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Sample records for age smoking habits

  1. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out at what age children start smoking, as well as their tobacco habits and risk perceptions according to the different school-age groups.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2007; it involved around 1700 students of the Catania province, in Southern Italy. The students filled in a structured tobacco questionnaire. They did it anonymously in the classrooms. Main outcome measures were initiation of smoking, smoking habits, number of cigarettes smoked per day and risk perception.

    Results: From the first year of the primary school to the last year of the high school the proportion of daily smokers increased from 0.0% to 11.8% for girls and from 0.8% to 12.7% for boys. For both genders the initiation of smoking habits occurred mainly at age 10 to 13. Finally, girls had a better risk perception.

    Conclusions: Studying young people’s tobacco habits over time gives an understanding of when preventive measures have to be implemented. In order to influence smoking attitudes, these preventive interventions must be put in place before children start experimenting tobacco.

  4. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  5. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  6. Smoking habits in secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, C; Saleiro, S; Marinho, A; Fernandes, G; Gomes, I

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version). A total of 1,770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years), mainly female, (58%), answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6%) were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7%) considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1%) were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2%) had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8%) considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents' and friends' behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking.

  7. Smoking Habits among Greek University Students after the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria; Nanou, Anastasia; Vasilopoulos, Christos; Kourakos, Michael; Skliros, Efstathios; Toska, Aikaterini; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2017-05-01

    Background: University students worldwide seem to have increased rates of smoking, alcohol abuse, binge drinking episodes and harmful consumption trends, raising a serious public health issue. The aim of the present study was to investigate university students’ smoking habits and exposure to secondary smoke amid a financial crisis. Methods: The present descriptive, correlational analysis was conducted at the University of Peloponnese. Results: The average age of the sample (n=203) was 24.9 years (±7.6 years) with 36.0% of the participants (n=73) being postgraduate students. Some 51.2% (n=104) of the participants said they didn’t smoke and 46.3% (n=94, p=0.003) reported no secondary smoke exposure during the past week at home. The majority of the remainder initiated smoking at age 16-17 (48.5%, n=48), and 64.6% (n=42) said the financial crisis did not lead them to change their smoking habits. Conclusions: The majority of students support smoking ban laws in enclosed public spaces, but also their replies highlighted poor implementation on behalf of the state and the authorities. The financial crisis did not appear to have affected student smoking habits. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  9. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  10. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  11. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  12. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  13. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  14. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  15. [Association between GSK3β polymorphisms and the smoking habits in young Japanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahori, Kenta; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Narita, Shin; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. As a result, rs334558 was significantly associated with smoking habits in genotype frequency and allelic frequency (P smoking habits.

  16. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  17. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  18. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  19. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND SMOKING HABITS OF SENIOR INDUSTRIAL STAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Susan H.; Wood, C. H.; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the smoking habits of 224 industrial `executives' aged 30 to 69 years in Social Classes I and II were ascertained by means of the Medical Research Council's questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 31% had persistent cough, 25% had persistent phlegm, and 21% were short of breath on hurrying or going up a hill; 9% had had one or more chest illnesses in the past three years lasting for about a week, and 4% had `chronic bronchitis'—defined as persistent phlegm and one or more chest illnesses in the past three years; 67% were smokers, 21% smoking more than 25 cigarettes (or equivalent tobacco) per day; another 20% had stopped smoking. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness was closely related to smoking habit. Data for those aged 40 to 59 years are compared with that obtained from London Transport Board workers and a sample of the population studied by the College of General Practitioners. The latter was further analysed and suggests that the prevalence of cough and phlegm is more closely related to the amount smoked than to social class. The prevalence of chest illness is probably more closely related to social class and less to the amount smoked. It is suggested that, although smoking may initiate irritative respiratory symptoms, the precursors of bronchitis, additional factors are important in causing progression to disabling or fatal chronic bronchitis. PMID:14278803

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  1. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  3. Smoking Habit in Severe Obese after bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Carratù, Pierluigi; Faraone, Stanislao; Cerbone, Maria Rosaria; Cristiano, Stefano; Zedda, Anna; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric procedures provide an effective means of short term weight loss and sustained weight control for the morbidly obese. The effect of bariatric procedures on smoking habit in obese subjects is not well known. Therefore, we examined the short term effect of bariatric surgery on smoking habit of severe obese patients up to 12 months from the intervention. Smoking habit was assessed in a cohort of 78 morbid smoking obese patients followed at our clinic for bariatric procedures. They underwent non surgical intra-gastric balloon (IB) or surgical procedures such as lap-band laparoscopic surgery (LAGB) or sleeve gastrectomy/gastric by-pass (SPG). Subjects were administered a written questionnaire about their smoking habit before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedures. No differences were found among the three groups at 6 and 12 months after the procedures (IB 21 %, LAGB 6 %, SPG 5 %; and IB 14 %, LAGB 3 %, SPG 5 %). Only after 3 months, the rate of quitting of the IB group was higher than LAGB and SPG groups (36 %, 6 % and 5 %, respectively; p = 0.02). Bariatric procedures have no effects on smoking habit of moderate-to-heavy smoker severe obese patients. The use of other traditional smoking cessation methods in patients undergone to bariatric procedures should be implemented.

  4. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  5. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  6. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  7. Changes in smoking habit among patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, José V; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda; Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Sarrión-Pérez, Gracia

    2010-09-01

    To determine the changes in smoking habit among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosed and treated in the Service of Stomatology (Valencia University General Hospital. Valencia, Spain). The study involved 123 patients with a history of OSCC interviewed by telephone on their smoking habits at the time of the diagnosis and modifications in habits subsequently. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years and 9 months (standard deviation, SD +/- 12 years and 2 months). Males predominated (61.8%) over females (38.2%). The mean time from the diagnosis of OSCC to the survey was 4 years and 6 months (SD +/- 3 years and 6 months). Almost one-half of the patients (45.5%) were active smokers at the time of the diagnosis, with a mean duration of the habit of 34.9 years (SD +/- 12 years and 7 months). In turn, 19.5% of the patients were ex-smokers at diagnosis, with an average of 13 years and 9 months (SD +/- 9 years and 4 months) from smoking cessation to the development of cancer. A total of 57.1% of the smokers abandoned the habit at diagnosis, 8.9% continued to smoke to the same extent as before, and 33.9% reduced smoking. A full 44.4 % of our patients diagnosed with OSCC continued to smoke despite warnings of the risks, and although the majority claimed to have reduced their smoking habit, interventional strategies would be indicated to help ensure complete smoking cessation.

  8. Smoking Habits and its Effects to Health Among the Middle Aged and Elderly in Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kazuhiko; Nagahama, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Toshihisa; Makiyama, Fumihiko; Ueno, Mitsuo; 平良, 一彦

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship of smoking habits to health status of elderly in a long life span area.Ohgimi Village in Okinawa prefecture was selected as the study area because of long life expectancy. Interview were performed for 765 inhabitants aged 68 years and over.The result obtained are as follows :1) Current smokers were observed in 48.2% of males under 75 years and 33.6% of 75 years and over.2) Although current signs of respiratory tract disease were ...

  9. [Drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking/ smoking as a risk factor of stroke among Japanese general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirohumi; Morinaga, Miho; Toyota, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2010-10-01

    We examined the knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors of stroke according to drinking/smoking habits among randomly selected Japanese general population. The Japan Stroke Association and co-researchers have performed a large-scale educational intervention to improve knowledge concerning stroke from 2006 to 2008. Prior to above-mentioned intervention, we conducted mail-surveillance on knowledge about stroke in 11,306 randomly selected residents aged 40 to 74. We assessed the relationship between drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, area, employment, living situation, history of stroke and other stroke related diseases, history of liver disease, family history of stroke and drinking (non-drinker / ex-drinker / occasional drinker / habitual drinker) / smoking habits (non-smoker / ex-smoker / current smoker). Total 5,540 subjects (49.0%) participated in this study. Ex-smokers and current smokers had better knowledge regarding smoking as a risk factor of stroke than non-smokers (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 1.89, 1.55-2.31, 1.76, 1.45-2.12, respectively). There was no difference between habitual drinkers and non-drinkers in their knowledge, whereas current smokers had greater knowledge regarding smoking than nonsmokers. Accordingly, it is suggested that it will be necessary for habitual drinkers to be enlightened regarding heavy drinking as a risk factor of stroke and for current smokers to be provided with information regarding not only these risks but also the specific strategies for invoking behavioral changes.

  10. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  12. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  13. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  14. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  15. Impact of drinking and smoking habits on cerebrovascular disease risk among male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yoko; Shimokata, Keiko; Osugi, Shigeki; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2016-10-07

    We aimed to analyze the impact of drinking and smoking behavior on the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases among male employees aged 20-46 years. Twenty years of follow-up data of male employees enrolled in the DENSO Health Insurance Program were used for analyses. Of 29,048 male employees aged 20-46 years who were enrolled in the insurance program in 1994, 25,084 (86.4%) employees underwent annual health check-ups until 2003 without missing an appointment. Of these 25,084 employees, the data of 11,784 (40.6%) employees who self-reported drinking and smoking habits were used for analyses. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cerebrovascular disease in 2004-2013 were calculated in four risk groups categorized as per drinking and smoking behavior in the young group who were in their 20s and the middle-aged group who were in their 30s-40s in 1994. Based on their drinking behavior, participants were categorized into two groups: "not drinking or drinking sometimes" and "drinking every day." Based on their smoking behavior, participants were also categorized into two groups: "not smoking for 10 years" and "smoking for 10 years." A Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that after controlling for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and age, the hazard ratios for "smoking and drinking every day" were 3.82 (95% CI: 1.40-10.41) in the young group and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.27-4.17) in the middle-aged group. Male employees who had been drinking and smoking for 10 years had a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. To prevent cerebrovascular diseases among male employees, it may be effective to offer behavior change interventions for both drinking and smoking habits, regardless of the age group.

  16. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; psmoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  17. [Oral hygiene habits among tobacco-smoking and non-smoking students of the Medical University of Lublin--chosen aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Among several etiologic factors for dental caries and periodontal diseases we can find dental plaque that forms on the teeth surfaces and prosthetic appliances. Elimination of dental plaque by proper oral hygiene procedures is crucial in caries and periodontal disease prevention. The aim of the study was evaluation of tobacco smoking prevalence among dental students of the Medical University of Lublin and the comparative analysis of oral hygiene habits among smoking and nonsmoking students. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 112 students of the Medical University of Lublin during the second, third, fourth and fifth year of their studies. The students were 20-28 years of age. The questions concerned cigarettes smoking habit and the ways of maintaining oral hygiene. Respondents were divided into smoking and non-smoking group. Statistical analysis was carried out. Obtained results were sent to statistical analysis. Cigarette smoking was reported by 16.67% of surveyed students. No significant differences between smoking and non-smoking students were stated in frequency of brushing, changing the toothbrush, density of toothbrush filaments, using manual and power toothbrush, using whitening toothpastes and frequency of using dental floss and toothpicks. Statistically significant difference was noted in gum chewing habit--smoking students chewed the gum more frequently (83.33%) than non-smoking students (40%). Significant differences occurred also in frequency of professional removal of dental deposits. Calculus removal performed twice a year was reported by 50% of smoking students, comparing with 17.8% of nonsmoking students. 37.78% of nonsmoking students declared professional teeth cleaning performed more often than twice a year comparing with 11.11% of respondents from the smokers group (p < 0.05).

  18. Evidence that implementation intentions can overcome the effects of smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the aim was to (a) test for the first time whether implementation intentions formed outside the laboratory can overcome the effects of habits, and (b) see whether the operation of implementation intentions could be improved by asking people to form certain "when-then" plans as opposed to uncertain "if-then" plans. The study employed a 2 × 2 fully factorial design with baseline and follow-up measures of smoking status and habits. Smokers (N = 168; circa 33 years of age; 79 women, 89 men) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 intervention groups to form either if-then plans or when-then plans using supporting tools, or to 1 of 2 control conditions in which they were exposed to identical supporting tools but were not asked to form if-then plans or when-then plans. Certainty did not affect the operation of implementation intentions, but smokers who formed implementation intentions were significantly more likely to quit, χ2(1, N = 168) = 8.86, p smoking habits (95% CI [0.02, 0.14]). Similar effects were observed when cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, and craving served as the dependent variables. The findings demonstrate that people who have formed implementation intentions can overcome habits, such as smoking, outside the laboratory. The supporting tools described in the present research could be deployed at low cost with high public health reach to support behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  20. Smoking habits and attitudes among secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Yaacob, I; bin Harun, M H

    1994-03-01

    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.

  1. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  2. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  3. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with γ-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by γ-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations.

  4. Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lange, P; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    , epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects...... who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits......A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal...

  5. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  6. Evaluation of smoking habits among Turkish family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Davut; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aydin, Leyla Yilmaz; Ozturk, Serkan; Set, Turan; Eroz, Recep; Celer, Ahmet; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2014-02-01

    Smoking is still a major public health problem in Turkey. It was aimed to investigate smoking prevalence and habits among Turkish family physicians. Cross-sectional study among physicians working in primary care settings was established. A self-administered study survey was applied. The surveys of 1233 family physicians were analyzed. The study included 704 (57.1%) male and 529 (42.9%) female physicians. Mean age (SD) was 38.94 (7.01) years. The proportions of the current, the former and never smokers among family physicians were 34.1%, 14.7% and 51.3%, respectively. Mean age (SD) of smoking initiation was 21.73 (5.04) years. Mean duration (SD) of smoking use was 14.61 (7.29) years. Proportion of current smoker in male physicians was quite higher than in female counterparts (36.9% vs. 30.4%; p smoking initiation in female was 21.42 (4.59) years, but in male was 22.33 (4.98) years (p = 0.36). In female physicians, mean age (SD) for quitting cigarette smoking was found higher than in male (35.85 (6.35) years vs. 33.09 (6.45) years; p = 0.004). No significant difference between nicotine dependence (mean score (SD) of 3.76 (2.48) vs. 3.65 (2.82); p > 0.05) and mean (SD) unit of cigarette a day (18.34(6.03) vs. 17.17 ± 6.79; p > 0.05) between genders was observed. The number of male physicians who started smoking before faculty was higher than female counterparts (15.5% vs. 8.6%; p = 0.023). In conclusion, the smoking prevalence among Turkish family physicians is considerably high.

  7. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  8. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mihajlović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4% and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%. There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8% among adolescents whose best friends (45% are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3% are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%. The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%. The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35

  11. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmark, Birgitta; Zethelius, Björn; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue

  12. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  13. How accurate are self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cope GF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Smoking or chewing tobacco is a global public health problem that is becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. These same countries often also have high rates of tuberculosis disease and infection. As smoking can adversely affect tuberculosis severity, response to treatment and relapse, it is therefore important that clinicians have an accurate picture of patients’ smoking habits. Self‐reported smoking habits may be unreliable and objective measurements of tobacco exposure more accurate. Objective To determine the reliability of self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis by measurement of urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of tobacco exposure. Methods Self‐reported tobacco use was recorded in 100 patients receiving treatment for active or latent tuberculosis using an interviewer administered ‘questionnaire. Urinary cotinine levels were measured by the SmokeScreen test 24hours after the end of treatment. Findings Of 81 reported non‐smokers, 10 had a positive test for cotinine, six of whom gave a result indicative of heavy (11‐15 cigarettes/day or very heavy (>16/day smoking. Of the 17 self‐confessed smokers and two chewers of tobacco, nine gave a result consistent with very heavy smoking although none had reported this degree of tobacco use. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between subjective and objective smoking habits. Reliance on patient history may adversely affect response to tuberculosis treatment, and some patients will be denied appropriate intervention for smoking cessation.

  14. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormo...

  15. Influence Of Smoking Habit On Age At Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer

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    Rajaei Mehrdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No studies have yet investigated the influence of smoking on age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the present study was carried out. This study consisted of 605 females with pathologically confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the breast and 438 healthy females matched by age. Among our participants, 86 (14.2% patients and 62 (14.1% control subjects, respectively, were smokers. Based on a Cox regression model, evidence suggested that smoking status influenced the age at diagnosis of breast cancer (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99, P=0.040. After stratification of the patients according to their menopausal status, the same results were obtained. The present study indicated that non-smokers have a lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients who smoke.

  16. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude

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    Abu-Hammad Osama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.

  19. Smoking habits of pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Targu Mures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.

  20. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  1. Correlations Between Physical Activity, Smoking Habit And Attitude In Elderly With Incidence of Osteoporosis

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    Kiki Familia Dimyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis was one of degenerative disease that is common in the elderly. There was a several of risk factors of osteoporosis. Two of them were physical activity and smoking habits. Attitude was one part of a person’s behavior that may affect the prevention of disease. This study aimed to analyze the affect of physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude of the elderly to incidence of osteoporosis. This study is an observational study with case control design. The number of samples in this study was 66 elderly who visited Osteoporosis Clinic Husada Utama Hospital in Surabaya. Respondent selection taken with systematic random sampling. The independent variables of this study were physical activity, smoking habit, and attitude, while the dependent variable was incidence of osteoporosis. Based on correlation analysis with logistic regression test showed there was a significant correlation (p<0,05 between physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude. Odds Ratio (OR in this study for physical activity was 14,764 ,smoking habit was 9,646 and attitude was 5,623. The conclusion of this study, there was physical activity as a dominant affect after controlled smoking habits and attitude to incidence of osteoporosis. The suggestion is to do physical activity three times a week, consume healthy food and beverage, take an enough sleep,reduce stress factors and stop smoking also.   Keywords: Physical activity, smoking habits, elderly

  2. [Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Aline Farias; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2006-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of smoking dependence and to characterize social demographic data, habits and attitudes of young smokers. Answered the questionnairel02 students from Salvador, State of Bahia, of which 11 were smokers. Their mean age and the age in which they first smoked were 18.2 and 13.4 years respectively. Most of them were male, in the first year of senior high school, of brown skin color and had close relatives who smoke. The majority of those young smokers had been advised about the risks of smoking at home and in school, but few had knowledge about the benefits of quitting. Almost half of them had been smoking for more than three years and had started to smoke out of curiosity. More than half of them smoked one cigarette per day, with low levels of nicotine, bought the cigarettes in shops, and wanted and tried to quit smoking, but never succeeded. The degree of dependence was low for most of them. This study offers hints for nurses to act against smoking with young adults.

  3. Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: 'neither smoking habit nor hypertension', 'smoking habit alone', 'hypertension alone' or 'both smoking habit and hypertension.' Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of > or =140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of > or =90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18,444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21,252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31,037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17,418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (Psmoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

  4. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

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    Lorena Charrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010 show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  5. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  6. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking habit and benign breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewulska-Bokiniec, A.

    1995-01-01

    The possible association between cigarette smoking and the risk of benign breast disease (BBD) was assessed in a case-control study conducted in Gdansk, Poland, between 1990 and 1994. The study compared 160 women with newly diagnosed BBD admitted to the Gdansk Cancer Outpatients Clinic and 160 controls, women from outpatients clinics at the Medical University of Gdansk. There was no convincing evidence of an association, either positive or negative, between various indicators of smoking habit (smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking) and the risk of BBD. Slightly lower relative risk (RRs) of BBD in ex-smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day (RR = 0.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4-2.2), and with duration of smoking >= (RR = 0.1-3.4), were also observed in current smokers (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.5), and (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-3.4), but these findings were not statistically significant. (author)

  8. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  9. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  10. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  11. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  12. Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years, mainly female, (58%, answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6% were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7% considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1% were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2% had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8% considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents’ and friends’ behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking. Resumo: Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de

  13. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Nóris; Chatkin, José; Chapman, Kenneth R; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-03-22

    Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence. Using a cross-sectional study, we included 50 current smokers (group I) and 50 lifetime non-smokers (group II), aged 18-75 years. We screened them at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, Canada). The subjects completed a questionnaire with demographic data, lifestyle habits and details of food intake. The PUFAs measured in the RBC membranes were alphalinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to perform an adjusted comparison between smokers and non-smokers we used the ANCOVA model. After adjusting for confounding factors, non-smokers showed higher consumption of PUFAs, especially salmon: 800 g (0-7.740) than smokers 430 g (0-2.150) P smoking. Smokers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, a not previously reported finding. Considering that PUFAs probably interfere in smoking habit, the increase in omega-3 consumption may become a perspective in prevention or treatment of smoking. However, this inference must be evaluated through specific studies.

  14. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  15. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  16. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  17. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  18. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age......BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible......-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. RESULTS: The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae...

  19. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  20. Age, smoking habits, heat stress, and their interactive effects with carbon monoxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate on man's aerobic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, P.B.; Drinkwater, B.L.; Horvath, S.M.; Ruhling, R.O.; Gliner, J.A.; Sutton, J.C.; Bolduan, N.W.

    1972-10-01

    The interactive effects of age, smoking habits, and heat stress with carbon monoxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate inhalation on human aerobic power were examined. The subjects included 16 healthy middle-aged males (40-57 years); nine were nonsmokers and seven were smokers. There was no significant change in maximum aerobic power related to the presence of either air pollutant, although total working time was lowered at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C for subjects breathing 50 ppM CO. Older nonsmokers did show a decrement in maximum aerobic power while breathing 50 ppM CO, while older smokers failed to show any change. This difference, however, was related to the initial carboxyhemoglobin levels of the smokers who, when breathing this level of CO, showed only a 14 percent increase in COHb over the initial level as compared to a 200 percent increase in the nonsmokers. Smoking habits were the most influential factor affecting cardiorespiratory responses to maximal exercise in older men. Regardless of ambient conditions, smokers showed a significantly lower (27 percent) aerobic power than nonsmokers. They were also breathing closer to their maximal breathing capacities throughout the exercise period and showed a higher respiratory exchange ratio. The maximum aerobic power of nonsmokers was only 6 percent less than that of younger nonsmokers working under similar conditions, while the aerobic power of the older smokers was 26 percent lower than that of young smokers (24 years).

  1. A Survey of the Smoking Habits and Attitudes of High School Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    An extensive review of literature on trends in the consumption of tobacco; concern regarding tobacco and health; the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and coronary heart disease; effect of smoking on human tissues; chemistry of tobacco smoke; and the smoking habits of students precedes discussion of an…

  2. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  3. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  4. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  5. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and Aug...

  6. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods: The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers and their visceral fat area (VFA (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2. Results: The serum triglyceride (TG levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3% exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4% and non-smokers (18.8%. The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9% and former smokers (14.9% demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%. In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions: Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  7. The Smoking Habits of Children and Staff at Brays Grove Comprehensive School, Harlow, Essex

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of smoking habits conducted in a secondary school suggested that most students start smoking as a result of social pressure. Many smokers were aware of health hazards of smoking yet chose to smoke. (PS)

  8. Correlation between smoking habit and surgical outcomes on viral-associated hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Komukai, Sho; Koga, Hiroki; Yamaji, Koutaro; Ide, Takao; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Aishima, Shinichi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2018-01-07

    To investigate the association between smoking habits and surgical outcomes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (B-HCC) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC (C-HCC) and clarify the clinicopathological features associated with smoking status in B-HCC and C-HCC patients. We retrospectively examined the cases of the 341 consecutive patients with viral-associated HCC (C-HCC, n = 273; B-HCC, n = 68) who underwent curative surgery for their primary lesion. We categorized smoking status at the time of surgery into never, ex- and current smoker. We analyzed the B-HCC and C-HCC groups' clinicopathological features and surgical outcomes, i.e ., disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. We also performed subset analyses in both patient groups comparing the current smokers to the other patients. The multivariate analysis in the C-HCC group revealed that current-smoker status was significantly correlated with both OS ( P = 0.0039) and DSS ( P = 0.0416). In the B-HCC patients, no significant correlation was observed between current-smoker status and DFS, OS, or DSS in the univariate or multivariate analyses. The subset analyses comparing the current smokers to the other patients in both the C-HCC and B-HCC groups revealed that the current smokers developed HCC at significantly younger ages than the other patients irrespective of viral infection status. A smoking habit is significantly correlated with the overall and disease-specific survivals of patients with C-HCC. In contrast, the B-HCC patients showed a weak association between smoking status and surgical outcomes.

  9. Impact of smoking habit on surgical outcomes in non-B non-C patients with curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Koga, Hiroki; Aishima, Shinichi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Yamaji, Koutaro; Ide, Takao; Ueda, Junji; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-02-28

    To analyzed the correlation between smoking status and surgical outcomes in patients with non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-HCC), and we investigated the patients' clinicopathological characteristics according to smoking status. We retrospectively analyzed the consecutive cases of 83 NBNC-HCC patients who underwent curative surgical treatment for the primary lesion at Saga University Hospital between 1984 and December 2012. We collected information about possibly carcinogenic factors such as alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking habit from medical records. Smoking habits were subcategorized as never, ex- and current smoker at the time of surgery. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was based on both clinical information and pathological confirmation. Alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, obesity and NASH had no significant effect on the surgical outcomes. Current smoking status was strongly correlated with both overall survival ( P = 0.0058) and disease-specific survival ( P = 0.0105) by multivariate analyses. Subset analyses revealed that the current smokers were significantly younger at the time of surgery ( P = 0.0002) and more likely to abuse alcohol ( P = 0.0188) and to have multiple tumors ( P = 0.023). Current smoking habit at the time of surgical treatment is a risk factor for poor long-term survival in NBNC-HCC patients. Current smokers tend to have multiple HCCs at a younger age than other patients.

  10. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly Silveira; Arap, Sami

    2005-07-07

    Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals' semen characteristics. Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  11. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reasons for smoking among the teenagers of age 14–17 years in Vikarabad town: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shakeel Anjum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite widespread knowledge of the health consequences, tobacco use, especially smoking is common globally. Most of the youngsters become smokers annually and one-third of them are believed to die due to tobacco use. Aim: To assess the various reasons for smoking among teenagers of age 14–17 years. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 384 teenagers to know their views regarding the reasons for smoking habit. A specially designed pretested questionnaire was used for the survey. Results: Majority of 76.4% of the study subjects agreed that smoking habit gives psychological pleasure, 77.5% agreed that smoking starts because of friends, and 65.7% felt that smoking starts as an inspiration for outlook and personality. Conclusion: Various psychological factors, personal factors, and social factors are attached with smoking habit.

  13. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  14. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  15. Do smoking habits differ between women and men in contemporary Western populations? Evidence from half a million people in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R; Woodward, Mark

    2014-12-30

    Several studies have shown that smoking may confer a greater excess risk for chronic diseases in women compared with men. The reasons for this excess risk of smoking in women are unclear, yet sex differences in smoking habits may play a role. We, thus, characterised sex differences in smoking habits in a contemporary Western population. Cross-sectional population-based study. UK Biobank Resource. 499,797 (54% women) individuals with data on smoking habits. Women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean difference in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily and age at smoking cessation in 5-year birth cohort bands. The women-to-men ever-smoking ratio ranged from 0.57 in the oldest to 0.87 in the youngest birth cohort. In the oldest cohort, born 1935-1939, women started smoking 1.9 years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) later than did men, but in those born after 1959 there was no difference in the age at initiation. The oldest women smoked 5.3 (95% CI 4.7 to 5.9) cigarettes per day fewer than did the oldest men, compared with 2.0 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3) fewer cigarettes smoked per day in the youngest, born 1965-1969. Among quitters, women born before 1945 were, on average, 1.5 years older than their male contemporaries, but this differential was 1 year or less among people born after 1949. Differences in smoking behaviour between women and men have decreased over time. Even past differentials are unlikely to explain the increased susceptibility to smoking-related chronic disease in women compared with men that has previously been observed. Future studies are required to determine whether sex differences in the physiological and biological effects of smoking are responsible for the differential impact of smoking on health in women and men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. A Survey of Greek Elementary School Students' Smoking Habits and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…

  17. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  18. Effects of IL6 C-634G polymorphism on tooth loss and their interaction with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, S; Naito, M; Wakai, K; Sasakabe, T; Hattori, Y; Okada, R; Kawai, S; Hishida, A; Morita, E; Nakagawa, H; Tamura, T; Hamajima, N

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between an IL6 (Interleukin-6) polymorphism (C-634G or rs1800796) and tooth loss, and an interaction between the polymorphism and smoking habits for the loss. Our subjects were 4917 check-up examinees ages 35-69. They reported tooth loss and lifestyle in a questionnaire. We regressed the number of teeth on the IL6 genotype, gender, age, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, energy intake, education, and brushing. We further estimated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having smoking and tooth loss was stronger among those with GG than among those with CC. In a multiple regression analysis, a significant interaction was found between GG genotype and current smoking in the prediction of tooth loss (P = 0.018). The IL6 C-634G polymorphism was significantly associated with tooth loss. Our results suggest greater effects of smoking on tooth loss in GG genotype individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  20. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Passos Sobreiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  1. The contribution of DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease genotype and smoking habit to Taiwan lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Liang-Yi; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Tu, Chih-Yen; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Chen, Hung-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ming; Bau, da-Tian

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism the gene for DNA-apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEX1) with personal smoking habit and lung cancer risk in Taiwan, the polymorphic variants of APEX1, Asp(148)Glu (rs1130409), were analyzed in association with lung cancer risk, and their joint effect with personal smoking habits on lung cancer susceptibility was discussed. In this hospital-based case-control study, 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 cancer-free controls, frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the percentages of TT, TG and GG APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes were not significantly different at 43.0%, 41.1% and 15.9% in the lung cancer patient group and 39.9%, 46.1% and 14.0% in non-cancer control group, respectively. We further analyzed the genetic-lifestyle effects on lung cancer risk and found the contribution of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes to lung cancer susceptibility was neither enhanced in the cigarette smokers nor in the non-smokers (p=0.3550 and 0.8019, respectively). Our results provide evidence that the non-synonymous polymorphism of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu may not be directly associated with lung cancer risk, nor enhance the effects of smoking habit on lung cancer development.

  2. [Attitudes to smoking and characteristics of the habit among a group of young asthmatics compared to a group of non-asthmatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; Reinares Ten, C; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Sáez Valls, R; Herrera de la Rosa, A

    2000-03-01

    To compare the attitudes toward smoking and smoking patterns of young male asthmatics with the attitudes and habits of a group previously studied non-asthmatic men. Volunteers responded individually to as anonymous questionnaire. Responses were received from 488 asthmatics men (55.83%) of the sample, with 11 not responding) and 386 non-asthmatics (44.16%, with 27 not responding). The mean age of subjects was 19.91 +/- 2.76 yr. Smoking asthmatics numbered 154 (31.56%) non-asthmatic smokers numbered 207 (53.6%) (p non-smoking asthmatics. The prevalence of smoking is lower among asthmatics than among non-asthmatics and asthmatics smoke fewer cigarettes/day and have a lower level of addiction. There are no differences in age of or reasons for starting to smoke. Asthmatics have fewer smoking friends than do non-asthmatics and non-smoking asthmatics have fever still. the desire to quit smoking is high in both groups.

  3. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care - Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Hellstrand, Mats; Engström, Sevek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16-84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%). Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  4. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2% presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3% smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1% smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011 and with smoking history (p = 0.047. We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

  5. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  6. Non-Motor Correlates of Smoking Habits in de Novo Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Palladino, Raffaele; Barone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects are less likely to ever smoke and are more prone to quit smoking, as compared to controls. Therefore, smoking habits can be considered part of the non-motor phenotype, preceding the onset of motor PD by several years. To explore non-motor symptom (NMS) correlates of smoking habits in de novo PD. This cross-sectional study included 281 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD subjects, recruited in Naples (Italy) and in Kassel (Germany). All subjects completed the NMS Questionnaire (NMSQ), and were investigated for smoking status (never, current and former smokers) and intensity (pack-years). 140 PD subjects never smoked, 20 currently smoked, and 121 had quit smoking before PD diagnosis. NMSQ total score did not associate with smoking status, but with smoking intensity (p = 0.028; coefficient = 0.088). A multinomial logistic regression stepwise model presenting never smoking as reference, selected as NMSQ correlates of current smoking: sex difficulties (p = 0.002; OR = 5.254), daytime sleepiness (p = 0.046; OR = 0.085), insomnia (p = 0.025; OR = 0.135), and vivid dreams (p = 0.040; OR = 3.110); and of former smoking: swallowing (p = 0.013; OR = 0.311), nausea (p = 0.027; OR = 7.157), unexplained pains (p = 0.002; OR = 3.409), forgetfulness (p = 0.005; OR = 2.592), sex interest (p = 0.007; OR = 0.221), sex difficulties (p = 0.038; OR = 4.215), and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.05; OR = 0.372). An ordinal logistic regression stepwise model selected as NMSQ correlates of smoking intensity: nocturnal restlessness (p = 0.027; coefficient = 0.974), and leg swelling (p = 0.004; coefficient = 1.305). Certain NMSs are associated with different smoking status and intensity, suggesting a variety of adaptive mechanisms to cigarette smoking.

  7. Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population.

  8. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tubič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination for smoking and an increase in the wish for final putting an end to smoke.

  9. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care – Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Molarius

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16–84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  10. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking habits in the randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial with low-dose CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the final results of the effect of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT on the smoking habits of participants in a 5-year screening trial. METHODS: The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) was a 5-year screening trial that enrolled 4104 subjects; 2052 were randomised...... to annual low-dose CT (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were current and ex-smokers (≥4 weeks abstinence from smoking) with a tobacco consumption of ≥20 pack years. Smoking habits were determined annually. Missing values for smoking status at the final screening...... round were handled using two different models. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in annual smoking status between the CT group and control group. Overall the ex-smoker rates (CT + control group) significantly increased from 24% (baseline) to 37% at year 5 of screening (p

  12. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15 years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5 years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15 years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15 years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Eating habits, smoking and toothbrushing in relation to dental caries: a 3-year study in Swedish female teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, K; Swanholm, G; Twetman, S

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe eating, toothbrushing and smoking habits in a cohort of Swedish female adolescents, and to relate the findings to dental caries increment. The research took the form of a longitudinal study. The study sample consisted of a cohort of 162 girls under regular dental care, aged 12 years at baseline, who were followed for 3 years, from the sixth to the ninth grade. Eating, oral cleaning and smoking habits were self-reported three times per year through a questionnaire, and caries data at baseline and after 3 years were collected from dental records. The results showed significantly (P 95% of subjects reported that they brushed their teeth at least once a day, approximately 20% did not do it every evening, and this figure remained stable over the study period. However, snacks, soft drinks and sweets, and toothbrushing habits had no significant influence on caries development. Dietary advice for caries prevention in adolescent girls should focus on the importance of retaining regular main meals, and especially, not skipping breakfast.

  14. Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Serafini, Paola; Giordano, Livia; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2010-04-01

    A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, passive exposure and smoking were associated before and during pregnancy. Nearly all women agreed that the ban on smoking in public was reasonable and stated it had influenced their smoking habit or exposure. Despite this lip service, both studies highlighted that smoking in pregnancy remains a problem for many women, as about 10 per cent did not quit and over 50 per cent relapsed after delivery.

  15. Influence of knowledge and attitudes on smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wu, Der-Min; Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Shi, Zheng-Ping; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the knowledge and attitudes of cigarette smoking that are associated with smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of young conscripts in southern and eastern Taiwan between August 1 and December 31, 2001. We selected 3,249 young military conscripts who had served more than 1 month in the military, based on specific criteria. We used a standard structured questionnaire to collect information about the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, knowledge, attitude, and cigarette smoking practices. Our findings showed that among smoking young military conscripts, knowledge about smoking was lower and attitudes toward smoking were more negative when compared with the non-smokers. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking varied with sociodemographic characteristics (age, education level, residential area) and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking), all p smoking had a lower risk of smoking (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.91). But this characteristic diminished after being adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, subjects with a higher attitude score about smoking had relatively lower risk for cigarette smoking when compared to those with a lower attitude score, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.94). Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Shabtai; Ganz, Irit; Eldor, Naomi; Garenkin, Mila

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking via a water-pipe (Nargile) is a new phenomena among school children in Israel in recent years. Water-pipe tobacco has the potential for nicotine addiction, for other smoking-related damages and for drug abuse. Our primary goal was to characterize the frequencies of water-pipe smoking among school children in Israel, its distribution according to age, gender, habits and attitudes. The secondary goal was to compare its use to cigarette smoking among these school children. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed among 388 school children (ages 12-18 years old) in grades A, and C, of middle schools and grade B of high schools in a central region of Israel. The questionnaires were answered unanimously and the process was conducted in classes by the school teacher and by nursing school students. Among all school children in this study, 41% smoke a water-pipe at various frequencies. Of all the children, 22% smoke at least every weekend. Water-pipe smoking was 3 times more frequent than cigarette smoking and was almost equally distributed among both genders, but girls were heavier smokers than boys, of either water pipe or cigarette smoking. Six percent of water-pipe smokers add psychoactive drugs or alcohol to the tobacco. The main reasons for water-pipe smoking were the pleasure achieved and the intimacy that it adds to the youngsters' meetings. Ninety percent of all the school children believe that water-pipe smoking is not healthy, but at least 50% believes it is less harmful than cigarettes. According to school children that smoke water-pipes at least every weekend, 40% of their parents are current or ex-smokers of water-pipes, in contrast with 10% of parents to non-smoking children and about a quarter of the children who smoke also do so together with their parents. Tobacco smoking via water-pipes is a very common phenomena among middle and high school children in Israel. Girls are heavier smokers and adding drugs or alcohol to water

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  19. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  20. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  1. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    of accumulating the smoking habits over the examinations. Cumulated former smokers have a larger risk of having reduced functional ability at age 75 (OR: 1.35 (1.13-1.61)) compared with never smokers. The odds ratios of reduced functional ability were 2.46 (1.44-4.17) among cumulated smokers of 1-14 grams......AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...

  2. Age, bodyweight, smoking habits and the risk of severe osteoarthritis in the hip and knee in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervholm, Bengt; Lewold, Stefan; Malchau, Henrik; Vingard, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Background:The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of severe osteoarthritis, with the need for arthroplasty, in the knee and/or hip according to body mass index (BMI) both within a normal range and in persons with high BMI. Furthermore, we wanted to study the significance of smoking. Methods: This study identifies male construction workers participating in a national health control program (n = 320,192). The incidence rate for joint replacement was found by matching with the Swedish hospital discharge register between 1987 and 1998. BMI and smoking habit was registered at the time of the health examination. Results: In total 1495 cases of osteoarthritis of the hip and 502 cases of osteoarthritis of the knee were identified and included in this analysis. The incidence rate was found to increase linearly to the BMI even within low and normal BMI. The relative risk for osteoarthritis of the hip was more than two times higher in persons with a BMI of 20-24 than in men with a BMI 17-19. There was almost a doubling of the risk of severe knee osteoarthritis with an increase in BMI of 5 kg/m 2 . Smoker had a lower risk of osteoarthritis than non-smokers and ex-smokers. Conclusions: BMI is an important predictor of osteoarthritis even within normal BMI. A decreased risk of osteoarthritis of the hip was found in smokers, but the effect was weak compared to that of BMI or age. Contrary to studies of radiographic osteoarthritis our study indicates higher risk of hip than of knee osteoarthritis

  3. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with smoking habits and oral cancer in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in association with oral cancer risk, and their joint effects with individual smoking habits on oral cancer risk are discussed. In total, 620 oral cancer patients and 620 non-cancer controls in central Taiwan were recruited and genotyped. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in oral cancer patients. Joint effects of smoking and MTHFR C677T genotype significantly affected oral cancer susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred lower odds ratios of 0.66 and 0.54 (95% confidence interval=0.49-0.82 and 0.39-0.86), respectively. Those patients with MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of oral cancer metastasis. MTHFR C677T genotype may have joint effects with smoking on oral carcinogenesis, and may be a useful biomarker for prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

  5. Effect of CT screening on smoking habits at 1-year follow-up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Tønnesen, P; Holst Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer on smoking habits has not been reported in large randomised controlled trials. METHODS: This study evaluated the effect on smoking habits of screening with low-dose CT at 1-year follow up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial...... pack years. Smoking habits were determined at baseline and at annual screening. Smoking status was verified using exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Lung function tests, nicotine dependency and motivation to quit smoking were assessed. Quit rates and relapse rates were determined at 1-year follow...... (DLCST), a 5-year randomised controlled trial comprising 4104 subjects; 2052 subjects received annual low-dose CT scan (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were healthy current and former smokers (>4 weeks since smoking cessation) with a tobacco consumption of >20...

  6. Longitudinal study of parental smoking habits and development of asthma in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Hara, Megumi; Harada, Shohei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental smoking habits and the development of asthma in early childhood by using representative samples. The survey subjects included all of the 53,575 babies born in Japan during the periods January 10-17 and July 10-17, 2001. The families of the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires that were delivered by post at 6 months, 1 year 6 months, 2 years 6 months, 3 years 6 months, and 4 years 6 months postpartum. The first survey contained questions regarding the smoking habits of the parents. The second to fifth surveys asked if the child had needed medical attention for the treatment of asthma. Data from 36,888 subjects (collection rate: 68.9%) were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidence of asthma was 12.0%. Maternal indoor smoking significantly increased the risk of asthma development in children, 4-year risk 14.4% vs. 11.7%, risk ratio=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.38. No statistically significant association was found between paternal smoking and asthma development in children. In order to prevent the development of asthma in early childhood, it is necessary to formulate measures to stop or discourage maternal smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult population of selected regions of the Czech Republic. Relation to eating habits and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosátková, M; Ceřovská, J; Zamrazilová, H; Hoskovcová, P; Dvořáková, M; Zamrazil, V

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is around 25% in Europe but its occurrence grows in both genders with increasing age and weight. Lifestyle factors may contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and eating habits as well as length of sleep and smoking. Participants (519 women and 286 men aged 18-65 years) were chosen by random selection and questioned about their eating habits, sleep length and smoking. This information was combined with anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. The female group was divided into two subgroups depending on climacteric stage (before and after menopause). Metabolic syndrome prevalence does not differ between regions in neither female (29.9%) nor male (32.5%) group. Body mass index ≥25 was detected in 50.4% of all women and 65.7% of men; 23.5% of all women and 21.7% men had body mass index ≥30. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome prevalence was proved to depend on eating habits and family heredity. Positive correlation between the above mentioned factors demonstrated itself in the total sample but not in individual regions. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Czech adults is comparable with neighbouring countries. No significant interregional differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence within the Czech Republic were detected. In conclusion, relationship between eating habits and metabolic syndrome was confirmed.

  9. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  10. Smoking and risk for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potential risk factor for psoriasis. Both psoriasis and smoking habits are partly explained by genetic factors. However, twin studies investigating the association between these traits are limited. METHODS: Questionnaire-based data on smoking habits and psoriasis were...... collected for 34,781 twins, aged 20-71 years, from the Danish Twin Registry. A co-twin control analysis was performed on 1700 twin pairs discordant for lifetime history of smoking. Genetic and environmental correlations between smoking and psoriasis were estimated using classical twin modeling. RESULTS......: After multivariable adjustment, age group (50-71 vs. 20-49 years) and childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were significantly associated with psoriasis in the whole population (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.29 [P = 0.021] and OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49 [P...

  11. Decline of tactile acuity in aging: a study of body site, blood flow, and lifetime habits of smoking and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph C; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Dipietro, Loretta; Mack, Gary W; Green, Barry G

    2003-01-01

    Tactile acuity of 60 older subjects (> or = 65 years) and 19 younger subjects (18-28 years) was assessed by two-point gap thresholds at the upper and lower surfaces of the forefinger, at the upper and lower surfaces of the feet, and at the volar surface of the forearm. The older subjects were assigned to one of four groups of 15 subjects each, depending on reported lifetime habits of physical activity and smoking: (1) active smokers, (2) active nonsmokers, (3) inactive smokers, and (4) inactive nonsmokers. Peripheral blood flow was assessed at the forefinger, foot, and forearm by means of laser-Doppler imaging and skin temperature recordings, under resting conditions and during and after a 5-min exposure to mild cooling (28 degrees C). Consistent with previous studies, tactile acuity thresholds in the foot and finger averaged about 80% higher in the older subjects than in the younger subjects, but only about 22% higher in the forearm. Although the upper surface of the fingertip was more sensitive than the lower surface in both younger and older subjects, the age-related decline in tactile acuity was nearly identical on both sides of the finger and foot. The latter finding refutes the hypothesis that the larger effect of aging in the extremities results from greater physical wear and tear on the contact surfaces of the hands and feet. Self-reported lifetime histories of physical activity and smoking were not significantly associated with measures of cutaneous blood flow or tactile thresholds. Possible reasons for this lack of association are discussed, including the inherent limitations of testing only healthy older subjects, and the concept of "successful aging".

  12. Smoking, health and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicita-Mauro Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lecture of V. Nicita-Mauro on Smoking, health and ageing is summarized. Smoking represents an important ageing accelerator, both directly by triggering an inflammatory responses, and indirectly by favoring the occurrence of several diseases where smoking is a recognized risk factor. Hence, non-smokers can delay the appearance of diseases and of ageing process, so attaining longevity.

  13. Smoking habits of patients with newly diagnosed stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, J.; Bonner, J.A.; McGinnis, W.L.; Stella, P.; Marks, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to assess the smoking habits and changes in the cigarette smoking habits of patients prior to, at the time of and after the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer who had agreed to enter a phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial comparing twice daily thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) given with chemotherapy to once daily TRT given with chemotherapy were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their past and present cigarette smoking habits. This questionnaire included information regarding the number of years of smoking, number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day and the time frame of smoking history. Subsequently, patients were given questionnaires to assess changes in smoking history at the halfway point of treatment, and during follow-up visits. Results: Of the 140 patients who were entered on the above noted trial, 132 filled out baseline questionnaires and were the subject of this study. Of these 132 patients, 126 (95%) had either smoked cigarettes in the past or smoked at the time of study entry. The median pack years of smoking. (years of smoking x packs per day) was 43 with a range of 3-169 pack years. Of the 126 patients with a smoking history, 124 provided information regarding the status of their smoking at the time of entry on the study: 89 (72%) claimed to have quit smoking and, 35 (28%) reported that they continued to smoke an average of one pack per day. Of the 89 patients who had quit smoking, roughly one third had quit within the month before study entry and 45% had quit during the 8 month period prior to entry on the study. Of the 35 patients who continued to smoke at the time of entry on the study, 21 indicated that they stopped smoking during the period following randomization. Hence 10% of the original 140 patients entered on study continued to smoke an average of one

  14. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 200 patients attending Katuri Medical college Pulmonology OPD with a history of Tobacco smoking coming for various symptoms for various symptoms were analy sed regarding their smoking habits. Majority of them were the major bread earners of thei r families. Majority of them presented to the hospital in 4 th to 6 th decade of life. Male smokers were predominant but alternate modes of tobacco consumption and passi ve smoking are present in a majority of females. Majority of them are farmers, unemployed or semiskilled or unskilled with poor education and with low family incomes. A majority of them have high frequency of smoking tobacco per day Initiation of smoking o ccurred at less than 20 years of age. Majority presented with less than 40 pack years of smoking history.

  15. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of physical activity after a cardiac event on smoking habits and/or Quetelet index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbrechts, I P A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Deckers, J W; Kazemier, M; Erdman, R A M

    2003-02-01

    To further elucidate earlier findings, the present study investigated whether physical activity could serve as a positive stimulus to modify other changeable cardiac risk factors. Participants were 140 patients who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on physical activity. Their present level of physical activity, smoking habits and Quetelet index were investigated as well as that before the cardiac event, in retrospect. Current feelings of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Participants were divided into two categories according to their present level of physical activity after finishing the rehabilitation programme, compared with that before the cardiac event. It appeared that the more physically active category contained more smokers. Although many of them had quitted smoking, significantly more persisted in their smoking habits compared with the patients who did not increase their physical activity. Significantly less depression was found in the more active patients. Although it could not be confirmed that physical activity stimulated a positive change in smoking and Quetelet index, the more active patients appeared to be less depressed.

  17. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2014-02-15

    Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries development. The potential associations among early childhood caries, feeding practices, maternal and environmental smoking exposure, Socio-Economic Status (SES) and several behavioral determinants were investigated. Italian toddlers (n = 2395) aged 24-30 months were recruited and information on feeding practices, sweet dietary habit, maternal smoking habit, SES, and fluoride supplementation in the first year of life was obtained throughout a questionnaire administered to mothers. Caries lesions in toddlers were identified in visual/tactile examinations and classified using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Associations between toddlers' caries data and mothers' questionnaire data were assessed using chi-squared test. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations among caries severity level (ICDAS score), behavioral factors and SES (using mean housing price per square meter as a proxy). Caries prevalence and severity levels were significantly lower in toddlers who were exclusively breastfed and those who received mixed feeding with a moderate-high breast milk component, compared with toddlers who received low mixed feeding and those exclusively fed with formula (p smoked five or more cigarettes/day during pregnancy showed a higher caries severity level (p smoke. Environmental exposure to smoke during the first year of life was also significantly associated with caries severity (odds ratio =7.14, 95% confidence interval = 6.07-7.28). No association was observed between caries severity level and fluoride supplementation. More than 50% of toddlers belonging to families with a low SES, showed moderate or high severity caries levels (p smoke during pregnancy living in area with a low mean housing price per square meter.

  18. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes differs depending on histological type and smoking habit in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Muramatsu, R; Fujita, T; Nagumo, H; Sakurai, T; Noji, S; Takahata, E; Yaguchi, T; Tsukamoto, N; Kudo-Saito, C; Hayashi, Y; Kamiyama, I; Ohtsuka, T; Asamura, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-11-01

    T-cell infiltration in tumors has been used as a prognostic tool in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the influence of smoking habit and histological type on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in NSCLC remains unclear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of TILs (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD20 + , and FOXP3 + ) according to histological type and smoking habit using automatic immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in 218 patients with NSCLC. In multivariate survival analyses of clinical, pathological, and immunological factors, a high ratio of FOXP3 + to CD4 + T cells (FOXP3/CD4) [hazard ratio (HR): 4.46, P smoking habit in AD, a high FOXP3/CD4 ratio was poorly prognostic with a smoking history (HR: 5.21, P smoking habit on the immunological environment may lead to the establishment of immunological diagnosis and appropriate individualized immunotherapy for NSCLC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking habits among adults in the work place in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al'Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings.

  1. Smoking among young children in Hong Kong: influence of parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Wong, Yuen Ping Ivy

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study comparing children with smoking parents and those with non-smoking parents, in terms of knowledge and attitude towards smoking and the influence of parents and peers on smoking initiation. Adolescence is a developmental stage when smoking habits are likely to start. Adolescents are most influenced by the smoking habits of their parents and friends. A cross-section study was conducted with students aged 13-15 years in two schools in 2008, using a questionnaire that collected information on the smoking habits of their parents and peers, knowledge and attitude towards smoking, initiation and inclination towards smoking. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. A total of 257 of 575 (44·7%) students had smoking parent(s), and 25·4% reported having peers who smoked. Children with non-smoking parents were more likely than those with smoking parents to consider 'smoking as disgusting' (67·3% vs. 45·9%), and to know that 'smoking is addictive' (80·5% vs. 70·4%) and 'harmful to health' (81·8% vs. 67·7%). More of those with smoking parents had tried smoking than those with non-smoking parents (13·2% vs. 3·8%). Preventive programmes should involve smoking parents to increase their awareness of the impact their smoking has on their children. Interventions should include problem-solving skills for children to deal with daily stresses and thus eradicate the potential risk of smoking initiation. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Hearing loss associated with smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Yasumitsu

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effect of smoking habit on hearing loss at 1000 and 4000 Hz in the workplace. Among 1,875 male workers, including 287 subjects with occupational noise exposure, the ratio of the number with hearing loss at 1000 or 4000 Hz increased with smoking habits and that relation at 4000 Hz was statistically significant. These hearing losses showed a significant relation with age but not with working- duration under occupational noise exposure by multiple regression analysis. The amount of smoking showed a weak but significant association with hearing loss at 4000 Hz. However, among the 287 male subjects with occupational noise exposure, there was no significant relation between smoking habits and hearing loss. Therefore, both hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure and that related with smoking habit were well controlled in this workplace. These results indicate that hearing check-ups and education to prevent noise-induced hearing impairment in the workplace might be useful to prevent the hearing loss associated with smoking habit among male workers.

  3. Smoking and lifestyle in an urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is harmful for one’s health and affects many people in the world. Its consequences are high morbidity and mortality from cardio-respiratory diseases and cancer. This complex public health issue also entails high costs. In order to understand this addiction, it is necessary to find out whether its presence is an isolated habit or a part of an unhealthy behavior. Objective: to explore the relationship between smoking and some components of a lifestyle. Methodology: a cross-sectional study with 4,000 adults aiming at identifying the link between smoking and certain aspects of lifestyle such as age, gender, education, socioeconomic level, physical inactivity, eating habits, recreation and alcohol. Results: age and socioeconomic level were not found to be associated with smoking; however, gender, schooling level, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating habits, and inadequate recreation were found to be statistically and epidemiologically related to smoking. Conclusions: smoking is associated with other adverse components of an unhealthy lifestyle. Community control and health promotion activities should address this issue through comprehensive strategies aimed at modifying human behavior in order to achieve more effective results.

  4. Verification of adolescent self-reported smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentala, Jukka; Utriainen, Pekka; Pahkala, Kimmo; Mattila, Kari

    2004-02-01

    Smoking and the validity of information obtained on it is often questioned in view of the widespread belief that adolescents tend to under- or over-report the habit. The aim here was to verify smoking habits as reported in a questionnaire given in conjunction with dental examinations by asking participants directly whether they smoked or not and performing biochemical measurements of thiocyanate in the saliva and carbon monoxide in the expired air. The series consisted of 150 pupils in the ninth grade (age 15 years). The reports in the questionnaires seemed to provide a reliable estimate of adolescent smoking, the sensitivity of the method being 81-96%, specificity 77-95%. Biochemical verification or control of smoking proved needless in normal dental practice. Accepting information offered by the patient provides a good starting point for health education and work motivating and supporting of self-directed breaking of the habit.

  5. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  6. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  7. Lifetime smoking habits among Norwegian men and women born between 1890 and 1994: a cohort analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-10-17

    Providing lifetime smoking prevalence data and gender-specific cigarette consumption data for use in epidemiological studies of tobacco-induced cancer in Norway. Characterising smoking patterns in birth cohorts is essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control interventions and predicting smoking-related mortality. Norway. Previously analysed annual surveys of smoking habits from 1954 to 1992, and individual lifetime smoking histories collected in 1965 from a sample of people born in 1893-1927, were supplemented with new annual surveys of smoking habits from 1993 to 2013. Age range 15-74 years. Current smoking proportions in 5-year gender-and-birth cohorts of people born between 1890 and 1994. The proportion of smokers increased in male cohorts until the 1950s, when the highest proportion of male smokers (76-78%) was observed among those born in 1915-1934. Among women, the peak (52%) occurred 20 years later, in women born in 1940-1949. After 1970 smoking has declined in all cohorts of men and women. In the 1890-1894 cohorts, male smoking prevalence was several times higher than female, but the gap declined until no gender difference was present among those born after 1950. Gender-specific per capita consumption was even more skewed, and men have consumed over 70% of all cigarettes since 1930. The incidence of lung cancer for men peaked at around 2000, with the highest incidence rate estimated at ca. 38%. The incidence of lung cancer for women is still increasing, and estimated incidence rate for 2011 was 25.2%. In an epidemiological perspective, men have had a longer and more intense exposure to cigarettes than women. The gender-specific incidence of lung cancer reflects the gender difference in consumption over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is impaired by smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Shinobu; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Sumitomo, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. We analyzed 802 subjects (364 men and 438 women). The means of the lambda-mu-sigma method derived z-score of FEV1 (zFEV1) both in current-smokers and ex-smokers were lower than that in never-smokers. The mean zFEV1 in the ever-smokers with more than 30 pack-years of smoking history were lower than that in the ever-smokers with less smoking history. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant negative correlations between pack-years and zFEV1 both in the ex-smokers and current-smokers. There was no significant correlation between the duration of smoking cessation and zFEV1 in the ex-smokers. Our data suggests that respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is decreased based on smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner. Even after a long period of smoking cessation, the decreased respiratory function seems to be maintained in ex-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits among pregnant women in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Anne Seneca; Long, Manhai; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2018-01-01

    factors, lifestyle and dietary habits were compared in relation to two age groups (median age ≤28 years and >28 years). RESULTS: In total, 72.4% were Inuit, 46.6% had BMI >25.0 kg/m2, 29.0% were smoking during pregnancy and 54.6% had used hashish. BMI, educational level, personal income, previous......BACKGROUND: During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. AIM: To describe age and regional differences......, the highest number of smokers during pregnancy and the most frequent intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. CONCLUSIONS: Overall a high BMI and a high smoking frequency were found. Age differences were found for BMI and planned breastfeeding period, while regional differences were found for smoking...

  10. Factors, influencing on forming for the children of middle and senior school ages of attitude toward harmful habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutula V.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of questioning of students of general schools are rotined. 589 students took part in experiment. It is marked that swinging majority of students (91,5% realize negative influence on their health of harmful habits (smoking and use of alcohol. It is set that for years study the amount of students which smoke and taste alcohol. Present information testifies to not formed for the schoolchildren of the proper position in relation to smoking and use of alcohol is presented. It is marked that students indifferently behave to widespread among grown man habits to smoke and use an alcohol.

  11. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child before 8 months of age. DESIGN: A follow-up study of 1974 children born in 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Overall, 158 (8%) of the children were hospitalized during the first 8 months of life. Compared...... of being hospitalized (relative risk: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.3). When only hospitalizations before 2 months of age were analyzed, smoking during pregnancy was associated an increased risk similar to that described above. Hospitalization of the child was independent of the smoking habits...... of the child persisted after adjustment for postpartum smoking habits and a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy influenced the health of the children, and several points indicated that the effect of in utero exposure...

  12. [Cigarette use among Israeli adolescents: why do they smoke?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Noah

    2007-03-01

    Efforts to prevent adolescents from smoking have limited efficacy, with little understanding of why they smoke. We examine many of the factors which may influence a teenager's decision to start smoking. A self-completed questionnaire was distributed among pre-draft teenagers (age 16-18 years) with questions regarding current smoking habits as well as smoking habits of family members. Smokers were asked why they started, and attitudes regarding the dangers of smoking and anti-smoking legislation were examined. A total of 1067 questionnaires were completed (707 males, 360 females). In all, 25.7% were current smokers (26.2% of male and 21.1% of females; p=0.069), with smoking rates highest among those born in Middle Eastern countries and lowest among those born in Ethiopia. Those from single-parent families had a higher smoking rate (relative risk: 1.28), as did those with either parents or siblings who smoked. Parents who were smokers were more likely to tell their children not to smoke, while smoking teenagers were more likely to have been told by their parents not to smoke. Most smokers (58.2%) did not give a specific reason for smoking while 30.3% listed "peer pressure", 8.4% "parents smoking" and 3.1% "advertisements" as the major factor. Smokers were less likely to agree that smoking is harmful and more likely to oppose anti-smoking legislative measures. Many factors influence a teenager's decision to smoke, including cultural norms and habits of friends and family members. Educating both adolescents and those around them may help prevent smoking among this age group.

  13. Within family transmission of secondhand smoke sensitivity and smoking attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laszlo Tarnoki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The role of genetic factors in nicotine dependence is well understood, but no information is available on the inheritability of second-hand smoke (SHS exposure sensitivity and their co-variance. [b]materials and methods[/b]. 186 adult same-gender pairs of twin (146 monozygotic, 40 dizygotic; 44±17 years±SD completed a questionnaire. [b]results[/b]. The model showed a significant role of unshared environmental factors influencing the co-variance between smoking habit and SHS sensitivity (r[sub]e[/sub]=-0.191, 95% CI, -0.316 to -0.056, or the total phenotypic correlation of r[sub]ph[/sub]=-0.406, p<0.001 without evidence for genetic covariation. Age, gender and country-adjusted analysis indicated 51.5% heritability for smoking habit (95% confidence interval/CI/, 6.2 to 89.8%, 49.7% for SHS sensitivity (95%CI, 19.1–72.0%, 35.5% for general opinions on SHS exposure in restaurants/cafés (95%CI, 10.7–58.6%, and 16.9% in pubs/bars (95%CI, 0.0–49.0%. [b]conclusions[/b]. The co-variance between SHS sensitivity and smoking habits is driven mainly by the unshared environment. SHS sensitivity is moderately inheritable. The considerable influence of environmental factors on general opinions on SHS exposure in designated indoor public venues emphasizes the importance of smoking bans and health behaviour interventions at the individual level in developing an anti-smoking attitude.

  14. Comparison of Smoking and Khat Chewing Habits between Medical and Non-Medical Female Students at UST, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubas, Mohammed Abdullah; Wadi, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide problem that kills millions of people. Women smoke much lower than males but the numbers of smoker women are growing up. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of smoking and khat chewing in medical and non-medical female students at University of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen. We used self-administrated questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data from a randomly selected sample of medical and non-medical female students of UST in 2012-2013. Overall, 480 students completed and returned the questionnaire, of them medical students represented 50% of them. The prevalence of smoking was significantly low among female medical students (P=0.045), however, not significantly difference was found between medical and non-medical female students in khat chewing habits (P=0.083). Non-smoker medical female students who tried smoking (45.6%) were significantly lower than non-medical students (54.4%), and curiosity was the main reason for trying smoking. Water pipe was the most common type of smoking among smoker students (78.6%). Out of 26 female students who smoke and chew khat, 18 students reported that they smoke more while they chew khat. Our study highlights the need for increased health education, awareness, and knowledge of the risks of smoking and particularly khat chewing to reduce these habits among female university students especially in non-medical female students.

  15. Changes in haemoglobin levels according to changes in body mass index and smoking habits, a 20-year follow-up of a male cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbakken, Tove; Dahl, Inger Marie S.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Langbakk, Bodil; Lochen, Maja-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin level. In all, 4159 men aged 20-49 years at baseline were examined in 1974 and 1994-1995 in a longitudinal, population-based study from the municipality of Tromso, Northern Norway. Mean haemoglobin was 148 g/l. There was no difference in mean haemoglobin after 20 years in any strata of age. Mean BMI increased 2.1 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of smokers decreased 20.1 percentage points. In a multiple regression analysis increase in BMI was associated with increased haemoglobin change. Smoking cessation lowered mean haemoglobin 1.6 g/l compared to never smokers. Haemoglobin increased 0.8 g/l in smoking quitters whose BMI increased >2.5 kg/m 2 compared to a decrease of 6.7 g/l in weight reducers. There was a positive dose-response relationship between changes in cigarettes smoked per day and change in haemoglobin among consistent smokers. In conclusion, in contrast to cross sectional studies, mean haemoglobin did not change during 20 years ageing of relatively young men. This could be explained by higher BMI and less smoking. The increase in BMI affected haemoglobin change to such an extent that the reduction in haemoglobin due to smoking cessation was counteracted. Prospective studies are needed to address the health implications

  16. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  17. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  18. Relationship between polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes and oral cancer risk in Taiwan: evidence for modification of smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Da-Tian; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lo, Yen-Li; Tsai, Yuhsin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-12-31

    Inherited polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may be associated with differences in the repair capacity and contribute to individual's susceptibility to smoking-related cancers. Both XPA and XPD encode proteins that are part of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. In a hospital-based case-control study, we have investigated the influence of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms on oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population. In total, 154 patients with oral cancer, and 105 age-matched controls recruited from the Chinese Medical Hospital in Central Taiwan were genotyped. No significant association was found between the heterozygous variant allele (AG), the homozygous variant allele (AA) at XPA A-23G, the heterozygous variant allele (AC), the homozygous variant allele (CC) at XPD Lys751Gln, and oral cancer risk. There was no significant joint effect of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln on oral cancer risk either. Since XPA and XPD are both NER genes, which are very important in removing tobacco-induced DNA adducts, further stratified analyses of both genotype and smoking habit were performed. We found a synergistic effect of variant genotypes of both XPA and XPD, and smoking status on oral cancer risk. Our results suggest that the genetic polymorphisms are modified by environmental carcinogen exposure status, and combined analyses of both genotype and personal habit record are a better access to know the development of oral cancer and useful for primary prevention and early intervention.

  19. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    with children whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy, children with mothers who smoked 1 to 14 cigarettes per day had no increased risk of being hospitalized (relative risk: 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5), whereas children whose mothers smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day had twice as high a risk...... of the child persisted after adjustment for postpartum smoking habits and a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy influenced the health of the children, and several points indicated that the effect of in utero exposure...... was independent of postpartum smoking habits. If all pregnant women smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day stopped smoking, approximately 5% of all admissions to hospitals before 8 months of age could be avoided. smoking during pregnancy, hospitalization of children. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct...

  20. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Verplanken, Bas

    2010-07-01

    Habit might be usefully characterized as a form of automaticity that involves the association of a cue and a response. Three studies examined habitual automaticity in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). In Study 1 SRHI scores correlated with attentional bias to smoking cues in a Stroop task. Study 2 examined the ability of a habit cue to elicit an unwanted habit response. In a prospective field study, habitual automaticity in relation to smoking when drinking alcohol in a licensed public house (pub) predicted the likelihood of cigarette-related action slips 2 months later after smoking in pubs had become illegal. In Study 3 experimental group participants formed an implementation intention to floss in response to a specified situational cue. Habitual automaticity of dental flossing was rapidly enhanced compared to controls. The studies provided three different demonstrations of the importance of cues in the automatic operation of habits. Habitual automaticity assessed by the SRHI captured aspects of a habit that go beyond mere frequency or consistency of the behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Smoking habits and attitudes toward tobacco bans among United Kingdom hospital staff and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K E; Shin, D; Davies, G

    2011-08-01

    A group of United Kingdom (UK) hospitals. To estimate the current smoking habits of health care professionals (HCPs) in a country with active tobacco control measures, and to record their attitudes to national and hospital tobacco bans. A cross-sectional survey of 500 HCPs. HCPs reported a lower rate of current smoking (7%) than the general population (24%). Doctors (2.6%) and medical students (3.8%) were less likely to be current smokers than both nurses (8.7%) and allied health professionals (10.9%, P smoking in health care premises. A higher proportion of UK doctors (69%) than nurses (52%) favoured a complete ban (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.14-3.56). Self-reported smoking patterns in UK health professionals are lower than previously and compared to other industrialised and developing countries. Support for bans is very high, but differences remain in behaviour and especially attitudes to local bans according to professional status, although this gap is also narrowing.

  2. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study to determine the association between tobacco smoking habit and oral candidal infection in median rhomboid glossitis by cytologic and histopathologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the association, if any, between tobacco smoking and candidal infection in median rhomboid glossitis (MRG and to histopathologically evaluate the presence of dysplastic changes in it. Study design: Hospital-based study consisting of 100 subjects who satisfied the clinical criteria of MRG- Smears and swabs were collected to ascertain the presence of Candida and sub-typing was done utilizing the CHROMagar technique. Biopsy and histopathological examination was done to determine the presence or absence of dysplasia of the lesional tissue. Results: All the subjects were male and had the habit of smoking- Smears and swabs taken from glossal lesion of 60 subjects′ showed 100% candidal positivity. Tissue section from 31 subjects showed histological picture consistent with MRG and 23 (74% showed dysplastic changes. Conclusion: MRG is a Candida-associated lesion and the tobacco-smoking habit in our cohort may play an important role in increasing the candidal colonization. As some of our cases exhibited mild epithelial dysplasia, both candidal colonization and smoking habits may have contributed to the dysplastic changes.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  5. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco; Conde, Délio Marques; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2015-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking

  6. Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaro, Luiz Francisco, E-mail: luiz.baccaro@gmail.com [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming, 101, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil); Conde, Délio Marques [Breast Clinic, Hospital for Maternal and Child Healthcare, Goiânia, Goiás 74.125-120 (Brazil); Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes [Department of Gynecology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13.083-881 (Brazil)

    2015-03-17

    The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking.

  7. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  8. Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: results from the human micronucleus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, M.; Lando, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effect of tobacco smoking on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human lymphocytes has been the object of many population studies. In most reports, the results were unexpectedly negative, and in many instances smokers had lower frequencies of MN than non-smokers. A pooled re-analysis of 24 databases from the HUMN international collaborative project has been performed with the aim of understanding the impact of smoking habits on MN frequency. The complete database included 5710 subjects, with 3501 non-smokers, 1409 current smokers, and 800 former smokers, among subjects in occupational and environmental surveys. The overall result of the re-analysis confirmed the small decrease of MN frequencies in current smokers (frequency ratio (FR =0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.93-1.01) and in former smokers (FR =0.96, 95% CI =0.91-1.01), when compared to non-smokers. MN frequency was not influenced by the number of cigarettes smoked per day among subjects occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents, whereas a typical U-shaped curve is observed for non-exposed smokers, showing a significant increase of MN frequency in individuals smoking 30 cigarettes or more per day (FR =1.59, 95% CI =1.35-1.88). This analysis confirmed that smokers do not experience an overall increase in MN frequency, although when the interaction with occupational exposure is taken into account, heavy smokers were the only group showing a significant increase in genotoxic damage as measured by the micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. From these results some general recommendations for the design of bio monitoring studies involving smokers can be formulated. Quantitative data about smoking habit should always be collected because, in the absence of such data, the simple comparison of smokers versus non-smokers could be misleading. The sub-group of heavy smokers (≥30 cigarettes per day) should be specifically evaluated whenever it is large enough to satisfy statistical requirements. The

  9. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  10. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irander, K; Borres, M P; Ghafouri, B

    2014-04-01

    Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits. The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n=18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometry. Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 ± 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 ± 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 ± 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

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    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  12. [Path analysis of lifestyle habits to the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-xin; Zhang, Cheng-qi; Tang, Fang; Song, Xin-hong; Xue, Fu-zhong

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lifestyle habits and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Based on the routine health check-up system in a certain Center for Health Management of Shandong Province, a longitudinal surveillance health check-up cohort from 2005 to 2010 was set up. There were 13 225 urban workers in Jinan included in the analysis. The content of the survey included demographic information, medical history, lifestyle habits, body mass index (BMI) and the level of blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, and blood lipid, etc. The distribution of BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood-glucose, blood lipid and lifestyle habits between MS patients and non-MS population was compared, latent variables were extracted by exploratory factor analysis to determine the structure model, and then a partial least squares path model was constructed between lifestyle habits and the components of MS. Participants'age was (46.62 ± 12.16) years old. The overall prevalence of the MS was 22.43% (2967/13 225), 26.49% (2535/9570) in males and 11.82% (432/3655) in females. The prevalence of the MS was statistically different between males and females (χ(2) = 327.08, P alcohol consumption has statistical difference (χ(2) = 374.22, P smoking status was statistically significant (χ(2) = 115.86, P smoking was 59.72% (1772/2967), 6.24% (185/2967), 34.04% (1010/2967) respectively, while in non-MS population was 70.03% (7184/10 258), 5.35% (549/10 258), 24.61% (2525/10 258) respectively. Both lifestyle habits and the components of MS were attributable to only one latent variable. After adjustment for age and gender, the path coefficient between the latent component of lifestyle habits and the latent component of MS was 0.22 with statistical significance (t = 6.46, P Unhealthy lifestyle habits are closely related to MS. Meat diet, excessive drinking and smoking are risk factors for MS.

  13. Smoking habits of radiotherapy patients: did the diagnosis of cancer make an impact and is there an opportunity to intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Chawla, Aakriti; Mitina, Natalia; Christie, David

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on smoking habits in patients receiving radiotherapy and assess the opportunity to intervene. One hundred consecutive patients were interviewed. They included patients newly diagnosed with cancer of any type and receiving radiotherapy. Detailed information was collected including smoking habits before and after the diagnosis, the timing of and reasons for any changes. We also asked about patients' view of the role of the radiation oncologist in smoking cessation and the opportunities for intervention. Analysis of results involved simple descriptive statistics. Although there were only 14 current smokers, only two had decided to quit. Five smokers decreased smoking, six did not change and one increased smoking. One non-smoker (1/34) took up smoking. Nearly all changes occurred within the first 30 days of diagnosis. Most (79%, 11/14) smokers believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at either the first consultation or when decisions about treatment have been finalised. The diagnosis of cancer can motivate patients to reduce smoking, but few quit altogether and a smaller number increase or even take up smoking. These changes occur early after receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Patients with a smoking history believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at the first consultation. The periodic nature of treatments and consultations at radiation oncology centres suggest there is the potential for an effective smoking cessation programme. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Evaluation of eating habits and lifestyle in patients with obesity before and after bariatric surgery: a single Italian center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Biino, Ginevra; Persico, Francesca; Ciliberto, Ambra; Giovanelli, Alessandro; Stanford, Fatima Cody

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated and compared the eating habits and lifestyle of patients with moderate to severe obesity who have undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG). Food frequency (FF), food habits (FH), physical activity and life style (PA) as well as smoking habits (SH) were analyzed in 50 RYGB (25 M; aged: 24-64) and 50 SG patients (25 M; aged: 22-63) by means of a validated questionnaire, before (T0) and 6 months (T1) post bariatric surgery. A score for each section (FF, FH, PA, SH) was calculated. ANOVA analysis (age/sex adjusted): FF and FH scores improved at T1 (RYGB and SG: p habits improved, patients did not change their physical activity level or their smoking habits. Patients should receive adequate lifestyle counseling to ensure the maximal benefit from bariatric surgery.

  15. Impact of Age at Smoking Initiation on Smoking-Related Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Stommel, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the aims of this study were to examine the impact of early smoking initiation on the development of self-reported smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality. National Health Interview Survey data from 1997 through 2005 were linked to the National Death Index with follow-up to December 31, 2011. Two primary dependent variables were smoking-related morbidity and all-cause mortality; the primary independent variable was age of smoking initiation. The analyses included U.S. population of current and former smokers aged ≥30 years (N=90,278; population estimate, 73.4 million). The analysis relied on fitting logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. Among the U.S. population of smokers, 7.3% started smoking before age 13 years, 11.0% at ages 13-14 years, 24.2% at ages 15-16 years, 24.5% at ages 17-18 years, 14.5% at ages 19-20 years, and 18.5% at ages ≥21 years. Early smoking initiation before age 13 years was associated with increased risks for cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.67) and pulmonary (OR=1.79) diseases as well as smoking-related cancers (OR=2.1) among current smokers; the risks among former smokers were cardiovascular/metabolic (OR=1.38); pulmonary (OR=1.89); and cancers (OR=1.44). Elevated mortality was also related to early smoking initiation among both current (hazard ratio, 1.18) and former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.19). Early smoking initiation increases risks of experiencing smoking-related morbidities and all-cause mortality. These risks are independent of demographic characteristics, SES, health behaviors, and subsequent smoking intensity. Comprehensive tobacco control programs should be implemented to prevent smoking initiation and promote cessation among youth. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  17. Cigarette smoking habit does not reduce the benefit from first line trastuzumab-based treatment in advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Adamo, Vincenzo; Addeo, Raffaele; Fusco, Vittorio; Russo, Antonio; Montemurro, Filippo; Roato, Ilaria; Redana, Stefania; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Berruti, Alfredo; Leoni, Valentina; Galluzzo, Sara; Antimi, Mauro; Ferraro, Giuseppa; Rossi, Maura; Del Prete, Salvatore; Valerio, Maria Rosaria; Marra, Monica; Caraglia, Michele; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Many ErbB2-positive cancers may show intrinsic resistance, and the frequent development of acquired resistance to ErbB-targeted agents represents a substantial clinical problem. The constitutive NF-κB activation in some HER-2/neu positive breast cancer may represent a potential cause of resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Preclinical data revealed that 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the tobacco-specific nitrosamine is able to enhance NF-κB DNA binding activity and theoretically to increase the resistance to trastuzumab. Two hundred and forty-eight women with pathologically confirmed, uni- or bidimensionally measurable, HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated with trastuzumab-based therapy as first line combination for metastatic disease were considered eligible. For all included patients data on smoking habit were detectable from medical records. We retrospectively analysed the smoking habits of 248 MBC patients and correlated these habits with activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy. No statistically significant difference in terms of response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was identified between smokers (former plus active smokers) and never smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant difference in terms of RR, TTP and OS was identified either comparing active smokers and former smokers. Moreover, we did not observed any significant statistical difference in terms of TTP and OS between smokers ≥10 cigarettes/day and smoking habit and both activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based first line therapy in metastatic HER2/neu positive breast cancer patients.

  18. Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambuí Health and Aging Study Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar entre idosos (Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Viana Peixoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and associated factors of the smoking habit among older adults. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out comprising 1,606 (92.2% older adults (>60 years old living in the Bambuí town, Southeastern Brazil in 1997. Data was obtained by means of interview and socio-demographic factors, health status, physical functioning, use of healthcare services and medication were considered. The multiple multinomial logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between smoking habits (current and former smokers and the exploratory variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of current and past smoking was 31.4% and 40.2% among men, and 10.3% and 11.2% among women, respectively (p80 years and schooling (>8 years and positive association with poor health perception and not being married. Among women, independent and negative associations with current smoking were observed for age (75-79 and >80 years and schooling (4-7 and >8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was a public health concern among older adults in the studied community, particularly for men. Yet, in a low schooling population, a slightly higher level was a protective factor against smoking for both men and women. Programs for reducing smoking in the elderly population should take these findings into consideration.OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e fatores associados ao hábito de fumar em uma população idosa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado com 1.606 (92,2% idosos (>60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997. As variáveis estudadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos, condições de saúde, função física, uso de serviço de saúde e de medicamentos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista. A regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para avaliar associações independentes entre o hábito de fumar (atual e passado e as variáveis exploratórias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de

  19. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  1. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China.We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM.We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years.Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should be developed to focus on these modifiable

  2. The role of parents, friends and teachers in adolescents' cigarette smoking and tombak dipping in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb; Nwaru, Bright I; Ginawi, Ibrahim; Pisani, Paola; Hakama, Matti

    2011-03-01

    To assess the influence of smoking and tombak (local smokeless tobacco) dipping by parents, teachers and friends on cigarette smoking and tombak dipping by school-going Sudanese adolescents. This was a school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005-2006. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. A total of 4277 Sudanese school-going adolescents (aged 11-17 years) from 23 schools who completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire on the use of tobacco products. Main outcome measures were self-reported tobacco use during the previous month defined current tobacco use. Ever smoking, tombak dipping and other tobacco products were also considered as outcomes. After adjusting for sex, age and school grade, adolescents' smoking habits were strongly associated with the habit in their parents and friends and, more weakly, with tombak dipping by teachers. When adjusted for each other, the association with smoking in friends was unaffected and remained significant (prevalence OR (POR) of having ever smoked was 1.94, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.29; OR of being current smoker was 3.77, 95% CI 2.80 to 5.07). Tobacco smoking in friends was positively associated with adolescents ever tombak dipping (POR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.33) and current dipping (OR 3.33, 95% CI 2.20 to 5.05). The association with parental habits was reduced but still significantly elevated. Tombak dipping by teachers was only associated with adolescents ever tobacco smoking. Tobacco use by parents, teachers and friends was associated with adolescents' tobacco habits. The influence of friends was the strongest. In developing programmes against adolescents' tobacco habits, there is need to target the influence of these 'significant others'. Sudan needs to develop and implement comprehensive anti-smoking and anti-tombak dipping legislation to reduce the growing prevalence of such habits.

  3. Correlates of ever-smoking habit among adolescents in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, A M; Saeed, A A; Abdulrahman, B M; Al-Kaabba, A F; Raat, H

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the correlates of ever-smoking among adolescents was made in Tabuk government schools in Saudi Arabia. Of 1505 students aged 12-19 years, 657 (43.7%) were ever-smokers (i.e. ever tried cigarette smoking, even 1 or 2 puffs); 65.0% of males and 23.1% of females. In logistic regression analysis significant predictors for ever-smoking were: male sex, belief that smoking helps people feel comfortable in social situations, owning something with a cigarette logo, having pocket money > or = 20 riyals/day, poor school performance and having friends or parents who smoked.

  4. Association of osteoporotic fracture with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, F; Birong, D; Changquan, H; Hongmei, W; Yanling, Z; Wen, Z; Li, L

    2011-05-01

    To observe the association of osteoporotic fracture with habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among very old people. A cross-sectional study conducted in Dujiangyan Sichuan China. 703 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians (67.76% women, mean age 93.48 years) resident in Dujiangyan. Medical history of osteoporosis and the statement of fracture and habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise were collected. In women, subjects with current or former habit of alcohol consumption had significantly higher prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit; but subjects with former habit of exercise had significantly lower prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit. However, in men, there was no significant difference in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without osteoporotic fracture. After adjust for age, gender, sleep habits educational levels, religion habits and temperament, we found that former habit of alcohol consumption had a significant odds ratio (OR=2.473 95% CI (1.074, 5.526)) for osteoporotic fracture. In summary, among nonagenarians and centenarians, among habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise, there seems to be significant association of osteoporotic fracture only with current or former habits of alcohol consumption, former habit of exercise. The habit of alcohol consumption might be associated with a greater risk of osteoporotic fracture, but the former habit of exercise might be associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  5. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Seo, Shinya; Sasaki, Yuichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The chronic effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), and on serum lipids and lipoprotein levels in neurologically normal subjects from 25 to 85 years old were studied. CBF was studied by the 133-Xenon inhalation method and gray matter flow was calculated following the method of Obrist et al. A hundred and twentyfive subjects who had no abnormalities in neurological examinations nor in CT scan, were divided into two groups smokers (48) and non-smokers (77). Those who had a smoking index (Number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history)>200 were designated as smokers. The mean smoking index of smokers was 697. sixty-five of the 77 subjects in the non-smoking group had never smoked, and the mean smoking index of non-smokers was 16. Increased reduction of CBF with advancing age was clearly observed. In the male, CBF was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (mean CBF 15% lower in smokers, p<0.001). Compared to non-smokers, CBF in smokers was found to be significantly lower than the expected age matched value. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in smokers were significantly lower, and total cholesterol levels significantly higher than in non-smokers. We concluded that smoking chronically reduced CBF. Age dependent decrease of CBF was deteriorated by chronic smoking. Then, chronic smoking was suggested to be a risk factor for brain aging. Decrease of CBF in smokers was probably due to advanced atherosclerosis which produces vascular narrowing and raised resistance in cerebral blood vessels. (author)

  6. Smoking-attributable medical expenditures by age, sex, and smoking status estimated using a relative risk approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203

  7. [Smoking and periodontal disease of adolescents--results of an epidemiological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszyńska, Elzbieta; Jurga, Justyna; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire concerning oral health designed for young people aged between 15 and 18 and based on one produced by Tokyo University entitled Medical Outcome Study (MOS) and Oral Health Score (OHS) 8020, was submitted to a group of Polish citizens. One of the 10 questions in the OHS part of the questionnaire concerned smoking habits. 296 persons (157 girls and 139 boys) living in west Poland, took part. For a clearer evaluation of the health habits in this group, a comparison was made between the youngest (15 y old) and oldest (18 y old) groups. The Oral health Score (with a possible maximum 20 points) for the examined group was 14.4 which is one of the lowest among evaluated European countries. Smoking was most frequent among the 18 year olds (20.1%) whereas among the respondents in the younger group it was this value (16.5%). Moreover, in age 15 group, boys (29%) were more often smokers than girls (5.5%); 22% of 18 year old girls and 19.8% of boys smoked. Comparing the answers relating to oral health with the frequency of smoking revealed a connection between this habit and the presence of periodontal disease. Smoking increases a risk of developing periodontal disease. According to the results there is a need to increase an oral health education and identification of risk factors such smoking among Polish adolescents.

  8. Hemo rheological Changes Associated with Occupational Exposure to Low Doses Radiation from X-Ray Inspection Machines Influenced by Smoking Habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.M.; El-khatib, A.M.; Naim, M.A.; Ali, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of low dose x-ray radiation on some rheological parameters of blood were investigated in 30 male x-ray workers and 20 healthy volunteers not occupationally exposed to any type of radiation and match in age. Each group was classified according to smoking habits. The analysis of the flow curve of all subjects was performed by applying power-law model and Bingham plastic model. The results indicated elevates in whole blood viscosity and yield stress in smoker subjects as compared with non-smoker subjects and also showed that the elevation of blood viscosity of smoker radiation workers are related to work duration in the radiation field.We have observed that cigarette smoking increases the hazardous effects of radiation through the increase of blood viscosity, which excess the risk of cardiovascular disease. So it is recommended to consider blood viscosity measurements to be included in routine medical investigation for occupational workers and rheological

  9. Gene promoter methylation and DNA repair capacity in monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Rizzolo, Piera; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Silvestri, Valentina; Crebelli, Riccardo; Marcon, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The influence of DNA repair capacity, plasma nutrients and tobacco smoke exposure on DNA methylation was investigated in blood cells of twenty-one couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits. All study subjects had previously been characterized for mutagen sensitivity with challenge assays with ionizing radiation in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Plasma levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were also available from a previous investigation. In this work DNA methylation in the promoter region of a panel of ten genes involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, apoptosis and DNA repair (p16, FHIT, RAR, CDH1, DAPK1, hTERT, RASSF1A, MGMT, BRCA1 and PALB2) was assessed in the same batches of cells isolated for previous studies, using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technique. Fairly similar profiles of gene promoter methylation were observed within co-twins compared to unrelated subjects (p= 1.23 × 10(-7)), with no significant difference related to smoking habits (p = 0.23). In a regression analysis the methylation index of study subjects, used as synthetic descriptor of overall promoter methylation, displayed a significant inverse correlation with radiation-induced micronuclei (p = 0.021) and plasma folic acid level (p = 0.007) both in smokers and in non-smokers. The observed association between repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and promoter methylation suggests the involvement of the DNA repair machinery in DNA modification. Data also highlight the possible modulating effect of folate deficiency on DNA methylation and the strong influence of familiarity on the individual epigenetic profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of estimated retail tobacco sale price increase on smokers' smoking habit in Jiangxi province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Zhu, Liping; Yan, Wei; Zeng, Guang; Michael, Engelgau

    2015-01-01

    China is the biggest tobacco producer and consumer in the world. Raising cigarette taxes and increasing tobacco retail prices have been prove as effective strategies to reduce tobacco consumption and the prevalence of smoking in western countries. But in China, it is uncertain how an increase of cigarette retail price will influence the tobacco consumption. From April to July, 2012, we selected 4025 residents over 15 years by a three stage random sampling in four cities, Jiangxi Province, China. We conducted interviews of their current smoking habits and how they would change their smoking behavior if tobacco retail prices increase. Overall, the prevalence of smoking is 27 % (47 % for male, 3.1 % for female). 15 % of smokers have tried to quit smoking in the past but all relapsed (168/1088), and over 50 % of current smokers do not want to quit, The average cigarette price per pack is 1.1 USD (range = 0.25-5.0). If retail cigarette prices increases by 50 %, 45 % of smokers say they will smoke fewer cigarettes, 20 % will change to cheaper brands and 5 % will attempt to quit smoking. Smokers who have intention to quit smoking are more sensitive to retail cigarette price increase. With retail cigarette price increases, more smokers will attempt to quit smoking. Chinese smokers will change their smoking habits if tobacco retail prices increase. Consequently the Chinese government should enact tobacco laws which increase the retail cigarette price. The implementation of new tobacco laws could result in lowering the prevalence of smoking. Meanwhile, price increase measures need to apply to all cigarette brands to avoid smokers switching cigarettes to cheaper brands.

  11. How does individual smoking behaviour among hospital staff influence their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Torben; Iversen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: This study examined associations between individual smoking habits among hospital staff and their knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking. The a priori hypothesis was a higher level of knowledge among non-smokers compared with smokers. METHODS: A survey...... and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main outcome measures were knowledge of the health consequences of smoking, passive smoking and other lifestyle factors. RESULTS: A total of 445 of 487 employees (91%) from all professional groups returned the questionnaire. Compared with ex- and never...... smokers, smokers systematically underestimate the health consequences of smoking and passive smoking independent of profession, department, sex, and age. There is no consistent association between knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and profession and department. There are significant inverse...

  12. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  13. Smoking in non-student Mexican adolescents with asthma: relation with family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Iribar-Ibabe, María C; Peinado-Herreros, José

    2012-02-01

    The association between some factors of the familial and social environment with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma has not been explored. The aim of the study was to determine the association between family structure, educational level, parental approval of smoking, parents who smoke, and smoking friends with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire applied to 4,778 non-student adolescents aged 13-18 years. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire. The smoking habit was determined by application of a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were determined for smoking using logistic regression. From the total sample, asthma prevalence was 6.6% and of active smoking, 34.2%. Age at initiation of asthma symptoms was 5.15±3.52 years, and that of active smoking was 13.65±2.07 years. Percentage of non-intact family (40.1 vs. 32.7%) was greater in the group of adolescents with asthma. Logistic regression models show that parental approval of smoking (adjusted OR=5.57; 95% confidence interval=2.48-12.51) and smoking friends (adjusted OR=2.92; 95% confidence interval=1.04-8.19) are associated with smoking in non-student adolescents with asthma. In this study, parental approval of smoking and having friends who smoke appear to be associated with smoking among non-student adolescents with asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of cognitive impairment with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Quan; Dong, Bi-Rong; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wu, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qing-Xiu

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, we observed the association of cognitive impairment with current/former habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among very old people using a Chinese cohort aged 90 to 108 years. A cross-sectional study. The sample included 681 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians (67.25% women). In men, compared with subjects without cognitive impairment, those with cognitive impairment had significantly higher prevalence of habits of smoking (P=0.048 and 0.004, for former/current, respectively) and alcohol consumption (P=0.003 and 0.049, for former/current, respectively) but had significantly lower prevalence of habits of tea consumption (P=0.041 and 0.044, for former/current, respectively) and current exercise (P=0.020). Subjects with habits of smoking had significantly lower cognitive function scores than those without these habits (mean difference=1.78 and 1.69, P=0.029 and 0.035, for former/current, respectively), but subjects with habit of current exercise had significantly higher cognitive function scores than those without this habit (mean difference=1.53, P=0.038). However, in women, there were no significant differences in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without cognitive impairment and also no significant differences in cognitive function scores between subjects with and without these habits. Only current smoking habits in men had a significant odds ratio for cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 2.125; 95% confidence interval, 1.186-3.998). Among nonagenarians/centenarians, in men, there are associations of cognitive impairment with habits of former/current smoking and current exercise, as well as indefinite associations with habits of alcohol and tea consumption. Smoking may have a significant negative impact on cognitive function, but current exercise significantly improve cognitive function. However, in women, there are no associations of cognitive impairment with all the habits.

  15. Assessment of smoking patients awareness on the effects of smoking on the incidence of civilization diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Białkowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is known to affect the body adversely and to contribute significantly to the development of many diseases. It is necessary to carry out education programs, to develop healthy attitudes and to motivate smokers to start the fight against addiction. The aim is to show the patients’ point of view on the effects of tobacco smoking on health. It was also an attempt to assess patients’ knowledge about the effects of smoking and the incidence of civilization diseases. The authors analyze the health behaviours and habits of nicotine-dependent patients from data from patients hospitalized in the rehabilitation and internal diseases wards. Material and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in patients hospitalized at the University Hospital in Olsztyn and Healthcare Complex in Nidzica. The study included 50 smokers aged 21 to 80 years. The data was used to develop statistical methods: analysis of rho-Spearman correlation to examine relationships between variables, non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney U to detectsignificant differences between the compared groups and one-way analysis of variance to test differences between groups. Results: Prevalence of symptoms of the disease in patients is associated with an increased awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco. Knowledge of these risks among the respondents is independent of age and education. Educational activities conducted by therapists are indeed important for the patients’ health-related behaviors. Conclusions: Awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking is fixed and is not determined by the age of the smoker, education or the fact of suffering from a particular disease. Therapists who have frequent contact with the patients are able to affect their health behaviors. In connection with the manifestation of tolerance to the phenomenon of heavy smokers’ nicotine addiction, people from a particular physical neighborhood are more likely to adopt the habit. There are

  16. Time trends in cigarette smoking in two German cohorts--results from EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Kroke, A; Boeing, H; Becker, N

    2003-08-01

    Smoking prevention is less advanced in Germany compared with other European and North American countries, and fewer data exist, especially on the consumption habits at the individual level over time. EPIC Germany, which is part of a European multicentre study on diet and cancer, collected data on individual smoking behaviour and allows for consideration of the changing consumption pattern for both centres and different age groups. Within EPIC 25 546 and 27 548 participants, respectively, were recruited in Heidelberg and Potsdam. Data on smoking habits were collected by means of a computer-guided interview during the baseline examination between 1994 and 1998. For each birth cohort smoking prevalence and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at different ages were calculated. Additionally, the prevalence of non-filter cigarette smoking was computed. Smoking prevalence in the 1990s was still higher among men (Heidelberg 16.3-32.3%; Potsdam 18.2-29.3%) than among women (Heidelberg 12.8-32.0%; Potsdam 10.4-27.8%). However, the percentage of women smokers was still increasing. Filter cigarettes comprised a growing percentage of the cigarettes smoked, but especially among men differences between both German cohorts can still be seen: depending on age, 10.0-12.7% of men in the Heidelberg cohort smoked non-filter cigarettes, but only 1.1-2.3% in the Potsdam cohort. The quantity smoked was higher in the Heidelberg than in the Potsdam cohort with respect to the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the pack-years of smoking. In conclusion, smoking habits in the Potsdam and the Heidelberg cohorts did not strongly differ by smoking prevalence. However, they did differ according to the quantity and quality of smoking. These differences, as well as the changes over the last 40 years may contribute to a changing pattern of diseases in different groups of the German population.

  17. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  18. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  19. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, A.; Naqvi, S.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, T; Dallongeville, J; Evans, A; Ducimetierre, P; Amouyel, P; Yarnell, J; Bingham, A; Kee, F; Dauchet, L

    2012-11-01

    In cohort studies, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is associated with lower cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Former smokers often have a higher F&V intake than current smokers. If a high intake of F&V precedes smoking cessation, the latter may explain the favorable association between F&V intake and CVD among smokers. The objective was to assess whether higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. The study population comprised 1056 male smokers from Lille (France) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) aged 50-59 years on inclusion in 1991. At baseline, participants completed self-administered questionnaires related to smoking habits, demographic, socioeconomic factors and diet. At the 10-year follow-up, smoking habits were assessed by mailed questionnaire. After 10 years, 590 out of 1056 smokers had quit smoking (70.7% of smoker in Lille and 37.8% in Belfast). After adjusting for center, consumption of F&V was associated with quitting (odds ratio (OR) for high versus low F&V intake: 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.22-2.45); P-trend=0.002). After further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and medical diet, the association was still statistically significant (OR: 1.59; 95% CI (1.12-2.27); P-trend = 0.01). In a model fully adjusted for age, smoking intensity, alcohol consumption and physical activity, the association was no longer significant (P = 0.14). Higher F&V intake precedes smoking cessation. Hence, smoking cessation could affect the causal interpretation of the association between F&V and CVD in smokers.

  2. Association between smoking and the risk of heavy drinking among young women: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bové, Kira Bang; Larsen, Katrine Strandberg

    2008-01-01

    intervals (CI) 1.1-2.4), 1.7 (CI 1.1-2.6), and 2.3 (CI 0.9-5.9), respectively. Age at sexual debut modified the effect of smoking, and women with a debut before the age of 15 years had an adjusted OR of 2.9 (CI 1.1-3.9) compared to never-smokers while there seemed to be no effect among women with a sexual......AIM: To address the association between smoking habits and the risk of later heavy drinking among young women. METHODS: Repeated assessments of alcohol and smoking habits were obtained in 1991-93 and 1999-2000 in a Danish representative cohort in Copenhagen. A total of 6369 non- to moderate...

  3. Optimal solutions for a bio mathematical model for the evolution of smoking habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Waseem; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    In this study, we apply Variation of Parameter Method (VPM) coupled with an auxiliary parameter to obtain the approximate solutions for the epidemic model for the evolution of smoking habit in a constant population. Convergence of the developed algorithm, namely VPM with an auxiliary parameter is studied. Furthermore, a simple way is considered for obtaining an optimal value of auxiliary parameter via minimizing the total residual error over the domain of problem. Comparison of the obtained results with standard VPM shows that an auxiliary parameter is very feasible and reliable in controlling the convergence of approximate solutions.

  4. Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Younger age at menopause is associated with overall mortality, and cigarette smoking is the only lifestyle factor influencing this association. However, the combined effects of age at menopause and smoking have never been quantified in terms of survival time. Our aim was to evaluate, in a large cohort of Swedish women, differences in age at death according to age at menopause and smoking status. Age at menopause and smoking were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, in a population-based cohort of 25,474 women aged 48 to 83 years. Laplace regression was used to calculate differences in median age at death (50th percentile difference [PD]) according to smoking and age at menopause. Across 16 years of follow-up, 5,942 participants died. The difference in median age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years was 1.3 years (50th PD, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). Compared with current smokers, former smokers and never smokers had older median age at death-2.5 years (50th PD, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.6 years (50th PD, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.1-4.1), respectively. When analysis was restricted to current smokers, the difference in age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years increased to 2.6 years (50th PD, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.8-4.5). No association among never smokers was observed. Younger age at menopause is linearly associated with shorter survival. This association tends to be stronger among current smokers.

  5. Telomerase activity, telomere length and hTERT DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Siniscalchi, Ester; Andreoli, Cristina; Allione, Alessandra; Fiorito, Giovanni; Medda, Emanuela; Guarrera, Simonetta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2017-10-01

    Increased telomerase expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and, since the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, an association between telomerase reactivation and tobacco smoke has been proposed. In this work an investigation has been performed to assess the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and telomerase activity (TA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy smokers. The methylation status of the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT was concurrently investigated to assess the possible association between epigenetic modifications of hTERT and TA. Besides, the association between smoke and telomere length (TL) has been evaluated. Healthy monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits were selected as study population to minimize inter-individual differences because of demographic characteristics and genetic heterogeneity. Statistically significant higher values of TA and TL were observed in smokers compared to nonsmoker co-twins. The multivariate analysis of data showed, besides smoking habits (P = 0.02), an influence of gender (P = 0.006) and BMI (P = 0.001) on TA and a borderline effect of gender (P = 0.05) on TL. DNA methylation analysis, focused on 100 CpG sites mapping in hTERT, highlighted nine CpG sites differentially methylated in smokers. When co-twins were contrasted, selecting as variables the intra-twin difference in TA and hTERT DNA methylation, a statistically significant inverse correlation (P = 0.003) was observed between TA and DNA methylation at the cg05521538 site. In conclusion, these results indicate an association of tobacco smoke with TA and TL and suggest a possible association between smoke-induced epigenetic effects and TA in healthy smokers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:551-559, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyts, Paulien A. W.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim As smoking initiation generally occurs in adolescence, smoking prevention is targeted primarily at young adolescents (aged below 16 years). We hypothesize that, with the adoption of increasingly stronger youth access laws, a shift in the age of smoking initiation may have

  7. Smoking Habits of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Intermittent Claudication in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Joshua; Jabo, Brice; Patel, Sheela; Kiang, Sharon; Bianchi, Christian; Chiriano, Jason; Teruya, Theodore; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines for the medical treatment of intermittent claudication give a GRADE 1A recommendation for smoking cessation. Active smoking is therefore expected to be low in patients suffering from intermittent claudication selected for vascular surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking in patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication at the national level and to determine the relationship between smoking status and intervention. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registries for infra-inguinal bypass, supra-inguinal bypass, and peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) were queried to identify patients who underwent invasive treatment for intermittent claudication. Patient factors, procedure type (bypass versus PVI), and level of disease (supra-inguinal versus infra-inguinal) were evaluated for associations with smoking status (active smoking or nonsmoking) by univariate and covariate analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 101,055 procedures were entered in the 3 registries, with 40,269 (40%) performed for intermittent claudication. Complete data for analysis were present in 37,632 cases. At the time of intervention, 44% of patients were active smokers, with wide variation by regional quality group (16-53%). In covariate analysis, active smoking at treatment was associated with age smoking status. During follow-up, 36% of patients had quit smoking. Predictors of smoking cessation included age ≥70 years (RR 1.45), ABI ≥0.9 (RR 1.12), and bypass procedures (RR 1.22). At the time of treatment, 44% of patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication in the VQI were active smokers and there was a wide regional variation. Prevalence of active smoking was greater in the presence of younger age, fewer comorbidities, lower ABI, and supra-inguinal disease. Type of procedure performed, and in turn level of invasiveness required, did not appear to be influenced by smoking

  8. Avaliação de hábitos tabágicos em alunos do ensino secundário Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de fumar é adquirido precocemente na adolescência, sendo esta fase do desenvolvimento um período crítico para a aquisição deste hábito. Métodos: De forma a avaliar os hábitos tabágicos, bem como os conhecimentos dos malefícios relacionados com o seu consumo, foi realizado um inquérito confidencial em quatro escolas secundárias da área do grande Porto. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados com recurso ao programa SPSS 1.2 (versão 2004. Resultados: Foram obtidas respostas de 1770 alunos, com idades compreendidas entre os 11 e os 21 anos (mediana de 15,1 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (58%. A maioria dos estudantes (n=952, 54,6% tinha conhecimento dos avisos relacionados com o fumo dispersos na escola. A grande maioria (n=1639, 92,7% considerava-se bem informada no que respeita aos malefícios do tabaco. No entanto, apenas 6,7% mencionou três ou mais patologias relacionadas com o consumo de tabaco. Quantos às fontes de informação os pais e os amigos foram as mais frequentemente referidas. Do total de estudantes que responderam ao inquérito 194 (11,1% eram fumadores, tendo em média começado a fumar com 15 anos. A maioria (n=111; 57,2% eram filhos de fumadores e a maioria dos fumadores (96,4% tinham amigos fumadores versus 83,1% dos não fumadores, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significativa (pBackground: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students

  9. Circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits are associated with serum polyunsaturated Fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Svingen, Gard F T; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A; Gregory, Jesse F; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman's rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

  10. Dying for a smoke: how much does differential mortality of smokers affect estimated life-course smoking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Han, Jeffrey; Jaber, Ahmed; Lillard, Dean R

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature uses reconstructed historical smoking rates by birth-cohort to inform anti-smoking policies. This paper examines whether and how these rates change when one adjusts for differential mortality of smokers and non-smokers. Using retrospectively reported data from the US (Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1986, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005), the UK (British Household Panel Survey, 1999, 2002), and Russia (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study, 2000), we generate life-course smoking prevalence rates by age-cohort. With cause-specific death rates from secondary sources and an improved method, we correct for differential mortality, and we test whether adjusted and unadjusted rates statistically differ. With US data (National Health Interview Survey, 1967-2004), we also compare contemporaneously measured smoking prevalence rates with the equivalent rates from retrospective data. We find that differential mortality matters only for men. For Russian men over age 70 and US and UK men over age 80 unadjusted smoking prevalence understates the true prevalence. The results using retrospective and contemporaneous data are similar. Differential mortality bias affects our understanding of smoking habits of old cohorts and, therefore, of inter-generational patterns of smoking. Unless one focuses on the young, policy recommendations based on unadjusted smoking rates may be misleading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking habit and psychometric scores: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A

    1978-09-13

    During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.

  12. [Differences in dietary habits and food preferences of adults depending on the age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Edyta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Adamska, Ewelina; Maliszewska, Katarzyna; Citko, Anna; Waszczeniuk, Magdalena; Przystupa, Wojciech; Majewski, Radosław; Wasilewska, Anna; Milewski, Robert; Krytowski, Adam; Górska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the structure and functioning of the body occur with age. Also nutrition is continually modified. Eating habits may affect favorably or unfavorably on the process of aging and the functioning of various tissues, organs and the whole body. The purpose of the study was to evaluate dietary habits and food preferences of patients in different age groups. In the studied groups also body mass index (BMI) and body fat content were analyzed. 237 people (133 women and 104 men, age 18-79 years) were examined. The participants completed questionnaires of the frequency of food consumption and food preferences. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the percentage of body fat (BIA) were also measured. For statistical analysis the assessment of correlation Spearman's rank order and nonparametric ANOVA rank Kruskal-Wallis were used. With age, the frequency of milk (p habits vary depending on age and may be one of the elements affecting the increase in BMI, body fat content, bone mass loss and increased risk of metabolic disorders. The observed changes in dietary habits can contribute to the development of dyslipidemia, glucose dysmetabolism and arterial hypertension, especially in the presence of overweight and obesity.

  13. Hábitos tabágicos em alunos do 6.º ano de Medicina e medidas anti-tabágicas Smoking habits of sixth year medical students and anti-smoking measures in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borges

    2008-06-01

    made available online to the target population (6th year Portuguese medical students. The relationships between some of the variables were analysed using contingency tables and the χ2 test, with p<0.05 taken as statistically significant. Results: We obtained 255 answers to our questionnaire. We found an 18.04% prevalence of smokers. The majority of smokers smoked 1 - 10 cigarettes per day, with men smoking more, and most of them had begun their habit between 13 and 18 years of age, with women beginning later. 36.96% of smokers had already made an attempt to quit smoking. The great majority of the respondents agreed with the anti-smoking measures listed in the questionnaire. Furthermore, they expected these measures to have a positive impact on smoking and on smokingrelated morbidity and mortality. Only 34.90% of the students judged smoking cessation to be sufficiently taught in their curricula. Conclusions: The results are in accordance with the population in general in terms of the prevalence of smokers, the age of beginning smoking and a high prevalence of women smokers. There appears to be across-the-board agreement with anti-smoking measures, along with hope for a reduced general and individual consumption and morbi-mortality.

  14. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  15. [The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.

  16. Epidemiological profile of smoking and nicotine addiction among asthmatic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, E M; Vázquez-Rodríguez, C F; Castillo Ruiz, O; Peinado Herreros, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, this habit in asthmatic adolescents continues to be a health problem worldwide. Our objectives were to determine the epidemiological profile of smoking and the degree of nicotine dependence among asthmatic adolescents. Through a cross-sectional investigation, 3383 adolescents (13-19 years of age) were studied. Information was collected using a previously validated questionnaire. Two study groups of adolescent smokers were formed: one composed of asthmatic adolescents and the other of healthy youths. Asthmatic adolescents were found to be more likely to smoke (21.6% vs 11.8%) and to have some degree of nicotine dependence compared with healthy adolescents (51.6% vs 48.8%). The most important characteristic of smoking in asthmatic adolescents was found to be an onset before 11 years of age due to curiosity about cigarettes. Asthmatic youths continue smoking because this habit decreases their anxiety and stress. Adolescents know that smoking is addictive and often smoke on waking up in the morning or when they are sick. Yet, these adolescents do not consider smoking to be a problem. In this study, curiosity about cigarettes was the primary reason why asthmatic adolescents smoked for the first time and developed a greater dependence to nicotine compared with healthy adolescents. Moreover, the findings show that many of the factors that favour the development of smoking are preventable, given that they are present in the family and social environment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) in comparison to a general population with known smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ekström, Magnus; Rönmark, Eva; Lindberg, Anne; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge about the natural history of severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is limited. Our aim was to compare the survival of PiZZ individuals with randomly selected controls from the Swedish general population.The PiZZ subjects (n=1585) were selected from the Swedish National AATD Register. The controls (n=5999) were randomly selected from the Swedish population register. Smoking habits were known for all subjects.Median follow-up times for the PiZZ subjects (731 never-smokers) and controls (3179 never-smokers) were 12 and 17 years, respectively (psmoking habits and presence of respiratory symptoms, the risk of death was still significantly higher for the PiZZ individuals than for the controls, hazard ratio (HR) 3.2 (95% CI 2.8-3.6; psmoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening, compared to never-smoking controls, HR 1.2 (95% CI 0.6-2.2).The never-smoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening had a similar life expectancy to the never-smokers in the Swedish general population. Early diagnosis of AAT deficiency is of utmost importance. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. Sun exposure habits and health risk-related behaviours among individuals with previous history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Faresjö, Ashild; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between UV exposure and other health risk behaviours in different social environments and in regard to previous history of skin cancer. In two closely-located, equally-sized cities in Sweden, representing different social environments (blue collar and white collar), patients aged 55-69 years, diagnosed with skin cancer (study group, n=489) or seborrhoeic keratosis (control group, n=664), were identified through a regional Health Care Register, and were given a questionnaire mapping for sun habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity. A previous history of skin cancer was associated with reduced UV exposure (phistory of skin cancer appears to promote increased UV protection. In contrast to alcohol/smoking habits, no association between social environment and sun habits was found.

  19. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Message Print en español Fumar y el asma Smoking is an unhealthy habit for anyone, but it's especially bad for people ... Message No one wants their child to start smoking , but it's especially important to discourage this bad habit in kids who have asthma. If your child ...

  20. Association between smoking habits and severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masaya; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Miyase, Yuiko; Suematsu, Yasunori; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Adachi, Sen; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-07-01

    Smoking promotes arteriosclerosis and is one of the most important coronary risk factors. However, few studies have investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We enrolled 416 patients [165/251 = smoker (past and current)/non-smoker)]. They had all undergone CTA and either were clinically suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) or had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. We divided the patients into smoking and non-smoking groups, and evaluated the presence of CAD, the number of significantly stenosed coronary vessels (VD), and the Gensini score as assessed by CTA in the two groups. The incidence of CAD, VD, the Gensini score, and coronary calcification score in the smoking group were all significantly greater than those in the non-smoking group (CAD, p = 0.009; VD, p = 0.003; Gensini score, p = 0.007; coronary calcification score, p = 0.01). Pack-year was significantly associated with VD and the Gensini score, and was strongly associated with multi-vessel disease (2- and 3-VD) (p < 0.05), whereas the duration of cessation in past smokers was not associated with VD or the Gensini score. Pack-year, but not the duration of cessation, may be the most important factor that was associated with the severity of coronary stenosis in terms of VD and the Gensini score.

  1. Risk Factors for Peri-Implantitis: Effect of History of Periodontal Disease and Smoking Habits. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stacchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether history of periodontitis and smoking habits could represent a risk factor for peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered at the PROSPERO database [registration numbers CRD42016034160 (effect of history of periodontitis and CRD42016033676 (effect of smoking]. Broad electronic (MEDLINE and manual searches were conducted among articles published from January 1st 1990 up to December 31st 2015, resulting in 49332 records for history of periodontitis and 3199 for smoking habits. Selection criteria included prospective studies comparing two cohorts of patients, with and without the investigated risk factor, with a minimum follow-up period of three years, and reporting data on peri-implantitis and implant loss occurrence. Considering that only prospective studies were included, dichotomous data were expressed as risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Three studies evaluating history of periodontitis (on which quantitative analysis was performed and one study on smoking effect were included. Both implant and patient-based meta-analyses revealed a significantly higher risk of developing peri-implantitis in patients with a history of periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy subjects, but not a statistically significant increased risk for implant loss. Conclusions: The outcomes of this systematic review indicate history of periodontitis as a possible risk factor for peri-implantitis, while insufficient data are present in literature to evaluate the role of smoking. However, available evidence is still weak and immature, and sound epidemiological studies are needed to analyse the specific contribution of these potential risk factors.

  2. Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Boucher, Barbara J; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-08-02

    Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes mellitus experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely attributable to genetic and epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring. The 13 179 parent-child trios identified from 238 364 Taiwanese aged ≥20 years screened at 2 community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, areca nut chewing, and their duration prefatherhood on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Offspring MetS risks increased with prefatherhood paternal areca nutusage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.53) versus nonchewing fathers (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.43) with >10 years paternal betel chewing, 1.62 (95% CI, 0.88-2.96) for 5 to 9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.80-2.54) for betel usage prefatherhood (Ptrend=0.0002), with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.26-3.04) for paternal areca nut usage from 20 to 29 years of age, versus from >30 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio,1.61; 95% CI, 0.22-11.69). MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dosewise (Ptrendbetel quid chewing and smoking, prefatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits, and supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Discouraging cigarette smoking through de-marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Chauhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries report high prevalence of smoking habits among youngsters. The transition from school to college is a critical phase where young people are more likely to adopt such unhealthy habits and life-style. It is necessary to understand the factors that lead youngsters to smoking and analyze the relationship of these factors with other socio-economic and demographic variables. The present study is a cross sectional empirical research based on multi-stage sampling process. Data analysis reveals some important relationships among the variables under study which have been suitably utilized in the formulation of de-marketing strategies for vulnerable age groups. These de-marketing strategies are based on the notion that consumption behavior among college students varies significantly which is also evident from factor analysis of data.

  4. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors

  5. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

  6. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

  7. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  8. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Suri, Sushil; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kumar, H N Harsha; Rahman, Mahbubur; Islam, Md R; Pereira, Xavier V; Shah, Mohsin; Sathian, Brijesh; Shetty, Ullasa; Vaswani, Vina R

    2010-11-16

    Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module

  9. Smoking habits and awareness of smoking risks depending on academic background in university students Hábitos tabágicos e conhecimento dos riscos do tabagismo em função da formação académica em estudantes universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Saleiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate smoking habits among a group of medical students and engineering students in order to assess whether, depending on their specific academic background, differences in smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking were present. Methods: Medical and engineering students from the Oporto University were surveyed using a questionnaire, in which they were asked to mention their smoking habits, their perception about cigarette dependence and to point out, from a list of 12 tobacco-related diseases, which were associated with tobacco use. Results: A total of 338 students (172 of Medicine and 166 of Engineering with median age of 21 years answered the questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was 21.6% and was greater among males than females (31.8% versus 10.9%. Significantly fewer medical students smoked (16.3%, compared to engineering students (27.1%. Almost 16% of the students did not know nicotine ability to induce dependence, but medical students were more aware of it (p=0.00. All students identified lung cancer as being associated with tobacco use and pointed out, less frequently, other diseases. Except for lung cancer, medical students showed a better knowledge about smoking-related diseases. Conclusions: As expected, medical students showed a better knowledge of smoking-related diseases in general, as compared to engineering students, and they also showed a lower prevalence of smoking habits. This difference may be due to different attitudes towards smoking for which different academic backgrounds may have contributed.Objectivo: Avaliar os hábitos tabágicos de um grupo de estudantes universitários dos cursos de Medicina e de Engenharia por forma a verificar se, dependendo da sua formação académica específica, existem diferenças nos hábitos tabágicos e atitudes perante o tabagismo. Métodos: Estudantes de Medicina e de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto foram avaliados através de um questionário, no qual tiveram de

  10. Sister chromatid exchanges and high-frequency cells in men environmentally and occupationally exposed to ambient air pollutants. An intergroup comparison with respect to seasonal changes and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendzich, Joanna; Motykiewicz, Grazyna; Michalska, Jadwiga; Kostowska, Alina; Chorazy, Mieczyslaw [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Wang, Li You [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and high-frequency cells (HFC) were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from men environmentally and occupationally exposed to a mixture of ambient air pollutants. The environmentally exposed individuals were inhabitants of the industrial region of Upper Silesia; those occupationally exposed were Silesian cokery or steel plant workers, while the control group consisted of rural region residents. A total of 147 males were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected in winter (February) and summer (September) seasons. Three major areas were investigated during the study: exposure-based dose dependency, seasonal changes, and influence of smoking habits on the SCE frequencies. The latter is frequently reported as a confounding factor in SCE analyses. In both winter and summer samples, statistically significant increases of SCE were observed in the environmentally and occupationally exposed groups compared to the controls (p<0.001). The difference between both exposed groups was also significant (p<0.001). An intergroup comparison was based on ANOVA after adjustment for smoking status. In all three groups of interest, a seasonal variation was found with higher levels in winter. However, in a part of the study in which each donor served as his own control, statistical differences were only found within the exposed groups. Control region inhabitants did not have significantly higher frequencies of SCE in winter, compared to summer samples. The impact of two major confounders, age of the donor and smoking habit, was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Smoking was a major factor influencing the level of SCE. Nevertheless, the effect was seen in winter samples only, which suggests an additive response and adds new information to this known effect

  11. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern1 At the time of the study, Anne Flint was employed at the Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Flint

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS, and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS.To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI, smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings.We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98 and men (80, aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.19 and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.15. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001 and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01. Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p < 005 and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005. Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings.Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern

  12. Current smoking behaviour among rural South African children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

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    Monyeki Kotsedi D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of tobacco products is the major cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Most smokers start the smoking habits from childhood and adolescent stages. Method This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls, aged 11 to 18 years, who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. Association between tobacco products use and habits, attitudes and beliefs were explored in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association. Results The prevalence of tobacco product use increases with increasing (4.9 to 17.1% age among boys whereas girls do not smoke cigarette but only considerable number (1.0 to 4.1% use home made tobacco products (pipe and snuff among the Ellisras rural children. Parents and grand parents play a significant (about 50% role in influencing smoking behaviour among the Ellisras rural children. Seeing actors smoking on TV shows was positively associated (p Conclusion The usage of tobacco products was high among older boys. Girls did not smoke cigarette. This tobacco use behaviour mirrors the cultural norms and adult behaviour. The association of this tobacco used products with biological parameters will shed more light on the health of these children over time.

  13. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always begins by the time kids graduate from ... regular smoking, which typically turns into a strong addiction—well before the age of 18—that can ...

  14. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

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    Janson Christer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757 were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C (rs2073342, ECP562(G>C (rs2233860 and ECP c.-38(A>C (rs2233859 were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C and ECP562(G>C genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  16. Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Linnet, Karen Markussen; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2008-01-01

    -pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms. RESULTS: Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where...... smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few 'normal' smokers. We compared...

  17. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  18. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  19. Body fat distribution in relation to physical activity and smoking habits in 38-year-old European men. The European Fat Distribution Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Deslypere, J P; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Cruz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied 512 European men all born in 1950 from six different towns in the period October 1988 to May 1989. Anthropometric measurements were taken, including weight, height, and circumferences (waist, hip, thigh). Educational level, activity scores and information on smoking habits were

  20. [Smoking among adolescents: population study on parental and school influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, A M; López, R; Serra-Batlles, J; Roger, N; Arnau, A; Roura, P

    2006-01-01

    Smoking represents a public health problem, one which begins during adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and parental and school factors. The study sample consisted of the students from the 20 secondary schools in the region of Osona, Barcelona, Spain. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on the following variables: smoking habit, age of initiation, frequency, type of school (state school or private-subsidized), sex, age, persons living in the home, town, whether the student had lunch at school, whether the student often had lunch or dinner alone at home. A total of 2280 students participated in the study (91%). Mean age was 15.5 years. Of the participants, 20% said they were smokers; 5%, ex-smokers; 34% had tried smoking at least once, and 41% had never smoked. Factors significantly associated with smoking in the multivariate analysis were age, rural town, state school, single parent family, eating alone, and not lunching at school. Smoking prevalence is high among adolescents in our society and there is no gender difference. Our results show that family structure and dynamics can influence smoking in adolescents. Smoking is less prevalent among adolescents who have lunch at school.

  1. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Fujiwara, Takehiko

    1985-01-01

    Brain atrophy during normal aging and its relation to chronic smoking was studied using quantitative volumetric measurements of computed tomography. Study was performed about 159 smokers and 194 non-smokers with no neurological abnormality nor focal abnormality in CT scans. Each pixel of head CT scans was computed and Brain Volume Index (BVI) was calculated. BVI showed a significant decrease in smokers compared to non-smokers in three age groups, 50-to-54, 55-to-59 (p < 0.001, both) and 65-to-69 (p < 0.05). A dose-response study in the male showed that BVI in smokers was significantly lower than that for non smokers. Mean BVI tended to decrease when the smoking index increased but the trend was not significant. The systolic blood pressure and serum triglycrides of smokers were significantly higher than non-smokers (p < 0.002 and p < 0.05). It was suggested that age-related brain atrophy was enhanced by chronic smoking. Previously we showed that cerebral blood flow (CBF) was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Then, we suggest the following hypothesis; smoking chronically advances atherosclerosis, both atherosclerosis and high blood pressure reduce CBF, reduced CBF accelerated the lose of neurons which finally renders the brain atrophic. (author)

  2. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  4. The smoking habit of a close friend or family member--how deep is the impact? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2014-02-18

    To assess the risk of becoming a smoker in adulthood associated with parental smoking as well as the smoking of siblings and close friends. A cross-sectional study. 4 oral healthcare centres in Finland and a follow-up. An age cohort born in 1979 (n=2586) and living in four Finnish towns. Of those reached by the 2008 follow-up, 46.9% (n=1020) responded. Smoking behaviour at the age of 29. Smoking behaviour at the age of 13 and smoking behaviour of family members and close friends. Smoking of a current close friend was strongly associated with participants' own smoking (OR 5.6, 95% CI 3.6 to 8.8). The smoking of a close friend during schooldays was similarly associated (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.5). Smoking among men was associated with the smoking behaviour of mothers and siblings while that among females was not. The impact of a smoker as a close friend is greater than that of a smoking parent or sibling in school age when it comes to smoking behaviour in adulthood. This should be taken into consideration when attempting to prevent smoking initiation or continuation. At clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01348646).

  5. Effects of a workplace-smoking ban in combination with tax increases on smoking in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Candel, Math J J M; Knibbe, Ronald A; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein

    2011-06-01

    In the Netherlands, between 2003 and 2005, 3 tobacco control measures were implemented: a workplace-smoking ban and 2 tax increases on tobacco products. This study explores how the combination of measures influences the smoking behavior of the general population divided into subpopulations with and without paid work (all aged 16-65 years). Data from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits were used. The total sample consisted of 32,014 respondents (27,150 with paid work and 4,864 without paid work) aged 16-65 years. Analyses were done by linear and logistic regression, controlling for relevant factors. For respondents with paid work, the combination of a smoking ban and 2 tax increases led to a decrease in the number of cigarettes per day and in the prevalence of daily smoking. For respondents without paid work, there was no significant effect on any of the outcome parameters. In both groups, there was no evidence that the effect of the measures on smoking was moderated by the respondent's gender, age, or level of education. The combination of policy measures has influenced the smoking behavior of respondents with paid work in a positive way. Compared with most other studies, the effect of the workplace-smoking ban alone is smaller. However, the effect of the combined interventions is higher than the that of tax increases in other studies. Among respondents without paid work who were exposed to tax increases only, no significant effects were found.

  6. PROFIL KONSUMSI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI, STATUS GIZI, KEBIASAAN MEROKOK DAN SANITASI LINGKUNGAN PADA DAERAH DENGAN TB-PARU TINGGI DI INDONESIA (PROFILE OF NATURAL SOURCE ANTIOXIDANTS CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, SMOKING HABIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setyawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Indonesia is at third rank as country having a large number of people with pulmonary-tuberculosis disease after India and China. Low nutritional status, unhealthy lifestyle, poor living condition, and low consumption of natural sources of antioxidant (fruits, vegetables and herbs can decrease immunity sistem and increase the risk of pulmonary-tuberculosis (pulmonary-TB infection. The study aimed to discribe the profile of nutritional status, consumption of antioxidant sources, smoking habit, house condition and environmental sanitation in areas with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Analitic observational study with cross sectional design. The sample is Riskesdas 2010 sample, age of sample is 15 years old and above and living in the area with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Variable being studied are the profile of pulmonary-TB status, sample characteristics (age, sex, occupation and education; nutritional status; the consumption of antioxidant sources (fruits, vegetables and herbs; smoking habit (status, first started smoking, dan smoking duration and practices related to prevention of pulmonary-TB disease; house and environmental sanitation conditions. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are found in male, low education, productive age dan low nutritional status samples. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are also found in smokers that have started smoking in early age (<10 years old and have smoked in long duration (31-40 years. A slight larger proportion of pulmonary-TB is found in samples that consume fruit-vegetable less than 5 servings/day. The higher proportion of behaviour that prevent pulmonary-TB, healthy house and environment is found in non pulmonary-TB samples. To cut down the number of pulmonary-TB suferer, efforts should be focused to the improving nutritional status, house condition and environtment sanitation, reducing the number of early ages smokers and increasing the consumption of 5 servings of

  7. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungmin; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle) for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type). Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67) higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98) for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92) for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92) or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80) than with a spouse and younger generations. Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  8. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. The seventh nationwide epidemiological survey for chronic pancreatitis in Japan: clinical significance of smoking habit in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Morihisa; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Kanno, Atsushi; Kimura, Kenji; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to clarify the epidemiological features of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan. In the first survey, both the prevalence and the incidence of CP in 2011 were estimated. In the second survey, the clinicoepidemiological features of the patients were clarified by mailed questionnaires. Patients were diagnosed by the Japanese diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis 2009. The estimated annual prevalence and incidence of CP in 2011 were 52.4/100,000 and 14.0/100,000, respectively. The sex ratio (male/female) of patients was 4.6, with a mean age of 62.3 years. Alcoholic (67.5%) was the most common and idiopathic (20.0%) was the second most common cause of CP. Comorbidity with diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic calcifications (PC) occurred more frequent in ever smokers independently of their drinking status. Among patients without drinking habit, the incidences of DM and PC were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed smoking was an independent factor of DM and PC in CP patients: DM, Odds ratio (OR) 1.644, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.202 to 2.247 (P = 0.002): PC, OR 2.010, 95% CI 1.458 to 2.773 (P smoking was not identified as an independent factor for the appearance of abdominal pain by this analysis. The prevalence of Japanese patients with CP has been increasing. Smoking was identified as an independent factor related to DM and PC in Japanese CP patients. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanphanom, Sychareun; Phengsavanh, Alongkon; Hansana, Visanou; Menorath, Sing; Tomson, Tanja

    2009-06-08

    This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3%) but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  11. Dietary habits and risk of urothelial cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Kyohei; Miki, Tsuneharu; Nakao, Masahiro; Mikami, Kazuya; Ito, Yoshinori; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the associations of dietary habits with the risk of urothelial cancer death were evaluated taking into consideration sex, age, and smoking habits. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study was established in 1988-1990 and consisted of 47,997 men and 66,520 women observed until the end of 1999. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used as a baseline survey. Hazard ratios for dietary factors were calculated by Cox's proportional hazards model. During the observation period, 63 men and 25 women died of urothelial cancer. Increasing age, male gender, and history of smoking were all significantly associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer death. A high intake of milk and fruits other than oranges reduced the risk significantly and dose dependently, in particular among subjects with smoking history. However, consumption of butter and yogurt had no associations with the risk. Intakes of cabbage, lettuce, green leafy vegetables, carrots, squash, tomatoes, and oranges were not significantly associated with the risk. It was suggested that urothelial cancer death could be potentially preventable by smoking cessation and regular intake of milk and fruit.

  12. Social characteristics associated with disparities in smoking rates in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Chetrit, Angela; Avni, Shlomit; Averbuch, Emma; Novikov, Ilya; Daoud, Nihaya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of health disparities. We aimed to determine social characteristics associated with smoking status and age at smoking initiation in the ethnically-diverse population of Israel. This is a cross-sectional survey, based on data collected during 2010 by the Israel Bureau of Statistics, in a representative nationwide sample of 7,524 adults (≥20 years). Information collected by personal interviews included a broad set of demographic and socio-economic characteristics and detailed information on smoking habits. Associations between social characteristics and smoking habits were tested in multivariable regression models. Current smoking was more frequent among men than among women (30.9 % vs. 16.8 %; p  rate of unemployment, lower income, possession of fewer material assets, difficulty to meet living expenses) and lower educational level were significantly associated with current smoking among men but not among women. Family status other than being married was associated with higher likelihood of being a current smoker, while being traditional or observant was associated with a lower likelihood of ever smoking among both gender groups. Arab minority men and male immigrants from the former Soviet Union countries were more frequently current smokers than Israeli-born Jewish men [adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.53 (1.22, 1.93) and 1.37 (1.01-1.87), respectively]. Compared to Israeli-born men, the age at smoking initiation was younger among male immigrants, and older among Arab minority men [adjusted hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.360 (1.165-1.586), and 0.849 (0.749-0.962), respectively]. While the prevalence of current smoking was lower in younger birth cohorts, the age at smoking initiation among ever-smokers declined as well. Among several subgroups within the Israeli population the smoking uptake is high, e.g. Arab men, men who are less affluent, who have lower educational level, and male immigrants

  13. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.

  14. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  15. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  16. Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, A; Darka, O; Topaloğlu, B; Bek, Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between passive smoking, as determined by salivary cotinine level, and caries, salivary pH, buffering capacity, flow rate and microbiological counts in young children. Ninety passive smokers (PS) with a mean age of 5.02 years and 90 healthy age-matched controls were included in this study. Family income, smoking habits of household members, parental education levels, child's tooth-brushing habit and child's daily dietary sugar exposure were recorded by questionnaire. Three categories were formed with respect to the number of cigarettes smoked. A dmft score was calculated according to the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The children were also investigated for stimulated salivary cotinine level, pH, flow rate, buffering capacity and salivary Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli colonisation. There were no significant differences in tooth-brushing habit, sugar exposure, family income and parental education levels between the two groups (P>0.05). The mean cotinine level of the PS subjects was 1.58+/-4.3ng/ml. The dmft scores, and salivary S. mutans and lactobacilli colonisation in PS children were significantly higher than in the control subjects (Psalivary pH, flow rate and buffering capacity were found in the PS subjects (P<0.05). PS children are at increased risk of caries compared with control subjects.

  17. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  18. The mediating effect of Mediterranean diet on the relation between smoking and colorectal cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Niki; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Soupos, Nick; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Linos, Athena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    The protective role of Mediterranean diet (MD) and the detrimental effect of smoking on colorectal cancer (CRC) have already been shown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential mediating effect of MD on the association between the aforementioned factor (smoking) and CRC. It is a case-control study. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with CRC (63 ± 12 years, 59% males) and 250 age-sex group-matched controls, both from the area of Attica, were studied. Various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle (including detailed smoking habits) and dietary characteristics were measured. Adherence to the MD was evaluated using the MedDietScore (theoretical range 0-55). Each unit increase in the MedDietScore was associated with 13% lower likelihood of CRC (P Smoking habits were associated with 2.9-fold the likelihood of CRC among participants who were away from the MD (i.e. MedDietScore smoking habits with CRC, suggesting indirect benefits of adherence to this dietary pattern with regards to CRC morbidity and mortality.

  19. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  20. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Suzy; Owens, David

    2008-05-06

    Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly.Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  1. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR

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    Menorath Sing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  2. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield...... information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark......, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued...

  3. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  4. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.

  5. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. METHODS Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type. Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. RESULTS Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67 higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98 for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92 for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92 or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80 than with a spouse and younger generations. CONCLUSIONS Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  6. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  8. Exploring the inter-relationship of smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence: genes or environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Katherine I; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Treloar, Susan A; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to covariation between smoking age-at-onset, cigarette consumption and smoking persistence. Multivariate biometrical modelling methods were applied to questionnaire data from Australian twins and their siblings (14 472 individuals from 6247 families). The contributions of genetic and environmental factors to covariation between the three traits were estimated, allowing for sex differences in both trait prevalence and the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects. All traits were moderately heritable in males and females (estimates between 0.40 and 0.62), but there were sex differences in the extent to which additive genetic influences were shared across traits. Twin-specific environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in smoking age-at-onset in females (0.19) and males (0.12), but had little influence (smoking age-at-onset (0.17 for females, 0.19 for males), but a stronger influence on other traits (between 0.39 and 0.49). These results provide some insight into observed sex differences in smoking behaviour, and suggest that searching for pleiotropic genes may prove fruitful. However, further work on phenotypic definitions of smoking behaviour, particularly persistence, is warranted.

  9. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  10. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

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    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  11. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

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    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  12. Twelve-Year Cardiovascular and Mortality Risk in Relation to Smoking Habits in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Men: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Derakhshan, Arash; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Hasheminia, Mitra; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) / coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality events in men with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Middle Eastern cohort during a median follow-up of 12 years. The study population included 2230 subjects aged ≥ 40 years, free from CVD, comprised of 367 participants with diabetes (21.2% current smokers) and 1863 without (27.3% current smokers). Multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for smoking (considering different definitions) for those with and without diabetes. Potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and educational level were entered in the multivariate analysis. In men with diabetes, the HR (95% CI) of comparing current and non-smokers was 1.25 (0.74-2.12) for incident CHD, 1.52 (0.96-2.40) for CVD and 2.10 (1.27-3.47) for mortality events; the corresponding values for men without diabetes were 1.65 (1.24-2.20), 1.70 (1.30-2.22) and 1.72 (1.14-2.58), respectively (all P values for interactions > 0.46). After pooling past smokers with current smokers, among diabetic individuals there was no significant risk for CVD [1.29 (0.89-1.86)] or mortality events [1.25 (0.81-1.92)]; however, among non-diabetic individuals the HRs of current/past smokers reached significant levels for CVD [1.53 (1.23-1.91)] but not for mortality outcomes (all P values for interactions > 0.51). The strength of the associations between smoking habits and incident CVD/CHD and mortality events from all causes did not differ significantly among diabetic and non-diabetic participants. Therefore, a comprehensive community-based smoking prevention program is important, given the increasing trend of smoking among the Iranian population regardless of diabetes status.

  13. Role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Smit, H.A.; Jacobs, D.R.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the role of smoking and diet in the cross-cultural variation in lung-cancer mortality, using aggregated data of the Seven Countries Study, a follow-up study comprising 12,763 middle-aged men in 16 cohorts in Europe, the United States and Japan, which started around 1960. Smoking habits

  14. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  15. Reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits among pregnant women in Greenland: The ACCEPT sub-study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkelsen, Anne Seneca; Long, Manhai; Hounsgaard, Lise; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2018-03-01

    During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. To describe age and regional differences in reproductive factors, lifestyle and diet among Greenlandic pregnant women in their first trimester. A cross-sectional study during 2013-2015 including 373 pregnant women was conducted in five Greenlandic regions (West, Disko Bay, South, North and East). Interview-based questionnaires on reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits were compared in relation to two age groups (median age ≤28 years and >28 years). In total, 72.4% were Inuit, 46.6% had BMI >25.0 kg/m 2 , 29.0% were smoking during pregnancy and 54.6% had used hashish. BMI, educational level, personal income, previous pregnancies and planned breastfeeding period were significantly higher in the age group >28 years of age compared to the age group ≤28 years of age. In region Disko Bay, 90.9% were Inuit, in region South more had a university degree (37.9%) and region East had the highest number of previous pregnancies, the highest number of smokers during pregnancy and the most frequent intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Overall a high BMI and a high smoking frequency were found. Age differences were found for BMI and planned breastfeeding period, while regional differences were found for smoking and intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Future recommendations aimed at pregnant women in Greenland should focus on these health issues.

  16. An Evaluation of a Therapist-Administered Bibliotherapy and Spouse Smoking Habits on Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Barbara L.

    1979-01-01

    Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)

  17. The combined unhealthy behaviors of breakfast skipping and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie

    2009-08-01

    Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p related to other unhealthy behaviors. Binary logistic regression identified current smoking as the most significant factor related to breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age.Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%. Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models.Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth.

  20. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cell Death Causes Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Ueha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to cigarette smoke is a cause of olfactory dysfunction. We previously reported that in young mice, cigarette smoke damaged olfactory progenitors and decreased mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, then, mature ORNs gradually recovered after smoking cessation. However, in aged populations, the target cells in ORNs by cigarette smoke, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs the regenerative ORNs, and the degree of ORN regeneration after smoking cessation remain unclear.Objectives: To explore the effects of cigarette smoke on the ORN cell system using an aged mouse model of smoking, and to investigate the extent to which smoke-induced damage to ORNs recovers following cessation of exposure to cigarette smoke in aged mice.Methods: We intranasally administered a cigarette smoke solution (CSS to 16-month-old male mice over 24 days, then examined ORN existence, cell survival, changes of inflammatory cytokines in the olfactory epithelium (OE, and olfaction using histological analyses, gene analyses and olfactory habituation/dishabituation tests.Results: CSS administration reduced the number of mature ORNs in the OE and induced olfactory dysfunction. These changes coincided with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF expression and a decrease in Il6 expression. Notably, the reduction in mature ORNs did not recover even on day 28 after cessation of treatment with CSS, resulting in persistent olfactory dysfunction.Conclusion: In aged mice, by increasing ORN death, CSS exposure could eventually overwhelm the regenerative capacity of the OE, resulting in continued reduction in the number of mature ORNs and olfactory dysfunction.

  1. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits.

  2. Gender, age and religion as determinants of eating habit of youth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of Age, Gender and Religion on eating habit of youth. It made use of simple random technique in selecting 400 youths within Ikenne local government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The age range of the respondents was between 15 years and 40 years with the mean age of 25.2 and standard ...

  3. Work Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Fishermen With a Smoking Habit: A Mediator Role of Nicotine Dependence and Possible Moderator Role of Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongjuan; Li, Sailan; Yang, Juan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined pathways of influence between work stress, depressive symptoms, nicotine dependence, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in fishermen with smoking habits in Qionghai, Hainan province, China (N = 1068). These fishermen responded to multiple assessments a week before leaving on a deep-sea fishing trip, including a Mental Stressor Investigation Questionnaire (MSIQ), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Russell Reason for Smoking Questionnaire (RRSQ), and an Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses of the collected data in Mplus 7 showed that work stress and nicotine dependence were independent predictors of depressive symptoms. The relationship between work stress and depressive symptoms was found to be partially mediated by nicotine dependence and be moderated by cognitive reappraisal. The evidence suggests it advantageous to examine the need of work stress, nicotine dependence, and cognitive reappraisal when attempting to understand depressive symptoms in fishermen with a smoking habit. These findings suggest that improving nicotine dependence through work stress management and training in cognitive reappraisal could be utilized as effective modalities for improving depressive symptoms.

  4. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  5. Mortality and health-related habits in 900 Finnish former elite athletes and their brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2018-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, Ppower sports athletes, and 77.5, 73.7 and 72.2 years for their age-matched brothers, respectively. In 2001, compared with their brothers, former athletes smoked less (P<0.001), were more physically active (P<0.05) and rated their health more often as very good (P<0.05). Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-04-15

    Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up. Greater amounts of exercise were associated with decreases and greater amounts of smoking were associated with increases in the risks of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. There was no statistically significant evidence of biological interaction; rather, the relative risks of all-cause mortality were additive. In the subgroup of 26,768 ex-smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI 0.60, 0.80), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.71 (0.55, 092) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. In the subgroup of 28,440 smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.57, 0.83), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.45, 0.96) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. Given that an outright ban is unlikely, this study is important because it suggests exercise reduces the risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by around 30% in smokers and ex-smokers. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  8. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  9. Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzil, Ksa; Mathews, J; Sai, A G; Kiran, M; Kevin, S; Sunith, S

    2016-09-01

    Fishing is an occupation associated with uneven diet, strain, drunkenness, tobacco use, and deleterious habits. The physical state of laborers on a large scale will also be influenced by conditions at their work site. Oral mucosal lesions can occur as a result of infections, local shock or infuriation, systemic diseases, and uncontrolled usage of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and oral mucosal lesions among fishermen population of Mahe, South India. The study population consists of 362 fishermen aged between 15 and 54. The questionnaire consisted of questions on personal data, and information related to the subjects' oral habits were collected by the interview. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form was designed for the assessment of oral mucosal lesions. Among the 362 fishermen, 266 (73.48%) were males and 96 (26.52%) were females. The overall prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and gutka chewing was found to be 24.3, 48.85, and 32.4% respectively. Smokeless tobacco (32.4%) was the most prevalent habit followed by smoking tobacco (24.3%). The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 14.9%. There is a statistically significant association between age groups and habits considered. Findings of the present study suggest that oral health condition of the fisherfolk community was relatively poor, with high habit prevalence and oral mucosal lesions. This epi-demiological study has provided baseline data to plan further research in this area. Low socioeconomic status, strenuous working hours, inadequate diet and nutrition intake, stress, and use of tobacco and alcohol act as contributing factors for ill health and oral diseases. It is a challenging population to the clinician to identify and treat them.

  10. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of otitis media among Greenlandic Inuit children while exposure to organochlorines remain insignificant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    regression analyses were used with adjustments for passive smoking, crowding, dietary habits, parent's educational level, breast feeding and the use of child-care. RESULTS: The children were 4-10years of age at follow-up and 223 (85%) participated. We found no association between prenatal OC exposure...... and the development of OM. Factors associated with the child's hazard of OM during the first 4years of life were: mother's history of OM (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.59, p=0.01); mother's smoking habits: current (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.45-4.21, p...

  11. Inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Candice Y; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Lawson, Christina C

    2015-07-01

    We characterized workplace secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking women of reproductive age as a proxy for workplace secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy. We included nonsmoking women aged 18 to 44 years employed during the past 12 months who participated in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated the prevalence of workplace secondhand smoke exposure and its associations with sociodemographic and workplace characteristics. Nine percent of women reported workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Prevalence decreased with increasing age, education, and earnings. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with chemical exposure (prevalence odds ratio [POR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 4.7); being threatened, bullied, or harassed (POR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.1, 5.1); vapors, gas, dust, or fume exposure (POR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.3, 4.4); and worrying about unemployment (POR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.2), among other things. Comprehensive smoke-free laws covering all workers could eliminate inequities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure, including during pregnancy.

  12. Practice and Attitude of Cigarette Smoking: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E.; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Yagoub, Umar; Solan, Yahya M. H.; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Background In Saudi Arabia many studies have addressed cigarette smoking from various perspectives. Most of these studies, however, were conducted among males and confined to Riyadh, the capital city. Such limitations have enhanced the need for community-based epidemiological studies that include both genders and various age groups and socio-demographic features, as well as different regions. Objective This cross-sectional study aims to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to discuss the association between cigarette smoking habits and socio-demographic factors among community members of the Jazan area in southwest Saudi Arabia. Methods A pre-coded questionnaire was designed and tested for data consistency. A well-trained health team was assigned to gather the data from the 30 primary healthcare centers distributed across eight provinces. The response rate was 92.8% (4,326 respondents ≥13 years old). The associations among the subjects' socio-demographic characteristics were examined by the chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression and odds ratios were calculated as well. Results A total of 1,017 (23.5%), 1,042 (24.1%), and 3,284 (75.9%) respondents were, respectively, current smokers (TCS), ever-smokers (TES), and non-smokers (TNS). Though current smokers seem to be more prevalent in urban populations (13.8%) than in rural populations (9.7%), the association of urbanization with a current smoking habit is insignificant. Conclusion Having fun, relieving stress, and the influence of parents, particularly of mothers, were the main motives that encouraged participants' cigarette-smoking habits. This situation was worsened by the fact that accessing cigarettes was either very easy or easy for over 90% of the respondents. PMID:24695369

  13. Practice and attitude of cigarette smoking: a community-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa-eldin E Abdel Rahim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Saudi Arabia many studies have addressed cigarette smoking from various perspectives. Most of these studies, however, were conducted among males and confined to Riyadh, the capital city. Such limitations have enhanced the need for community-based epidemiological studies that include both genders and various age groups and socio-demographic features, as well as different regions. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aims to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to discuss the association between cigarette smoking habits and socio-demographic factors among community members of the Jazan area in southwest Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A pre-coded questionnaire was designed and tested for data consistency. A well-trained health team was assigned to gather the data from the 30 primary healthcare centers distributed across eight provinces. The response rate was 92.8% (4,326 respondents ≥13 years old. The associations among the subjects' socio-demographic characteristics were examined by the chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression and odds ratios were calculated as well. RESULTS: A total of 1,017 (23.5%, 1,042 (24.1%, and 3,284 (75.9% respondents were, respectively, current smokers (TCS, ever-smokers (TES, and non-smokers (TNS. Though current smokers seem to be more prevalent in urban populations (13.8% than in rural populations (9.7%, the association of urbanization with a current smoking habit is insignificant. CONCLUSION: Having fun, relieving stress, and the influence of parents, particularly of mothers, were the main motives that encouraged participants' cigarette-smoking habits. This situation was worsened by the fact that accessing cigarettes was either very easy or easy for over 90% of the respondents.

  14. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Saka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 141-146

  15. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Deger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 141-146

  16. [Study on smoking attributed death and effects of smoking cessation in residents aged 35-79 years in Tianjin, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, D Z; Zhang, H; Xu, Z L; Xue, X D; Jiang, G H

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the influence of smoking on deaths in residents aged 35-79 years and the effects of smoking cessation in Tianjin. Methods: The data of 39 499 death cases aged 35-79 years in 2016 in Tianjin were collected, the risks for deaths caused by smoking related diseases and excess deaths as well as effects of smoking cessation were analyzed after adjusting 5 year old age group, education level and marital status. Results: Among the 39 499 deaths cases, 1 589 (13.56%) were caused by smoking, the percentage of the excess mortality of lung cancer caused by smoking was highest (47.60%); the risk of death due to lung cancer in smokers was 2.75 times higher than that in non-smokers (95 %CI : 2.47-3.06). Among the female deaths, 183 (7.29%) were caused by smoking, the percentage of the excess mortality of lung cancer was highest (28.90%); and the risk of death of lung cancer in smokers was 4.04 times higher than that in non-smokers (95 %CI : 3.49-4.68). The OR for disease in ex-smokers was 0.80 compared with 1.00 in smokers (95 %CI : 0.72-0.90). The OR in males who had quitted smoking for ≥10 years was lower (0.74, 95 %CI : 0.63-0.86) than that in those who had quitted smoking for 1-9 years (0.85, 95 %CI : 0.74-0.98), but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for deaths in residents in Tianjin. Smoking cessation can benefit people's health.

  17. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Durna Daştan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.

  18. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Woosuk University Oriental Medical Hospital, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 {+-} 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis.

  19. A study on the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by life habit and physical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Geun

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between BMD and life habit such as drinking exercise smoking or physical condition such as age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI). I evaluated the BMD of the femoral neck and L2-L4 spines of 321 persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk university oriental medical hospital from February to April in 2006 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. The age of persons ranged from 20 years to 75 years (mean 45.10 ± 11.54) and there were 160 males and 161 females. In males, BMD of the femoral head was highest at 2nd decade, BMD of the spine was highest at 4th decade, and BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was lowest at 6th decade. In fenales, BMD of both femoral head and lumbar spine was highest at 4th decade and lowest at 6th decade. Among the various physical conditions, only height of persons showed significant correlation with BMD in both males and females, BMD was increased according to increasing height. In males, BMD of persons who had habit such as drinking, exercise or smoking did not show significant change statistically. But in females, drinking group showed high BMD relative to non-drinking group in both femoral head and lumbar spine. BMD was different according to age, sex, height and life habit. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors decreasing BMD for prevention of problems by osteoporosis

  20. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R; McAughey, J

    2009-01-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212 Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  1. Effect of military deployment in operational area on the trend of smoking among troops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.; Mubarik, H.

    2015-01-01

    To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area

  2. Price effects on the smoking behaviour of adult age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, G A

    2008-12-01

    To provide a cigarette price elasticity reference for adult age groups, and to estimate the smoking behaviour changes in US adults in light of unprecedented state excise tax increases on cigarettes during the 1990s. Individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 1993-2000 were merged with state-level cigarette price and tax data. Data were analysed for different age groups using a weighted least squares regression framework. The outcome variables measured were whether an individual was a smoker, whether he/she had tried to quit smoking during the previous year, and how many cigarettes were smoked per day among the total population and among active smokers. This study confirmed previous results that younger individuals are more responsive to price changes than older individuals. Although older age groups are less sensitive to price changes, their smoking behaviour changes are still statistically significant. This study found that while older individuals are less responsive to price changes than younger individuals, their behavioural changes due to cigarette price increases should not be ignored.

  3. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidpomoga A.Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1st-2nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  4. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Pidpomoga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1 st-2 nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  5. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  6. Smoking Habits and Attitudes in Students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidrová, Dagmar; Herotová, Tereza Kopřivová; Šustková, Magdaléna; Hynčica, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This study seeks to assess smoking habits, attitudes and intention to quit in students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. A cross-sectional survey designed to obtain information on smoking history, current smoking status, cessation attempts, and attitudes towards smoking among health professionals was conducted in 452 students of the first and last years of a 6-year Master's Study Programme (General Medicine) and a 3-year Bachelor's Study Programme (Public Health). An anonymous questionnaire was administered during the classes in the course of academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13. 5.7% of the Master's Study Programme students (3.3% women and 9.0% men ) and 4.8% of the Bachelor's Study Programme students reported that they are regular smokers. The share of regular smokers was almost twice as big in students of the English Curriculum of the Master's Programme (10.7%) in comparison with the students of the Czech Curriculum (4.5%), and more than twice as big in students of the last years of both study programmes (3.9% in students of the 1st year and 10.8% in students of the 6th year of the Master's Programme; 3.2% in students of the 1st year and 7.0% in students of the 3rd year of the Bachelor's Study Programme). At the time of the research, 18.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 17.1% of students of the Bachelor's Programme were occasional smokers. 5.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 19.0% of students of the Bachelor's Programme reported that they quit smoking during their studies at the medical faculty; on the contrary, 9.8% of students of the Master's Programme and 14.3% of students of the Bachelor's Programme started smoking during that time. Smoking in health professionals undermines their significant role in health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases in their patients. Therefore, education at the medical faculty should focus on motivation of future health professionals towards non-smoking

  7. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge about infertility risk factors, fertility myths and illusory benefits of healthy habits in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Laura; Boivin, Jacky

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has highlighted a lack of fertility awareness in the general population especially in relation to the optimal fertile period during the menstrual cycle, incidence of infertility and duration of the reproductive life span. The current study assessed fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areas of knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking), beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusory benefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility. The sample (n = 149) consisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students (average age 24.01, SD = 7.81). Knowledge scores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect a factor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) were grouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g. living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7 items). An analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of factor (P healthy habits (P healthy habits. We suggest that the public education campaigns should be directed to erroneous beliefs about pseudo protective factors.

  9. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  10. An Exploration of Smoking Behavior of African Male Immigrants Living in Glasgow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezika, Ejiofor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this research study was to explore the smoking behavior of adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow to inform and contribute to primary health promotion frameworks. METHODS 25 adult African male immigrant smokers living in Glasgow were recruited via consecutive sampling by soliciting for participation through the use of flyers, posters and word of mouth. Data collection occurred via semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interviews were audio taped, after which verbatim transcription was carried out and the data analyzed thematically. RESULTS The participants’ smoking habits were influenced by cold weather environment as well as societal norms that appear to make the smoking habit more acceptable in Glasgow than Africa. It appears the more educated the participants were, the fewer cigarettes they smoked. However, there was only a slight difference in the number of cigarettes smoked between participants with a degree and those with a postgraduate degree. CONCLUSION The participants’ smoking habits in Glasgow appear to have increased because of environmental variables associated with living in Glasgow, specifically the cold weather environment and high acceptability of smoking habits in Glasgow. PMID:25741179

  11. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  12. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  13. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of prayer and prayer habits on outcome in patients with severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannemreddy, Prasad; Bryan, Kris; Nanda, Anil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of prayers on the recovery of the unconscious patients admitted after traumatic brain injury. A retrospective study of patients with severe head injury was conducted. The Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were examined along with age, gender, smoking, and alcohol intake. There were 13 patients who received prayer and 13 who did not receive prayer during the hospital stay with almost identical mean Glasgow Coma Scale score. The prayer group stayed in the hospital for more days (P = .03). On multivariate analysis, patients' age (P = .01), admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (P = .009), and prayer habits (P = .007) were significant factors. Patients with prayers habits recovered better following severe head injury. The role of intercessory prayer needs further studies in larger groups.

  15. Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.

  16. Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity among students as a specific sub-group, is an area of concern. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and poor dietary habits are inextricably linked to overweight and obesity. Little is known about trends in smoking, drinking, dietary habits and physical activity ...

  17. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  18. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  19. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  20. New issues and age-old challenges: a review of young people’s relationship with tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Williams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roy Castle Lung Cancer Foundation’s report ‘New issues and age-old challenges: a review of young people’s relationship with tobacco’ highlights a roadmap for action: A return to national leadership and spreading and sustaining local excellence. Smoking is a habit developed in early age with two-thirds of smokers starting before the age of 18 and 40% per cent of smokers become regular smokers before the age of 16. The report highlights the new realities for tobacco and young people which includes: smoking, a habit forged early in life; tobacco-reduction, a (potentially slippery slope; depictions of smoking in modern media; combating complacency in a fairer society. The report also includes shifting issues in youth smoking from illicit tobacco, shisha, cannabis and electronic cigarettes. The findings illustrate that tobacco use among young people is evolving and the consequences of this continue to be felt amongst society’s worst-off citizens. The report makes a call for an overarching vision that is comprehensive and ambitious for tobacco prevention and control in the UK. The survey findings for the report were collected by MHP Communications.

  1. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  2. How do the Japanese Medical Students Evaluate the Effectiveness of Anti-smoking Strategies? : An application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya, MATSUDA; Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health

    1998-01-01

    In order to establish the effective strategies to reduce the smoking prevalence among teenagers in Japan, the author evaluated opinions of the 30 male medical students with smoking habit by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. In the AHP model, the six factors are considered to be important for the onset of teenagers smoking ; smoking habit of peers, smoking habit of family members, tobacco advertising, convenience to buy cigarettes, social acceptance of smoking and knowledge of harmf...

  3. Knowledge and attitude towards smoking among Indian students of dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2013-10-01

    Active cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and an important established cause of cardiovascular disease mortality. Risks have been shown to increase with even light or intermittent active smoking. To assess the prevalence of smoking, age of initiation and the knowledge and attitude towards smoking among dental college students of Rajasthan, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,383 undergraduate and postgraduate dental college students of Rajasthan using self-administered closed-ended questionnaires consisting of 14 questions divided into four sections. A chi-square test was used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. Of all the participants, 777 (56.2%) were male and 606 (43.8%) were female. Among these 258 (33.2%) males and 51 (8.4%) females had tried or experimented smoking. Majority of males (24.7%) initiated this habit at a very young age, before 16 years. About 79.5% males and 72.3% females felt that it was difficult to quit smoking. According to 88.1% females and 48.7% males, people feel less comfortable at public places or social gatherings. The study has shown that the smoking prevalence among dental college students is high and has managed to contribute additional information regarding their attitude towards smoking. Comprehensive tobacco education and smoking cessation programmes should be aggressively promoted in dental settings. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated associations of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) by age. Methods. Data came from the Pooling Project on Diet and Coronary Heart Disease (8 prospective studies, 1974-1996; n = 192 067 women and 74 720 men, aged 40-89 years). Results. During follow-up, 4326 cases...... years or older. The largest absolute risk differences between current smokers and never smokers were observed among the oldest participants. Finally, the majority of CHD cases among smokers were attributable to smoking. For example, attributable proportions of CHD by age group were 88% (40-49 years), 81......% (50-59 years), 71% for (60-69 years), and 68% (70+ years) among women who smoked. Conclusions. Among smokers, the majority of CHD cases are attributable to smoking in all age groups. Smoking prevention is important, irrespective of age. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 13...

  5. Age-wise and gender-wise prevalence of oral habits in 7–16-year-old school children of Mewar ethnicity, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vishnoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to check the age- and gender-wise prevalence of oral habits in the children of 7–16-year-old Indian children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 1029 (661 males and 368 females children of age 7–16 years was done to record the presence or absence of the oral habits with the aid of the anamnestic questionnaire. The recorded oral habits were tongue thrusting, thumb or digit sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism, lip biting or lip sucking, and nail biting. The collected data were subjected to Pearson's Chi-square statistical analysis to know the overall difference in the prevalence rate of different oral habits and to evaluate the gender- and age-wise difference in the prevalence of oral habits. Results: Oral habits were present in 594 participants (57.73%. The highest prevalence rate was registered for tongue thrusting habit (28.8%, which was followed by nail biting (201/19.5% and thumb sucking (128/12.4%, mouth breathing (109/10.6%, lip biting (85/8.3%, and bruxism (29/2.8%. The male participants showed a greater prevalence rate for the oral habits than the female participants (58.55% vs. 56.25%. There was a significant difference in the age-wise prevalence of oral habits with older children showing greater prevalence of oral habits than the younger ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral habits in the current group of children is high. It warrants the need for the community-based educational preventive and interceptive programs to spread the awareness regarding the deleterious effects of these oral habits.

  6. Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damegh, Saleh A; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care was taken to represent urban and rural communities. In urban areas, 8 schools with the largest number of students were selected. This is in addition to 3 schools, which were the only schools with special education on Islamic, Commercial and Technical programs. In the rural areas the 3 most distant schools were included in the sample. Data were obtained through self-administered questionnaires that contained questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude towards cigarette smoking. A total of 2203 students responded to the questionnaires with 83% response rate. Of the studied group, 606 (29.8%) were current smokers and among these 83.7% started smoking at the age of 15 years or less. Technical and commercial secondary school students had higher prevalence of the habit of smoking than those in general and Islamic secondary schools. It was found that the more pocket money received by the students, the higher was the prevalence of smoking. The most common reason given for cigarette smoking behavior (CSB) was the influence of friends (63.5%). Family factor, especially the brother's smoking habit (24.8%) was also important. Most of the students knew that smoking is harmful to their own health (89.3%), and to others (73.9%). The association between smoking and lung cancer was 84.3%, 80.9% for chest disease and 78.2% for heart disease, while the relation to other diseases was less known. We conclude that onset of smoking in the young is alarming. This is of immense importance in formulating health education strategies, which should be directed towards pupils, teachers and

  7. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Twenty-nine human first-trimester ovaries from legal abortions [aged 38-64 days post-conception (p.c.)] were collected. Mothers filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. The ovarian cell numbers...

  8. Four-year follow-up of smoke exposure, attitudes and smoking behaviour following enactment of Finland's national smoke-free work-place law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, Antero; Jaakkola, Maritta S

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluated the possible impact of national smoke-free work-place legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), employee smoking habits and attitudes on work-place smoking regulations. Repeated cross-sectional questionnaire surveys and indoor air nicotine measurements were carried out before, and 1 and 3 years after the law had come into effect. Industrial, service sector and office work-places from the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. A total of 880, 940 and 659 employees (response rates 70%, 75% and 75%) in eight work-places selected from a register kept by the Uusimaa Regional Institute of Occupational Health to represent various sectors of public and private work-places. Reported exposure to ETS, smoking habits, attitudes on smoking at work and measurements of indoor air nicotine concentration. Employee exposure to ETS for at least 1 hour daily decreased steadily during the 4-year follow-up, from 51% in 1994 to 17% in 1995 and 12% in 1998. Respondents' daily smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption diminished 1 year after the enforcement of legislation from 30% to 25%, and remained at 25% in the last survey 3 years later. Long-term reduction in smoking was confined to men. Both smokers' and non-smokers' attitudes shifted gradually towards favouring a total ban on smoking at work. Median indoor airborne nicotine concentrations decreased from 0.9 micro g/m3 in 1994-95 to 0.1 micro g/m3 in 1995-96 and 1998. This is the first follow-up study on a nationally implemented smoke-free work-place law. We found that such legislation is associated with steadily reducing ETS exposure at work, particularly at work-places, where the voluntary smoking regulations have failed to reduce exposure. The implementation of the law also seemed to encourage smokers to accept a non-smoking work-place as the norm.

  9. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...

  10. Donor Smoking and Older Age Increases Morbidity and Mortality After Lung Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, H H; Møller, C H; Zemtsovski, M

    2017-01-01

    survival as well as CLAD-free survival was significantly lower with donors ≥55 years. CONCLUSIONS: Donor smoking history and older donor age impact lung function, mortality, and CLAD-free survival after transplantation. Because of a shortage of organs, extended donor criteria may be considered while taking......BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free...... of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors. Donors were divided into three groups: group 1 included smokers, group 2 nonsmokers, and group 3 had unknown smoking...

  11. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  12. Smoking of health students “State and Foundation University Example”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyurt Nuran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to take a look at the smoking habits of the undergraduate students studying in the health programs of state and private universities, and to determine their opinion about the smoking ban. The research is a descriptive type study. The survey was conducted in February 2017. The participation rate in the survey is 75.5%. A questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was applied to the students. In the questionnaire, students were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, the age at which they started smoking, in which situations they resort to cigarette, their opinion about addiction and on the implementation of the law “Prevention and control of the harmful effects of tobacco products”.

  13. Risk Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Mediterranean-Basin Population: The PAMDI (Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Italy) Study--Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Tognetto, Daniele; Piermarocchi, Rita; Masetto, Morena; Monterosso, Gianluca; Segato, Tatiana; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Turrini, Aida; Peto, Tunde

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of diet and other modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in rural and urban communities of a Mediterranean population in the northeast of Italy. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among subjects aged over 60 years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the consumption of different food categories, i.e., protective (P), risky (R), lutein-rich (L) and neutral (N). Smoking habit and alcohol intake were also examined. Macular pigment was measured by Raman spectroscopy. P food intake reduced the risk of large drusen (ARM2; OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.96) within the rural community. In this sub-group, R foods resulted in a slight association with large drusen, though the R/P food ratio was highly correlated with ARM2 (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31). Raman measures showed an age-dependent decrease but did not correlate with lutein intake. Smoking habit showed a positive association with ARM2 among women (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.54-3.75), whereas alcohol consumption resulted in protective odds (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.86). FFQ analysis confirmed the role of P and R foods and the benefit of a Mediterranean diet in ARMD. Moderate alcohol consumption showed a beneficial effect, whereas the deleterious role of a smoking habit was more evident in females. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Smoking among university students: a comparative study between Malaysian students in Malaysia and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashami, B; Abdul Halim, O; Yusoff, K

    1994-06-01

    A total of 209 randomly selected Malaysian university students (128 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 81 from the University of New South Wales) completed a self-filled questionnaire enquiring about their smoking behaviour and psychosocial characteristics. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6 per cent among students in Malaysia and 18.8 per cent among students in Australia (average 23.4%). Both samples have similar patterns in terms of age of starting smoking, time of the day when they smoked, family and peer history of smoking, and whether or not they inhaled deeply during smoking. The smokers tend to be male, studying beyond the first year, staying with peers outside the hostel, having financial sources other than a scholarship, and abnormal mental health score. However, the smokers from the Australian samples were noted to smoke less and made fewer attempts at quitting the habit.

  15. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  17. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in insulin-dependent diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensson, H; Falk, H; Hugoson, A; Kuylenstierna, J

    1989-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental care habits and knowledge of oral health in age- and sex-matched adult long and short duration insulin-dependent diabetics and non-diabetics. Ninety-four long and 86 short duration diabetics and 86 non-diabetics, aged 20-70 years, participated in the study. All subjects answered a questionnaire with 38 questions about dental visits, attitudes to and knowledge of dental diseases, toothcleaning, dietary and smoking habits, and oral sensations. Among the diabetics there was a rather large group that did not visit a dentist annually. The diabetics also required more emergency dental care and were not as willing as the non-diabetics to spend time and money on their teeth. The compliance with dietary advice was poor among the diabetics. Oral discomfort such as prickling and burning sensations, metallic and bad taste was rare in both diabetics and non-diabetics. In the diabetics, however, a feeling of mouth dryness was common.

  19. [Midwives and smoking--attitudes, smoking status and counselling competence in the course of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Laux, M; Koch, F; Groneberg, D A; Kusma, B; Schwarz, C; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Midwives can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use among pregnant women and young families. It can be assumed that personal smoking behaviour and knowledge of harmful effects influences counselling activities. The aim of this study was to assess smoking status, nicotine dependency and the will to change of midwifery students in german-speaking countries. Broad data on this population is not available so far. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian, German and Swiss midwifery schools. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, personal attitudes towards smoking, knowledge of cessation strategies, perceived self-efficacy and competence to counsel pregnant women regarding their smoking habits of midwifery trainees were examined. 1 126 students and 38 teaching midwives answered this questionnaire (RR=61.8%). 22.7% are daily or occasional smokers. 6.8% have to be considered as medium and heavy smokers. 98.1% consider cessation counselling for pregnant and breast-feeding women as a midwife's task, while 76.5% feel competent enough to do so. 75.5% rate cessation counselling through midwives as effective stop-smoking procedures compared to blurry knowledge on related health risks and effective stop-smoking strategies. The self-reported smoking prevalence is considerably lower than in previous studies and other populations. Knowledge of harmful effects and of effective treatment options needs improvement. Counselling competence needs to be included in a broader way in midwifery curricula. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A Prospective Longitudinal Study on Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Controlled HIV-Positive Patients with 1-Year Follow-Up: The Role of CD4+ Level, Smoking Habits, and Oral Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico F; Capparé, Paolo; Tecco, Simona; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p 10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Want, need and habit as drivers of smoking behaviour: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Luis; Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; West, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Models of tobacco smoking behaviour propose that anticipated pleasure or satisfaction, the need to alleviate a nicotine-induced drive state and a stimulus-driven impulse potentially play an important role. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of how far urges to smoke are reported by smokers and whether the strength of such urges prior to a quit attempt predicts short-term success at quitting. In a prospective study, 566 smokers attending a treatment programme to help smokers quit completed a written questionnaire covering frequency of different types of urge to smoke (automatic impulse - 'automatic urges', anticipated pleasure - 'pleasure urges', and fulfilling a need - 'need urges'). They were asked to rate this for whichever of these urges was dominant for them. The questionnaire also assessed daily cigarette consumption, time to first cigarette of the day, age and gender. Carbon monoxide verified smoking status was recorded at 1 and 4weeks after the target quit date. A total of 47.9% (271) of smokers reported that automatic urges were dominant, 21.7% (123) reported pleasure urges to be dominant, and 30.4% (172) reported need urges to be dominant. The strength of automatic urges predicted abstinence at both 1week (OR=0.74, p=0.005, 95%CI=0.60-0.92) and 4weeks (OR=0.73, p=0.008, 95%CI=0.59-0.92). Associations between other urge types and abstinence were not statistically significant. A substantial proportion of smokers attending a clinic for help with quitting report that their dominant urges to smoke occur without any anticipation of pleasure or relief and the strength of the automatic urges predicts failure to sustain abstinence following a quit attempt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Achkar, Alice; Abdallah, Abbass; Rizk, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female), aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of

  3. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Achkar, Alice; Abdallah, Abbass; Rizk, Sandra

    2008-10-30

    In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their eating habits. A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female), aged 20 +/- 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU) campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0) to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7%) were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively). In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4%) reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001). Intake of colored vegetables and

  4. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P

  5. Smoking cessation is followed by a sharp but transient rise in the incidence of overt autoimmune hypothyroidism – A population‐based, case–control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    habits were verified by measuring urinary cotinine (a nicotine metabolite). Incident hypothyroidism was very common in people who had recently stopped smoking: OR vs never smokers (95%‐CI); quit smoking 10 years, 0·76 (0·38–1·51). Results were consistent in both sexes and irrespective of age. Within two...

  6. Lung Cancer Mortality Associated With Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among People Living With HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna P; Kong, Chung Yin; Hyle, Emily P; Baggett, Travis P; Huang, Mingshu; Parker, Robert A; Paltiel, A David; Losina, Elena; Weinstein, Milton C; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-11-01

    sex and smoking intensity. Due to greater AIDS-related mortality risks, individuals with incomplete ART adherence had higher overall mortality but lower lung cancer mortality. Applying model projections to the approximately 644 200 PLWH aged 20 to 64 in care in the United States, 59 900 (9.3%) are expected to die from lung cancer if smoking habits do not change. Those PLWH who adhere to ART but smoke are substantially more likely to die from lung cancer than from AIDS-related causes.

  7. Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.

  8. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Klotho-related Molecules Upregulated by Smoking Habit in Apparently Healthy Men: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kaori; Nishida, Makoto; Harada, Masaya; Ohama, Tohru; Kawada, Noritaka; Murakami, Masaaki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko

    2015-09-18

    While aging is unavoidable, the aging mechanism is still unclear because of its complexity. Smoking causes premature death and is considered as an environmental aging accelerator. In the present study, we focused on the influence of smoking to the serum concentration of anti-aging protein α-klotho (αKl) and the β-klotho-associated protein fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 in men. Subjects consisted of apparently healthy men over 40 years of age who underwent health examination. Physical and biochemical parameters, including the levels of several cytokines and growth factors, were obtained from the subjects. Among middle-aged men (46.1 ± 5.1 years), serum levels of FGF-21, soluble αKl (sαKl), and inflammation-related cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Serum levels of FGF-21 increased and correlated with alanine transaminase, γ guanosine-5'-triphosphate, and total cholesterol only in smokers, suggesting FGF-21 as a metabolic disorder-related factor in smokers. In aged men (60.3 ± 1.7 years), although the serum levels of sαKl in never-smokers were low, smokers showed highly increased serum levels of sαKl. Serum levels of sαKl was correlated with IL-6 in middle-aged never-smokers, suggesting sαKl regulates IL-6. However, this correlation was disrupted in smokers and aged men.

  10. Smoking as a risk factor for complications in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces-Regueira, María; Iglesias-García, Julio; Lindkvist, Björn; Castiñeira-Alvariño, Margarita; Nieto-García, Laura; Lariño-Noia, José; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, less is known about the role of smoking in the development of CP-related complications. Our aim was to investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on age of onset and complications at CP diagnosis. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Alcohol consumption and smoking habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Morphologic severity was defined based on endoscopic ultrasound criteria for CP and classified as mild (3-4 criteria), moderate (5-6 criteria), and severe (≥7 criteria or calcifications). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed using the C-mixed triglyceride breath test. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CP-related complications were calculated using a case-case design. A total of 241 patients were included. Smoking was associated with PEI (OR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.17-5.16]), calcifications (OR [95% CI], 2.33 [1.10-4.95]), and severe morphologic changes (OR [95% CI], 3.41 [1.31-8.85]) but not with pseudocysts or diabetes. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with age of onset. Tobacco, but not alcohol, is associated with PEI, calcifications, and severe morphologic (≥7 criteria or calcifications) CP at diagnosis. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients with CP.

  11. The influence of smoking on clinical periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has very complex and multi factor etiology. Plaque bacteria is the main cause of periodontal disease and another risk factor that also plays a role is a smoking habit. Cigarette product such as nicotine can influence the development of periodontal disease that can directly and systemically damage the function of PMN cell. The research was conducted by taking a clinical examination on the smoking influence that covers the number of cigarettes and the period of smoking, and kind of cigarette to the worse of periodontal disease, and by measuring the epithelial attachment loss and the bleeding index. The research was conducted to 152 male aged 20-45 years old, comprised 80 smokers and 72 nonsmokers at the Clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. The result of the research showed that smoking gave influence on the worse of the periodontal disease. There was a profound relationship between the smoking period and the number of cigarettes consumed everyday indicated by the epithelial attachment loss. Smoking did not enhance gingival bleeding. The relationship between kinds of cigarette and the gingival bleeding score and the epithelial attachment loss did not show a significant bleeding.

  12. Night eating syndrome and its association with weight status, physical activity, eating habits, smoking status, and sleep patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-09-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample

  13. What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, L.; Crombie, I. K.; Clark, R. A.; Slane, P. W.; Goodman, K. E.; Feyerabend, C.; Cater, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with parents who smoke are often exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke, and children with asthma are particularly susceptible to the detrimental effects of passive smoking. Data were collected from parents who smoke and from their asthmatic children. The families are currently taking part in a randomised controlled trial to test an intervention designed to reduce passive smoking in children with asthma. This paper reports on the baseline data. Questionnaire data and cotinine levels were compared in an attempt to assess exposure and to identify factors which influence exposure of the children. The aim of the study was to identify the scope for a reduction in passive smoking by these children. METHODS: A sample of 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years was obtained. Factors influencing passive smoking were assessed by interviewing parents. Cotinine levels were measured from saliva samples using gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection. RESULTS: Cotinine levels in children were strongly associated with the age of the child, the number of parents who smoked, contact with other smokers, the frequency of smoking in the same room as the child, and crowding within the home. Parental cotinine levels, the amount smoked in the home, and whether the home had a garden also exerted an independent effect on cotinine levels in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Many children are exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke and their cotinine levels are heavily dependent upon proximity to the parent who smokes. Parents who smoke have a unique opportunity to benefit their child's health by modifying their smoking habits within the home. 


 PMID:9371205

  14. Food Habits and Future Time: An Exploratory Study of Age-Appropriate Food Habits Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Peggy A.; McIntosh, William A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined future time perspective and its association with change in food habits among elderly persons (N=805). Findings suggest that the elderly change food habits and that there is an association of positive or negative food habit changes with a positive or negative future time perspective. (Author/NB)

  15. Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' perception of parents' and peers' smoking approval influences adolescent smoking intention, and how age affects this influence in a Swiss sample of adolescents. To know the influence of age can help to develop specific prevention programs tailored to the age groups needs. Method in a cross sectional survey, students aged between 11 and 14 from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) answered questions on smoking habits, parents' and peers' approval and intention to smoke. Results peers' and parents' approval significantly influence students' smoking intention, and students' age significantly moderates this relation: the effect of parents' approval decreases for older adolescents, while the effect of peers' approval increases with age. No difference is found between girls and boys, while non-Swiss are more likely to smoke than Swiss students. Conclusions as literature suggests, results evidence the role parents play during early adolescence. Prevention programs targeting parent-child communication in early adolescence for preventing children's tobacco consumption are strongly supported. PMID:24991921

  16. Cigarette Smoking Among Working Women of Reproductive Age-United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; England, Lucinda J

    2016-05-01

    Employers play a vital role in promoting and supporting tobacco use cessation among tobacco-using workers. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a preventable cause of complications in pregnancy and adverse infant health outcomes. To estimate cigarette smoking prevalence and attempts to quit among working women of reproductive age in different industries and occupations using a nationally representative survey. The 2009-2013 National Health Interview Survey data for women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who were working in the week prior to the interview (n = 30855) were analyzed. Data were adjusted for nonresponse and weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. During 2009-2013, among working women of reproductive age, an estimated 17.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.7-17.8) and 12.9% (95% CI: 12.4-13.4) were current and former cigarette smokers, respectively. Of women who smoke daily, 44.5% (95% CI: 42.5-46.5) had made a quit attempt for more than 1 day in the year before the interview. Cigarette smoking prevalence was highest among women working in the construction industry (29.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-35.7) and in construction and extraction occupations (34.6%; 95% CI: 23.4-45.9). Among working women who were pregnant at the time of the interview, 6.8% (95% CI: 4.4-9.2) and 20.4% (95% CI: 16.9-24.0) were current and former cigarette smokers, respectively. Cigarette smoking prevalence varies by industry and occupation. Intensifying tobacco control efforts in high prevalence industries and occupations could result in higher cessation rates and improvements in health among women of reproductive age. This study identified discrepancies in cigarette smoking among women of reproductive age across industries and occupations. In the absence of smoke-free local and state laws, employer-established smoke-free policies and workplace cessation programs are important for achieving reduction of tobacco use among women and for protecting other workers' health

  17. Linear Depolarization of Lidar Returns by Aged Smoke Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    We use the numerically exact (superposition) T-matrix method to analyze recent measurements of the backscattering linear depolarization ratio (LDR) for a plume of aged smoke at lidar wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm. We show that the unique spectral dependence of the measured LDRs can be modeled, but only by assuming expressly nonspherical morphologies of smoke particles containing substantial amounts of nonabsorbing (or weakly absorbing) refractory materials such as sulfates. Our results demonstrate that spectral backscattering LDR measurements can be indicative of the presence of morphologically complex smoke particles, but additional (e.g., passive polarimetric or bistatic lidar) measurements may be required for a definitive characterization of the particle morphology and composition.

  18. Association between smoking habits and the first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation in Japanese patients: Evidence from the Shinken Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinya; Otsuka, Takayuki; Sagara, Koichi; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Kato, Yuko; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Kunihara, Takashi; Yajima, Junji; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported a cross-sectional analysis regarding the relationship between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) in a single hospital-based cohort with Japanese patients, but the effect of cessation of smoking and/or total tobacco consumption were unclear. We used data from the Shinken Database 2004-2011 (men/women, n=10,714/6803, respectively), which included all new patients attending the Cardiovascular Institute between June 2004 and March 2012. After excluding those previously diagnosed with AF (n=2296), 15,221 patients (men/women, n=9016/6205) were analyzed. During the follow-up period of 2.0±2.1 years (range 0.0-8.1), the incidence rates of new AF in smokers and non-smokers were 9.0 and 5.0 per 1000 patient-years, respectively. In adjusted models with Cox regression analysis, smokers were independently associated with new AF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.00]. Also, current smokers (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17-2.79) and smokers with Brinkman index ≥800 (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70) were independently associated with new AF. However, in current smokers, the HRs were not different by Brinkman index (Brinkman index Smoking was independently associated with the first-appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, especially when the patients continued their smoking habit. However, in patients who continued smoking, difference by total tobacco consumption was not observed, suggesting the significance of cessation of smoking for preventing AF. Our data are limited because of a single hospital-based nature and a relatively short observation period. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  20. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  1. Feeding habit and problems of the aged people in Isoko north and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the feeding habit and problems of the aged people in. Isoko North and South Local Government Areas of Delta State, Nigeria. The sample comprised of 150 elderly men and women from various occupational groups. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Findings showed that the ...

  2. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  3. Evolução temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina, 1986, 1991, 1996 Trends in smoking habits among medical students in 1986, 1991, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Menezes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina nos últimos dez anos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com estudantes do primeiro ao quinto ano do curso de medicina, em 1996. A amostra foi de 449 alunos que responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. Fumante era aquele que fumava um ou mais cigarros por dia há pelo menos um mês; ex-fumantes foram aqueles que, no período da entrevista, não eram fumantes regulares, mas o haviam sido anteriormente. Pesquisa similar foi realizada em 1986 e 1991. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 11%, comparada com 14% em 1991 e 21% em 1986. Apesar da redução do tabagismo nas três séries estudadas, a queda percentual entre 1996 e 1991 foi menor do que aquela observada entre 1991 e 1986. Em 1996, a prevalência do vício de fumar aumentou conforme o ano cursado. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo. A maioria dos alunos mostrou-se favorável à proibição do fumo em locais de ensino e assistência e afirmaram que o tema era pouco valorizado no currículo da faculdade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in smoking habits among medical students in the last ten years. METHODS: In 1996, a cross-sectional survey of smoking habits was carried out among students in the first to the fifth year of medical school. Four hundred and nine students answered the questionnaire. A regular smoker was defined as someone who smokes one or more cigarettes a day at least for one month; former smokers were the ones who used to smoke in the past but not at the moment. Similar researchs were conducted in 1986 and 1991. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Smoking prevalence was 11% compared with 14% in 1991 and 21% in 1986. Although there was a significant reduction of smoking in the last three years, the actual decrease from 1991 to 1996 was less than that observed from 1986 to 1991. In 1961, the prevalence of smoking increased in the last years of medical school. There

  4. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  5. Parental bad habits breed bad behaviors in youth: exposure to gestational smoke and child impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie A; Pagani, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    In utero exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to have an adverse effect on healthy brain development in childhood. In the present study, we examine whether fetal exposure to mild and heavy smoking is associated with lower levels of impulsivity and cognitive control at age 10. Using a sample of 2120 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between gestational cigarette smoke exposure and fourth grade teacher reports of impulsivity and classroom engagement which represent behavioral indicators of executive functions. When compared to children of non-smokers, children of mothers who reported smoking heavily during pregnancy (10 or more cigarettes per day) were rated by their fourth grade teachers as displaying higher levels of impulsive behavior, scoring.112 standard deviation units higher than children of non-smokers. Children of mothers who smoked heavily were also less engaged in the classroom, scoring.057 standard deviation units lower than children of women who did not smoke. These analyses were adjusted for many potentially confounding child and family variables. Exposure to perinatal nicotine may compromise subsequent brain development. In particular, fetal nicotine may be associated with impairment in areas recruited for the effortful control of behavior in later childhood, a time when task-orientation and industriousness are imperative for academic success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Compliance with the smoking ban in Italy 8 years after its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Valentina; Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Masocco, Maria; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Possenti, Valentina; Quarchioni, Elisa; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Vasselli, Stefania; Salmaso, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report compliance with the smoking ban and the spread of smoke-free homes after 3-8 years since the Italian smoking ban implementation, according to the ongoing Italian surveillance system for behavioural risk factors (PASSI). PASSI is based on representative annual samples of the Italian population aged 18-69 years. We considered questions on smoking habits, self-reported compliance with the ban, and on smoke-free homes of 176,236 interviews conducted in 2008-2012. Ninety percent of respondents in 2012 reported that the smoking ban was enforced in hospitality premises (HPs), with a significant 3% increase from 2008. Similarly, 91.3% in 2012 reported a high compliance in workplaces other than HPs, with a significant 5% increase. Perception of compliance did not change among smokers and non-smokers. Seventy-eight percent of respondents in 2012 reported smoke-free homes, with a significant increase from 2008 to 2012. The high compliance with the ban that is still increasing even after 8 years since its implementation may partially have caused the concurrent increase in smoke-free homes.

  7. The effect of denture stability, occlusion, oral hygiene and smoking on denture-induced stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimri, Gadeer Mukatash

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal clinical investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of denture wearing habit (day versus day and night), denture hygiene and cigarette smoking habit on the frequency of denture induced stomatitis. Comparisons were made between 240 complete denture wearers, half of whom were asked to wear their dentures at the daytime only and the other half to wear the denture day and night. All these participants were male patients with a mean age of 57.6 years who had received maxillary complete acrylic dentures for the first time. Fifty percent of the samples were smokers. A standard method for examination of the mouth and denture construction, insertion and follow up were employed. Putative risk factors (denture wearing habits, denture hygiene and smoking) were investigated. Subjects were recalled 12 months after insertion to examine the quality of the denture and the condition of the maxillary mucosa. No significant correlation was found between deterioration of stability or occlusion and type of habitual use of the dentures (P > 0.05). Fourteen percent of the cases reported with inflamed maxillary mucosa. Deterioration of retention or occlusion separately showed no correlation with the condition of the mucosa. However, associated deterioration of both stability and occlusion proved to be significantly correlated with the occurrence of denture stomatitis (P < 0.05). Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently with subjects wearing their dentures overnight compared with those who removed them (P < 0.05). A significant correlation was also found between cigarette smoking, poor oral hygiene and the presence of denture induced stomatitis (P < 0.05). Nocturnal denture wearing habit, deficient oral and denture hygiene, and cigarette smoking are all important predisposing factors to denture-induced stomatitis, however, none of these factors was the sole cause of mucosal inflammation. (author)

  8. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  9. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  10. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  11. Role of family and peers in the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior of future physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mausumi Basu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Globally researchers have long back noted that the trend of substance use was on the rise particularly in the student population. Objective : To find out the prevalence and determinants of smoking practices among undergraduate medical students. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical (MBBS students of a tertiary care medical college using a predesigned and pretested semi-structured self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results : Among 182 participants, 55 (30% were smokers; 85.45% were regular smokers; majority in the age group 20-22 years (70%; mostly males (98%. No significant difference was observed among urban and rural students, and religion had no association. The practice of smoking for last 6 months to 1 year was in 43.6% and 40% smoked less than 6 months. Half of them (50.9% smoked 5-9 cigarettes per day. Peer pressure was significantly high in smokers (83.6%; 42% had other addictions. The effect of parental smoking on smoking habits of the participants was quite evident among smokers (82%, which was significantly higher than nonsmokers (χ2=63.49, P<0.05. Peer pressure was the most important risk factor (57.69% of initiation of smoking habit followed by parental influence (16.49%. Among morbidities of smokers, 60.6% were suffering from regular cough, 6% from bronchitis, and 2% had asthma. Conclusions : Our survey conducted on budding doctors surprisingly showed that undergraduate medical students smoke so much.

  12. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  13. Low intake of vegetables, high intake of confectionary, and unhealthy eating habits are associated with poor sleep quality among middle-aged female Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Asakura, Keiko; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although workers with poor sleep quality are reported to have problems with work performance, few studies have assessed the association between dietary factors and sleep quality using validated indexes. Here, we examined this association using information acquired from validated questionnaires. A total of 3,129 female workers aged 34 to 65 years were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), and subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The relationship between the intake of several food groups and nutrients and sleep quality was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. The effect of eating habits on sleep quality was also examined. Poor sleep quality was associated with low intake of vegetables (p for trend 0.002) and fish (p for trend 0.04) and high intake of confectionary (p for trend 0.004) and noodles (p for trend 0.03) after adjustment for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, physical activity, depression score, employment status, alcohol intake and smoking status). Poor sleep quality was also significantly and positively associated with consumption of energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages, skipping breakfast, and eating irregularly. In addition, poor sleep quality was significantly associated with high carbohydrate intake (p for trend 0.03). A low intake of vegetables and fish, high intake of confectionary and noodles and unhealthy eating habits were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was also associated with high carbohydrate intake in free-living Japanese middle-aged female workers.

  14. Smoking habits of relatives of patients with cancer: cancer diagnosis in the family is an important teachable moment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Mutlu; Kilickap, Saadettin; Elkiran, Tamer; Akbulut, Hakan; Abali, Huseyin; Yuce, Deniz; Kilic, Diclehan; Turhal, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the rate and habitual patterns of smoking, intentions of cessation, dependence levels and sociodemographic characteristics of relatives of patients with a diagnosis of cancer. This study was designed by the Turkish Oncology Group, Epidemiology and Prevention Subgroup. The relatives of cancer patients were asked to fill a questionnaire and Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence. The median ages of those with lower and higher Fagerstrom scores were 40 years and 42 years, respectively. We found no evidence of variation between the two groups for the remaining sociodemographic variables, including the subject's medical status, gender, living in the same house with the patient, their educational status, their family income, closeness to their cancer patients or spending time with them or getting any help or wanting to get some help. Only 2% of the subjects started smoking after cancer was diagnosed in their loved ones and almost 20% of subjects had quit smoking during the previous year. The Fagerstrom score is helpful in determining who would be the most likely to benefit from a cigarette smoking cessation program. Identification of these people with proper screening methods might help us to pinpoint who would benefit most from these programs.

  15. The Correlation between Duration of Employment, Body Posture and Smoking Habit on Low Back Pain Incidence An Analytic Observational Study Among Taxi Driver in Semarang Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syifa Dian Firmanita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain ((LBP ranks as number two of neurological disease’s highest prevalence after cephalgia and migraine in Indonesia. Objective: This study aim to determine the relationship between duration of employment, body posture and smoking habit on the incidence of low back pain on taxi driver. Method: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional design. Seventyfour taxi drivers in Semarang municipality was screened with Beck’s Depression Inventory Scale to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respondents were then given Risk Factor of LBP questionnaire. Data were analyzed with a bivariate correlation test contingency coefficient to see the relationship between duration of employment, body posture, smoking habit and low back pain.Result: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years were moderate smokers and having astenis body posture. The analysis of correlation coefficients contingency test showed a significance relationship between duration of employment (p = 0,000, body posture (p = 0,000, and moderate smokers (p=0.010 with the incidence of LBP. Conclusion: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years with astenis body posture, and moderate smokers were posstively correlated with LBP.

  16. Association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depends on age: A cross-sectional study in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Suhang; Li, Pei; Deng, Meiying; Chen, Chen; Jiang, Yu; Dang, Liangjun; Qu, Qiumin

    2017-09-08

    Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, while the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment is not fully understood. The objectives were to identify a possible association between current smoking and cognitive impairment depending on age in the Chinese rural population. Data for the study consisted of 1,782 participants (40 years and older) who lived in a rural village in the vicinity of Xi'an, China. Data about smoking history and cognitive function were collected. Cognitive function was scored by the Mini-Mental State Examination. The effect of age on the relationship between current smoking and cognitive impairment was analyzed with interaction and stratified analysis by logistic regression models. Interaction analysis showed that current smoking is positively related with cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR]=9.067; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.305-62.979; P=.026). However, the interaction term, age by current smoking, is negatively related with cognitive impairment (OR=0.969; 95%CI 0.939-0.999; P=.045). Stratified logistic regression showed that in the 40-65 years of age sublayer, OR of current smoking is 1.966 (P=.044), whereas in the>65 years of age sublayer, the OR is 0.470 (P=.130). This means that the association between current smoking and cognitive impairment with age might be positive (OR>1) in lower age sublayers, but no significant difference in higher age sublayers. In conclusion, current smoking might be positively associated with cognitive impairment in the middle-aged but the relationship declines with increasing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of maternal smoking and exposure to methylmercury on brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in umbilical cord serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spulber, Stefan; Rantamäki, Tomi; Nikkilä, Outi

    2010-01-01

    . The cohort consisted of 395 singleton births (206 boys and 189 girls), gestational age ranging from 38 to 42 weeks. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Maternal smoking habits and other relevant factors were obtained by interviewing the mothers. The exposure to MeHg was estimated from Hg...... concentrations in cord blood, whereas exposure to PCB was estimated based on maternal serum concentrations. Only MeHg exposure affected the serum BDNF, which decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in girls born to nonsmoking mothers. Maternal smoking significantly increased BNDF in girls but not in boys....... For further statistical analyses, we used the serum BDNF concentration as a continuous outcome variable in supervised regression models. Serum BDNF concentration increased with gestational age, increased by maternal smoking, decreased slightly with MeHg exposure, and maternal smoking enhanced the decrease...

  18. Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: We assessed the intrauterine influence of maternal smoking on childhood bone mass by comparing parental prenatal and postnatal smoking habits. We observed higher bone mass in children exposed to maternal smoking, explained by higher body weight. Maternal smoking or related

  19. [Application of tobacco smoking regulations in restaurants in Tromsö 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, A; Løchen, M L; Høifødt, R

    2001-02-10

    Under the Norwegian Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act, a minimum of 50% of tables in restaurants have to be in smoke-free areas. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs has defined "smoke-free restaurants" as a priority objective in its anti-tobacco strategy. We have investigated smoking policies in restaurants in the City of Tromsø in Northern Norway, as reported by restaurateurs in 1998. Representatives of all the 85 restaurants, bars and pubs in the city were interviewed and their smoking policies and habits reported. This study was part of the local health authority's evaluation of the degree of compliance with the legislation. In 71% of establishments, at least 50% of tables were smoke-free; in 88%, smoking areas were in compliance with the legislation. 86% of restaurateurs reported a positive or neutral attitude to the legislation, 80% thought that their guests were of the same opinion. 47% smoked every day; however, there was no association between smoking habits and smoking policies. Though the prevalence of smoking was high among restaurateurs, this did not affect their attitudes towards the Environmental Tobacco Smoke Act or their policies on smoking.

  20. Objective scoring of hidradenitis suppurativa reflecting the role of tobacco smoking and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, K; Emtestam, L; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    in HS. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the modified Hidradenitis Suppurativa Score (HSS) and to study the impact of body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits on disease severity. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients with HS referred to a clinic with special interest in the disease were...... included, of whom 115 were scored. Points were given for regions involved, types of lesion (nodules, fistulas), total area involved and whether lesions were separated by normal skin. Background characteristics included BMI and smoking habits. Two hundred and forty-six patients completed the Dermatology...... as smoking habits in patients with HS is presented. The results suggest that the HSS may be a relevant outcome measure in future therapeutic trials in HS....

  1. Impact of a chronic smoking habit on the osteo-immunoinflammatory mediators in the peri-implant fluid of clinically healthy dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Brenno Marcondes; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic cigarette smoking on the profile of osteo-immunoinflammatory markers in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from clinically healthy implants DESIGNS: Twenty-five smokers and 23 non-smoker subjects with a unitary screwed implant-supported crown in the molar or pre-molar region were enrolled in this study. The implants should have been in functioning for at least 12 months, and the peri-implant tissue should be clinically healthy [probing depth (PD)0.05). Moreover, higher ICTP concentrations and a higher TH1/TH2 ratio were observed in the PICF of the smoker patients (p0.05). Smoking habit modulate peri-implant cytokine profile, leading to reductions in IL-4, -8 TNF-α, and OPG levels and an increased ICTP and TH1/TH2 ratio in peri-implant crevicular fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  3. The influence of smoking and parity on serum markers for Down's syndrome screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tislarić, Dubravka; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana; Ristić, Smiljana; Latin, Visnja; Zuvić-Butorac, Marta; Bacić, Josip; Petek, Marijan; Kapović, Miljenko

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and number of previous births on maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG). The study included 3,252 completed unaffected singleton pregnancies that proceeded beyond 37 weeks' gestation and resulted with a birth of healthy child. Smoking status of mothers and data concerning gravidity and parity were collected at the sampling date. Serum markers were measured between 13 and 22 gestational weeks, corrected for maternal weight, and converted to multiples of median (MoM) for unaffected pregnancy of the corresponding gestational age. Median MoM values for both markers were examined in relation to both: smoking habits and number of previous births. Smokers had significantly decreased free beta-hCG MoM values compared to nonsmokers (p habits, especially concerning the free beta-hCG levels, would be worthwhile. The evidence of the coexisting influence of parity on serum levels of free beta-hCG, both in smokers and nonsmokers, should perhaps be a stimulus for reconsideration of which corrections the screening performance is dependent on. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Ageing and smoking contribute to plasma surfactant proteins and protease imbalance with correlations to airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Nobuhisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of young people start smoking at an age of 13-15, which means that serious smoking-evoked changes may have been occurred by their twenties. Surfactant proteins (SP and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs have been linked to cigarette smoke induced lung remodelling and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the level of these proteins has not been examined during ageing or in young individuals with short smoking histories. Methods Plasma levels of SP-A, SP-D, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were measured by EIA/ELISA from young (18-23 years non-smoking controls (YNS (n = 36, smokers (YS (n = 51, middle aged/elderly (37-77 years non-smoking controls (ONS (n = 40, smokers (OS (n = 64 (FEV1/FVC >0.7 in all subjects and patients with COPD (n = 44, 35-79 years. Results Plasma levels of SP-A increased with age and in the older group in relation to smoking and COPD. Plasma SP-D and MMP-9 levels did not change with age but were elevated in OS and COPD as compared to ONS. The TIMP-1 level declined with age but increased in chronic smokers when compared to ONS. The clearest correlations could be detected between plasma SP-A vs. age, pack years and FEV1/FVC. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed SP-A to be the best marker for discriminating between patients with COPD and the controls (area under ROC curve of 0.842; 95% confidence interval, 0.785-0.899; p Conclusions Age has a significant contribution to potential markers related to smoking and COPD; SP-A seems to be the best factor in differentiating COPD from the controls.

  5. Changes to smoking habits and addiction following tobacco excise tax increases: a comparison of Māori, Pacific and New Zealand European smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-02-01

    To compare changes in smoking habit and psychological addiction in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers in response to two annual excise tax increases from 2012 to 2014. Smokers from New Zealand cities completed questionnaires at three time points before and after two excise tax increases. There were no significant differences in cigarettes per day or psychological addiction at baseline, but a linear decline in both measures was observed in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers. Cigarettes per day reduced at a greater rate for Māori/Pacific than NZ European smokers but dependence did not. Results indicated that Māori/Pacific smokers' demand for cigarettes may be more price sensitive than NZ European smokers. Implications for Public Health: Tobacco excise tax may be particularly effective for Māori/Pacific smokers and may contribute to reductions in smoking-related health inequalities in NZ. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. The influence of self-esteem, parental smoking, and living in a tobacco production region on adolescent smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, N T; Price, C J

    1988-12-01

    Selected antecedents of smoking initiation among 1,513 eighth grade students in an urban tobacco producing county of North Carolina were studied using the Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Fifteen percent of students reported currently smoking, and 17.2% indicated an intention to smoke upon graduation from high school. Self-esteem and parental smoking behavior related significantly to adolescents' smoking behavior and future intention to smoke. Significantly more females intended to smoke and had lower self-esteem than males. Family involvement in the tobacco industry related significantly to adolescents' intention to smoke but not their smoking behavior. Overall, low self-esteem and parental smoking models may be important to developing the smoking habit among young adolescents. Prevention of smoking initiation should involve promotion of children's self-esteem and avoidance of parental smoking modeling prior to the eighth grade.

  7. [The role of spirometry in encouraging smoking cessation in general practice. A pilot study using "lung age"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, A; Noël, F; Lorenzo, M; Van Den Broucke, J

    2017-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether spirometry, performed in general practitioners' offices would change non-motivated smokers' attitudes toward smoking cessation. We performed an interventional, prospective, before-after single-center study, approved by a research ethics committee. We included 74 smokers older than 18years old, who reported no intention to quit smoking, whatever they were visiting general practitioners for. We performed spirometry and gave them their results, FEV 1 /FVC and lung age together with a comment on it. Nine months later, we called them for another assessment. Fifty-six percent were women with an average-age of 46.5, who smoked 26.3 pack-years. Eighty-two percent of them had normal FEV 1 /FVC but lung age was pathological among 38% of them. Nine months later, 61.1% reported an increased motivation to quit smoking. They smoked 10.9 cigarettes per day versus 13,3 at baseline (P=0.0254). Increase in motivation was not statistically related to age, gender, previous smoking cessations, daily smoking, nicotine dependence or an abnormal FEV 1 /VC ratio (P>0.75) but was significantly related to the presence of an abnormal lung age status (Pspirometry in general practice, combined with the determination of the lung age, may increase motivation towards smoking cessation in smokers who lack motivation. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of polymorphic variants of the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) and its possible effects on smoking habits of a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Neto, E S; Mágulas, J O; Sousa, J J S; Moura, A C M; Pinto, G R; Yoshioka, F K N; Canalle, R; Motta, F J N

    2014-10-20

    Previous studies have revealed a genetic component, including genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic pathway, particularly in the serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2A). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of the T102C (rs6313) and A-1438G (rs6311) polymorphisms with tobacco use in a population from northeastern Brazil. We evaluated these polymorphisms in 135 nonsmokers and 135 smokers using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies and associations of polymorphisms with smoking were assessed with the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, the Fisher exact test, and odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). There were no differences in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies between nonsmokers and smokers for A-1438G (P = 0.80) and T102C (P = 0.35). However, these polymorphisms were significantly associated with habit frequency (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 6.87, 95%CI = 1.23-38.31, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 1.06-12.75, P = 0.07), age of onset (C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.17-9.07, P = 0.03, and nicotine dependence level (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 1.17-9.18, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.13-6.99, P = 0.04; T/C: P = 0.03, OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.13-8.57, P = 0.04; T/C+C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.06, 95%CI = 1.22-7.70, P = 0.02). Therefore, these polymorphisms may not contribute significantly to smoking initiation, they do appear to be associated with habit maintenance.

  9. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  10. Age specific interactions between smoking and radon among United States uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenland, K.

    1994-01-01

    United States uranium miners who smoked have death rates from lung cancer that are intermediate between the rates predicted by the additive and multiplicative models (on a ratio scale) across all age groups. Age specific patterns of interaction have not been thoroughly examined, and most analyses have been internal ones in which there was no truly non-exposed group. Here age specific death rates of lung cancer among ever smoking uranium miners have been examined for conformity with the additive and multiplicative models. The multiplicative model fits well for the youngest and oldest categories, but poorly for the middle age ranges. In the middle age range, predicted rates under the multiplicative model were quite high, surpassing the corresponding United States death rates for all causes combined. (Author)

  11. How do the Japanese medical students evaluate the effectiveness of anti-smoking strategies?- an application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S; Washino, K

    1998-07-01

    In order to establish the effective strategies to reduce the smoking prevalence among teenagers in Japan, the author evaluated opinions of the 30 male medical students with smoking habit by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. In the AHP model, the six factors are considered to be important for the onset of teenagers smoking; smoking habit of peers, smoking habit of family members, tobacco advertising, convenience to buy cigarettes, social acceptance of smoking and knowledge of harmful effects of smoking, and the five strategies are proposed; tobacco advertising ban, higher pricing of tobacco, promotion of antismoking education, regulation on tobacco sales, and regulation on smoking area. According to the medical students' perspective, the strategy of "higher pricing of tobacco" was considered to be the most effective strategy to reduce the smoking incidence of the teenagers, followed by "regulation on tobacco sales", "promotion of anti-smoking education", "regulation on smoking area", and "tobacco advertising ban"

  12. Physicians’ views on the role of smoking in smoking-related diseases: findings from cross-sectional studies from 1982–2014 in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersti Pärna

    2017-07-01

    From 1982 to 2014, physicians’ attitudes towards the health risks of smoking improved in Estonia. However, their assessment of a causal role of smoking in smoking-related diseases was related to their own smoking habits and ethnicity. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians would require special efforts targeted at physicians. Societal pressure from a national policy could support a further decline in the social acceptability of smoking in Estonia and developments in medical education could provide continuing evidence-based information about the health effects of smoking to Estonian physicians.

  13. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  14. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  15. Smoking Water Pipe Habits of University Students and Related Sociodemographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The water pipe smoking is growing into a behaviour like smoking cigarette among young people. The rate of water pipe smoking is especially more common among young people whose socioecomonic situations are better than others [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 19-28

  16. [Smoking habits among staff at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, B; Underner, M; Ingrand, P; Meurice, J-C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an inventory of staff in the hospital who smoked to allow better identification of people at risk and thus develop targeted preventive strategies, which we hoped would be more effective. This survey was conducted at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital in March 2008. The sociodemographic characteristics of the population responding and differences in characteristics between smokers and non-smokers were examined. The level of dependence of smokers and patterns of smoking in the workplace were also evaluated. The results were compared with those of the survey "Baromètre tabac personnel hospitalier 2003". The response rate was 57%, with the study population characterized by a high proportion of women (82%). The proportion of smokers was 29%, similar to that found in the general population (30%) but higher than 24% of the survey of hospital staff Tobacco Barometer 2003. The hospital staff is still weakly dependent on tobacco. The attitude to smoking was strongly linked to socioeconomic group and the domestic staff and health care assistants were most likely to smoke and were also the most dependent. Finally, the hospital has itself become a smoke free environment without tobacco. It is essential to promote measures to prevent smoking among hospital staff taking into account its specific features (high proportion of women). Targeted actions should in particular be conducted amongst the groups of workers who are the most affected. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Smoking,serum antioxidant vitamin levels and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Akkaya Çakir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate associations between the grades of age related macular degeneration(AMDand serum levels of antioxidant vitamins(vitamin A, C and Eand smoking. METHODS: Fifty-three AMD patients and 31 individuals having ages matching with the patient group were enrolled the study. Colored fundus photographs of the macula were used to place participants(n=84into one of the five groups(Grade I-Vbased on the frequency and severity of the lesions associated with AMD. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Smoking status was classified as non-smoker, ex-smoker and current smoker. Total number of packs smoked per year, was defined.RESULTS: The distribution of vitamin A, E, and C levels were 0.874±0.326mg/L, 10.739±4.874mg/L, 1.737±0.447mg/L in control group and 0.880±0.305mg/L, 9.487±6.060mg/L, 1.870±2.191mg/L in AMD group, respectively. The difference between AMD and control group was not statistically significant for vitamin A, E and C levels(P>0.05. There were no significant differences between subgroups of AMD for vitamin A(P=0.881and vitamin E(P=0.293but there was a contradicting rise of vitamin C levels(P=0.044with increasing levels of the disease. There were no significant differences between AMD and control group regarding smoking status, but there was a significant difference for total number of packs smoked per year(P=0.02. An increase of number of total packs smoked per year was determined along with the rising grade of AMD(P=0.007. CONCLUSION: We found no relation between AMD and serum levels of vitamin A and E but vitamin C levels was increase with AMD grades unexpectedly. We found dose-response relationship between smoking and AMD.

  18. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Veronesi, Giulia; Harari, Sergio; Lanfranchi, Federica; Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  19. Evolution of emphysema in relation to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Rampinelli, Cristiano [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Giulia [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Milan (Italy); Harari, Sergio [Fatebenefratelli-Milanocuore, Pneumology Operative Unit, San Giuseppe Hospital, Milan (Italy); Lanfranchi, Federica [University of Milan - IT, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    We have little knowledge about the evolution of emphysema, and relatively little is understood about its evolution in relation to smoking habits. This study aims to assess the evolution of emphysema in asymptomatic current and former smokers over 2 years and to investigate the association with subjects' characteristics. The study was approved by our Ethics Committee and all participants provided written informed consent. We measured emphysema by automatic low-dose computed tomography densitometry in 254 current and 282 former smokers enrolled in a lung-cancer screening. The measures were repeated after 2 years. The association between subjects' characteristics, smoking habits and emphysema were assessed by chi-squared and Wilcoxon tests. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the risk of emphysema worsening according to subjects' characteristics. We assessed the trend of increasing risk of emphysema progression by smoking habits using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-squared test. The median percentage increase in emphysema over a 2-year period was significantly higher in current than in former smokers (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0001). The risk of worsening emphysema (by 30% in 2 years) in current smokers increased with smoking duration (p for trend <0.02). As emphysema is a known risk factor for lung cancer, its evaluation could be used as a potential factor for identification of a high-risk population. The evaluation of emphysema progression can be added to low-dose CT screening programmes to inform and incite participants to stop smoking. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  1. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  2. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Castelletto, R; Estève, J; Muñoz, N; Colanzi, R; Coronel, A; Deamezola, I; Tassi, V; Arslan, A

    1987-12-15

    The highest rate for bladder cancer in Latin America has been reported from La Plata, Argentina. A case-control study was carried out to investigate the reasons for this high rate. A total of 117 cases, 117 hospital controls and 117 neighbourhood sex- and age-matched controls were interviewed regarding their smoking and drinking habits and occupational exposures. Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking were identified as the major risk factors, and a significant association was also found for truck and railway drivers and for oil refinery workers. The relative risks for male smokers who ever smoked cigarettes vs. non-smokers was 4.3 (95% Cl: 1.9-10.3). The risk associated with black tobacco cigarettes was 2-3 times higher than that of blond cigarettes. For male ex-smokers the risk after 5 years of no smoking is less than one third of that of current smokers. The RR for drinking coffee was 2.4 (95% Cl: 1.4-4.4) after adjusting for the effects of tobacco smoking, and the risk increased with the number of cups per day. No association was found with the use of saccharin.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Rose, R

    2001-01-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of effective tobacco control policy in Belarus and other parts of the former Soviet Union. It is particularly important in view of the way the tobacco industry has targeted this region since transition. A nationally representative household survey designed to explore smoking behaviour and its determinants was undertaken in Belarus in April 2000. Data were available on 1090 individuals aged 18 years and over (response rate 53.4%). Respondents were similar demographically to the population of Belarus. Fifty three percent of men and 9% of women are current smokers and an additional 18% and 7% respectively are ex-smokers. Differences in smoking habits between successive generations were identified. These included a ninefold higher rate of ever-smoking amongst 18-29 years old women compared with those aged over 60 years (p workplace where 65% smoke, is common. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have positive beliefs about the health impact of active and passive smoking (p < 0.0001). Amongst women the odds of smoking is 13 times higher in those living in large cities compared with those living in villages. In men, disadvantage and a positive attitude to the west appear to increase the likelihood of smoking. To date policy responses have been inadequate. Unless effective tobacco control policies are introduced, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Belarus.

  4. Smoking habits are an independent prognostic factor in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Nilufer; Hayar, Murat; Altmisdortoglu, Ozgur; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Deligonul, Adem; Ordu, Cetin; Evrensel, Turkkan

    2017-09-01

    The role of tobacco in the pathogenesis of lung cancer (LC) has been clearly established. Based on the epidemiological evidence that smoking may influence LC progression, we investigated the idea that smoking behavior could be associated with overall survival (OS) in this group of patients. A total of 351 patients with LC (311 men and 40 women) were reviewed. Smoking status was assessed as tobacco users or non-users. To calculate pack-years of smoking, the average of number of cigarettes smoked per day was divided by 20 to give packs per day, and then multiplied by the total number of years of smoking. OS was the main outcome measure. The mean follow-up was 3.3 ± 1.2 years. Kaplan-Meier plots of OS by use of tobacco revealed significant differences by smoking status (log-rank = 5.44, P smoking was also evident when we subdivided the former and current smokers into ≤7 (mean value) pack-years and >7 pack-years groups (log-rank = 4.27, P smoking retained its independent prognostic significance for OS (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.17, P = 0.02). Our data indicate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with a poor prognosis among patients diagnosed with LC in a dose-dependent manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The sampling continued until one hundred study subjects were recruited in each area. Although in the area with wealthier socioeconomic status the age at which smoking started was one year more, the number of days of smoking, number of consumed cigarettes, not willingness to quit smoking, ease of access to cigarettes, mother and siblings smoking were more frequent. In contrast, seeing anti-smoking advertisements, father smoking, teachers smoking and education about the adverse effects of smoking were lower than the area with poorer socioeconomic status. The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents' avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  6. Amount of smoking, pulmonary function, and bone mineral density in middle-aged Korean men: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Kyoung Min; Koo, Bo Kyung; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Sang Wan

    2018-01-01

    Smoking induces bone loss; however, data on the relationship between smoking history and bone mineral density (BMD) are lacking. Age and pulmonary function can affect BMD. We investigated the relationships among pack-years (PYs) of smoking, pulmonary function, and BMD in middle-aged Korean men (50-64 years old). This cross-sectional study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. All participants underwent BMD measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pulmonary function tests using standardized spirometry. In total, 388 never-smokers and 1088 ever-smokers were analyzed. The number of PYs of smoking was negatively correlated with total hip BMD (r = -0.088; P = 0.004) after adjusting for age, height, and weight. Ever-smokers were classified into 3 groups according to PYs of smoking. The highest tertile (n = 482) exhibited significantly lower total hip bone mass than the lowest tertile (n = 214) after adjusting for confounding factors (age, height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), alcohol consumption, physical activity, and vitamin D levels) that could affect bone metabolism (P = 0.003). In conclusion, smoking for >30 PYs was significantly associated with low hip BMD after adjusting for pulmonary function in middle-aged Korean men. Long-term smoking may be a risk factor for bone loss in middle-aged men independent of age, height, weight, and pulmonary function.

  7. Lifestyle habits and mortality from all and specific causes of death: 40-year follow-up in the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, A; Puddu, P E; Lanti, M; Maiani, G; Catasta, G; Fidanza, A Alberti

    2014-03-01

    Three lifestyle factors were investigated in a population study to explore their relationships with a long-term mortality. In a cohort of 1564 men aged 45-64 and examined in 1965 within the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries Study, smoking habits, physical activity at work and eating habits (as derived from factor analysis) were determined. During the follow-up 693 men died in 20 years and 1441 in 40 years. In Cox proportional hazards models men smoking cigarettes (versus never smokers), those having a sedentary activity (versus the very active) and those following the Diet Score 1, indexing an unhealthy Diet (versus men with a Diet close to the healthy Mediterranean style) had highly significant hazards ratios (HR) in relations with 20- and 40-year mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. HR for all causes in 40 years were 1.44 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.27 and 1.64) for smokers, 1.43 (CI 1.23 and 1.67) for sedentary people, and 1.31 (CI 1.15 and 1.50) for men with unhealthy diet. Larger HR were found for CHD, CVD and cancers deaths. Combination of 3 unhealthy risk factors versus their absence was associated with 4.8-year life loss in the 20-year follow-up and 10.7-year in the 40-year follow-up. Lifestyle behavior linked to physical activity and smoking and eating habits is strongly associated with mortality and survival in middle aged men during long-term follow-up.

  8. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  10. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  12. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health and oral mucosa. The subjects with tobacco and alcohol use, were subjected to thorough clinical examination of the oral cavity for the evaluation of the ...

  13. The effect of smoking by family members and friends on the incidence of smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).

  14. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  15. Cigarette continuity programs and social support for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, W; Dunaway, M; Dillman, D G

    1998-01-01

    To describe smokers' participation in cigarette continuity programs and the prevalence and structure of cooperative teams of smokers. Cross-sectional survey of smoking histories and continuity-program participation by individuals and their family members in a convenience sample of 176 current smokers at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington. Fisher exact test or chi2 tests were used to compare proportions. One of 3 smokers collected coupons for a continuity program. Three quarters of the collectors redeemed their own coupons, and one quarter gave coupons to another collector. Coupon collectors reported an average team size of more than 2 members. One fifth of collectors were teammates with another generation of family members, and one quarter of collectors aged 24 to 35 years were teammates with their children. Smokers were often aware of their relatives' coupon-collecting habits. Continuity programs have been a popular means of reinforcing smoking, especially within families and groups of friends. Continuity programs are novel in encouraging smoking and brand loyalty between generations. Continuity-program participants need to be aware of the risk of promoting smoking initiation by their children. Health advocates could use similar strategies to promote smoking cessation and prevention within families and other social groups.

  16. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impacts of Canada's minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Russell Clarence; Sanches, Marcos; Gatley, Jodi; Cunningham, James K; Chaiton, Michael Oliver; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan; Benny, Claire

    2018-01-13

    Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014. Survey respondents aged 14-22 years (n=98 320). Current Canadian MATS laws are 18 years in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and 19 years of age in the rest of the country. Current, occasional and daily smoking status; smoking frequency and intensity; and average monthly cigarette consumption. In comparison to age groups slightly younger than the MATS, those just older had significant and abrupt increases immediately after the MATS in the prevalence of current smokers (absolute increase: 2.71%; 95% CI 0.70% to 4.80%; P=0.009) and daily smokers (absolute increase: 2.43%; 95% CI 0.74% to 4.12%; P=0.005). Average past-month cigarette consumption within age groups increased immediately following the MATS by 18% (95% CI 3% to 39%; P=0.02). There was no evidence of significant increases in smoking intensity for daily or occasional smokers after release from MATS restrictions. The study provides relevant evidence supporting the effectiveness of Canadian MATS laws for limiting smoking among tobacco-restricted youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Methods: Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The s...

  19. Establishing a Proper Model of Tobacco Dependence: Influence of Age and Tobacco Smoke Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Gellner, Candice Ann

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Of those who smoke, 9 out of 10 report trying their first cigarette before the age of 18. Although most people who initiate tobacco use are teenagers, animal models for studying tobacco dependence have traditionally focused on how adult animals initiate, withdrawal from and relapse to cigarette smoking. Furthermore, cigarette smoke contains more than 7,000 constituents, including nicotine, yet pre-clinical resea...

  20. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  2. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among Aden university medical students and their relationship to BP and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswar Al Khader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the smoking and khat chewing habits in male Aden University medical students and correlate them with blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and year of training, we randomly selected 100 students of different levels of training and measured their BP, height, and weight, and evaluated their cigarette smoking and khat chewing habits. The mean age of the whole group was 31.8 years. The mean BMI was 23.24 with a range from 22.6 in the in first year medical students to 24.7 (4.4 in 5 th year medical students (P= 0.127. The mean SBP, DBP, and MBP were 120.35, 70.47 and 87.1 mmHg, respectively, and did not change over the years of training. Preva-lence of smoking increased from 20% to 40% and khat chewing from 35% to 90% over the 5 years of training (P= 0.0003. There was a tendency for positive correlation between age and weight, BMI and frequency of khat chewing, and BMI and MBP. We found high prevalence of smoking and khat chewing among the medical students at Aden University and their prevalence increases with student seniority with no significant changes in BMI, SBP, DBP or MBP. There was a weak positive correlation between BMI with SBP, MBP and frequency of Khat chewing.

  3. El hábito tabáquico en el colectivo de colegiados en enfermería de la Comunidad de las Islas Baleares The smoking habits of registered nurses in the community of the Balearic Islands

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    Jordi Pericás

    2007-11-01

    ex-smokers in order to draw a profile of their smoking habits. Results: Women accounted for 80% of the 430 nurses surveyed and their average age was 38. Of all nurses, 26.7% were smokers, 20.5% were ex-smokers and 52.8% were non-smokers. Smokers ask their patients fewer questions about their smoking habits, consider themselves less well-informed about how to address the issue and advise their patients to quit smoking on fewer occasions than non-smoking nurses do. Primary care professionals smoke less than specialised nurses do. Conclusion: Further training in smoking issues needs to be conducted, as half the nurses do not feel properly prepared to handle smoking issues.

  4. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

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    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  5. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

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    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  6. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  7. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass......The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested...

  8. EATING HABITS: A study with adolescents aged 10 to 15, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School in Santa Cruz do Sul

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    Bruna Fernada Soder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eating habits in adolescence, may suffer several changes as they can vary from one day to another. The objective of this study is to determine the eating habits of adolescents aged 10 to 15 years old. The study comprised 81 students aged between 10 and 15 years, 48 male and 33 female students, from Gaspar Bartholomay Elementary School. The research was carried out through a descriptive exploratory study, addressing the eating habits and weight control, and focusing on the frequency of food consumption per week. The tool for the study was a questionnaire on health and well-being - children and adolescents - eating habits and weight control. According to the results obtained in this study, the consumption of fried foods, pizza, lasagna and treats,were consumed less frequently, being considered among adolescents as a good eating habit, since foods such as these will cause obesity if consumed more frequently and in large quantities. In relation to the consumption of salads and vegetables males (40.5% have the habit of eating more that kind of food, when compared to the females(38.2%. For both genders, adults become more or less prone to obesitywith a more regular consumption of this type of food. Thus, we can see that the teenagers in their diet, prioritize foods they like to eat, and seldom choose foods which are healthier, without worrying about becoming obese adolescents or even in the future, obese adults with poor eating habits.

  9. Tabaquismo en enfermeras de Atención Primaria: Factores que influyen en su inicio y mantenimiento Smoking habits among Primary Health Care Nurses: Factors that influence taking up and maintaining it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Pericàs Beltrán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermeras de Atención Primaria (AP son profesionales adecuados en la lucha contra el tabaquismo. No obstante, algunas de ellas fuman y esto puede disminuir su credibilidad y su sentimiento de autoeficacia frente al problema. El objetivo de este estudio es evidenciar los factores que pueden influir en el inicio y el mantenimiento del hábito tabáquico. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio cualitativo desde una perspectiva fenomenológica social, en 15 enfermeras fumadoras de AP, recogiendo los datos mediante entrevista semiestructurada en profundidad. Los principales temas que emergieron fueron la falta de concienciación y el papel socializador del tabaco. Se tiene poca conciencia del papel de la publicidad y no se considera al estrés como un determinante del hábito en el ámbito de AP. Puede resultar decisivo el control del peso corporal.Primary Health Care Nurses (PHC are suitable professionals in the fight against the smoking habit. Nevertheless some of them smoke and this may diminish their credibility and their feeling of self-efficacy when faced with this problem. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the factors that may influence taking up and maintaining the smoking habit. Thus, we carried out a qualitative study from a social phenomenological perspective, in 15 PHC nurses who are smokers, collecting the data by means of a semi-structured in-depth interview. The main issues that emerged were lack of awareness and the socializing role of tobacco. There is little awareness of the role of publicity and stress is not considered to be a determining factor of the habit in the area of PHC. The control of body weight may be decisive.

  10. Community reductions in youth smoking after raising the minimum tobacco sales age to 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; Buka, Stephen L; Dash, Kim; Winickoff, Jonathan P; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2016-05-01

    Raising the tobacco sales age to 21 has gained support as a promising strategy to reduce youth cigarette access, but there is little direct evidence of its impact on adolescent smoking. Using regional youth survey data, we compared youth smoking trends in Needham, Massachusetts--which raised the minimum purchase age in 2005--with those of 16 surrounding communities. The MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey is a biennial census survey of high school youth in communities west of Boston; over 16,000 students participated at each of four time points from 2006 to 2012. Using these pooled cross-section data, we used generalised estimating equation models to compare trends in current cigarette smoking and cigarette purchases in Needham relative to 16 comparison communities without similar ordinances. To determine whether trends were specific to tobacco, we also examined trends in youth alcohol use over the same time period. From 2006 to 2010, the decrease in 30-day smoking in Needham (from 13% to 7%) was significantly greater than in the comparison communities (from 15% to 12%; psales age to 21 for tobacco contributes to a greater decline in youth smoking relative to communities that did not pass this ordinance. These findings support local community-level action to raise the tobacco sales age to 21. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Effect of smoking and comorbidities on survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Miia; Kettunen, Hannu-Pekka; Nurmi, Hanna; Selander, Tuomas; Purokivi, Minna; Kaarteenaho, Riitta

    2017-08-22

    Cigarette smoking has been associated with the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Certain comorbidities have been associated with reduced survival although some studies have indicated that current smokers have a longer survival than ex-smokers. Comorbidities in relation to smoking history have not been previously analyzed. Retrospective data was collected and patients were categorized according to gender and smoking habits. Comorbidities and medications were collected. Predictive values for mortality were identified by COX proportional hazard analyses. We examined 45 non-smokers (53.3% female), 66 ex-smokers (9.1% female) and 17 current smokers (17.6% female) with IPF. Current smokers were younger at baseline (58.1 ± 8.74 years) compared to non-smokers (71.4 ± 8.74, p smoking was not related to survival. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (72.7 %) were the most common comorbidities, current smokers had more chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer compared to ex-smokers (pSmoking seems to influence the course of disease in IPF since current smokers developed the disease at a younger age in comparison to non-smokers and ex-smokers. No significant differences in the major comorbidities were detected between IPF patients with different smoking histories. The mechanism through which smoking influences IPF progression requires further investigation.

  12. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  13. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Alexandre, Sandra Maria; Kuhn dos Santos, Jorge Francisco; de Souza, Eduardo; Sass, Nelson; Auritscher Beck, Anna Paula; Trayna, Evelyn; Andrade, Carla Maria de Araújo; Barroso, Teresa; Kulay Júnior, Luiz

    2004-05-06

    Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. Hospital Municipal Vereador José Storópolli, São Paulo, Brazil. 758 patients were interviewed regarding smoke inhalation before being discharged from the maternity hospital. The groups were formed by 42 active smokers, 272 passive smokers, 108 who inhaled smoke both actively and passively, and 336 non-smokers. The groups were compared regarding age, parity, school education, incidence of spontaneous abortion, rate of caesarian births, average gestational age at birth, rate of low birth weight and adequacy of weight in relation to the gestational age of newborn infants. For all variables we considered p active, 35.9% passive and 14.3% active-passive smokers. Active and active-passive smokers were older and had higher parity. Active smokers had lower education levels and higher rates of previous spontaneous abortion. The weights of newborn babies were lower for smoking mothers. The study was performed among patients that were mostly of low economic, social and cultural levels, thus possibly explaining the high incidence of smokers. Worse still was that 35.9% of the non-smokers were actually passive smokers. These rates we report were similar to those from the literature. The typical receptiveness of teenage girls to unrestricted advertising in the media contributes towards an early start to acquiring the habit of smoking, including during pregnancy in our country. We emphasize the difficulties in quantifying exposure to cigarettes even among active smokers. Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, has an unfavorable effect on

  14. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  15. Critical age windows in the impact of lifetime smoking exposure on respiratory symptoms and disease among ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Bircan; Knudsen, Toril Mørkve; Janson, Christer; Nilsen, Roy M; Accordini, Simone; Benediktdottir, Bryndis; Dratva, Julia; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Debbie; Leynaert, Benedcite; Matheson, Melanie C; Norbäck, Dan; Real, Francisco G; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Villani, Simona; Dharmage, S C; Svanes, C

    2018-07-01

    Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire. The associations of maternal smoking in utero, maternal smoking during childhood, age of smoking debut and pack-years of smoking with respiratory symptoms, obstructive diseases and bronchial hyperreactivity were analysed using generalized linear regression, non-linearity between age of smoking debut and outcomes were assessed by Generalized additive mixed models. Respiratory symptoms and asthma were more frequent in adults if their mother smoked during pregnancy, and, in men, also if mother smoked in childhood. Wheeze and ≥3 respiratory symptoms declined with later smoking debut among women [≤10 years: OR = 3.51, 95% CI 1.26, 9.73; 11-12 years: 1.57[1.01-2.44]; 13-15 years: 1.11[0.94-1.32] and ≤10 years: 3.74[1.56-8.83]; 11-12 years: 1.76[1.19-2.56]; 13-15 years: 1.12[0.94-1.35], respectively]. Effects of increasing number of packyears were pronounced in women (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): OR/10 packyears women: 1.33 [1.18, 1.50], men: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26] p interaction = 0.01). Among ever smokers, smoking exposure in each stage of the lifespan show persistent harmful effects for adult respiratory health, while women appeared to be more vulnerable to an early age of smoking debut and amount of smoking in adulthood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  17. Do interviewers health beliefs and habits modify responses to sensitive questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... through computer-assisted telephone interviews. The authors compared interviewer characteristics for 34 interviewers with the responses they obtained in 12,910 interviews carried out for the Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Response data on smoking and alcohol consumption in the first trimester...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...

  18. Influence of reading habits on cerebral plasticity for discourse comprehension in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Olivier Martin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p101   The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of reading habits on cerebral plasticity in the performance of a discourse comprehension task in aging. The main hypothesis was that participants with higher frequency and quality of reading habits should exhibit reduced brain activity because the task should be easier for them. two groups of native French speakers, 16 young adults and 16 elderly adults, participated in a task using the nirS (near-infrared spectroscopy technique. They read short stories and answered true or false probes after each one. They also completed a questionnaire about their previous reading habits. The results show that the more experienced readers had higher activation in the superior left region of the prefrontal cortex while they were reading the stories but lower activation in the same region when they were retrieving the information to answer the probe. Thus, more effort is required to acquire and maintain the information needed to answer, and this effort makes it easier to give the answer. These results reinforce the hypothesis that brain plasticity is promoted by cognitive activities throughout the lifespan.

  19. Social aspects related to smoking in an elderly population attending the Health Family Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kümpel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Smoking habits increase occurred in the XX century, especially in the 50-60ths decades; countries like Brazil and Spain, among others, saw a significant decrease of its consume in the 1990ths decade; however, social repercussions were harmful for a long period of time. Objectives: Assess the social aspects related to smoking in an elderly population; evaluate the main social factors that led to smoking. One hundred and sixty subjects with 60 or more years were included into two groups: non-smoking (G1 (N=80 and smoking (G2(N=80 groups; both had a smoking history over 20 packs/years, e.g., equivalent of one smoked pack per day for 20 years; and also those who did not present dementia or any condition that would not allow them to respond the questionnaires applied in the study. All subjects included attended the health family program in the Capão Redondo region, São Paulo (SP city, Brazil. Mean age was: 66.7+ 5.95 and 67+13 years G1 and G2, minimum and maximum age was 60 and 80 years old, respectively. Mean house residents were: 3.45 + 1.57 and 4.6 +2.1 of G1 and G2, respectively, having more smokers with lower financial and educational resources; an illiterate presented a significant higher risk then a subject with completed undergraduation. Smoking brings important social repercussions over families; parents/friends that smoke are significant stronger related