine synthetase pathway. Pulmonary uptake is substantial, but usually transient, except in smokers where clearance may be delayed. The positron annihilation irradiation (511 keV) of /sup 13/N may be imaged with a scintillation camera, using either a specially designed tungsten collimator or a pinhole collimator. After early technical problems with collimation and the production method of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ were overcome, reproducible high quality myocardial images were consistently obtained. The normal myocardial image was established to be of a homogeneous ''doughnut'' configuration. Imaging studies performed in patients with varying manifestations of ischemic and valvular heart disease showed a high incidence of localized perfusion defects, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sequential studies at short intervals in patients with acute infarction showed correlation between alterations in regional perfusion and the clinical course of the patient. It is concluded that myocardial imaging with /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ and a scintillation camera provides a valid and noninvasive means of assessing regional myocardial perfusion. This method is especially suitable for sequential studies of acute cardiac patients at short intervals. Coincidence imaging of the 511 keV annihilation irradiation provides a tomographic and potentially quantitative assessment of the

  15. Myocardial ischemia and angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwyn, A.P.; Fox, K.M.; Jonathan, A.; Lavender, P.; Watson, I.

    1981-01-01

    Ambulatory monitoring of ST segment changes was performed in 60 patients presenting with angina, positive ECG stress tests and coronary artery disease, 85% of ischemic ECG events were asymptomatic, 37% occurred with no increase in heart rate and 15% of episodes either lasted 20 minutes or more or fluctuated in severity. A controlled pilot study in ten patients showed depression. Radionuclide studies in 50 patients with angina and coronary artery disease have shown that stress (i.e., atrial pacing) produced different patterns of disturbed regional myocardial perfusion related to the patient's exercise capacity and eventually leading to a decrease in regional myocardial perfusion during the ischemic episode. ST segment depression appeared only after the decrease in regional myocardial perfusion. These findings combined with past research suggest that patients with angina and coronary artery disease can suffer frequent asymptomatic disturbances of the regional myocardial perfusion. The frequency of these episodes and the time course for the recovery of the metabolic consequences mean that segments of ventricular myocardium may be constantly abnormal. The relative importance of changes in coronary tone and malfunction of platelets in the diseased coronary tree needs to be examined in clinical research. Pilot studies of antiplatelet agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on episodes of ischemia occurring at night and those occurring without any increase in heart rate. The techniques and observations in these patients with coronary artery disease all suggest that acute transient regional myocardial ischemia is caused by a variety of mechnisms. Further research using objective methods is required to discover the causes of ischemia and to rationalize treatment. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  17. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  18. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  19. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration among the inuit in Greenland. The Greenland Inuit Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Rosenberg, Thomas; la Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland.......To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland....

  20. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  1. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    chimpanzees. We used the BrainVisa software to measure total brain volume, gray and white matter volumes, gray matter thickness, and gyrification index in a cross-sectional sample of 219 captive chimpanzees (8-53 years old), with 38 subjects being 40 or more years of age. Mean depth and cortical fold opening...... of 11 major sulci of the chimpanzee brains were also measured. We found that chimpanzees showed increased gyrification with age and a cubic relationship between age and white matter volume. For the association between age and sulcus depth and width, the results were mostly non......Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray...

  2. Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Garcia Layana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.

  3. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... and organs in tissue-engineering protocols. However, several challenges confront the use of these cells in the clinic, ranging from biological challenges (e.g., how to isolate a homogenous populations of the cells with specific criteria from the bone marrow and how to expand them ex vivo without affecting...

  4. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    . Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global...... differences in the subsequent (250–500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanisza, as compared to non-Kanisza, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative...... to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages – indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode...

  5. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  7. Transcriptome changes in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitmore S Scott

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a debilitating, common cause of visual impairment. While the last decade has seen great progress in understanding the pathophysiology of AMD, the molecular changes that occur in eyes with AMD are still poorly understood. In the current issue of Genome Medicine, Newman and colleagues present the first systematic transcriptional profile analysis of AMD-affected tissues, providing a comprehensive set of expression data for different regions (macula versus periphery, tissues (retina versus retinal pigment epithelium (RPE/choroid, and disease state (control versus early or advanced AMD. Their findings will serve as a foundation for additional systems-level research into the pathogenesis of this blinding disease. Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.com/content/4/2/16

  8. Age-related differences in the attention network test (ANT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboz, Nadia; Zamarian, Stefania; Cavallero, Corrado

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of aging on alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution by assessing younger (mean age = 25.8) and older (mean age = 67.9) adults' performance in the Attention Network Test that combines, in a single experimental paradigm, a flanker task with alerting and orienting cues. The analyses of response times indicated equivalent orienting and conflict resolution effects in younger and older adults. By contrast, alerting was found to be significantly reduced in the elderly. This result is only marginally in accordance with recent studies addressing the issues of age-related differences in alerting, which provide mixed results. The possible role of methodological differences across studies in accounting for the controversial results concerning the aging affect on alerting is discussed.

  9. Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layana, Alfredo Garcia; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Aslam, Tariq; Holz, Frank G; Leys, Anita; Silva, Rufino; Delcourt, Cécile; Souied, Eric; Seddon, Johanna M

    2017-10-13

    In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.

  10. Age-related Deterioration of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Seung Ah; Chang, Jae Suk

    2008-11-01

    Aging is the process of system deterioration over time in the whole body. Stem cells are self-renewing and therefore have been considered exempt from the aging process. Earlier studies by Hayflick showed that there is an intrinsic limit to the number of divisions that mammalian somatic cells can undergo, and cycling kinetics and ontogeny-related studies strongly suggest that even the most primitive stem cell functions exhibit a certain degree of aging. Despite these findings, studies on the effects of aging on stem cell functions are inconclusive. Here we review the age-related properties of hematopoietic stem cells in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic alterations, proliferative potential, signaling molecules, telomere and telomerase, senescence and cancer issues, regenerative potential and other indications of stem cell aging are discussed in detail.

  11. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Cascella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old. AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension. In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2 that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines, immune cells (macrophages, and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression.

  13. Female age-related fertility decline. Committee Opinion No. 589.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The fecundity of women decreases gradually but significantly beginning approximately at age 32 years and decreases more rapidly after age 37 years. Education and enhanced awareness of the effect of age on fertility are essential in counseling the patient who desires pregnancy. Given the anticipated age-related decline in fertility, the increased incidence of disorders that impair fertility, and the higher risk of pregnancy loss, women older than 35 years should receive an expedited evaluation and undergo treatment after 6 months of failed attempts to conceive or earlier, if clinically indicated. In women older than 40 years, more immediate evaluation and treatment are warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  15. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  16. Nutritional supplements in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Age-related degradation of boiling water reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. The overall life-limiting mechanism is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, and thermal aging embrittlement are other potential degradation mechanisms. Several failures in BWR internals have been caused by a combination of factors such as environment, high residual or preload stresses, and flow-induced vibration. The ASME Code Section XI in-service inspection requirements are insufficient for detecting aging-related degradation at many locations in reactor internals. Many of the potential locations for IGSCC or fatigue are not accessible for inspection. (orig.)

  18. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; MacDougall, E.; Kochis, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Lee, B.S.

    1990-11-01

    After the McGuire event in 1987 relating to failure of the center pole weld in one of its reactor trip breakers, activities were initiated by the NRC to investigate the probable causes. A review of operating experience suggested that the burning of coils, jamming of the operating mechanism, and deterioration of the contacts dominated the breakers failures. Although failures of the pole shaft weld were not included as one of the generic problems, the NRC augmented inspection team had suspected that these welds were substandard which led them to crack prematurely. A DS-416 low voltage air circuit breaker manufactured by Westinghouse was mechanically cycled to identify age-related degradations. This accelerated aging test was conducted for over 36,000 cycles during nine months. Three separate pole shafts, one with a 60 degree weld, one with a 120 degree and one with a 180 degree were used to characterize the cracking in the pole level welds. In addition, three different operating mechanisms and several other parts were replaced as they became inoperable. The testing yielded many useful results. The burning of the closing coils was found to be the effect of binding in the linkages that are connected to this device. Among the seven welds on the pole shaft, number-sign 1 and number-sign 3 were the critical ones which cracked first to cause misalignment of the pole levers, which, in turn, had led to many problems with the operating mechanism including the burning of coils, excessive wear in certain parts, and overstressed linkages. Based on these findings, a maintenance program is suggested to alleviate the age-related degradations that occur due to mechanical cycling of this type of breaker. 3 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Age-Related Cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Choi, Nam-Kyong

    2017-10-01

    Cataract and insufficient vitamin D intake are both increasing worldwide concerns, yet little is known about the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and age-related cataract. We performed this study to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and age-related cataract in adults. Study participants comprised 16,086 adults aged 40 years or older who had never been diagnosed with or undergone surgery for cataract using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2012. Participants were assessed to have cataract when diagnosed with cortical, nuclear, anterior subcapsular, posterior subcapsular, or mixed cataract. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and cataract in multivariable logistic regression models. The OR for nuclear cataract with the highest quintile of serum 25(OH)D levels was 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.99) compared to the lowest quintile. A linear trend across quintiles was significant. Natural log-transformed serum 25(OH)D levels were also significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.95). The opulation-attributable fraction of nuclear cataract due to serum 25(OH)D insufficiency (D levels were inversely associated with the risk of nuclear cataract. Prospective studies investigating the effects of serum 25(OH)D levels on the development of nuclear cataract are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  2. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  3. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  4. Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/wk of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available. PMID:22503690

  5. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

  6. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1

  7. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-11-01

    From a health perspective, an underappreciated consequence of the normal aging process is the impacts that the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed sarcopenia, has on health beyond an effect on locomotion. Sarcopenia, refers to the loss of muscle mass, and associated muscle weakness, which occurs in aging and is thought to proceed at a rate of approximately 1% loss per year. However, periods of inactivity due to illness or recovery from orthopedic procedures such as hip or knee replacement are times of accelerated sarcopenic muscle loss from which it may be more difficult for older persons to recover. Some of the consequences of age-related sarcopenia are easy to appreciate such as weakness and, eventually, reduced mobility; however, other lesser recognized consequences include, due to the metabolic role the skeletal muscle plays, an increased risk for poor glucose control and a predisposition toward weight gain. What we currently know is that two stimuli can counter this age related muscle loss and these are physical activity, specifically resistance exercise (weightlifting), and nutrition. The focus of this paper is on the types of dietary protein that people might reasonably consume to offset sarcopenic muscle loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid decreases age-related adiposity and inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ah-Reum; Bae, Jin-Sik; Lee, Junghoon; Shin, Eunji; Oh, Byung-Chul; Park, Sang-Chul; Cha, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a natural, hydrophilic nontoxic bile acid, is clinically effective for treating cholestatic and chronic liver diseases. We investigated the chronic effects of UDCA on age-related lipid homeostasis and underlying molecular mechanisms. Twenty-week-old C57BL/6 male and female mice were fed a diet with or without 0.3% UDCA supplementation for 25 weeks. UDCA significantly reduced weight gain, adiposity, hepatic triglyceride, and hepatic cholesterol without incidental hepatic injury. UDCA-mediated hepatic triglyceride reduction was associated with downregulated hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and of other genes involved in lipogenesis (Chrebp, Acaca, Fasn, Scd1, and Me1) and fatty acid uptake (Ldlr, Cd36). The inflammatory cytokines Tnfa, Ccl2, and Il6 were significantly decreased in liver and/or white adipose tissues of UDCA-fed mice. These data suggest that UDCA exerts beneficial effects on age-related metabolic disorders by lowering the hepatic lipid accumulation, while concurrently reducing hepatocyte and adipocyte susceptibility to inflammatory stimuli. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 105-110] PMID:26350747

  9. Update on the role of genetics in the onset of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter James; Klein, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), akin to other common age-related diseases, has a complex pathogenesis and arises from the interplay of genes, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. The past decade has seen very significant strides towards identification of those precise genetic variants associated with disease. That genes encoding proteins of the (alternative) complement pathway (CFH, C2, CFB, C3, CFI) are major players in etiology came as a surprise to many but has already lead to the development of therapies entering human clinical trials. Other genes replicated in many populations ARMS2, APOE, variants near TIMP3, and genes involved in lipid metabolism have also been implicated in disease pathogenesis. The genes discovered to date can be estimated to account for approximately 50% of the genetic variance of AMD and have been discovered by candidate gene approaches, pathway analysis, and latterly genome-wide association studies. Next generation sequencing modalities and meta-analysis techniques are being employed with the aim of identifying the remaining rarer but, perhaps, individually more significant sequence variations, linked to disease status. Complementary studies have also begun to utilize this genetic information to develop clinically useful algorithms to predict AMD risk and evaluate pharmacogenetics. In this article, contemporary commentary is provided on rapidly progressing efforts to elucidate the genetic pathogenesis of AMD as the field stands at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. PMID:21887094

  10. Age related differences in the disposition of acetanilide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfer, J R; Baty, J D; Lamb, J; Powell, C; Price-Evans, D A

    1978-01-01

    1 The metabolism of fifteen elderly hospital in-patients and fifteen young people was studied, using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer method. 2 The results suggest that there is no significant change in hepatic oxidation of acetanilide with age. 3 The concentrations of metabolites were however, significantly elevated in the older group. 4 These results illustrate the importance of the decline in renal function with age in the disposition of drugs. PMID:728323

  11. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus D Ortega

    Full Text Available Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy.To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults.15 older adults (69 ± 3 years who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s. We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study.Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016 and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237. We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461 and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001.Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  12. Imaging Polarimetry in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Takuya; Elsner, Ann E.; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the birefringence properties of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To compare the information from two techniques—scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)—and investigate how they complement each other. METHODS The authors prospectively examined the eyes of two healthy subjects and 13 patients with exudative AMD. Using scanning laser polarimetry, they computed phase-retardation maps, average reflectance images, and depolarized light images. To obtain polarimetry information with improved axial resolution, they developed a fiber-based, polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT system and measured the phase retardation associated with birefringence in the same eyes. RESULTS Both GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography detected abnormal birefringence at the locus of exudative lesions. Polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT showed that in the old lesions with fibrosis, phase-retardation values were significantly larger than in the new lesions (P = 0.020). Increased scattered light and altered polarization scramble were associated with portions of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain OCT are complementary in probing birefringence properties in exudative AMD. Polarimetry findings in exudative AMD emphasized different features and were related to the progression of the disease, potentially providing a noninvasive tool for microstructure in exudative AMD. PMID:18515594

  13. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  14. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms

  15. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  16. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  17. Targeting Mitochondria to Counteract Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial function is strongly linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape, which undergo various alterations during aging. Since mitochondria play such a critical role in an organism’s process of aging, they also offer promising targets for manipulation of senescent cellular functions. Accordingly, interventions delaying the onset of age-associated disorders involve the manipulation of mitochondrial function, including caloric restriction (CR or exercise, as well as drugs, such as metformin, aspirin, and polyphenols. In this review, we discuss mitochondria’s role in and impact on cellular aging and their potential to serve as a target for therapeutic interventions against age-related cellular dysfunction.

  18. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Margaret Po-Shan; LeVatte, Terry L; O'Reilly, Amanda M; Smith, Benjamin J; Tremblay, François; Brown, Richard E; Clarke, David B

    2016-05-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in developmental processes and age-associated cognitive decline; however, little is known concerning the effects of NCAM in the visual system during aging. Using anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays, we analyzed age-related changes in visual function of NCAM deficient (-/-) and wild-type mice. Anatomical analyses indicated that aging NCAM -/- mice had fewer retinal ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD. A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease.

  20. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  1. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  2. The Hayflick Limit and Age-Related Adaptive Immune Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Zoe; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Ndifon, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    The adaptive immune system (AIS) acquires significant deficiency during chronological ageing, making older individuals more susceptible to infections and less responsive to vaccines compared to younger individuals. At the cellular level, one of the most striking features of this ageing-related immune deficiency is the dramatic loss of T-cell diversity that occurs in elderly humans. After the age of 70 years, there is a sharp decline in the diversity of naïve T cells, including a >10-fold decrease in the CD4+ compartment and a >100-fold decrease in the CD8+ compartment. Such changes are detrimental because the AIS relies on a diverse naïve T-cell pool to respond to novel pathogens. Recent work suggests that this collapse of naïve T-cell diversity results from T cells reaching the Hayflick limit and being eliminated through both antigen-dependent and -independent pathways. The progressive attrition of telomeres is the molecular mechanism that underlies this Hayflick limit. Therefore, we propose that by measuring the telomere lengths of T cells with high resolution, it is possible to develop a unique biomarker of immune deficiency, potentially much better correlated with individual susceptibility to diseases compared to chronological age alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  4. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Honda, Kaoru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of low-dose radiation on choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since Chakravarthy reported the benefits from administration of low-dose external-beam irradiation for CNV, many studies have demonstrated that irradiation could have a beneficial treatment effect, whereas several reports have not. In our hospital, 12 eyes with AMD received 10 Gy of 4 MV photons and the other 9 eyes received 20 Gy. Another 4 eyes were untreated as control. After 6 months of treatment, visual acuity was maintained in 11 eyes, improved in 5 eyes, and deteriorated in 5 eyes of treated patients. In control group, visual acuity was maintained in 1 eye and deteriorated in 3 eyes. The size of CNV regressed in 10 eyes, remained stationary in 2 eyes and progressed in 2 eyes of treated patients, while in control group CNV regressed in 2 eyes and remained stationary in 1 eye. After 12 months some CNV progressed. Although the present result seems to be better than those in previous reports, whether or not the treatment is beneficial has to be awaited. (author)

  5. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  6. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  7. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  8. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Honda, Kaoru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of low-dose radiation on choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since Chakravarthy reported the benefits from administration of low-dose external-beam irradiation for CNV, many studies have demonstrated that irradiation could have a beneficial treatment effect, whereas several reports have not. In our hospital, 12 eyes with AMD received 10 Gy of 4 MV photons and the other 9 eyes received 20 Gy. Another 4 eyes were untreated as control. After 6 months of treatment, visual acuity was maintained in 11 eyes, improved in 5 eyes, and deteriorated in 5 eyes of treated patients. In control group, visual acuity was maintained in 1 eye and deteriorated in 3 eyes. The size of CNV regressed in 10 eyes, remained stationary in 2 eyes and progressed in 2 eyes of treated patients, while in control group CNV regressed in 2 eyes and remained stationary in 1 eye. After 12 months some CNV progressed. Although the present result seems to be better than those in previous reports, whether or not the treatment is beneficial has to be awaited. (author)

  9. Recent developments in age-related macular degeneration: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M; Yassin, Sanaa A

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual impairment in elderly people is a considerable health problem that significantly affects quality of life of millions worldwide. The magnitude of this issue is becoming more evident with an aging population and an increasing number of older individuals. Objective The objective of this article was to review the clinical and pathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities presently available or underway for both atrophic and wet forms of the disease. Methods An online review of the PubMed database was performed, searching for the key words. The search was limited to articles published since 1980 to date. Results Several risk factors have been linked to AMD, such as age (>60 years), lifestyle (smoking and diet), and family history. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, genetic factors have been implicated in the condition. Treatment for atrophic AMD is mainly close observation, coupled with nutritional supplements such as zinc and antioxidants, whereas treatment of wet AMD is based on targeting choroidal neovascular membranes. Conclusion Identification of modifiable risk factors would improve the possibilities of preventing the progression of AMD. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has transformed the therapeutic approach of the potentially blinding disease “wet AMD” into a more favorable outcome. PMID:28860733

  10. Chlorinative stress in age-related diseases: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Marco; Di Salvo, Eleonora; Pace, Elisabetta; Ventura-Spagnolo, Elvira; Navarra, Michele; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an agglomerate of biological long-lasting processes that result being inevitable. Main actors in this scenario are both long-term inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been proved that oxidative stress induce alteration in proteins and this fact itself is critically important in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to diseases typical of aging. Among reactive species, chlorine ones such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are cytotoxic oxidants produced by activated neutrophils during chronic inflammation processes. HOCl can also cause damages by reacting with biological molecules. HOCl is generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and augmented serum levels of MPO have been described in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions in cardiovascular patients and has been implicated in many inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative conditions, and some cancers. Due to these data, we decided to conduct an up-to-date review evaluating chlorinative stress effects on every age-related disease linked; potential anti-oxidant countermeasures were also assessed. Results obtained associated HOCl generation to the aging processes and confirmed its connection with diseases like neurodegenerative and cardiovascular pathologies, atherosclerosis and cancer; chlorination was mainly linked to diseases where molecular (protein) alteration constitute the major suspected cause: i.e. inflammation, tissue lesions, DNA damages, apoptosis and oxidative stress itself. According data collected, a healthy lifestyle together with some dietary suggestion and/or the administration of nutracetical antioxidant integrators could balance the effects of chlorinative stress and, in some cases, slow down or prevent the onset of age-releated diseases.

  11. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of 99mTc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.; Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    99m Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the 99m Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  12. Hypoxia-Inducible Histone Lysine Demethylases: Impact on the Aging Process and Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in

  13. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related changes in factor VII proteolysis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.

  15. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  16. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J.; Crary, John F.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M.; Ironside, James W.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Munoz, David G.; Murray, Melissa E.; Nelson, Peter T.; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N.; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J.; Mann, David M.; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C.; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J.; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B.; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A.; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B.; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B.; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M.; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  17. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  18. Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Liu

    Full Text Available With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task. We analyzed the EEG records with respect to local changes in amplitude (power spectrum as well as phase locking between the two age groups. We found differences between younger and older subjects in the amplitude of post-movement synchronization in the β band of the sensory-motor and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. This post-movement β amplitude was significantly reduced in older subjects. Moreover, it positively correlated with the accuracy with which subjects performed the motor task at the electrode FCz, which detects activity of the mPFC and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, we found no correlation between the accurate timing of local neural activity, i.e. phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band, with the reaction and movement time or the accuracy with which the motor task was performed. Our results show that only post-movement β amplitude and not δ-θ phase locking is involved in the control of movement accuracy. The decreased post-movement β amplitude in the mPFC of older subjects hints at an impaired deactivation of this area, which may affect the cognitive control of stimulus-induced motor tasks and thereby motor output.

  19. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  20. Tremor in the Elderly: Essential and Aging-Related Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschl, Günthe; Petersen, Inge; Lorenz, Delia; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Isolated tremor in the elderly is commonly diagnosed as essential tremor (ET). The prevalence of tremor increases steeply with increasing age, whereas hereditary tremor is becoming less common. Moreover, late-manifesting tremor seems to be associated with dementia and earlier mortality. We hypothesize that different entities underlie tremor in the elderly. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins older than 70 y answered screening questions for ET in 2001. Two thousan fifty-six (84%) participants drew Archimedes spirals to measure their tremor severity, and classical aging phenotypes were assessed. A subgroup of 276 individuals fulfilling either screening criteria for ET or being controls were personally assessed. Medications and mortality data are available. The spiral score increased with age. The spiral score correlated with tremor severity. For the whole cohort, mortality was significantly correlated with the spiral score, and higher spiral scores were associated with lower physical and cognitive functioning. Multivariate analysis identified higher spiral scores as an independent risk factor for mortality. In contrast, the ET patients did not show an increased but rather a lower mortality rate although it was not statistically significant. Consistent with a slower than normal aging, they were also physically and cognitively better functioning than controls. Because incident tremors beyond 70 y of age show worse aging parameters and mortality than controls and ET, we propose to label it ‘aging-related tremor’ (ART). This tremor starts later in life and is accompanied by subtle signs of aging both cognitively and physically. More detailed clinical features and pathogenesis warrant further assessment. PMID:26095699

  1. Tear film proteome in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Kaarniranta, Kai; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness in elderly people in the developed countries. Current screening protocols have limitations in detecting the early signs of retinal degeneration. Therefore, it would be desirable to find novel biomarkers for early detection of AMD. Development of novel biomarkers would help in the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of AMD. Proteomic analysis of tear film has shown promise in this research area. If an optimal set of biomarkers could be obtained from accessible body fluids, it would represent a reliable way to monitor disease progression and response to novel therapies. Tear films were collected on Schirmer strips from a total of 22 patients (8 with wet AMD, 6 with dry AMD, and 8 control individuals). 2D electrophoresis was used to separate tear film proteins prior to their identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and matching with functional databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified. Most of them were previously described in various proteomic studies concerning AMD. Shootin-1, histatin-3, fidgetin-like protein 1, SRC kinase signaling inhibitor, Graves disease carrier protein, actin cytoplasmic 1, prolactin-inducible protein 1, and protein S100-A7A were upregulated in the tear film samples isolated from AMD patients and were not previously linked with this disease in any proteomic analysis. The upregulated proteins supplement our current knowledge of AMD pathogenesis, providing evidence that certain specific proteins are expressed into the tear film in AMD. As far we are aware, this is the first study to have undertaken a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the human tear film proteome in AMD patients.

  2. Modelling the genetic risk in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.

  3. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Zaras, Magdalena [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz, E-mail: januszb@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-10-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen, E-mail: j.herrmann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Krstin, Nina, E-mail: ninakrstin@web.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schoennagel, Bjoern P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sornsakrin, Marjike, E-mail: m.sornsakrin@uke.de [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten, E-mail: t.derlin@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D., E-mail: jd.busch@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay Uwe, E-mail: Kay.Petersen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Psychiatry, University Clinic Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14 Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Graessner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.graessner@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare, Lindenplatz 2, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R., E-mail: c.habermann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No significant differences were found between children and young adults. Conclusion: Bone marrow ADC values of the lumbar spine show a linear decrease with growing age and thereby reflect the gradual changes of cell composition occurring during marrow conversion.

  5. Alzheimer's disease and age-related memory decline (preclinical).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Hall, Brandon; Webster, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the afflicted individual, caregivers, and society in general. The rise in elderly populations is also resulting in an increase in individuals with related (potentially treatable) conditions such as "Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MCI) which is characterized by a less severe (but abnormal) level of cognitive impairment and a high-risk for developing dementia. Even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder of cognition (e.g., AD and MCI), the perception of increased forgetfulness and declining mental function is a clear source of apprehension in the elderly. This is a valid concern given that even a modest impairment of cognitive function is likely to be associated with significant disability in a rapidly evolving, technology-based society. Unfortunately, the currently available therapies designed to improve cognition (i.e., for AD and other forms of dementia) are limited by modest efficacy and adverse side effects, and their effects on cognitive function are not sustained over time. Accordingly, it is incumbent on the scientific community to develop safer and more effective therapies that improve and/or sustain cognitive function in the elderly allowing them to remain mentally active and productive for as long as possible. As diagnostic criteria for memory disorders evolve, the demand for pro-cognitive therapeutic agents is likely to surpass AD and dementia to include MCI and potentially even less severe forms of memory decline. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the contemporary therapeutic targets and preclinical pharmacologic approaches (with representative drug examples) designed to enhance memory

  6. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaflik, Jacek P.; Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika; Zaras, Magdalena; Wozniak, Katarzyna; Szaflik, Jerzy; Blasiak, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  7. Myocardial triglycerides : magnetic resonance spectroscopy in health and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the functional and metabolic consequences of myocardial triglyceride (TG) accumulation in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus. Ectopic accumulation of TGs is associated with organ dysfunction in metabolic disease in experimental animal studies. These

  8. The Rationale for Delaying Aging and the Prevention of Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Barzilai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.

  9. Pegaptanib: choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration and previous arterial thromboembolic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Di Bartolo, Emanuele; Brue, Claudia; Cappello, Ezio; Furino, Claudio; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Imparato, Manuela; Reibaldi, Michele

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and the rate of side effects of the pegylated aptamer pegaptanib in the treatment of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a history of previous arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs). Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients with subfoveal CNV due to AMD and cerebrovascular accidents (n = 12) and myocardial infarction (n = 11) in the previous 6 months received intravitreal pegaptanib 0.3 mg according to a pro re nata regimen and were followed for 12 months. The paired Student t test was used to evaluate mean changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; primary outcome measure) and central foveal thickness (CFT). The mean patient age was 71.5 ± 4.6 years; there were 14 women and 9 men. The CNV was type 1, 2, and 3 in 18, 3, and 2 eyes, respectively. The mean BCVA improved from 0.67 ± 0.23 logMAR at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.31 logMAR at the end of 12-month follow-up (p = 0.044). Thirty-five percent of patients achieved ≥3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines improvement at 12 months. Mean CFT at baseline (381 ± 111 µm) decreased to 304 ± 82 µm at 12 months (p = 0.008). Patients received a mean of 4.3 ± 1.3 (range 3-7) injections. No systemic or ocular side effects occurred; no patient experienced further ATEs. Intravitreal pegaptanib can be considered a viable treatment option for patients with AMD-related CNV who are at high risk of ATEs.

  10. Present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Garcia Barreto, David

    1999-01-01

    The myocardial viability diagnosis is important for those who will undergo myocardial revascularization whether by surgery or coronary angioplasty. Our purpose is to present some of the present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests. Emphasis is made on the estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the use of vasodilators in perfusion scintigraphy mainly with technetium-labeled compounds. Also, the current possibilities for a myocardial metabolism study using single-photon emission-computed tomography as well as some clinical implications of myocardial viability are set forth

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heinzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years and 25 older (aged 60–75 years healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P<.001, which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P<.001. Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P<.001, and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism.

  12. Age-related normal uptake of 99mTc-MDP in the lower spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G.; Lilja, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in 99m Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in 99m Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [de

  13. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by 15O-water-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with 15 O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author)

  14. Diastolic pressure underestimates age-related hemodynamic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, C R; Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, L A; del Río, M; Vasvari, F; Limansky, R; Farías, J; Tessler, J; Cámera, M I

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that as large arteries become more rigid with age, the pattern of hypertension changes from diastolic to systolic. Thus, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may lose its ability to reflect the increase in vascular resistance with age. To assess this, we studied the age-related changes in blood pressure pattern and its steady-state and pulsatile determinants. We performed an epidemiological analysis based on a national survey of 10,462 subjects from Argentina. A hemodynamic analysis (impedance cardiography) was then carried out in 636 consecutive hypertensive patients (age, 25 to 74 years). Whereas the rate of increment in the prevalence of mild to moderate hypertension (MMH) reached a plateau after the sixth decade, isolated and borderline systolic forms of hypertension began a steep and sustained rise. Among patients with MMH, DBP remained stable from the third to the seventh decade, whereas SBP maintained a sustained increase. Despite similar DBP, the systemic vascular resistance index increased 47% (P<.01) and the cardiac index decreased 27% (P<.01), whereas the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure, an index of arterial compliance, decreased 45% (P<.01). However, there were no significant differences between older patients with MMH and those with isolated systolic hypertension in the level of SBP, vascular resistance, stroke volume, and cardiac index. Compared with age-matched normotensive control subjects, the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure was much more reduced in isolated systolic hypertension (48%) than in MMH (30%). In summary, the present study, carried out in a large sample of hypertensive subjects with a wide age range, showed a simultaneous impairment in vascular resistance and arterial compliance associated with aging in different patterns of hypertension. The magnitude of these changes, with opposite effects on DBP but additive effects on SBP, suggests that a hemodynamic mechanism could determine the transition in the

  15. Interleukin-13 and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the effects of interleukin (IL-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: IL-13 levels in the aqueous humor of patients with AMD were significantly higher than those in the control (167.33±17.64 vs 27.12±5.65 pg/mL; P<0.01. In vitro, IL-13 of high concentrations (10, 15, and 20 ng/mL inhibited ARPE-19 cell proliferation. α-SMA mRNA in ARPE-19 cell were increased (1.017±0.112 vs 1.476±0.168; P<0.001 and ZO-1 decreased (1.051±0.136 vs 0.702±0.069; P<0.001 after treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 48h. The protein expression of α-SMA and ZO-1 also showed the same tendency (α-SMA: P=0.038; ZO-1: P=0.008. IL-13 significantly reduced the level of TNF-α (44.70±1.67 vs 31.79±3.53 pg/mL; P=0.005 at 48h, but the level of TGF-β2 was significantly increased from 34.44±2.92 to 57.61±6.31 pg/mL at 24h (P=0.004 and from 61.26±1.11 to 86.91±3.59 pg/mL at 48h (P<0.001. While expressions of VEGF didn’t change after IL-13 treatment. CONCLUSION: IL-13 in vitro inhibit ARPE-19 cell proliferation and expression in the aqueous may be associated with AMD.

  16. Complement inhibitors for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A; McKay, Gareth J; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2014-01-15

    Given the relatively high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the increased incidence of AMD as populations age, the results of trials of novel treatments are awaited with much anticipation. The complement cascade describes a series of proteolytic reactions occurring throughout the body that generate proteins with a variety of roles including the initiation and promotion of immune reactions against foreign materials or micro-organisms. The complement cascade is normally tightly regulated, but much evidence implicates complement overactivity in AMD and so it is a logical therapeutic target in the treatment of AMD. To assess the effects and safety of complement inhibitors in the prevention or treatment of advanced AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (January 1990 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 21 November 2013. We also performed handsearching of proceedings, from 2012 onwards, of meetings and conferences of specific professional organisations. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with

  17. Age-related left ventricular remodeling and associated risk for cardiovascular outcomes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Fernandes, Verônica R S; Bluemke, David A; McClelland, Robyn L; Kronmal, Richard A; Lima, João A C

    2009-05-01

    Age-related alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function that may predispose to cardiovascular events are not well understood. We used cardiac MRI to examine age-related differences in LV structure and function in 5004 participants without overt cardiovascular disease when enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 1099 participants received additional strain analyses by MRI tagging. We also assessed the relation of age-associated remodeling with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Although LV mass decreased with age (-0.3 g per year), the mass-to-volume ratio markedly increased (+5 mg/mL per year, Pfall in stroke volume (-0.4 mL per year, P or =65 years; hazard ratio, 1.68 [CI 0.77 to 3.68]) individuals with the highest compared to lowest mass-to-volume ratio quintile (P(interaction)=0.013). Age is associated with a phenotype of LV remodeling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic as well as diastolic myocardial dysfunction that is not reflected by preserved ejection fraction. This pattern of ventricular remodeling confers significant cardiovascular risk, particularly when present earlier in life.

  18. Potentialities of using 201Tl-chloride in the differential diagnosis of coronarogenic and extraconarogenic myocardial lesions in menopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, V.A.; Nechaev, D.D.; Laskin, S.A.; Martynov, I.V.; Petukhova, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    76 menopausal females were subjected to general clinical examination: biochemical investigation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; radioimmunoassay of hormones; myocardial scintigraphy with 201 Tl-chloride to diagnose coronarogenic and extracoronarogenic myocardial lesions. It is shown that the application of myocardial scintigraphy with 201 Tl-chloride in menopausal females has followed to clarify the degree of distrophic changes in the myocardium of the left ventricle and to differentiate dyshormonal dystrophy and myocardial ischemia

  19. Assessment of myocardial viability by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, Joern J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of myocardial viability after infarction focuses on the prediction of functional improvement of dysfunctional myocardium after revascularization therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging provides different approaches for the detection of myocardial viability. Measurement of end-diastolic wall thickness is easy to perform and has a high sensitivity, but a low specificity, and can only be used 4 months after myocardial infarction due to infarct healing processes. Low-dose dobutamine stress has a good sensitivity with a high specificity for the prediction of wall motion improvement, but this is only true for patients with a singular dysfunctional area and only slightly depressed cardiac function. Late enhancement allows for direct visualization of necrotic or scarred tissue. By measuring the transmural extent of late enhancement, the probability of mechanical improvement can precisely be given. Imaging of microvascular obstruction by first-pass perfusion or late enhancement gives additional information on viability and patient prognosis. Metabolic imaging techniques, such as 31 P-MR spectroscopy and 23 Na-MR imaging, provide further insights into the mechanisms of myocardial infarction and viability. In conclusion, cardiac MRI offers several clinically usable approaches for the assessment of myocardial viability and will probably become the method of choice in the near future. (orig.)

  20. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, Troels; la Cour, Morten

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).......To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM)....

  1. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  2. Three Studies Point to Same Risk Gene for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... point to same risk gene for age-related macular degeneration NIH-funded research helps unravel the biology of ... rare, but powerful risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of vision loss in ...

  3. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...

  4. Microneedle fractional radiofrequency increases epidermal hyaluronan and reverses age-related epidermal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Seo, Seong Rak; Yoon, Moon Soo; Song, Ji-Ye; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Sang Eun

    2016-02-01

    Skin aging results in physiological alterations in keratinocyte activities and epidermal function, as well as dermal changes. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that cause epidermal dysfunction during skin aging are not well understood. Recently, the role of epidermal hyaluronan (HA) as an active regulator of dynamic cellular processes is getting attention and alterations in HA metabolism are thought to be important in age-related epidermal dysfunction. Microneedle fractional radiofrequency (RF) has shown effects for improving cutaneous aging. However, little is known about the effects of fractional RF on the epidermal HA and epidermal function. We investigated the effect of microneedle fractional RF on the expression of epidermal HA in young and aged mice epidermis. We performed fractional RF on the dorsal skin of 30 8-week-old (young) hairless mice and 15 47-week-old (aged) C57BL/6J mice. Skin samples were collected on day 1, 3, and 7. HA content was measured by ELISA. Gene expressions of CD 44, HABP4, and HAS3 were measured using real time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry for detection of HA, CD44, PCNA, and filaggrin were performed. HA content and the mRNA levels of HABP4, CD44, and HAS3 were upregulated in the epidermis of both young and aged mice after microneedle fractional RF treatment. The expression was increased from day 1 after treatment and increased expression persisted on day 7. Fractional RF treatment significantly increased PCNA and filaggrin expression only in the aged mice skin. Microneedle fractional RF increased epidermal HA and CD44 expression in both young and aged mice and reversed age-related epidermal dysfunction especially in aged mice, suggesting a new mechanism involved in the skin rejuvenation effect of microneedle fractional RF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Associations between a polymorphism in the pleiotropic GCKR and Age-related phenotypes: the HALCyon programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamuno Alfred

    Full Text Available The glucokinase regulatory protein encoded by GCKR plays an important role in glucose metabolism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1260326 (P446L in the gene has been associated with several age-related biomarkers, including triglycerides, glucose, insulin and apolipoproteins. However, associations between SNPs in the gene and other ageing phenotypes such as cognitive and physical capability have not been reported.As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon collaborative research programme, men and women from five UK cohorts aged between 44 and 90+ years were genotyped for rs1260326. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study genotypic associations between the SNP and several age-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI, blood lipid levels, lung function, and cognitive and physical capability.We confirm the associations between the minor allele of the SNP and higher triglycerides and lower glucose levels. We also observed a triglyceride-independent association between the minor allele and lower BMI (pooled beta on z-score= -0.04, p-value=0.0001, n=16,251. Furthermore, there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions, including physical activity attenuating the effects on triglycerides. However, no associations were observed with measures of cognitive and physical capability.Findings from middle-aged to older adults confirm associations between rs1260326 GCKR and triglycerides and glucose, suggest possible gene-environment interactions, but do not provide evidence that its relevance extends to cognitive and physical capability.

  6. Positron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a unique imaging approach since it allows quantification of regional myocardial radioactivity by virtue of its decay characteristics. Studies of regional myocardial metabolism are possible since there are positron emitting isotopes of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen that can be used to synthesize labeled fatty acids, amino acids or carbohydrate. Recent studies from the author's group have focused on Rb-82, a diffusible cation with a short half-life that is obtained from a generator and thus, has the potential for routine clinical use without a cyclotron. In this chapter, the basic principles of positron imaging and their application to imaging of acute myocardial infarction are discussed

  7. Telomere in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of elderly population in the world keep increasing. In their advanced ages, many elderly face years of disability because of multiple chronic diseases, frailty, making them lost their independence. Consequently, this could have impacts on social and economic stability. A huge challenge has been sent for biomedical researchers to compress or at least eliminate this period of disability and increase the health span. CONTENT: Over the past decades, many studies of telomere biology have demonstrated that telomeres and telomere-associated proteins are implicated in human diseases. Accelerated telomere erosion was clearly correlated with a pack of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Critically short telomeres or the unprotected end, are likely to form telomeric fusion, generating genomic instability, the cornerstone for carcinogenesis. Enlightening how telomeres involved in the mechanisms underlying the diseases’ pathogenesis was expected to uncover new molecular targets for any important diagnosis or therapeutic implications. SUMMARY: Telomere shortening was foreseen as an imporant mechanism to supress tumor by limiting cellular proliferative capacity by regulating senescence check point activation. Many human diseases and carcinogenesis are causally related to defective telomeres, asserting the importance of telomeres sustainment. Thus, telomere length assessment might serve as an important tool for clinical prognostic, diagnostic, monitoring and management. KEYWORDS: telomerase, cellular senescence, aging, cancer

  8. Technetium and rhenium complexes with modified fatty acid ligands 4. Evaluation of two new classes of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids as potential tracers for myocardial metabolism imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, A.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A. [TU Dresden, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus (Germany); Jung, C.M.; Spies, H.

    2002-01-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-labelled fatty acids were synthesized according to the '3+1' mixed-ligand approach and investigated as potential tracers for myocardial SPECT diagnostics on the model of the isolated guinea pig heart. The results indicate a low but specific myocardial uptake of the {sup 99m}Tc fatty acid derivatives subject to chain length and structure. (orig.)

  9. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  10. The Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Subgroups in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Subhi, Yousif

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis.......To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis....

  11. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  12. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  13. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  14. Respiratory muscle endurance is limited by lower ventilatory efficiency in post-myocardial infarction patients

    OpenAIRE

    Neves,Laura M. T.; Karsten,Marlus; Neves,Victor R.; Beltrame,Thomas; Borghi-Silva,Audrey; Catai,Aparecida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reduced respiratory muscle endurance (RME) contributes to increased dyspnea upon exertion in patients with cardiovascular disease. Objective: The objective was to characterize ventilatory and metabolic responses during RME tests in post-myocardial infarction patients without respiratory muscle weakness. Method: Twenty-nine subjects were allocated into three groups: recent myocardial infarction group (RG, n=9), less-recent myocardial infarction group (LRG, n=10), and contr...

  15. Age-related normal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad (Sweden); Lilja, B. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden); Mattsson, S. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Aim: The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In Verbindung mit einer routinemaessigen Skelettszintigraphie wurde die Speicherung von {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in der unteren Wirbelsaeule quantifiziert. Methoden: 57 Frauen und 22 Maenner (Alter von 20-69 Jahren) ohne metabolische oder boesartige Erkrankungen sowie ohne Rueckenschmerzen oder Wirbelsinterungen wurden in die Studien aufgenommen. Ergebnisse: Bei Frauen zeigte sich ein Anstieg der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung zwischen den Altersabschnitten 20 bis 45 Jahre und dann ein Abfall waehrend der Menopause. Im Gegensatz hierzu zeigte sich bei Maennern ein leichter Abfall der Speicherung vom 20. bis 50. Lebensjahr und danach eine noch staerkere Abnahme. Der Hauptunterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern ist die relativ hohe Speicherung im weiblichen Skelett praemenopausal. Schlussfolgerung: Das Verstaendnis der Altersbeziehungen der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung als Indikator des Knochenstoffwechsels ist fuer Praevention und Behandlung der postmenopausalen Osteoporose wichtig. (orig.)

  16. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (P<0.05 uncorrected). For path analysis, seven brain regions (bilateral middle frontal gyri and putamen, left fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate and right parahippocampal gyri) were selected based on the results of the correlation analysis. Model construction and path analysis processing were done by AMOS 5.0. The elderly had significantly lower total hit rates than the young (P<0.005). In the correlation analysis, both groups showed similar metabolic correlation in frontal and striatal area. But correlation in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) was found differently by group. In path analysis, the functional networks for the constructed model was accepted (X(2) =0.80, P=0.67) and it proved to be significantly different between groups (X{sub diff}(37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects.

  17. Macular xanthophylls, lipoprotein-related genes, and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna; Neuringer, Martha; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based macular xanthophylls (MXs; lutein and zeaxanthin) and the lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin are the major constituents of macular pigment, a compound concentrated in retinal areas that are responsible for fine-feature visual sensation. There is an unmet need to examine the genetics of factors influencing regulatory mechanisms and metabolic fates of these 3 MXs because they are linked to processes implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work we provide an overview of evidence supporting a molecular basis for AMD-MX associations as they may relate to DNA sequence variation in AMD- and lipoprotein-related genes. We recognize a number of emerging research opportunities, barriers, knowledge gaps, and tools offering promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. Overviews on AMD- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related genes encoding receptors, transporters, and enzymes affecting or affected by MXs are followed with information on localization of products from these genes to retinal cell types manifesting AMD-related pathophysiology. Evidence on the relation of each gene or gene product with retinal MX response to nutrient intake is discussed. This information is followed by a review of results from mechanistic studies testing gene-disease relations. We then present findings on relations of AMD with DNA sequence variants in MX-associated genes. Our conclusion is that AMD-associated DNA variants that influence the actions and metabolic fates of HDL system constituents should be examined further for concomitant influence on MX absorption, retinal tissue responses to MX intake, and the capacity to modify MX-associated factors and processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Macular xanthophylls, lipoprotein-related genes, and age-related macular degeneration1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna; Neuringer, Martha; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2014-01-01

    Plant-based macular xanthophylls (MXs; lutein and zeaxanthin) and the lutein metabolite meso-zeaxanthin are the major constituents of macular pigment, a compound concentrated in retinal areas that are responsible for fine-feature visual sensation. There is an unmet need to examine the genetics of factors influencing regulatory mechanisms and metabolic fates of these 3 MXs because they are linked to processes implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In this work we provide an overview of evidence supporting a molecular basis for AMD-MX associations as they may relate to DNA sequence variation in AMD- and lipoprotein-related genes. We recognize a number of emerging research opportunities, barriers, knowledge gaps, and tools offering promise for meaningful investigation and inference in the field. Overviews on AMD- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)–related genes encoding receptors, transporters, and enzymes affecting or affected by MXs are followed with information on localization of products from these genes to retinal cell types manifesting AMD-related pathophysiology. Evidence on the relation of each gene or gene product with retinal MX response to nutrient intake is discussed. This information is followed by a review of results from mechanistic studies testing gene-disease relations. We then present findings on relations of AMD with DNA sequence variants in MX-associated genes. Our conclusion is that AMD-associated DNA variants that influence the actions and metabolic fates of HDL system constituents should be examined further for concomitant influence on MX absorption, retinal tissue responses to MX intake, and the capacity to modify MX-associated factors and processes implicated in AMD pathogenesis. PMID:24829491

  19. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  20. Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated with Stroke Among Elderly Americans?§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Methods: Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions (AMD and type, history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hypertension, and diabetes) were defined based on the occurrence of relevant ICD-9 codes in relevant diagnosis fields of the baseline Medicare Data. We excluded 215,900 persons who had a diagnosis of MI or stroke during baseline period to form a cohort of 1,303,186 individuals who were free of major cardio-cerebral vascular disease (CVD) at baseline. Main Outcome Measures: In two years of follow-up (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003), a total of 89,501 incident stroke cases were identified, including 80,018 ischemic, 7048 hemorrhagic, and 2,435 stroke cases of both types. Results: Baseline mean age was 75 years (Standard Divination=7.7), with 60% women and 88% whites. The prevalence of AMD was 10.6%, with 19.7% being neovascular AMD and 80.3% being non-neovascular AMD. Baseline age, gender, race, hypertension, and diabetes adjusted 2-year incident odds ratios and 95% confidence internal of stroke associated with AMD were 1.31 (1.26, 1.36) for neovascular AMD, 1.18 (1.15, 1.21) for non-neovascular AMD, and 1.21 (1.18, 1.23) for either neovascular or non-neovascular AMD. Conclusion: The findings are suggestive of an association between AMD, especially neovascular AMD, and incident stroke, independent of demographic factors and co-morbidity. These findings, if confirmed by other studies that control for smoking and other lifestyle covariables not measured in this study, suggest the possibility of shared common

  1. Is age-related macular degeneration associated with stroke among elderly americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo

    2008-03-08

    To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Population-based cohort study. The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions (AMD and type, history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hypertension, and diabetes) were defined based on the occurrence of relevant ICD-9 codes in relevant diagnosis fields of the baseline Medicare Data. We excluded 215,900 persons who had a diagnosis of MI or stroke during baseline period to form a cohort of 1,303,186 individuals who were free of major cardio-cerebral vascular disease (CVD) at baseline. In two years of follow-up (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003), a total of 89,501 incident stroke cases were identified, including 80,018 ischemic, 7048 hemorrhagic, and 2,435 stroke cases of both types. Baseline mean age was 75 years (Standard Divination=7.7), with 60% women and 88% whites. The prevalence of AMD was 10.6%, with 19.7% being neovascular AMD and 80.3% being non-neovascular AMD. Baseline age, gender, race, hypertension, and diabetes adjusted 2-year incident odds ratios and 95% confidence internal of stroke associated with AMD were 1.31 (1.26, 1.36) for neovascular AMD, 1.18 (1.15, 1.21) for non-neovascular AMD, and 1.21 (1.18, 1.23) for either neovascular or non-neovascular AMD. The findings are suggestive of an association between AMD, especially neovascular AMD, and incident stroke, independent of demographic factors and co-morbidity. These findings, if confirmed by other studies that control for smoking and other lifestyle covariables not measured in this study, suggest the possibility of shared common antecedents between stroke and AMD.

  2. Evolving Knowledge in Pharmacologic Treatments of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane Daguet, Gisèle; Risard-Gasiorowski, Sarah; Massamba, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Modern retinal drug therapy is a result of the recent challenges and breakthroughs in chemistry, physics, genetics, cell biology and biotechnologies. Specific pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of a drug are of major importance and contribute to its ability to penetrate targeted ocular tissues in order to result in effective therapeutic concentrations. In addition, the drugs should maintain a prolonged time of activity and be safe with minimal local and systemic toxicity. The transporter vehicle or drug delivery system is crucial in order to enhance ocular tissue penetration and establish controlled drug release. Administration methods should be local, thereby reducing systemic side effects, and, ideally, treatment should be noninvasive. Within the group of so-called classic therapies, the use of pharmacologic treatments has become widespread for most severe retinal diseases. Thereby, ocular therapy of diseases like exudative age-related macular degeneration has improved markedly. Moreover, new metabolic pathways have been identified, new molecules have emerged, new synthesis technologies have been discovered, and new formulae conceived. These developments have opened new avenues for limiting disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  4. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  5. Age-related difference in the effective neural connectivity associated with probabilistic category learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eun Jin; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Hee Jung; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that explicit memory is affected by the deleterious changes in brain with aging, but effect of aging in implicit memory such as probabilistic category learning (PCL) is not clear. To identify the effect of aging on the neural interaction for successful PCL, we investigated the neural substrates of PCL and the age-related changes of the neural network between these brain regions. 23 young (age, 252 y; 11 males) and 14 elderly (673 y; 7 males) healthy subjects underwent FDG PET during a resting state and 150-trial weather prediction (WP) task. Correlations between the WP hit rates and regional glucose metabolism were assessed using SPM2 (P diff (37) = 142.47, P<0.005), Systematic comparisons of each path revealed that frontal crosscallosal and the frontal to parahippocampal connection were most responsible for the model differences (P<0.05). For the successful PCL, the elderly recruits the basal ganglia implicit memory system but MTL recruitment differs from the young. The inadequate MTL correlation pattern in the elderly is may be caused by the changes of the neural pathway related with explicit memory. These neural changes can explain the decreased performance of PCL in elderly subjects

  6. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  7. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  8. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  9. Epinephrine and glucose modulate training-related CREB phosphorylation in old rats: relationships to age-related memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ken A; Gold, Paul E

    2013-02-01

    Epinephrine enhances memory in young adult rats, in part, by increasing blood glucose levels needed to modulate memory. In old rats, epinephrine is deficient at raising blood glucose levels and thus is only moderately effective at enhancing memory. In contrast, systemic glucose injections improve memory in old rats, with resulting memory performance equal to that of young rats. The diminished response of glucose to training in old rats may blunt downstream neurochemical and molecular mechanisms needed to upregulate memory processes. In the first experiment, young adult and old rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance task with immediate post-training injections of aCSF or glucose into the dorsal hippocampus. Old rats had significant memory impairments compared to young rats 7 days after training. Intrahippocampal injections of glucose reversed age-related deficits, improving memory scores in old rats to values seen in young rats. A second experiment examined age-related changes in activation of the transcription factor CREB, which is widely implicated in memory formation and may act downstream of hormonal and metabolic signals. Activation was assessed in response to training with systemic injections of epinephrine and glucose at doses known to enhance memory. Young adult and old rats were trained on inhibitory avoidance with immediate post-training systemic injections of saline, epinephrine, or glucose. After training, old rats had significant impairments in CREB phosphorylation in area CA1 and the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, and in the basolateral and lateral amygdala. Epinephrine and glucose attenuated age-related deficits in CREB phosphorylation, but were more effective in the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Together, these results support the view that age-related changes in blood glucose responses to epinephrine contribute to memory impairments, which may be related to alterations in regional patterns of CREB phosphorylation. Copyright

  10. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  11. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Jyotirmay; Raman Rajiv

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, ...

  12. Metabolismo miocárdico após cardioplegia sangüínea hipotérmica retrógrada contínua Myocardial metabolism after hypothermic retrograde continuous blood cardioplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio G. SOBROSA

    2000-09-01

    çamento aórtico e que somente com 60 minutos de reperfusão houve uma recuperação metabólica parcial. Essas alterações são, provavelmente, o reflexo da injúria isquêmica celular ocorrida durante o pinçamento aórtico e são de efeito transitório.MATERIAL AND METHODS: An metabolic analyse of hypothermic retrograde continuous blood cardioplegia was done in a prospective study of 15 patients scheduled for elective CABG. Inclusions criteria were double or triple vessel coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function (ejection fraction > 40%. Exclusions criteria were unstable angina, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and associated peroperative procedures. Three patients were excluded of the study (associated procedure and coronary sinus catether dislocation. Arterial and coronary sinus blood samples were simultaneouslly taken: before ECC (extracorporeal circulation, when the aortic clamp was takem off and 10, 30 and 60 minutes after reperfusion for analysing of oxygen content and lactate concentration. Four transmural left ventricular biopsies samples were obtained: before aortic clamping, immediately after the inicial cardioplegia bolus, immediately before aortic declamping and 30 minutes after reperfusion for analysing of the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate in the myocardial. The CK-MB isoenzyme was analysed in venous blood samples. RESULTS: There was no mortality in the group. There was a decrease in the arterial-venous extraction of oxygen and lactate in the heart during reperfusion, occurring a parcial recuperation only at 60 minutes of reperfusion. The ATP and the others nucleotides had their levels in the myocardium maintened during aortic clamping, but these levels decreased during the first 30 minutes of reperfusion. The lactate was accumulated in the heart muscle during aortic clamping and his levels also decreased during reperfusion. The CK-MB levels were elevated specially between the third and sixth post-operative hour. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Altered lipid metabolism in the aging kidney identified by three layered omic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Fabian; Rinschen, Markus M; Bartels, Valerie; Frommolt, Peter; Habermann, Bianca; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Schumacher, Björn; Dollé, Martijn E T; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; Kurschat, Christine E

    2016-03-01

    Aging-associated diseases and their comorbidities affect the life of a constantly growing proportion of the population in developed countries. At the center of these comorbidities are changes of kidney structure and function as age-related chronic kidney disease predisposes to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure. To detect molecular mechanisms involved in kidney aging, we analyzed gene expression profiles of kidneys from adult and aged wild-type mice by transcriptomic, proteomic and targeted lipidomic methodologies. Interestingly, transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed differential expression of genes primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immune response. Additional lipidomic analyses uncovered significant age-related differences in the total amount of phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins as well as in subspecies of phosphatidylserines and ceramides with age. By integration of these datasets we identified Aldh1a1, a key enzyme in vitamin A metabolism specifically expressed in the medullary ascending limb, as one of the most prominent upregulated proteins in old kidneys. Moreover, ceramidase Asah1 was highly expressed in aged kidneys, consistent with a decrease in ceramide C16. In summary, our data suggest that changes in lipid metabolism are involved in the process of kidney aging and in the development of chronic kidney disease.

  14. Age-related synaptic loss of the medial olivocochlear efferent innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Angela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related functional decline of the nervous system is consistently observed, though cellular and molecular events responsible for this decline remain largely unknown. One of the most prevalent age-related functional declines is age-related hearing loss (presbycusis, a major cause of which is the loss of outer hair cells (OHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. Previous studies have also identified an age-related functional decline in the medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent system prior to age-related loss of OHCs. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that this functional decline of the MOC efferent system is due to age-related synaptic loss of the efferent innervation of the OHCs. To this end, we used a recently-identified transgenic mouse line in which the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP, under the control of neuron-specific elements from the thy1 gene, permits the visualization of the synaptic connections between MOC efferent fibers and OHCs. In this model, there was a dramatic synaptic loss between the MOC efferent fibers and the OHCs in older mice. However, age-related loss of efferent synapses was independent of OHC status. These data demonstrate for the first time that age-related loss of efferent synapses may contribute to the functional decline of the MOC efferent system and that this synaptic loss is not necessary for age-related loss of OHCs.

  15. Hot shot induction and reperfusion with a specific blocker of the es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter before and after hypothermic cardioplegia abolishes myocardial stunning in acutely ischemic hearts despite metabolic derangement: Hot shot drug delivery before hypothermic cardioplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elfattah, Anwar Saad; Tuchy, Gert E.; Jessen, Michael E.; Salter, David R.; Goldstein, Jacques P.; Brunsting, Louis A.; Wechsler, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Simultaneous inhibition of the cardiac equilibrative-p-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)–sensitive (es) type of the equilibrative nucleoside transport 1 (ENT1) nucleoside transporter, with NBMPR, and adenosine deaminase, with erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl]adenine (EHNA), prevents release of myocardial purines and attenuates myocardial stunning and fibrillation in canine models of warm ischemia and reperfusion. It is not known whether prolonged administration of hypothermic cardioplegia influences purine release and EHNA/NBMPR-mediated cardioprotection in acutely ischemic hearts. Methods Anesthetized dogs (n = 46), which underwent normothermic aortic crossclamping for 20 minutes on-pump, were divided to determine (1) purine release with induction of intermittent antegrade or continuous retrograde hypothermic cardioplegia and reperfusion, (2) the effects of postischemic treatment with 100 µM EHNA and 25 µM NBMPR on purine release and global functional recovery, and (3) whether a hot shot and reperfusion with EHNA/NBMPR inhibits purine release and attenuates ventricular dysfunction of ischemic hearts. Myocardial biopsies and coronary sinus effluents were obtained and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Warm ischemia depleted myocardial adenosine triphosphate and elevated purines (ie, inosine > adenosine) as markers of ischemia. Induction of intermittent antegrade or continuous retrograde hypothermic (4°C) cardioplegia releases purines until the heart becomes cold (90% of purines in coronary sinus effluent. Reperfusion with EHNA/NBMPR abolished ventricular dysfunction in acutely ischemic hearts with and without a hot shot and hypothermic cardioplegic arrest. Conclusions Induction of hypothermic cardioplegia releases purines from ischemic hearts until they become cold, whereas reperfusion induces massive purine release and myocardial stunning. Inhibition of cardiac es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter abolishes postischemic reperfusion

  16. [Clinical significance of myocardial 123I-BMIPP imaging in patients with myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, M; Kurihara, T; Shindoh, T; Honda, M

    1997-03-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of fatty acid metabolism in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), we performed myocardial imaging with 123I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and we compared these findings with exercise stress (Ex) and resting myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) and left ventricular wall motion index (WMI) which were obtained by left ventriculography. We studied 55 patients with MI, 14 patients with recent MI (RMI) and 41 patients with old MI (OMI), and myocardial images were divided into 17 segments and myocardial uptake of the radionuclide was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (maximal abnormality). In 28 patients we compared segmental defect score (SDS) with WMI which were obtained by centerline method at the corresponded segments. As a whole, the mean total defect scores (TDSs) of BMIPP and Ex were similar and they were greater than the mean TDS of resting perfusion. In 30 patient (55%) TDS of BMIPP was greater than that of TDS of resting perfusion. In 24 patients perfusion abnormality developed by Ex and the location of BMIPP abnormality coincided with the abnormality of Ex. But in the other 6 patients Ex did not induce any abnormality and they were all RMI and infarcted coronary artery was patent. However in the group with TDS of BMIPP identical to TDS of resting perfusion (25 patients), 92% did not show myocardial perfusion abnormality after Ex. In the comparison of SDS and WMI, myocardial segments were divided into 3 groups; both SDSs of BMIPP and resting perfusion were normal or borderline abnormality (Group 1, 82 segments), SDS of resting perfusion was normal or borderline and SDS of BMIPP was definitely abnormal (Group 2, 10 segments) and both SDSs of BMIPP and resting perfusion were definitely abnormal (Group 3, 48 segments). In Group 1, WMS (-0.41 +/- 0.77) was significantly (p acid metabolism may appear in viable myocardium such as jeopardized myocardium and myocardium which

  17. Fatty acid myocardial imaging using 123I-β-methyl-iophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP): Comparison of myocardial perfusion and fatty acid utilization in canine myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Sago, Masayoshi; Kihara, Koichi; Oka, Hisashi; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Katabuchi, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Makoto; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Noda, Hiroyuki; Takano, Hisateru

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism in canine myocardial infarction, 16 dogs were studied using thallium and 123 I-β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). Eight dogs (group A) had left anterior coronary arterial occlusion (6 h ligation), 6 dogs (group B) had reperfusion (3 h ligation and 1 h reperfusion) and 2 dogs served as the normal control. Myocardial imaging with BMIPP was excellent, owing to its higher uptake and longer retention in myocardium and rapid blood disappearance in addition to diminished liver and lung uptake. The mean half time value which was generated from the BMIPP myocardial washout curve, was significantly larger in the reperfused myocardium. The gamma camera imaging showed uncoupling of BMIPP and thallium (BMIPP uptake greater than thallium uptake) in five dogs in group B. On the other hand, all dogs in group A had a persistent defect in BMIPP and thallium uptake. Our findings indicate that the combination of BMIPP and thallium for myocardial imaging supply different information about the zone of infarction and ischemia, which may be useful for the assessment of myocardial viability. (orig.)

  18. Myocardial Impairment Detected by Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Comparison with 99mTc-MIBI/Tetrofosmin and 123I-BMIPP SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimura, Hiromi; Kiso, Keisuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kono, Atsushi; Morita, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Kazuto; Higashi, Masahiro; Noguchi Teruo; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial fibrosis is considered to be an important factor in myocardial dysfunction and sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The purpose of this study was to compare myocardial fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac MRI with myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism assessed by single photon emission computed tomography in HCM.Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 20 consecutive HCM patients (female, 7; mean age, 5...

  19. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  20. [Physical activity diminishes aging-related decline of physical and cognitive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Babai, László

    2014-05-25

    Aging-related decline of muscle force, walking speed, locomotor coordination, aerobic capacity and endurance exert prognostic impact on life expectancy. Proper use of training may diminish the aging process and it may improve the quality of life of elderly persons. This paper provides a brief summary on the impact of training on aging-related decline of physical and cognitive functions.

  1. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  2. Development of age-related maculopathy: a histochemical and molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lambooij (Antoinette)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAge-related maculopathy (ARM) is a severe threat to the visual ability of people over 65 years of age. In the late stages of ARM, called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), photoreceptor cells gradually disappear. New vessels growing beneath the retina may complicateb the disease;

  3. Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Franz Josef Gellert; R. Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: – This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the

  4. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  5. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation towards the bone forming osteoblastic lineage decreases as a function of age and may contribute to age-related...problem of age-related reduced availability of MSC we propose to examine the bone anabolic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) derived MSC

  6. Subfoveal fibrosis in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis.......To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis....

  7. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  8. Verteporfin plus ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.......To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration....

  9. Gender- and age-related differences in clinical presentation and management of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Abergel, Hélène; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Greenlaw, Nicola; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Hu, Dayi; Tendera, Michal; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2013-09-10

    Contemporary generalizable data on the demographics and management of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in routine clinical practice are sparse. Using the data from the CLARIFY registry we describe gender- and age-related differences in baseline characteristics and management of these patients across broad geographic regions. This international, prospective, observational, longitudinal registry enrolled stable CAD outpatients from 45 countries in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and North, Central, and South America. Baseline data were available for 33280 patients. Mean (SD) age was 64 (10.5) years and 22.5% of patients were female. The prevalence of CAD risk factors was generally higher in women than in men. Women were older (66.6 vs 63.4 years), more frequently diagnosed with diabetes (33% vs 28%), hypertension (79% vs 69%), and higher resting heart rate (69 vs 67 bpm), and were less physically active. Smoking and a history of myocardial infarction were more common in men. Women were more likely to have angina (28% vs 20%), but less likely to have undergone revascularization procedures. CAD was more likely to be asymptomatic in older patients perhaps because of reduced levels of physical activity. Prescription of evidence-based medication for secondary prevention varied with age, with patients ≥ 75 years treated less often with beta blockers, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors than patients age groups of outpatients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Martijn Fh; Eijsvogels, Thijs Mh; Stevens, Guus; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Hopman, Maria Te

    2017-11-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the hypothesis that lifelong exercise training is related to attenuated pathological left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction as evidenced by better left ventricular systolic function in veteran athletes compared to sedentary peers. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Sixty-five males (60 ± 6 years) were included and allocated to four groups based on lifelong exercise training volumes: (a) athletes ( n = 18), (b) post-myocardial infarction athletes (athletes + myocardial infarction, n = 20), (c) sedentary controls ( n = 13), and (d) post-myocardial infarction controls (sedentary controls + myocardial infarction, n = 14). Athletes were lifelong (≥20 years) highly physically active (≥30 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/week), whereas sedentary controls did not meet the exercise guidelines (creatine-kinase, creatinine, aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase) following myocardial infarction and infarct location did not differ between athletes + myocardial infarction and sedentary controls + myocardial infarction. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in athletes (61% ± 4), athletes + myocardial infarction (58% ± 4) and sedentary controls (57% ± 6) compared to sedentary controls + myocardial infarction (51% ± 7; p athletes (-19% (-21% to -17%), athletes + myocardial infarction (-16% (-20% to -12%)), and sedentary controls (-15% (-18% to -14%) compared to sedentary controls + myocardial infarction (-13% (-15% to -8%), p athletes.

  11. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation

  12. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60-69 years) and old elderly (70-80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. A total of 1288 participants' level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Significant differences (P men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

  13. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation mechanism of brain

  14. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M.; Fusilli, S.; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm 3 per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  15. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  16. PATTERNS OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE DEFECTS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION SUBTYPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkok, Ahmet; Sigford, Douglas K; Tezel, Tongalp H

    2016-11-01

    To test define characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns of different exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-two patients with choroidal neovascularization because of three different neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes were included in the study. Macular and peripheral fundus autofluorescence patterns of study subjects were compared in a masked fashion. Fundus autofluorescence patterns of all three neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes revealed similar patterns. However, peripapillary hypo-autofluorescence was more common among patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (88.2%) compared with patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation (12.5%) and patients without retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (21.1%) (P autofluorescence defects in neovascular age-related macular degeneration maybe suggestive of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  17. Age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving: The role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, T; Lemaire, P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of how age-related changes in executive control influence aging effects in arithmetic processing. More specifically, we consider the role of executive control in strategic variations with age during arithmetic problem solving. Previous studies found that age-related differences in arithmetic performance are associated with strategic variations. That is, when they accomplish arithmetic problem-solving tasks, older adults use fewer strategies than young adults, use strategies in different proportions, and select and execute strategies less efficiently. Here, we review recent evidence, suggesting that age-related changes in inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory processes underlie age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving. We discuss both behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in these executive control processes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Myocardial Blood Volume Is Associated with Myocardial Oxygen Consumption: An Experimental Study with CMR in a Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Zhang, Haosen; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Misselwitz, Bernd; Abendschein, Dana R.; Gropler, Robert J.; Zheng, Jie

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the feasibility of cardiovascular MR (CMR) to determine regional myocardial perfusion and O2 metabolism, and assess the role of myocardial blood volume (MBV) on oxygen supply. BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease presents as an imbalance of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. We have developed relevant CMR methods to determine the relationship of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBV to oxygen consumption (MVO2) during pharmacologic hyperemia. METHODS Twenty-one mongrel dogs were studied with varying stenosis severities imposed on the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. MBF and MBV were determined by CMR first-pass perfusion, while the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and MVO2 were determined by the myocardial Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) effect and Fick’s law, respectively. MR imaging was performed at rest, and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced hyperemia. Regional differences in myocardial perfusion and oxygenation were then evaluated. RESULTS Dipyridamole and dobutamine both led to 145–200% increases in MBF and 50–80% increases in MBV in normal perfused myocardium. As expected, MVO2 increased more significantly with dobutamine (~175%) than dipyridamole (~40%). Coronary stenosis resulted in an attenuation of MBF, MBV, and MVO2 in both the LAD-subtended stenosis region and the left circumflex subtended remote region. Liner regression analysis showed that MBV reserve appears to be more correlated with MVO2 reserve during dobutamine stress than MBF reserve, particularly in the stenotic regions. Conversely, MBF reserve appears to be more correlated with MVO2 reserve during dipyridamole, although neither of these differences was significant. CONCLUSIONS Noninvasive evaluation of both myocardial perfusion and oxygenation by CMR facilitates direct monitoring of regional myocardial ischemia and provides a valuable tool for better understanding microvascular pathophysiology. These

  19. Myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichte, H [Zentralkrankenhaus Gauting (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.

    1977-04-01

    Myocardial scintigraphy with /sup 201/thallium is a non-invasive method for detection of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Redistribution-analysis as a sequential-scintigraphy of an exercise-scan permits to distinguish between myocardial scars and coronary vessel disease.

  20. The Point of View of Pathophysiologist-Endocrinologist on the Problem of Age-Related Androgen Deficiency in Men (LOH-Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Reznikov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a pathophysiological analysis of age-related androgen deficiency syndrome in men (LOH-syndrome with special reference to current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of testosterone effects and androgen regulation of the structure and function of organs and systems of the male body. There is emphasized etiological and pathogenetic role of stress in this pathology. There is presented author’s concept of cause-effect relations between chronic stress, metabolic syndrome and LOH-syndrome.

  1. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  3. Association of HTRA1 rs11200638 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Tamires Prates; da Silva Costa, Sueli Matilde; Ananina, Galina; Hirata, Fábio Endo; Rim, Priscila Hae Hyun; Medina, Flávio MacCord; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; de Melo, Mônica Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease that can lead to vision impairment in older individuals. Although the etiology of age-related macular degeneration remains unknown, risk factors include age, ethnicity, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and genetic factors. Two main loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies, on chromosomes 1 and 10. Among the variants located at the 10q26 region, rs11200638, located at the HTRA1 gene promoter, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration in several populations and is considered the main polymorphism. We conducted a replication case-control study to analyze the frequency and participation of rs11200638 in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration in a sample of patients and controls from the State of São Paulo, Brazil, through polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion. The frequency of the A allele was 57.60% in patients with age-related macular degeneration and 36.45% in controls (p value age-related macular degeneration group compared to the control group (p = 1.21 e-07 and 0.0357, respectively). No statistically significant results were observed after stratification in dry versus wet types or advanced versus non-advanced forms. To our knowledge, this is the first time the association between rs11200638 and overall age-related macular degeneration has been reported in South America.

  4. Myocardial myoglobin release after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P S; Saltissi, S; Coltart, D J; Croft, D N [Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)

    1980-03-01

    The magnitude and time course of myoglobin release from the myocardium following infarction was assessed by radioimmunoassay. The assay showed acceptable precision over a working range from 50 to 750 ng cm/sup -3/, provided careful control of the assay temperature was maintained. The use of this radioimmunoassay as an early diagnostic test for infarction and as a potential measure of the extent of necrosis is considered and comparison made with the release of CK-MB, the myocardial specific isoenzyme of creatine kinase. Of the twenty patients studied with myocardial infarction, all had elevated levels of serum myoglobin including those admitted within 3 hours of the onset of pain. In contrast, CK-MB was not detected in the serum within 5 hours of the onset of pain. Peak serum levels of myoglobin (mean 852 +- 365 ng cm/sup -3/) and CK-MB (mean 71 +- 25 mIU cm/sup -3/) were detected at 8-16 hours and 20-24 hours respectively after the onset of pain. A comparison of peak serum levels of myoglobin and CK-MB showed a good correlation (r = 0.84).

  5. Reversible myocardial ischaemia or irreversible myocardial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathey, D.; Hanrath, P.; Kupper, W.; Bleifeld, W.; Montz, R.; Knop, J.; Stritzke, P.; Kroeger, E.; Bleese, N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of biphasis 201 thallium ( 201 Tl) scanning were compared with those of coronary arteriography, left ventricular angiography and stress ECG in 56 patients with coronary artery disease and six with no evidence of heart disease. There were 104 201 Tl defects, 50 of them reversible. The defects were always located in the area supplied by a critically stenotic coronary artery. Correlation of regional wall motion with 201 Tl activity demonstrated that in all forms of abnormal wall motion there was either ischaemia or fibrosis. The resting LV angiogram thus does not make it possible to distinguish between myocardial ischaemia and fibrosis. Taking the LV angiogram as a standard, the rate of false-positive 201 Tl scintigrams was 5%, that of false-negative ones 23%. The biphasic 201 Tl scintigram was more sensitive than the stress ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia. It furthermore made it possible to localize the ischaemic (or fibrotic) region within the LV and to estimate its size. (orig.) [de

  6. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    , which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis......-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...

  7. Myocardial scintigraphy with I-123 labeled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents experimental and clinical data in the use of I-123 labeled aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. I-123 p-phenylpentadecanoic acid (p-IPPA) and I-123 heptadecanoic acid (HDA) were applied for myocardial scintigraphy. The feasibility of p-IPPA and HDA for myocardial scintigraphy was substantiated in animal experiments. Clinical studies were performed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiomyopathy (CMP). In CAD the results of fatty acid studies were compared with those of Tl-201. I-123 labeled fatty acids proved to be a useful tool for myocardial scintigraphy. The possibility to evaluate non invasively the myocardial metabolic function in man may add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow up of patients with heart disease. In CAD studies with I-123 p-IPPA and I-123 HDA might provide a means to assess the degree of myocardial viability and to identify a subgroup of patients who are at increased risk for irreversible myocardial damage. In patients with CMP it is probable that these studies may be used as a means of separating groups of patients with this disease. (Author)

  8. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Progression of Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rodríguez-de la Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with impairment of sensorial functions and with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. As pari passu circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 bioavailability progressively decreases, we see a direct correlation with sensory impairment and cognitive performance in older humans. Age-related sensory loss is typically caused by the irreversible death of highly differentiated neurons and sensory receptor cells. Among sensory deficits, age-related hearing loss (ARHL, also named presbycusis, affects one third of the population over 65 years of age and is a major factor in the progression of cognitive problems in the elderly. The genetic and molecular bases of ARHL are largely unknown and only a few genes related to susceptibility to oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and cell death have been identified. IGF-1 is known to be a neuroprotective agent that maintains cellular metabolism, activates growth, proliferation and differentiation, and limits cell death. Inborn IGF-1 deficiency leads to profound sensorineural hearing loss both in humans and mice. IGF-1 haploinsufficiency has also been shown to correlate with ARHL. There is not much information available on the effect of IGF-1 deficiency on other human sensory systems, but experimental models show a long-term impact on the retina. A secondary action of IGF-1 is the control of oxidative stress and inflammation, thus helping to resolve damage situations, acute or made chronic by aging. Here we will review the primary actions of IGF-1 in the auditory system and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. Age-related changes in the global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in healthy women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, V.; Frusciante, V.; Scillitani, A.; Modoni, S.; Pileri, M.; Chiodini, I.; Dicembrino, F.; Romagnoli, E.; Minisola, S.

    1996-01-01

    A short-term evaluation of global skeletal uptake (GSU) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in 40 healthy female subjects with a wide age range in order to investigate the clinical performance of the technique and to detect the age-related changes in bone turnover. The results obtained were compared with measurements of the main biochemical markers of skeletal metabolism. We found that GSU increases progressively with age, independently of concomitant changes in renal function; significant correlations with biochemical markers of bone formation were also found. Therefore, the method appears to provide useful information concerning the bone turnover rate, and is also applicable to elderly people owing to its simplicity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  11. Examining Age-Related Differences in Auditory Attention Control Using a Task-Switching Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lawo; Iring Koch

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using a novel task-switching variant of dichotic selective listening, we examined age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention between 2 speakers defined by their sex.

  12. Cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Theil, Pernille Koefoed; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the outcome after cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections in routine clinical practice. Methods We extracted information about patients recorded...

  13. Protective effect of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako; Okamoto, Takuya

    2007-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis in-vivo in a rat model. The serum and hepatic triglyceride levels were remarkably elevated in 12-month-old compared with two-month-old rats. However, the administration of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin extracts significantly decreased these levels. This suggested a protective role against related pathological conditions as well as hyperlipidaemia. On the other hand, the reduction of the levels of adiponectin in serum with ageing did not show significant changes in rats given diets supplemented with Kangen-karyu and Tanjin extracts. Furthermore, the expression of transcription factors in nuclear hepatic tissue related to lipid metabolism was investigated. The decline in the expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha protein in hepatic tissue with age was ameliorated by the administration of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin supplements. On the other hand, the overexpression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2 in old rats compared with young rats showed a tendency to decrease with Kangen-karyu and Tanjin administration. The decline of hepatic function with ageing was attenuated by Kangen-karyu and Tanjin, suggesting the beneficial role of Kangen-karyu and Tanjin on lipid metabolism through the improvement of hepatic function. This study has demonstrated that Kangen-karyu and Tanjin inhibited the accumulation of triglyceride with regulation of related protein expressions and they improved hepatic function. Evidence has been provided for the anti-ageing activity of Kangen-karyu and its crude drug Tanjin against age-related lipidosis.

  14. Public opinion on age-related degradation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to shed light on the public opinion on age-related degradation at nuclear power plants, namely, on how the general public recognizes or views age-related degradation, which is a safety-related issue and one of the factors contributing to accidents and failures which occur at nuclear power plants. The second objective is to look into the impacts of the accident at Mihama Unit 3, which was caused by a failure to check on the piping wall thickness, on the public opinion on age-related degradation. The first survey was conducted in August 2003, followed by the second survey in October 2004, two months after the accident. The surveys found that the age-related degradation is being perceived by people as one of the risk factors that affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The characteristics of the citizens' perceptions toward age-related degradation in the form of piping cracks are that: (a) many respondents feel uneasy but a relatively few people consider that nuclear operators are technologically capable of coping with this problem; (b) many people believe that radioactivity may be released; and (c) numerous respondents consider that signs of cracks must be thoroughly detected through inspections, while on the other hand, a large percentage of the respondents attribute the accident to improper inspections/maintenance. Based on these results, the government and nuclear operators are expected to give most illuminating explanation on the current situation of and remedial measures against age-related degradation at nuclear power plants. As for the effects of the Mihama-3 accident on the public opinion on age-related degradation, it was revealed that the accident has not so significantly affected the general view for the safety of nuclear power plants, but has newly or strongly aroused people's consciousness of two of the risk factors - improper inspections/maintenance and the age-related degradation of piping. (author)

  15. Self-reported optometric practise patterns in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The use of advanced imaging in clinical practice is emerging and the use of this technology by optometrists in assessing patients with age-related macular degeneration is of interest. Therefore, this study explored contemporary, self-reported patterns of practice regarding age-related macular degeneration diagnosis and management using a cross-sectional survey of optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Practising optometrists were surveyed on four key areas, namely, demographics, clinical skills and experience, assessment and management of age-related macular degeneration. Questions pertaining to self-rated competency, knowledge and attitudes used a five-point Likert scale. Completed responses were received from 127 and 87 practising optometrists in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. Advanced imaging showed greater variation in service delivery than traditional techniques (such as slitlamp funduscopy) and trended toward optical coherence tomography, which was routinely performed in age-related macular degeneration by 49 per cent of respondents. Optical coherence tomography was also associated with higher self-rated competency, knowledge and perceived relevance to practice than other modalities. Most respondents (93 per cent) indicated that they regularly applied patient symptoms, case history, visual function results and signs from traditional testing, when queried about their management of patients with age-related macular degeneration. Over half (63 per cent) also considered advanced imaging, while 31 per cent additionally considered all of these as well as the disease stage and clinical guidelines. Contrary to the evidence base, 68 and 34 per cent rated nutritional supplements as highly relevant or relevant in early age-related macular degeneration and normal aging changes, respectively. These results highlight the emergence of multimodal and advanced imaging (especially optical coherence tomography) in the assessment of age-related macular degeneration

  16. Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine

    2012-01-01

    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....

  17. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Raman, Rajiv

    2002-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch's membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark's classification. Twenty-four donor eyes (48%) had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  19. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  20. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Age-related macular degeneration as a local manifestation of atherosclerosis - a novel insight into pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalińska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and disability among the elderly in developed countries. There is compelling evidence that atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration share a similar pathogenic process. The association between atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration has been inferred from histological, biochemical and epidemiological studies. Many published data indicate that drusen are similar in molecular composition to plaques in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a great body of evidence has emerged over the past decade that implicates the chronic inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis and progression of both disorders. We speculate that vascular atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration may represent different manifestations of the same disease induced by a pathologic tissue response to the damage caused by oxidative stress and local ischemia. In this review, we characterise in detail a strong association between age-related macular degeneration and atherosclerosis development, and we postulate the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of a systemic disease. This provides a new approach for understanding the aspects of pathogenesis and might improve the prevention and treatment of both diseases which both result from ageing of the human body.

  2. Antagonistic pleiotropy and mutation accumulation contribute to age-related decline in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Elizabeth R; Morgan, Theodore J

    2018-02-01

    As organisms age, the effectiveness of natural selection weakens, leading to age-related decline in fitness-related traits. The evolution of age-related changes associated with senescence is likely influenced by mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). MA predicts that age-related decline in fitness components is driven by age-specific sets of alleles, nonnegative genetic correlations within trait across age, and an increase in the coefficient of genetic variance. AP predicts that age-related decline in a trait is driven by alleles with positive effects on fitness in young individuals and negative effects in old individuals, and is expected to lead to negative genetic correlations within traits across age. We build on these predictions using an association mapping approach to investigate the change in additive effects of SNPs across age and among traits for multiple stress-response fitness-related traits, including cold stress with and without acclimation and starvation resistance. We found support for both MA and AP theories of aging in the age-related decline in stress tolerance. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of age-related decline in stress tolerance is driven by a combination of alleles that have age-specific additive effects, consistent with MA, as well as nonindependent and antagonistic genetic architectures characteristic of AP. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Comparison of several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123 labeled free fatty acids, an I-123 labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but this compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123 labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3 to 0.5 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for the I-123 labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 20 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4 to 7 μGy/MBq, heart wall 4 μGy/MBq, skeleton 15 μGy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 34 refs., 11 tabs

  4. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Milanovic,1 Saša Pantelic,1 Nebojša Trajkovic,1 Goran Sporiš,2 Radmila Kostic,1 Nic James31Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia; 2Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 3London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UKAim: To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 years people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found.Methods: A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg. Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test.Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05.Conclusions: This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Age-related Macular Degeneration: Role of Inflammatory Mediators and Pyroptosis; A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pyroptosis cause irreversible vascular changes in the eyes leading to central vision loss in patients. It is the most common eye disease affecting millions of people aged 50years or older, and is slowly becoming a major health problem worldwide. The disease mainly affects macula lutea, an oval-shaped pigmented area surrounding fovea near the center of retina, a region responsible for visual acuity. It is fairly a complex disease as genetics of patients, environmental triggers as well as risk factors such as age, family history of CVDs, diabetes, gender, obesity, race, hyperopia, iris color, smoking, diabetes, exposure to sun light and pyroptosis have all been clubbed together as probable causes of macular degeneration. Among genes that are known to play a role include variant polymorphisms in the complement cascade components such as CFH, C2, C3, and CFB as potential genetic risk factors. So far, AMD disease hypothesized theories have not resulted into the anticipated impact towards the development of effective or preventive therapies in order to help alleviate patients' suffering because, as of today, it is still unclear what actually initiates or leads to this dreaded eye condition. Based upon our extensive work on the metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy) in various disease conditions we, therefore, are proposing a novel hypothesis for AMD pathogenesis as we strongly believe that Hcy and events such as pyroptosis make a greater contribution to the overall etiology of AMD disease in a target population of susceptible hosts by inciting and accelerating the inherent inflammatory changes in the retina of these patients (Fig. 2). In this context, we further state that Hcy and pyroptosis should be considered as legitimate and valuable markers of retinal dysfunction as they not only aid and abet in the development but also in the progression of AMD in older people as discussed in this paper. This discussion should open up new

  6. The relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability after reperfusion. Myocardial viability assessed by [sup 15]O-water-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Joichi (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between myocardial blood flow and myocardial viability in the ischemic canine myocardium after reperfusion. Transient ischemia was induced by 60-, 90-, and 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in the areas in which regional contractility was severely impaired (ehocardiographically akinetic or dyskinetic) in the early reperfusion period by [sup 15]O-water positron emission tomography (PET) 12 hours and 4 weeks after reperfusion. An MBF ratio of ischemic to nonischemic regions 12 hours after reperfusion was inversely correlated with the amount of histologically determined tissue necrosis (r=-0.74). The regional contractility recovered 4 weeks later in the areas where an MBF ratio was 0.48 or greater, but did not recover in the areas with a lower MBF ratio. Thus, myocardial viability can be appropriately predicted in the early phase of myocardial perfusion by PET with [sup 15]O-water even in the absence of metabolic imaging. (author).

  7. Myocardial Perfusion and Function Are Distinctly Altered by Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Diet-Induced Prediabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, Charissa E; Boly, Chantal A; Bulte, Carolien S E; van den Akker, Rob F P; Kwekkeboom, Rick F J; Loer, Stephan A; Boer, Christa; Bouwman, R Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of myocardial perfusion during surgery is particularly important in patients with increased risk for perioperative complications, such as diabetes. Volatile anesthetics, like sevoflurane, have cardiodepressive effects and may aggravate cardiovascular complications. We investigated the effect of sevoflurane on myocardial perfusion and function in prediabetic rats. Rats were fed a western diet (WD; n = 18) or control diet (CD; n = 18) for 8 weeks and underwent (contrast) echocardiography to determine perfusion and function during baseline and sevoflurane exposure. Myocardial perfusion was estimated based on the product of microvascular filling velocity and blood volume. WD-feeding resulted in a prediabetic phenotype characterized by obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. At baseline, WD-feeding impaired myocardial perfusion and systolic function compared to CD-feeding. Exposure of healthy rats to sevoflurane increased the microvascular filling velocity without altering myocardial perfusion but impaired systolic function. In prediabetic rats, sevoflurane did also not affect myocardial perfusion; however, it further impaired systolic function. Diet-induced prediabetes is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and function in rats. While sevoflurane further impaired systolic function, it did not affect myocardial perfusion in prediabetic rats. Our findings suggest that sevoflurane anesthesia leads to uncoupling of myocardial perfusion and function, irrespective of the metabolic state.

  8. Acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISCHPLER, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory processes after myocardial infarction have gained major interest in recent cardiovascular research. It is believed that not only the degree of cell recruitment to the heart plays a pivotal role in the quality of wound healing after myocardial infarction, but also the balance between different types or even subtypes of cells. It is also this balance which is thought to control key processes in tissue repair, such as apoptosis and neoangiogenesis. In this paper, we aim to review imaging strategies (with a special focus on nuclear molecular imaging strategies) that target cells and processes involved in postischemic inflammation and that have a high potential to be translated into clinic or that are already being used and evaluated in humans.

  9. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    In