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Sample records for age related variations

  1. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

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    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  2. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

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    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  3. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

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    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.

  4. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

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    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age.

  5. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

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    Eduardo Baldassari Rebeis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent. RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11-40 years old; however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.

  6. Intra-organ variation in age-related mutation accumulation in the mouse.

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    Rita A Busuttil

    Full Text Available Using a transgenic mouse model harboring chromosomally integrated lacZ mutational target genes, we previously demonstrated that mutations accumulate with age much more rapidly in the small intestine than in the brain. Here it is shown that in the small intestine point mutations preferentially accumulate in epithelial cells of the mucosa scraped off the underlying serosa. The mucosal cells are the differentiated villus cells that have undergone multiple cell divisions. A smaller age-related increase, also involving genome rearrangements, was observed in the serosa, which consists mainly of the remaining crypts and non-dividing smooth muscle cells. In the brain we observed an accumulation of only point mutations in no other areas than hypothalamus and hippocampus. To directly test for cell division as the determining factor in the generation of point mutations we compared mutation induction between mitotically active and quiescent embryonic fibroblasts from the same lacZ mice, treated with either UV (a point mutagen or hydrogen peroxide (a clastogen. The results indicate that while point mutations are highly replication-dependent, genome rearrangements are as easily induced in non-dividing cells as in mitotically active ones. This strongly suggests that the point mutations found to have accumulated in the mucosal part of the small intestine are the consequence of replication errors. The same is likely true for point mutations accumulating in hippocampus and hypothalamus of the brain since neurogenesis in these two areas continues throughout life. The observed intra-organ variation in mutation susceptibility as well as the variation in replication dependency of different types of mutations indicates the need to not only extend observations made on whole organs to their sub-structures but also take the type of mutations and mitotic activity of the cells into consideration. This should help elucidating the impact of genome instability and its

  7. Copy number variation of age-related macular degeneration relevant genes in the Korean population.

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    Jung Hyun Park

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies that analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in various genes have shown that genetic factors are strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD susceptibility. Copy number variation (CNV may be an additional type of genetic variation that contributes to AMD pathogenesis. This study investigated CNV in 4 AMD-relevant genes in Korean AMD patients and control subjects. METHODS: Four CNV candidate regions located in AMD-relevant genes (VEGFA, ARMS2/HTRA1, CFH and VLDLR, were selected based on the outcomes of our previous study which elucidated common CNVs in the Asian populations. Real-time PCR based TaqMan Copy Number Assays were performed on CNV candidates in 273 AMD patients and 257 control subjects. RESULTS: The predicted copy number (PCN, 0, 1, 2 or 3+ of each region was called using the CopyCaller program. All candidate genes except ARMS2/HTRA1 showed CNV in at least one individual, in which losses of VEGFA and VLDLR represent novel findings in the Asian population. When the frequencies of PCN were compared, only the gain in VLDLR showed significant differences between AMD patients and control subjects (p = 0.025. Comparisons of the raw copy values (RCV revealed that 3 of 4 candidate genes showed significant differences (2.03 vs. 1.92 for VEGFA, p<0.01; 2.01 vs. 1.97 for CFH, p<0.01; 1.97 vs. 2.01, p<0.01 for ARMS2/HTRA1. CONCLUSION: CNVs located in AMD-relevant genes may be associated with AMD susceptibility. Further investigations encompassing larger patient cohorts are needed to elucidate the role of CNV in AMD pathogenesis.

  8. Geographical Variations in the Interaction of Relative Age Effects in Youth and Adult Elite Soccer

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    Steingröver, Christina; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph; Helsen, Werner F.; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes’ birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players’ age position within the age band with regard to players’ birth year and birth month. Study 1 tests for an interaction of two different types of relative age effects among data from participants in the last five Under-17 FIFA World Cups (2007–2015). Analyses revealed a significant global within-year effect and varying birthdate distributions were found between confederations. Even stronger effects were found for constituent year effects. For the total sample, a multi-way frequency analysis (MFA) revealed an interaction with a pattern of a stronger within-year effect for the younger year group. This study highlights the need to consider interactions between different types of age effects. The main aim of Study 2 was to test for carry-over effects from previously found constituent year effects among players participating in the 2014 soccer World Cup and, therefore, to test for long-term effects of age grouping structures used during earlier stages of talent development. A secondary purpose of this study was to replicate findings on the existence of within-year effects and to test whether effects vary between continental confederations. No significant interaction between constituent year and within-year effects was shown by the MFA among the World Cup sample and previous findings on varying within-year effects were replicated. Results indicate that long-term effects of age grouping structures in earlier high

  9. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  10. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes.

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    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit; Mengel-From, Jonas; Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-06-01

    In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes.

  11. Age-related Variation in Snake Venom:Evidence from Two Snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) in Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying HE; Jianfang GAO; Longhui LIN; Xiaomei MA; Xiang JI

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored electrophoretic proifles, enzymatic activities and immunoreactivity of neonate and adult venoms from two snakes (Naja atra and Deinagkistrodon acutus) coexisting in southeastern China. Age-related variation in electrophoretic proifles was found in both species and proteolytic and ifbrinogenolytic activity was higher in neonate than adult venoms. Neonate D. acutus venom had higher 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and gelatinolytic activity, but lower esterolytic activity, than adult venom. Neonate and adult D. acutus venoms showed identical phosphomonoesterase, LAO and ifbrinolytic activities. Neonate N. atra venom had higher phosphomonoesterase and LAO activity, but lower 5' nucleotidase, PLA2, hyaluronidase and AchE activities than adult venom. Neonate and adult N. atra venoms showed similar gelatinolytic activity. Further, age-dependent immunoreactivity was found in both species, and cross-reactions between homologous venoms and antiserums were closely related to venom composition. We speculate that age-related variation in venom characteristics is possibly driven by evolutionary forces associated with ontogenetic shifts in dietary habits, competition and predation pressure.

  12. Age-Related Variation in Health Service Use and Associated Expenditures among Children with Autism

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    Cidav, Zuleyha; Lawer, Lindsay; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences by age in service use and associated expenditures during 2005 for Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Aging was associated with significantly higher use and costs for restrictive, institution-based care and lower use and costs for community-based therapeutic services. Total expenditures…

  13. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

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    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  14. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula neboux...

  15. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

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    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  16. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

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    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  17. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

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    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  18. Age-related variations of protein carbonyls in human saliva and plasma: is saliva protein carbonyls an alternative biomarker of aging?

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    Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Yanyi; Liu, Hongchen; Che, Yuwei; Xu, Yingying; E, Lingling

    2015-06-01

    Free radical hypothesis which is one of the most acknowledged aging theories was developed into oxidative stress hypothesis. Protein carbonylation is by far one of the most widely used markers of protein oxidation. We studied the role of age and gender in protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma among 273 Chinese healthy subjects (137 females and 136 males aged between 20 and 79) and discussed the correlation between protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma. Protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma were, respectively, 2.391 ± 0.639 and 0.838 ± 0.274 nmol/mg. Variations of saliva and plasma different age groups all reached significant differences in both male and female (all p saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were found to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.6582 and r = 0.5176, all p saliva and plasma protein carbonyl levels (all p > 0.05). Saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were positively related (r = 0.4405, p saliva and plasma protein carbonyls/ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) ratios were proved to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.7796 and r = 0.6938, all p saliva protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio and plasma protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio were also correlated (r = 0.5573, p saliva protein carbonyls seem to be an alternative biomarker of aging while the mechanisms of protein carbonylation and oxidative stress and the relationship between saliva protein carbonyls and diseases need to be further investigated.

  19. Genetic mechanisms and age-related macular degeneration: common variants, rare variants, copy number variations, epigenetics, and mitochondrial genetics

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    Liu Melissa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex and multifaceted disease involving contributions from both genetic and environmental influences. Previous work exploring the genetic contributions of AMD has implicated numerous genomic regions and a variety of candidate genes as modulators of AMD susceptibility. Nevertheless, much of this work has revolved around single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and it is apparent that a significant portion of the heritability of AMD cannot be explained through these mechanisms. In this review, we consider the role of common variants, rare variants, copy number variations, epigenetics, microRNAs, and mitochondrial genetics in AMD. Copy number variations in regulators of complement activation genes (CFHR1 and CFHR3 and glutathione S transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 have been associated with AMD, and several additional loci have been identified as regions of potential interest but require further evaluation. MicroRNA dysregulation has been linked to the retinal pigment epithelium degeneration in geographic atrophy, ocular neovascularization, and oxidative stress, all of which are hallmarks in the pathogenesis of AMD. Certain mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and SNPs in mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase genes have also been associated with AMD. The role of these additional mechanisms remains only partly understood, but the importance of their further investigation is clear to elucidate more completely the genetic basis of AMD.

  20. Age-related differences in the neural correlates of trial-to-trial variations of reaction time

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    Nancy E. Adleman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-subject variation in reaction time (ISVRT is a developmentally-important phenomenon that decreases from childhood through young adulthood in parallel with the development of executive functions and networks. Prior work has shown a significant association between trial-by-trial variations in reaction time (RT and trial-by-trial variations in brain activity as measured by the blood-oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD response in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. It remains unclear, however, whether such “RT-BOLD” relationships vary with age. Here, we determined whether such trial-by-trial relationships vary with age in a cross-sectional design. We observed an association between age and RT-BOLD relationships in 11 clusters located in visual/occipital regions, frontal and parietal association cortex, precentral/postcentral gyrus, and thalamus. Some of these relationships were negative, reflecting increased BOLD associated with decreased RT, manifesting around the time of stimulus presentation and positive several seconds later. Critically for present purposes, all RT-BOLD relationships increased with age. Thus, RT-BOLD relationships may reflect robust, measurable changes in the brain-behavior relationship across development.

  1. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.;

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium...

  2. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 relaxation time variation patterns in assessment of age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

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    Nan Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the variation patterns of ADC and T2 values in different age and intervertebral disc (IVD levels, thus to identify their sensitivities in assessing age and disc level related IVDs changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The T2 and ADC values were recorded from 345 IVDs of 69 volunteers. Kendall's correlation analysis was used to identify the relationship between age and T2/ADC mean values respectively. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post hoc analysis was then applied to test the differences of T2 and ADC values among different IVD levels and age groups, followed by linear regression analysis between age (45 years and T2/ADC mean values. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values. The T2 and ADC values showed significant differences among IVD levels and among age groups except for T2 values in age group 1 (25-34 years and group 2 (35-44 years, and for ADC values at L1-2 level. Both T2 and ADC values showed significant differences between young (age45 years at each IVD level. A linear relationship was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values in the elderly group as well as in the young group for the ADC mean values, while no such tendency was identified in the young group for the T2 mean values. CONCLUSIONS: ADC values may be a more sensitive parameter than T2 in assessing age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

  3. Age-related variation in carbon allocation at tree and stand scales in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) using a chronosequence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H; Bréda, N; Dufrêne, E

    2010-02-01

    Two types of physiological mechanisms can contribute to growth decline with age: (i) the mechanisms leading to the reduction of carbon assimilation (input) and (ii) those leading to modification of the resource economy. Surprisingly, the processes relating to carbon allocation have been little investigated as compared to research on the processes governing carbon assimilation. The objective of this paper was thus to test the hypothesis that growth decrease related to age is accompanied by changes in carbon allocation to the benefit of storage and reproductive functions in two contrasting broad-leaved species: beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Age-related changes in carbon allocation were studied using a chronosequence approach. Chronosequences, each consisting of several even-aged stands ranging from 14 to 175 years old for beech and from 30 to 134 years old for sessile oak, were divided into five or six age classes. In this study, carbon allocations to growth, storage and reproduction were defined as the relative amount of carbon invested in biomass increment, carbohydrate increment and seed production, respectively. Tree-ring width and allometric relationships were used to assess biomass increment at the tree and stand scales. Below-ground biomass was assessed using a specific allometric relationship between root:shoot ratio and age, established from the literature review. Seasonal variations of carbohydrate concentrations were used to assess carbon allocation to storage. Reproduction effort was quantified for beech stands by collecting seed and cupule production. Age-related flagging of biomass productivity was assessed at the tree and stand scales, and carbohydrate quantities in trees increased with age for both species. Seed and cupule production increased with stand age in beech from 56 gC m(-)(2) year(-1) at 30 years old to 129 gC m(-2) year(-1) at 138 years old. In beech, carbon allocation to storage and

  4. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit;

    2016-01-01

    additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed...

  5. Age-related changes in the diurnal variation of ketogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and relevance to hypoglycemic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hitomi; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Wada, Nobuhiko; Tsuruta, Munehisa; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Oshige, Tamami; Sasaki, Yuko; Iwata, Shinpei; Kato, Naoka; Ohtsuka, Yoshie; Matsuo, Yuko; Tajiri, Yuji; Yamada, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    To assess the significance of ketogenesis in the management of diabetes mellitus, we analyzed the factors associated with the diurnal variation of the plasma ketone body levels. The subjects consisted of 220 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 ± 15 years, without advanced complications. They ate a standardized, low-fat meal at 8:00, 12:00, and 18:00. The plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and free fatty acid (FFA) were increased before breakfast and before dinner. The plasma glucose concentration was almost the same at any blood sampling time point among age quartiles. However, the 3HB levels were significantly decreased with age, which was most obvious before dinner. The FFA levels also decreased with age, but the decline was mild. A multiple regression analysis with stepwise selection revealed that age was an independent, negative contributor and that the pre-breakfast FFA concentration was an independent, positive contributor to the pre-breakfast 3HB levels. Regarding the pre-dinner 3HB levels, in addition to age and the pre-dinner FFA concentration, the uses of sulfonylurea and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were independent negative contributors. The metabolism of ketone bodies is an alternative energy source for the brain under conditions of starvation. While excessive ketogenesis leads to critical ketoacidosis, inadequate ketone body production could be associated with a propensity to develop neurohypoglycemia in elderly patients treated with insulin secretagogues. Because age-related changes in ketogenesis were the most significant before dinner, attention should be paid not only to fasting but also to the pre-dinner levels of 3HB.

  6. [Age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayen, Alexandra; Hubert, Isabelle; Berrod, Jean-Paul

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a multifactorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is the first cause of blindness in patients over 50 in the western world. The disease has been traditionally classified into early and late stages with dry (atrophic) and wet (neovascular) forms: neovascular form is characterized by new blood vessels development under the macula (choroidal neovascularisation) which lead to a rapid decline of vision associated with metamorphopsia and requiring an urgent ophtalmological examination. Optical coherence tomography is now one of the most important part of the examination for diagnosis and treatment. Patient with age related maculopathy should consider taking a dietary supplement such that used in AREDS. The treatment of the wet ARMD has largely beneficied since year 2006 of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) molecules such as ranibizumab or bevacizumab given as repeated intravitreal injections. A systematic follow up each 4 to 8 week in required for several years. There is no effective treatment at the moment for dry AMD. For patients with binocular visual acuity under 60/200 rehabilitation includes low vision specialist, vision aids and psychological support.

  7. Circadian variation in concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone in regularly menstruating females: relation to age, gonadotrophin and sex steroid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif; Jacobsson, Anna-Karin; Rosén, Fredrik;

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a promising marker of ovarian reserve. The aim of the study is to assess the circadian variation in AMH, and to evaluate its clinical relevance and biological aspects as an effect of age and other endocrine mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMH secretion....

  8. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: Seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-11-30

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts and cysts ((oo-)cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011-June 2012) in piglets (n = 152), starter pigs (n = 234), fatteners (n = 230) and sows (n = 240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (oo-)Cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium infected pigs were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) 18S rRNA and hsp70genes, while 13/67 Giardia subsamples were successfully analysed by amplification and partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA and the gdh genes. Altogether, Cryptosporidium or Giardia infections were observed in 40.9% (350/856) and 14.0% (120/856) of the pigs, respectively, including 8.2% (70/856) infected with both parasites. Prevalence, intensity of infections and presence of Cryptosporidium species varied significantly between age-groups; 53.3% piglets, 72.2% starter pigs, 40.4% fatteners and 2.9% sows were infected with Cryptosporidium, whereas 2.0% piglets, 27.4% starter pigs, 17.8% fatteners and 5.0% sows were infected with Giardia. The overall prevalence was stable throughout the year, except for dual-infections that were more prevalent in September and December (p parasites, and dual-infected pigs tended to excrete lower levels of oocysts compared to pigs harbouring only Cryptosporidium. Likewise, pigs infected with Cryptosporidium

  9. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  10. Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Age-related Macular Degeneration About AMD Click for more ... a leading cause of vision loss among people age 60 and older. It causes damage to the ...

  11. Variation of growth-related values within age  categories and sexes in a pumpkinseed ?Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758, (Teleostei, Centrarchidae - population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an evaluation of a species invasion efficacy by means of comparing different methods of evaluating growth (increase in weight and length or body condition (Fulton body condition indices, the value of relative weight ? Le Cren, several combinations of relations between body weight and length or any other liniar values, as height, volume and mathematically determined body density. The values obtained from data collecting and observations were organised into three age groups and divided by sexes, highlighting the cases where a semnificant correlation between these values and the age and/or sex parameters was observed. It is supposed that a growth model which invests in rapidly achieveing sexual maturity, by an intensive body development, will be more efficient than a slow, lengthy one.

  12. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  13. Age- and sex-related variations in platelet count in Italy: a proposal of reference ranges based on 40987 subjects' data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Biino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although several studies demonstrated that platelet count is higher in women, decreases with age, and is influenced by genetic background, most clinical laboratories still use the reference interval 150-400×10(9 platelets/L for all subjects. The present study was to identify age- and sex-specific reference intervals for platelet count. METHODS: We analysed electronic records of subjects enrolled in three population-based studies that investigated inhabitants of seven Italian areas including six geographic isolates. After exclusion of patients with malignancies, liver diseases, or inherited thrombocytopenias, which could affect platelet count, reference intervals were estimated from 40,987 subjects with the non parametric method computing the 2.5° and 97.5° percentiles. RESULTS: Platelet count was similar in men and women until the age of 14, but subsequently women had steadily more platelets than men. The number of platelets decreases quickly in childhood, stabilizes in adulthood, and further decreases in oldness. The final result of this phenomenon is that platelet count in old age was reduced by 35% in men and by 25% in women compared with early infancy. Based on these findings, we estimated reference intervals for platelet count ×10(9/L in children (176-452, adult men (141-362, adult women (156-405, old men (122-350 and, old women (140-379. Moreover, we calculated an "extended" reference interval that takes into account the differences in platelet count observed in different geographic areas. CONCLUSIONS: The age-, sex-, and origin-related variability of platelet count is very wide, and the patient-adapted reference intervals we propose change the thresholds for diagnosing both thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis in Italy.

  14. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  15. An analysis of fetal hemoglobin variation in sickle cell disease: the relative contributions of the X-linked factor, beta-globin haplotypes, alpha-globin gene number, gender, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y C; Smith, K D; Moore, R D; Serjeant, G R; Dover, G J

    1995-02-15

    Five factors have been shown to influence the 20-fold variation of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in sickle cell anemia (SS): age, sex, the alpha-globin gene number, beta-globin haplotypes, and an X-linked locus that regulates the production of Hb F-containing erythrocytes (F cells), ie, the F-cell production (FCP) locus. To determine the relative importance of these factors, we studied 257 Jamaican SS subjects from a Cohort group identified by newborn screening and from a Sib Pair study. Linear regression analyses showed that each variable, when analyzed alone, had a significant association with Hb F levels (P haplotypes, alpha-globin genes, and age accounted for less than 10% of the variation. The association between the beta-globin haplotypes and Hb F levels becomes apparent if the influence of the FCP locus is removed by analyzing only individuals with the same FCP phenotype. Thus, the FCP locus is the most important factor identified to date in determining Hb F levels. The variation within each FCP phenotype is modulated by factors associated with the three common beta-globin haplotypes and other as yet unidentified factor(s).

  16. Synchronous Lagrangian variational principles in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating synchronous variational principles in the context of General Relativity is discussed. Based on the analogy with classical relativistic particle dynamics, the existence of variational principles is pointed out in relativistic classical field theory which are either asynchronous or synchronous. The historical Einstein-Hilbert and Palatini variational formulations are found to belong to the first category. Nevertheless, it is shown that an alternative route exists which permits one to cast these principles in terms of equivalent synchronous Lagrangian variational formulations. The advantage is twofold. First, synchronous approaches allow one to overcome the lack of gauge symmetry of the asynchronous principles. Second, the property of manifest covariance of the theory is also restored at all levels, including the symbolic Euler-Lagrange equations, with the variational Lagrangian density being now identified with a $4-$scalar. As an application, a joint synchronous variational principle...

  17. Age associated variations in human neutrophil and sperm functioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaveri Purandhar; Sriram Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the functional and biochemical variations in sperm and the neutrophil with the progression of age. Methods: Ninety healthy male subjects were selected in the age group 26-40 for the collection of semen and blood samples were collected. Basic semen analysis, hematogram, differential count serum analysis, seminal plasma and serum biochemistry was performed. Mitochondrial isolation from sperm and neutrophil was done to ascertain mitochondrial markers. Results: Our data shows a significant age-dependent reduction in the levels of mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in sperm and the neutrophil. The functional attributes of sperm and neutrophil did not show any specific trend.Conclusion:The decreasing trend of the mitochondrial antioxidants enzymes in the sperm and the neutrophil is an indicative of the reduction in the functioning of sperm and the neutrophil. The antioxidants enzymes of sperm and neutrophil shows similar declining trend with the progression of age suggesting its possible role as a prognostic marker for age related deformities and even in male fertility.

  18. Spatial variation in the storages and age-related dynamics of forest carbon sequestration in different climate zones-evidence from black locust plantations on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijun Li

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the long-term influences of climate change on the amount of potential carbon (C sequestration in forest ecosystems, including age-related dynamics, remains unclear. This study used two similar age-sequences of black locust forests (Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the semi-arid and semi-humid zones of China's Loess Plateau to assess the variation in C stocks and age-related dynamics. Our results demonstrated that black locust forests of the semi-humid zone stored significantly more C than did forests in the semi-arid zone, across the chronosequence (p < 0.001. The C carrying capacity of the plantations was measured at 166.4 Mg C ha-1 (1 Mg = 106 g in the semi-humid zone, while the semi-arid zone had a capacity of only 79.4 Mg C ha-1. Soil organic C (SOC increased continuously with stand age in the semi-arid zone (R2 = 0.84, p = 0.010. However, in the semi-humid zone, SOC declined sharply by 47.8% after the initial stage (5 to 10 y. The C stock in trees increased continuously with stand age in the semi-humid zone (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.011, yet in the semi-arid zone, it decreased dramatically from 43.0 Mg C ha-1 to 28.4 Mg C ha-1 during the old forest stage (38 to 56 y. The shift from being a net C sink to a net C source occurred at the initial stage in the semi-humid zone versus at the old forest stage in the semi-arid zone after reforestation. Surprisingly, with the exception of the initial and later stages (55 y, the patterns of C allocation among trees, soils, understory and litter were not statistically different between the two climate zones. Our results suggest that climate factors can alter the potential amount and age-related dynamics of forest C sequestration.

  19. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    such as osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis, and for the design, fixation and durability of total joint prosthesis. The specific aims of the present studies were: 1) to investigate normal age-related variations in the mechanical, physical/compositional, and structural properties of human tibial trabecular bone; and 2......) to investigate the age-related and osteoarthrosis-related changes in the mechanical properties of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex; and 3) to evaluate mutual associations among various properties. Normal specimens from human autopsy proximal tibiae were used for investigation of age variations...

  20. Age, geochemistry and melt flux variations for the Hawaiian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Greene, A. R.; Wessel, P.; Harrison, L.; Tree, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Ridge portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, the classic example of a mantle plume produced linear island chain, is 6000 km in length, active for 80+ Myr, and tectonically simple. Despite its importance to our understanding of mantle plumes and Cenozoic plate motion, there are large data gaps for the age and geochemistry of lavas from volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge (HR) portion of the Chain. Ages: Only volcanoes near the Hawaiian-Emperor bend and in the Hawaiian Islands have modern Ar-Ar ages, leaving a gap of 2000 km where existing K-Ar ages suggest synchronous volcanism over a 1000 km section. Geochemistry: There is a 2900 km gap in high precision geochemical data for the HR. The Emperor Seamounts (>45 Ma) have better regional coverage of recent isotopic data and show a correlation of Sr isotope composition with age of the underlying oceanic lithosphere (Regelous et al. 2003). The HR has an unexplained, exponential increase in magma flux over the last 30 Myr (Vidal & Bonneville 2004). Potential explanations for the increase in magma flux include: changes in melting conditions (temperature and/or pressure), change in source fertility related to rock type (pyroxenite vs. peridotite) or previous melting history, and/or changes in plate stresses resulting from reconfigurations of plate motion. Our new multi-disciplinary project will: 1) Determine 40Ar/39Ar ages, and whole-rock major, trace element, and Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic geochemistry for lavas from 20 volcanoes spanning ~2150 km of the HR (NW of the Hawaiian Islands). 2) Use the geochemical data to determine the long-term evolution of the Hawaiian mantle plume source components and to evaluate whether there have been systematic variations in mantle potential temperature, melting pressure, and/or source lithology during the creation of the HR. If so, are they responsible for the 300% variation in melt production along the Ridge? Also, we will assess when the more fertile Loa source component

  1. Mitochondrial aging and age-related dysfunction of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Sobenin, Igor A; Revin, Victor V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

  2. Sources of Variation in the Age Composition of Sandeel Landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Gislason, Hannes; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    The variation of the age composition of the landings of lesser sandeel in the Danish industrial fishery in the North Sea over the period From 1984-1993 is analysed by continuation-ratio logits and generalised linear models. The analysis takes the multinomial characteristics of the age composition...... in the samples is significantly lower in the start and end of the fishing season. This suggests that the older sandeel are available to the fishery for a shorter time period that the 1-group. Significant differences are found in the age composition between the four laboratories involved in the age determination...

  3. Overcoming Age-Related Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agullo, Gloria Luque

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in foreign language (FL) teaching is the age at which language learning should start. Nowadays it is recognized that in second language contexts maturational constraints make an early start advisable, but there is still disagreement regarding the problem of when to start or the best way to learn in foreign…

  4. Slowing down: age-related neurobiological predictors of processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Eckert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing speed, or the rate at which tasks can be performed, is a robust predictor of age-relatedcognitive decline and an indicator of independence among older adults. This review examines evidence for neurobiological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, which is guided in part by our source based morphometry findings that unique patterns of frontal and cerebellar gray matter predict age-related variation in processing speed. These results, together with the extant literature on morphological predictors of age-related changes in processing speed, suggest that specific neural systems undergo declines and as a result slow processing speed. Future studies of processing speed - dependent neural systems will be important for identifying the etiologies for processing speed change and the development of interventions that mitigate gradual age-related declines in cognitive functioning and enhance healthy cognitive aging.

  5. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    (exudative cases); the remainder has only geographic atrophy. In cross-sectional population-based studies about 45% of eyes with AMD have visual acuity reduced to 20/200 or worse. This is true both for exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy. Age and genetic predisposition are known risk factors for AMD...... a fluorescein angiographic study and a physician capable of interpreting it. For CNV not involving the foveal centre, the only evidence-based treatment is laser photocoagulation. For AMD cases with subfoveal CNV, good visual acuity, and predominantly classic fluorescence pattern on fluorescein angiography....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  6. Macular degeneration - age-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you have more effectively, and improve your quality of life. Close follow-up with your eye doctor is ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  7. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  8. Genes, inflammation, and age-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompet, Stella

    2010-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate associations between genetic variants involved in inflammation and epigenetics and age-related diseases in an elderly cohort to get more insights in the patho-physiological mechanisms involved in age-related diseases, like cardiovascular diseas

  9. Circadian variation in salivary testosterone across age classes in Ache Amerindian males of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiescas, Richard G; Hill, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone levels exhibit a circadian rhythm in healthy men, with morning levels tending to be higher compared to evening titers. However, circadian rhythms wane with age. Although this has been described in males living within industrialized settings, age-related changes have not received similar attention in populations outside these contexts. Because many nonindustrialized populations, such as Ache Amerindians of Paraguay, exhibit testosterone levels that are lower than what is commonly reported in the clinical literature and lack age-associated variation in testosterone, it was hypothesized that Ache men would not show age-related variation in testosterone circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythmicity in testosterone within and between Ache men in association with age (n = 52; age range, 18-64) was therefore examined. A significant negative association was evident between the ratio of morning and evening salivary testosterone and age (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). Men in their third decade of life exhibited significant diurnal variation (P = 0.0003), whereas older and younger age classes did not. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 also exhibited a higher AM:PM testosterone ratio compared to 40-49 and 50< year old men (P = 0.002, 0.006). Overall, declines in testosterone with aging may not be universal among human males, however, within-individual analyses of diurnal variation capture age-related contrasts in daily testosterone fluctuations. Circadian rhythmicity differs with age among the Ache and may be a common aspect of reproductive senescence among men regardless of ecological context.

  10. Age-Related Differences in Worry and Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basevitz, Paul; Pushkar, Dolores; Chaikelson, June; Conway, Michael; Dalton, Connie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that older adults would show age-related reductions in the tendency to worry in both their retrospective accounts and through cross-sectional age comparisons with a sample of younger adults. We also sought to determine whether age differences would be evident in psychological processes associated with a…

  11. Age-related changes in triathlon performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, R; Sultana, F; Bernard, T; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold: i) to analyse age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for Olympic and Ironman triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between the Olympic and Ironman triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 10 males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5 years intervals) were analysed for two consecutive world championships (2006 and 2007) for Olympic and Ironman distances. There was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (ptriathlon in cycling (>55 years) and running (>50 years), respectively. In contrast, an age-related decline in swimming performance seemed independent of triathlon distance. The age-related decline in triathlon performance is specific to the discipline, with cycling showing less declines in performance with age than swimming and running. The magnitude of the declines in cycling and running performance at Ironman distance is greater than at Olympic distance, suggesting that task duration exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  12. Interventions for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra;

    2016-01-01

    Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....

  13. International Variation in Ageing and Economic Dependency: A Cohort Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Loichinger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this analysis of demographic and economic dependency ratios for 45 countries around the world, we reiterate the importance of age- and gender-specific employment levels as well as their determinants when discussing the economic challenges associated with population ageing. Building upon existing research on economic dependency, we portray and discuss cohort variation in employment and its possible effect on the challenges of population ageing, focusing on the implications of high youth unemployment, the role of changes in female employment and the evolution of retirement patterns across cohorts. The insights from our analysis reaffirm findings elsewhere that younger populations may not be as well off in the light of demographic change as an analysis of their demographic structure alone would suggest and stress the importance of considering the cohort dimension of employment in this discussion.

  14. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  15. Folate and age-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and an increase in their risk factors, such as decreased concentrations of folate and increased concentrations of homocysteine. The association of folate and homocysteine with age-related disease and, most impo

  16. X-82 to Treat Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Macular Degeneration; Exudative Age-related Macular Degeneration; AMD; Macular Degeneration, Age-related, 10; Eye Diseases; Retinal Degeneration; Retinal Diseases

  17. Genes, inflammation, and age-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Trompet, Stella

    2010-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate associations between genetic variants involved in inflammation and epigenetics and age-related diseases in an elderly cohort to get more insights in the patho-physiological mechanisms involved in age-related diseases, like cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and cancer. For all analyses we used data of the participants of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). We have shown that subjects carrying gen...

  18. Age-related changes in task related functional network connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Steffener

    Full Text Available Aging has a multi-faceted impact on brain structure, brain function and cognitive task performance, but the interaction of these different age-related changes is largely unexplored. We hypothesize that age-related structural changes alter the functional connectivity within the brain, resulting in altered task performance during cognitive challenges. In this neuroimaging study, we used independent components analysis to identify spatial patterns of coordinated functional activity involved in the performance of a verbal delayed item recognition task from 75 healthy young and 37 healthy old adults. Strength of functional connectivity between spatial components was assessed for age group differences and related to speeded task performance. We then assessed whether age-related differences in global brain volume were associated with age-related differences in functional network connectivity. Both age groups used a series of spatial components during the verbal working memory task and the strength and distribution of functional network connectivity between these components differed across the age groups. Poorer task performance, i.e. slower speed with increasing memory load, in the old adults was associated with decreases in functional network connectivity between components comprised of the supplementary motor area and the middle cingulate and between the precuneus and the middle/superior frontal cortex. Advancing age also led to decreased brain volume; however, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that age-related alterations in functional network connectivity were the result of global brain volume changes. These results suggest that age-related differences in the coordination of neural activity between brain regions partially underlie differences in cognitive performance.

  19. [Iris heterochromia: variations in form, age changes, sex dimorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, O

    1979-06-01

    On a sample of n = 25,346 individuals from Vienna (10,855 males, 14,491 females) the iris pigmentation has been typed by the author. In this sample 65 cases of different types of heterochromia were found. The frequency of the occurrence of the different types of this anomaly could be calculated for the first time. Neglecting age, sex, and type of heterochromia the total frequency amounts to 0.256 (males: 0.157; females: 0.37) %. The variants of heterochromia very from cases of total heterochromia to those of various size; in addition to it a number of special types could be observed. The localization of the heterochrome parts of the iris shows certain variations; mostly, however, it is seen in the lower half of the iris. The nasal part is concerned in only one case; the temporal region never. Thus, the partial heterochromia is characteristic by a marked dependency of its localization. The colour of heterochromia varies from 2 a-14 according to the Martin-Schultz standard set of coloured eyes. However, No. 9 (ca. 50%) and No. 7 (ca. 20%) were the most frequent colours. The age variations are considerable. 5/6 of all heterochromias were found between the age from 2-19 years. Finally, a marked sexual dimorphism was observed, as in females heterochromia is much more frequent than in males.

  20. The evolution and plasticity of life histories upon variation in nutrition : on aging focused integrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Joost van den

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe studies of life history traits under variation in nutrition focused on ageing. The predictive adaptive response is a type of plastic response which is advantageous later in life, rather than immediately. We tested with a resource allocation model whether for a relatively sh

  1. Intrinsic brain connectivity related to age in young and middle aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    Full Text Available Age-related variations in resting state connectivity of the human brain were examined from young adulthood through middle age. A voxel-based network measure, degree, was used to assess age-related differences in tissue connectivity throughout the brain. Increases in connectivity with age were found in paralimbic cortical and subcortical regions. Decreases in connectivity were found in cortical regions, including visual areas and the default mode network. These findings differ from those of recent developmental studies examining earlier growth trajectories, and are consistent with known changes in cognitive function and emotional processing during mature aging. The results support and extend previous findings that relied on a priori definitions of regions of interest for their analyses. This approach of applying a voxel-based measure to examine the functional connectivity of individual tissue elements over time, without the need for a priori region of interest definitions, provides an important new tool in brain science.

  2. Post-traumatic stress and age variation in amygdala volumes among youth exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.

  3. Sleep-Related Erections Throughout the Ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Mels F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The occurrence of sleep-related erections (SREs) has been known since antiquity. Aim. To highlight historical, theological, and sexual medicine-related aspects of SREs throughout the ages. Methods. Review of old medical books on male sexual functioning and review of scientific medical

  4. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  5. Immunology of age related macular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kijlstra Aize; Yang Peizeng

    2011-01-01

    @@ Age-related macular degeneration(AMD)is the most important cause of blindness in persons over 55 years of age in the Western world.In view of the increasing life expectancy we can assume that the problem will increase dramatically over the coming decades unless preventive or therapeutic measures are developed.Towards this goal many groups all over the world have performed epidemiological studies to identify potential risk factors for AMD.

  6. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the ...

  7. Relative Attribute SVM+ Learning for Age Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengzheng; Tao, Dacheng; Yang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    When estimating age, human experts can provide privileged information that encodes the facial attributes of aging, such as smoothness, face shape, face acne, wrinkles, and bags under-eyes. In automatic age estimation, privileged information is unavailable to test images. To overcome this problem, we hypothesize that asymmetric information can be explored and exploited to improve the generalizability of the trained model. Using the learning using privileged information (LUPI) framework, we tested this hypothesis by carefully defining relative attributes for support vector machine (SVM+) to improve the performance of age estimation. We term this specific setting as relative attribute SVM+ (raSVM+), in which the privileged information enables separation of outliers from inliers at the training stage and effectively manipulates slack variables and age determination errors during model training, and thus guides the trained predictor toward a generalizable solution. Experimentally, the superiority of raSVM+ was confirmed by comparing it with state-of-the-art algorithms on the face and gesture recognition research network (FG-NET) and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face aging databases. raSVM+ is a promising development that improves age estimation, with the mean absolute error reaching 4.07 on FG-NET.

  8. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken.

  9. Audience Design and Social Relations in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    This study asks two questions: (1) Do older adults modify their language based on age of the listener (audience design)? (2) Does social contact affect audience design in older adults? Older adults (n = 34; mean age = 82) engaged in an instructions task with two fictive listeners (a child and an adult) to test these questions. Results show that older adults used a greater total number of propositions and rapport-building devices and a lower type-token ratio when giving instructions to the child compared to the adult listener. Adults with more social interactions used more propositions when talking to a child. In addition, satisfaction with interactions was significantly positively related to task-tracking devices and negatively related to rapport-building devices by older adults. These results suggest that audience design and social relations are worth further study in language maintenance in older age.

  10. Variations in Human Capital Investment Activity by Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Patricia A.; Greller, Martin M.; Stroh, Linda K.

    2002-01-01

    Late-career workers (ages 50-65) were more likely to participate in credentialing programs, targeted job-related courses, and on-the-job computer training than younger adults and received similar employer support. However, participation might be a consequence of support received. Human capital investment thus is more complex than conventional…

  11. [New aspects in age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina.

  12. [Pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarniranta, Kai; Seitsonen, Sanna; Paimela, Tuomas; Meri, Seppo; Immonen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a multiform disease of the macula, the region responsible for detailed central vision. In recent years, plenty of new knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease has been obtained, and the treatment of exudative macular degeneration has greatly progressed. The number of patients with age-related macular degeneration will multiply in the following decades, because knowledge of mechanisms of development of macular degeneration that could be subject to therapeutic measures is insufficient. Central underlying factors are genetic inheritance, exposure of the retina to chronic oxidative stress and accumulation of inflammation-inducing harmful proteins into or outside of retinal cells.

  13. Genetic and environmental variation in lung function drives subsequent variation in aging of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Emery, Charles F; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2013-07-01

    Longitudinal studies document an association of pulmonary function with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the relationship between pulmonary function with fluid intelligence. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for pulmonary function and fluid intelligence. Longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were available from 808 twins ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first wave. Participants completed up to six assessments covering a 19-year period. Measures at each assessment included spatial and speed factors and pulmonary function. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for FEV1 was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and speed factors. Thus, these data indicate a genetic component to the directional relationship from decreased pulmonary function to decreased function of fluid intelligence.

  14. Evaluation of Age-Related Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is characterized by an increased hearing threshold and poor speech understanding in a noisy environment, slowed central processing of acoustic information, and impaired localization of sound sources. Presbycusis seriously affects the older people's quality of life. Particularly, hearing loss in the elderly contributes to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Current amplification methods related to auditory rehabilitation can provide imp...

  15. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Casten,Robin; Rovner,Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling diseases. This article discusses the effect of depression on vision-related disability in patients with AMD, suggests methods for screening for depressio...

  16. Depression in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of disability in the elderly, substantially degrades the quality of their lives, and is a risk factor for depression. Rates of depression in AMD are substantially greater than those found in the general population of older people, and are on par with those of other chronic and disabling…

  17. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  18. [Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Stephan; Kurz-Levin, Malaika

    2009-03-01

    Today age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause for legal blindness in western industrialized countries. The prevalence of this disease rises with increasing age. A multifactorial pathogenesis of AMD is postulated including genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors. The most relevant modifiable risk factor is smoking. Up to today there is no cure of this chronic disease. Prophylaxis, including a healthy diet and antioxidants as nutrional supplements for selected patients, aims to slow down the disease progression. Significant progress has been made in the treatment of the neovascular form of the disease using inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

  19. Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Tang, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    Aging is a natural consequence of a society developing process. Although many adults retain good hearing as they aging, hearing loss related with age-presbycusis which can vary in severity from mild to substantial is common among elderly persons. There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age-related changes in the auditory system as well as in the central nervous systems. Many studies have been dedicated to the illustration of risk factors accumulating presbycusis such as heritability, environment factors, medical conditions, free radical (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA. Left untreated, presbycusis can not only lead sufferers to reduced quality of life, isolation, dependence and frustration, but also affect the healthy people around. These can be partly corrected using hearing aids, but it is not enough, more and more strategies of treatment based on the findings associating with presbycusis should be added rather than using single hearing aids. We review here the pathophysiology; heritability, susceptibility genes and other risk factors including environmental, medical, especially free radical (ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA; and some strategies of treatment, as well as promising rehabilitations associating with presbycusis.

  20. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  1. Precursors of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Linneberg, Allan; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    activity, the age- and sex adjusted odds ratio being 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.13-0.82, P=0.016) for participants who were physically active more than 7 h/week compared with participants active 0-2 h/week. In women, macular drusen >63µm were associated with higher serum triglycerides (P=0......PURPOSE: To investigate associations of small, hard macular drusen and larger macular drusen with obesity-related risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 888 subjects aged 30-60 years characterized using anthropometric measurements and blood sample analyses. Physical activity was assessed...... cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.029) and with moderately elevated triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Precursors of AMD were associated with modifiable obesity-related risk factors, notably low physical activity with drusen >63 µm and lower serum HDL and moderately elevated serum triglycerides with 20 or more small, hard...

  2. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  3. Evaluation of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Su; Chung, Jong Woo

    2013-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is characterized by an increased hearing threshold and poor speech understanding in a noisy environment, slowed central processing of acoustic information, and impaired localization of sound sources. Presbycusis seriously affects the older people's quality of life. Particularly, hearing loss in the elderly contributes to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Current amplification methods related to auditory rehabilitation can provide improved communication ability to users. But, simple auditory rehabilitation is ineffective in managing the central auditory processing disorder and the psychosocial problem of presbycusis. The evaluation of central auditory processing disorder and psychosocial disorder in presbycusis should not be overlooked while providing auditory rehabilitation.

  4. Changes in neuronal DNA content variation in the human brain during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hans-Georg; Morawski, Markus; Brückner, Martina K; Mittag, Anja; Tarnok, Attila; Arendt, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The human brain has been proposed to represent a genetic mosaic, containing a small but constant number of neurons with an amount of DNA exceeding the diploid level that appear to be generated through various chromosome segregation defects initially. While a portion of these cells apparently die during development, neurons with abnormal chromosomal copy number have been identified in the mature brain. This genomic alteration might to lead to chromosomal instability affecting neuronal viability and could thus contribute to age-related mental disorders. Changes in the frequency of neurons with such structural genomic variation in the adult and aging brain, however, are unknown. Here, we quantified the frequency of neurons with a more than diploid DNA content in the cerebral cortex of normal human brain and analyzed its changes between the fourth and ninth decades of life. We applied a protocol of slide-based cytometry optimized for DNA quantification of single identified neurons, which allowed to analyze the DNA content of about 500 000 neurons for each brain. On average, 11.5% of cortical neurons showed DNA content above the diploid level. The frequency of neurons with this genomic alteration was highest at younger age and declined with age. Our results indicate that the genomic variation associated with DNA content exceeding the diploid level might compromise viability of these neurons in the aging brain and might thus contribute to susceptibilities for age-related CNS disorders. Alternatively, a potential selection bias of "healthy aging brains" needs to be considered, assuming that DNA content variation above a certain threshold associates with Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Age-related differences in arithmetic strategy sequential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I review a series of new findings concerning how age-related changes in strategic variations are modulated by sequential effects. Sequential effects refer to how strategy selection and strategy execution on current problems are influenced by which strategy is used on immediately preceding problems. Two sequential effects during strategy selection (i.e., strategy revisions and strategy perseverations) and during strategy execution (i.e., strategy switch costs and modulations of poorer strategy effects) are presented. I also discuss how these effects change with age during adulthood. These phenomena are important, as they shed light on arithmetic processes and how these processes change with age during adulthood. In particular, they speak to the role of executive control while participants select and execute arithmetic strategies. Finally, I discuss the implications of sequential effects for theories of strategies and of arithmetic.

  6. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photorecept...

  7. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  8. Psychophysical function in age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neelam, Kumari

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the late stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM), is the leading cause of blind registration in developed countries. The visual loss in AMD occurs due to dysfunction and death of photoreceptors (rods and cones) secondary to an atrophic or a neovascular event. The psychophysical tests of vision, which depend on the functional status of the photoreceptors, may detect subtle alterations in the macula before morphological fundus changes are apparent ophthalmoscopically, and before traditional measures of visual acuity exhibit deterioration, and may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring patients with ARM. Furthermore, worsening of these visual functions over time may reflect disease progression, and some of these, alone or in combination with other parameters, may act as a prognostic indicator for identifying eyes at risk for developing neovascular AMD. Lastly, psychophysical tests often correlate with subjective and relatively undefined symptoms in patients with early ARM, and may reflect limitation of daily activities for ARM patients. However, clinical studies investigating psychophysical function have largely been cross-sectional in nature, with small sample sizes, and lack consistency in terms of the grading and classification of ARM. This article aims to comprehensively review the literature germane to psychophysical tests in ARM, and to furnish the reader with an insight into this complex area of research.

  9. Precursors of age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Toft, Ulla; Linneberg, Allan;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate associations of very early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with daily intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and copper and interactions with AMD-associated polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFHY402H) and ARMS2/LOC387715. METHODS: Cross......: In this cross-sectional study, a higher intake of vitamin A increased the risk of macular drusen >63 μm in subjects with CFHY402H. The study supports that vitamin A may be a risk factor for early AMD....

  10. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  11. Molecular Diagnostics of Ageing and Tackling Age-related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, James A

    2017-01-01

    As average life expectancy increases there is a greater focus on health-span and, in particular, how to treat or prevent chronic age-associated diseases. Therapies which were able to control 'biological age' with the aim of postponing chronic and costly diseases of old age require an entirely new approach to drug development. Molecular technologies and machine-learning methods have already yielded diagnostics that help guide cancer treatment and cardiovascular procedures. Discovery of valid and clinically informative diagnostics of human biological age (combined with disease-specific biomarkers) has the potential to alter current drug-discovery strategies, aid clinical trial recruitment and maximize healthy ageing. I will review some basic principles that govern the development of 'ageing' diagnostics, how such assays could be used during the drug-discovery or development process. Important logistical and statistical considerations are illustrated by reviewing recent biomarker activity in the field of Alzheimer's disease, as dementia represents the most pressing of priorities for the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the chronic disease in humans most associated with age.

  12. Fitness-related patterns of genetic variation in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2009-03-01

    The patterning of quantitative genetic descriptions of genetic and residual variation for 15 skeletal and six life history traits was explored in a semi-free-ranging group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta Zimmerman 1780). I tested theoretical predictions that explain the magnitude of genetic and residual variation as a result of 1. strength of a trait's association with evolutionary fitness, or 2. developmental and physiological relationships among traits. I found skeletal traits had higher heritabilities and lower coefficients of residual variation than more developmentally and physiologically dependent life history traits. Total lifetime fertility had a modest heritability (0.336) in this population, and traits with stronger correlations to fitness had larger amounts of residual variance. Censoring records of poorly-performing individuals on lifetime fertility and lifespan substantially reduced their heritabilities. These results support models for the fitness-related patterning of genetic variation based on developmental and physiological relationships among traits rather than the action of selection eroding variation.

  13. Animal models of age related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations.

  14. 8 Areas of Age-Related Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercises—can reduce the symptoms and provide better quality of life as we age. 3. Eyes and Ears About the age of 40, eyesight weakens, and at around 60, cataracts and macular degeneration may develop. Hearing also declines with age. Sight: ...

  15. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  16. Neighborhood walking among overweight and obese adults: age variations in barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanam; Ory, Marcia G; Yoon, Jeongjae; Forjuoh, Samuel N

    2013-02-01

    Walking is a popular form of physical activity that can bring many public health benefits. It can be even more beneficial to those who are currently obese or overweight. However, many barriers discourage people from walking, ranging from lack of motivation to unsafe neighborhood environments, and such barriers vary with age. This study addresses barriers and motivators to walking among overweight and obese adults, and examines their age variations. Particular emphasis was given to modifiable environmental factors as the priority intervention targets. A survey of 161 overweight and obese adults recruited from a large integrated healthcare system in central Texas provided data on walking, demographics, motivators and barriers. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. The respondents had a mean age of 48.4 (20-86), and were predominantly female (80.8%), non-Hispanic White (86.0%), and obese (mean BMI = 32.5). Popular environmental barriers to walking were: bad weather, inadequate lighting, no shade, unattended dogs, disconnected sidewalks, poor walking surfaces, no interesting places to walk nearby, and no benches (74.5-38.5%). Even and smooth walking surfaces and benches were more frequently reported by older adults as motivators. Proximity to recreational facilities was a stronger motivator for younger adults. Two safety related barriers, fear of injury (older adults) and traffic safety concerns (younger adults), also showed significant age differences. Overweight and obese adults experience substantial environmental barriers to walking, but many of them are modifiable. Observed age variations suggest that future interventions may be more effective if tailored to address age-specific barriers.

  17. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  18. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde;

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  19. Growth factors, aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Longo, Valter D

    2016-06-01

    Simple organisms including yeast and flies with mutations in the IGF-1 and Tor-S6K pathways are dwarfs, are highly protected from toxins, and survive up to 3 times longer. Similarly, dwarf mice with deficiencies in the growth hormone-IGF-I axis are also long lived and protected from diseases. We recently reported that humans with Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency (GHRD) rarely develop cancer or diabetes. These findings are in agreement with the effect of defects in the Tor-S6K pathways in causing dwarfism and protection of DNA. Because protein restriction reduces both GHR-IGF-1 axis and Tor-S6K activity, we examined links between protein intake, disease, and mortality in over 6000 US subjects in the NHANES CDC database. Respondents aged 50-65 reporting a high protein intake displayed an increase in IGF-I levels, a 75% increased risk of overall mortality and a 3-4 fold increased risk of cancer mortality in agreement with findings in mouse experiments. These studies point to a conserved link between proteins and amino acids, GHR-IGF-1/insulin, Tor-S6k signaling, aging, and diseases.

  20. Wood anatomical variation in relation to latitude anf altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.; Baas, P.

    1974-01-01

    The wood anatomical variation within 17 eurytherm hardwood genera in relation to altitude and latitude has been studied using wood samples from 52 species. With increasing latitude a miniaturization of secondary xylem elements (shorter vessel members, narrower vessels, shorter and sometimes narrower

  1. Aging is not a disease: distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD.

  2. Climatic variations since the Little Ice Age recorded in the Guliya Ice Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 焦克勤; 田立德; 杨志红; 施维林; Lonnie G. Thompson

    1996-01-01

    The climatic variations since the Little Ice Age recorded in the Guliya Ice Core are discussed based on glacial δ18O and accumulation records in the Guliya Ice Core. Several obvious climate fluctuation events since 1570 can be observed according to the records. In the past 400 years, the 17th and 19th centuries are relatively cool periods with less precipitation, and the 18th and 20th centuries are relatively warm periods with high precipitation. The study has also revealed the close relationship between temperature and precipitation on the plateau. Warming corresponds to high precipitation and cooling corresponds to less precipitation, which is related with the influence of monsoon on this region.

  3. Age-related elemental change in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Eisa, M.H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, W. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shen, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn; Mi, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, J.; Zhou, Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-04-15

    To investigate age dependence of the bone element contents and structure, lumbar and femur from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were chosen for their more susceptibility to fracture. These rats were divided into to 5 age groups: 1, 4, 7, 11 and 25 month-age, corresponding human beings from the young to the old. The elements contents were detected by external Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) method was also applied to obtain information about calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) structure. It was found that Ca content, Ca/P ratio, valance state of Ca and P and their coordinate structure remains unaltered with age variance, whereas the content of strontium (Sr) was significantly decreasing. Sr concentration may provide a new parameter for diagnosis of bone disorder.

  4. Age and muscle-dependent variations in corticospinal excitability during standing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Remaud

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how modulation in corticospinal excitability elicited in the context of standing tasks varies as a function of age and between muscles. Changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL were monitored while participants (young, n = 10; seniors, n = 11 either quietly stood (QS or performed a heel raise (HR task. In the later condition, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses were delivered at three specific time points during the task: 1 250 ms before the "go" cue (preparatory (PREP phase, 2 100 ms before the heel rise (anticipatory postural adjustment (APA phase, and 3 200 ms after heel rise (execution (EXEC phase. In each task and each phase, variations in MEP characteristics were analysed for age and muscle-dependent effects. Variations in silent period (SP duration were also examined for certain phases (APA and EXEC. Our analysis revealed no major difference during QS, as participants exhibited very similar patterns of modulation in both TA and GL, irrespective of their age group. During the HR task, young adults exhibited a differential modulation in the PREP phase with enhanced responses in TA relative to GL, which was not seen in seniors. Finally, besides differences in MEP latency, age had little influence on MEP modulation during the APA and EXEC phases, where amplitude was largely a function of background muscle activity associated with each phase (i.e., APA: TA; EXEC: GL. No age or muscle effects were detected for SP measurements. Overall, our results revealed no major differences between young adults and healthy seniors in the ability to modulate corticospinal facilitation destined to ankle muscles during standing tasks, with maybe the exception of the ability to prime muscle synergies in the preparatory phase of action.

  5. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC;

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...

  6. Variations in apolipoprotein e frequency with age in a pooled analysis of a large group of older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. McKay (Gareth); G. Silvestri (Giuliana); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); S. Dasari (Shilpa); L.G. Fritsche (Lars); B.H.F. Weber (Bernhard); P.J. Francis (Peter); C.N. Keilhauer (Claudia); M.L. Klein (Michael); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); L. Ho (Lintje); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); M. Dean (Michael Emmans); J. Sawitzke (Julie); P.N. Baird (Paul); R.H. Guymer (Robyn); D.E. Stambolian (Dwight); A. Orlin (Anton); J.M. Seddon (Johanna); I. Peter (Inga); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); S. Ennis (Sarah); M.B. Gorin (Michael); C.-L. Kuo; A. Hingorani (Aroon); R. Sofat (Reecha); F. Cipriani (Francesco); A. Swaroop (Anand); M.I. Othman (Mohammad); A. Kanda (Atsuhiro); W. Chen (Wei); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.R. Yates (John); A.R. Webster (Andrew); A.T. Moore (Anthony); J.H. Seland (Johan ); M. Rahu (Mati); G. Soubrane (Gisele); L. Tomazzoli (Laura); F. Topouzis (Fotis); J. Vioque (Jesus); I.S. Young (Ian); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.); C.C. Patterson (Chris); D.E. Weeks (Daniel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVariation in the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been reported to be associated with longevity in humans. The authors assessed the allelic distribution of APOE isoforms ε2, ε3, and ε4 among 10,623 participants from 15 case-control and cohort studies of age-related macular degeneration (

  7. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  8. Response to combination antiretroviral therapy: variation by age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide information on responses to combination antiretroviral therapy in children, adolescents and older HIV-infected persons. DESIGN AND SETTING: Multicohort collaboration of 33 European cohorts. SUBJECTS:: Forty-nine thousand nine hundred and twenty-one antiretroviral......-naive individuals starting combination antiretroviral therapy from 1998 to 2006. OUTCOME MEASURES: Time from combination antiretroviral therapy initiation to HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml (virological response), CD4 increase of more than 100 cells/microl (immunological response) and new AIDS/death were analysed...... and the three oldest age groups had 2693, 1656 and 1613 individuals. Precombination antiretroviral therapy CD4 cell counts were highest in young children and declined with age. By 12 months, 53.7% (95% confidence interval: 53.2-54.1%) and 59.2% (58.7-59.6%) had experienced a virological and immunological...

  9. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce eCrosson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered.

  10. The relevance of aging-related changes in brain function to rehabilitation in aging-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Bruce; McGregor, Keith M; Nocera, Joe R; Drucker, Jonathan H; Tran, Stella M; Butler, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aging on rehabilitation of aging-related diseases are rarely a design consideration in rehabilitation research. In this brief review we present strong coincidental evidence from these two fields suggesting that deficits in aging-related disease or injury are compounded by the interaction between aging-related brain changes and disease-related brain changes. Specifically, we hypothesize that some aphasia, motor, and neglect treatments using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in stroke patients may address the aging side of this interaction. The importance of testing this hypothesis and addressing the larger aging by aging-related disease interaction is discussed. Underlying mechanisms in aging that most likely are relevant to rehabilitation of aging-related diseases also are covered.

  11. THE RELATIVE AGE EFFECT IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS FROM SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gutierrez Diaz Del Campo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with information on how this effect has evolved in recent years. We have obtained information on the youth teams of the 20 clubs belonging to the Spanish Professional Football League (LFP in two separate seasons (2005-2006 and 2008-2009 as well as data on five youth academies belonging to amateur clubs. The collected data revealed an over- representation of players born in the first months of the selection year in all groups of analysis (Elite 2005-2006, Elite 2008-2009 and Amateurs, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the Spanish population. The results showed a reduction in RAE from the 2005-2006 season to the 2008-2009 season. The following variables - playing position, the number of years each player has spent in their specific age group and the category of the team at each club were shown not to have influence on the extent of RAE

  12. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  13. Facts about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people develop some very small drusen as a normal part of aging. The presence of medium-to-large drusen may indicate that you have AMD. Another sign of AMD is the appearance of pigmentary changes under the retina. In addition to the pigmented ...

  14. Modeling variations of marine reservoir ages during the last 45 000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Franke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When dating marine samples with 14C, the reservoir-age effect is usually assumed to be constant, although atmospheric 14C production rate and ocean circulation changes cause temporal and spatial reservoir-age variations. These lead to dating errors, which can limit the interpretation of cause and effect in paleoclimate data. We used a global ocean circulation model forced by transient atmospheric Δ14C variations to calculate reservoir ages for the last 45 000 years for a present day-like and a last glacial maximum-like ocean circulation. A ~30% reduced Atlantic meridonal overturning circulation leads to increased reservoir ages by up to ~500 years in high latitudes. Temporal variations are proportional to the absolute value of the reservoir age; regions with large reservoir age also show large variation. Temporal variations range between ~300 years in parts of the subtropics and ~1000 years in the Southern Ocean. For tropical regions, which are generally assumed to have nearly stable reservoir ages, the model suggests variations of several hundred years.

  15. Autosomal and X-Linked Additive Genetic Variation for Lifespan and Aging: Comparisons Within and Between the Sexes in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Griffin; Holger Schielzeth; Urban Friberg

    2016-01-01

    Theory makes several predictions concerning differences in genetic variation between the X chromosome and the autosomes due to male X hemizygosity. The X chromosome should: (i) typically show relatively less standing genetic variation than the autosomes, (ii) exhibit more variation in males compared to females because of dosage compensation, and (iii) potentially be enriched with sex-specific genetic variation. Here, we address each of these predictions for lifespan and aging in Drosophila me...

  16. The relative age effect on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances in Turkish children aged between 8 and 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslofça Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of relative age on anthropometric properties and motor performance in Turkish children (girls n=423, boys n=601. Anthropometric measurement sites and techniques have been set out by the ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. A group of tests involved in Eurofit Test Battery and other standard tests were used. For each age, the data of those who were born within the first three months and the last three months of the year were compared. The MedCalc Statistics Program was used for the differentiation and variation percentages between two periods were studied (p≤ 0.001, p= 0.05. Consequently effect of relative age was observed on anthropometric characteristics and motor performances of Turkish girls and boys between 8 and 12 years old. Researchers, trainers, families, sports managers and organizers are advised to consider Effect of Relative Age.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  18. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents : Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents' school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration

  19. Validation of anti-aging drugs by treating age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2009-03-28

    Humans die from age-related diseases, which are deadly manifestations of the aging process. In order to extend life span, an anti-aging drug must delay age-related diseases. All together age-related diseases are the best biomarker of aging. Once a drug is used for treatment of any one chronic disease, its effect against other diseases (atherosclerosis, cancer, prostate enlargement, osteoporosis, insulin resistance, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, age-related macular degeneration) may be evaluated in the same group of patients. If the group is large, then the anti-aging effect could be validated in a couple of years. Startlingly, retrospective analysis of clinical and preclinical data reveals four potential anti-aging modalities.

  20. Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian elephants from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-05-01

    Concern about climate change has intensified interest in understanding how climatic variability affects animal life histories. Despite such effects being potentially most dramatic in large, long-lived, and slowly reproducing terrestrial mammals, little is known of the effects of climatic variation on survival in those species. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are endangered across their distribution, and inhabit regions characterized by high seasonality of temperature and rainfall. We investigated the effects of monthly climatic variation on survival and causes of death in Asian elephants using a unique demographic data set of 1024 semi-captive, longitudinally monitored elephants from four sites in Myanmar between 1965 and 2000. Temperature had a significant effect on survival in both sexes and across all ages. For elephants between 1 month and 17 years of age, maximal survival was reached at -24 degrees C, and any departures from this temperature increased mortality, whereas neonates and mature elephants had maximal survival at even lower temperatures. Although males experienced higher mortality overall, sex differences in these optimal temperatures were small. Because the elephants spent more time during a year in temperatures above 24 degrees C than in temperatures below it, most deaths occurred at hot (temperatures>24 degrees C) rather than cold periods. Decreased survival at higher temperatures resulted partially from increased deaths from infectious disease and heat stroke, whereas the lower survival in the coldest months was associated with an increase in noninfectious diseases and poor health in general. Survival was also related to rainfall, with the highest survival rates during the wettest months for all ages and sexes. Our results show that even the normal-range monsoon variation in climate can exert a large impact on elephant survival in Myanmar, leading to extensive absolute differences in mortality; switching from favorable to unfavorable climatic

  1. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... logistic regression. Results: The probability of death within 1 week adjusted for stroke severity, stroke type and risk factors was highly age-dependent in both men and women. Up to the age of 50 years, the 1-week female/male mortality rates paralleled being slightly (15%) but insignificantly better...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  2. Age-related regulation of genes: slow homeostatic changes and age-dimension technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Kotoku; Zhang, Kezhong; Huo, Jeffrey; Ameri, Afshin; Kuwahara, Mitsuhiro; Fontaine, Jean-Marc; Yamamoto, Kei; Kurachi, Sumiko

    2002-11-01

    Through systematic studies of pro- and anti-blood coagulation factors, we have determined molecular mechanisms involving two genetic elements, age-related stability element (ASE), GAGGAAG and age-related increase element (AIE), a unique stretch of dinucleotide repeats (AIE). ASE and AIE are essential for age-related patterns of stable and increased gene expression patterns, respectively. Such age-related gene regulatory mechanisms are also critical for explaining homeostasis in various physiological reactions as well as slow homeostatic changes in them. The age-related increase expression of the human factor IX (hFIX) gene requires the presence of both ASE and AIE, which apparently function additively. The anti-coagulant factor protein C (hPC) gene uses an ASE (CAGGAG) to produce age-related stable expression. Both ASE sequences (G/CAGAAG) share consensus sequence of the transcriptional factor PEA-3 element. No other similar sequences, including another PEA-3 consensus sequence, GAGGATG, function in conferring age-related gene regulation. The age-regulatory mechanisms involving ASE and AIE apparently function universally with different genes and across different animal species. These findings have led us to develop a new field of research and applications, which we named “age-dimension technology (ADT)”. ADT has exciting potential for modifying age-related expression of genes as well as associated physiological processes, and developing novel, more effective prophylaxis or treatments for age-related diseases.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (3 links) BrightFocus Foundation: Macular Degeneration Treatment Macular Degeneration Partnership: Low Vision Rehabilitation Prevent Blindness America: Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) ...

  4. A relative local variational principle for topological pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We define the relative local topological pressure for any given factor map and open cover,and prove the relative local variational principle of this pressure.More precisely,for a given factor map π:(X,T)→(Y,S) between two topological dynamical systems,an open cover U of X,a continuous,real-valued function f on X and an S-invariant measure ν on Y,we show that the corresponding relative local pressure P(T,f,U,y) satisfies sup μ∈M(X,T){ hμ(T,U|Y)+∫X f(x)dμ(x) :πμ=ν}=∫Y P(T,f,U,y)dν(y),where M(X,T) denotes the family of all T-invariant measures on X.Moreover,the supremum can be attained by a T-invariant measure.

  5. Natural variation in life history and aging phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial DNA deletion frequency in Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Samson W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism. Results We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.

  6. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  7. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  8. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  9. CKD Increases the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerul...

  10. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  11. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  12. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes.

  13. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  14. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  15. Variation of critical point of aging transition in a networked oscillators system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenwen; Zhang, Xiyun; Hu, Xin; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study the variation of critical point in aging transition in a networked system consisting of both active and inactive oscillators. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the critical point of aging transition actually is determined by the (normalized) cross links between active and inactive subpopulations of oscillators. This reveals how specific configuration of active and inactive oscillators in the network can lead to the variation of transition point. In particular, we investigate how different strategies of targeted inactivation influence the transition point based on the theory. Our results theoretically explain why the low-degree nodes are crucial regarding dynamical robustness in such systems.

  16. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith;

    2016-01-01

    to training, thereby attenuating the overall benefits of training. We hypothesize that light load resistance training is more efficient when both adherence and physical improvement are considered longitudinally. We launched the interdisciplinary project on Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals.......Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...

  17. Autosomal and X-Linked Additive Genetic Variation for Lifespan and Aging: Comparisons Within and Between the Sexes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M; Schielzeth, Holger; Friberg, Urban

    2016-12-07

    Theory makes several predictions concerning differences in genetic variation between the X chromosome and the autosomes due to male X hemizygosity. The X chromosome should: (i) typically show relatively less standing genetic variation than the autosomes, (ii) exhibit more variation in males compared to females because of dosage compensation, and (iii) potentially be enriched with sex-specific genetic variation. Here, we address each of these predictions for lifespan and aging in Drosophila melanogaster To achieve unbiased estimates of X and autosomal additive genetic variance, we use 80 chromosome substitution lines; 40 for the X chromosome and 40 combining the two major autosomes, which we assay for sex-specific and cross-sex genetic (co)variation. We find significant X and autosomal additive genetic variance for both traits in both sexes (with reservation for X-linked variation of aging in females), but no conclusive evidence for depletion of X-linked variation (measured through females). Males display more X-linked variation for lifespan than females, but it is unclear if this is due to dosage compensation since also autosomal variation is larger in males. Finally, our results suggest that the X chromosome is enriched for sex-specific genetic variation in lifespan but results were less conclusive for aging overall. Collectively, these results suggest that the X chromosome has reduced capacity to respond to sexually concordant selection on lifespan from standing genetic variation, while its ability to respond to sexually antagonistic selection may be augmented.

  18. Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kaur Suneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.

  19. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  20. Age and age-related differences in internet usage of cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.C.M.; Bolle, S.; Muusses, L.D.; Stephanidis, C.; Antona, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates age and age-related differences in Internet usage of 952 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Older patients (> 65 years) reported significantly less Internet usage to find treatment-related information than younger ones (< 65 years). Still, 40.1% of the older patients

  1. Mouse models of age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-07-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. Overall, 10% of the population has a hearing loss in the US, and this age-related hearing disorder is projected to afflict more than 28 million Americans by 2030. Age-related hearing loss is associated with loss of sensory hair cells (sensory hearing loss) and/or spiral ganglion neurons (neuronal hearing loss) in the cochlea of the inner ear. Many lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress and associated mitochondrial dysfunction play a central role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and are a cause of age-related neurosensory hearing loss. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of how oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial dysfunction lead to hearing loss during aging remain unclear, and currently there is no treatment for this age-dependent disorder. Several mouse models of aging and age-related diseases have been linked to age-related mitochondrial neurosensory hearing loss. Evaluation of these animal models has offered basic knowledge of the mechanism underlying hearing loss associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Here we review the evidence that specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that affect mitochondrial function result in increased oxidative damage and associated loss of sensory hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea during aging, thereby causing hearing loss in these mouse models. Future studies comparing these models will provide further insight into fundamental knowledge about the disordered process of hearing and treatments to improve the lives of individuals with communication disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  2. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  3. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  4. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  5. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  6. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep circumferen

  7. The Role of Social Activity in Age-Cognition Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engaging in social activity may moderate or mediate the relation between age and cognitive functioning. A large age range sample of adults performed a variety of cognitive tests and completed a social activities questionnaire. Results did not support the moderator hypothesis, as age…

  8. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  9. Age-related differences in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors affecting second language acquisition such as motivation, personality, intelligence, ap-titude, learning styles and so on. This paper focuses on one crucial factor-age. The author tries to explore the age-related differences among second language learners. The main reasons behind the differences and the implications are also discussed.

  10. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioec

  11. Variation in age and physical status prior to total knee and hip replacement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Dieppe, Paul A; March, Lyn M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether variation exists in the preoperative age, pain, stiffness, and physical function of people undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) at several centers in Australia and Europe. METHODS: Individual Western Ontario and McMaster Univers...

  12. Leaf variations in Elaeagnus angustifolia related to environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich

    2000-11-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is a Eurasian tree that has become naturalized and has invaded zones along watercourses in many arid and semiarid regions of the world. These habitats are characterized by vertical environmental gradients, thus trees must develop some plasticity to adapt to the wide range of site conditions. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that variations in leaf anatomy and morphology of E. angustifolia reflect their adaptability to the differences in the microclimate that occur within the canopy of single trees. Foliar architecture, blade and petiole epidermal and internal anatomy were examined in leaves at different canopy positions and related to environmental conditions. Upper sun-leaves are exposed to higher solar irradiance and lower air humidity and are smaller, more slender and thicker than the lower, half-exposed and shade-leaves. Color varies between the leaves at different levels, from silvery grey-green in the upper strata, to dark green in the lower one. Bicolor is more evident in half-exposed and shaded leaves. When compared with the lower half-exposed and shade-leaves, the upper leaves of E. angustifolia have a greater areole density, a higher mesophyll proportion and stomatal density. Trichomes are multicellular, pedestalled, stellate-branched or peltate and their form and density can be associated with leaf color and appearance. The slender petioles of the upper leaves have proportionally more epidermis, collenchyma and phloem and less parenchyma and xylem than those of lower leaves, when observed in transverse sections. Foliar morphological and anatomical variability in E. angustifolia may be considered an adaptive advantage that enables leaves to develop and function in habitats marked by strong variations of solar radiation, air temperature and humidity.

  13. The application of information theory for the research of aging and aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokh, David; Stambler, Ilia

    2016-03-19

    This article reviews the application of information-theoretical analysis, employing measures of entropy and mutual information, for the study of aging and aging-related diseases. The research of aging and aging-related diseases is particularly suitable for the application of information theory methods, as aging processes and related diseases are multi-parametric, with continuous parameters coexisting alongside discrete parameters, and with the relations between the parameters being as a rule non-linear. Information theory provides unique analytical capabilities for the solution of such problems, with unique advantages over common linear biostatistics. Among the age-related diseases, information theory has been used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases (particularly using EEG time series for diagnosis and prediction), cancer (particularly for establishing individual and combined cancer biomarkers), diabetes (mainly utilizing mutual information to characterize the diseased and aging states), and heart disease (mainly for the analysis of heart rate variability). Few works have employed information theory for the analysis of general aging processes and frailty, as underlying determinants and possible early preclinical diagnostic measures for aging-related diseases. Generally, the use of information-theoretical analysis permits not only establishing the (non-linear) correlations between diagnostic or therapeutic parameters of interest, but may also provide a theoretical insight into the nature of aging and related diseases by establishing the measures of variability, adaptation, regulation or homeostasis, within a system of interest. It may be hoped that the increased use of such measures in research may considerably increase diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and the fundamental theoretical mathematical understanding of aging and disease.

  14. New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161359.html New Clues to Age-Related Hearing Loss Older people's brains have a harder time processing ... conversation, many older people chalk it up to hearing loss. But a new, small study finds that the ...

  15. Relative weights of the backpacks of elementary-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Benjamin P; Bryant, Judith B

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students (56% girls; 88% car or bus riders) participated. Their school backpacks were weighed, and their age, gender, and mode of transportation to school were recorded. Only 40% of the sample carried backpacks that were less than 10% of their body weights. Five percent of the students' backpacks exceeded 20% of their body weights. Neither age group nor gender significantly predicted relative backpack weight or relative weight levels. Recommendations are made for ways to reduce the weight these young children carry.

  16. The characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender versus age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yuting; Bai, He; Zhang, Kaili

    2017-02-01

    The present study explored the characteristics of social categorization based on the unidimensional variation of gender or age using the Garner's Selective Attention Paradigm. The task of the experiment was to judge whether there was a mole on a person's face, and the results showed that young participants' response times were slower when the age or gender of the face stimuli varied, demonstrating that young people, rather than older people, can activate both an age category and a gender category automatically. Meanwhile, all participants' responses to the old faces were slower than that to the young faces. Females reacted faster than males, demonstrating that females tend to have an advantage for face processing.

  17. Autosomal and X-Linked Additive Genetic Variation for Lifespan and Aging: Comparisons Within and Between the Sexes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Griffin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theory makes several predictions concerning differences in genetic variation between the X chromosome and the autosomes due to male X hemizygosity. The X chromosome should: (i typically show relatively less standing genetic variation than the autosomes, (ii exhibit more variation in males compared to females because of dosage compensation, and (iii potentially be enriched with sex-specific genetic variation. Here, we address each of these predictions for lifespan and aging in Drosophila melanogaster. To achieve unbiased estimates of X and autosomal additive genetic variance, we use 80 chromosome substitution lines; 40 for the X chromosome and 40 combining the two major autosomes, which we assay for sex-specific and cross-sex genetic (covariation. We find significant X and autosomal additive genetic variance for both traits in both sexes (with reservation for X-linked variation of aging in females, but no conclusive evidence for depletion of X-linked variation (measured through females. Males display more X-linked variation for lifespan than females, but it is unclear if this is due to dosage compensation since also autosomal variation is larger in males. Finally, our results suggest that the X chromosome is enriched for sex-specific genetic variation in lifespan but results were less conclusive for aging overall. Collectively, these results suggest that the X chromosome has reduced capacity to respond to sexually concordant selection on lifespan from standing genetic variation, while its ability to respond to sexually antagonistic selection may be augmented.

  18. Age-related changes of task-specific brain activity in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chung; Chou, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Fei; Lin, Yu-Te; Shih, Ching-Sen; Han, Shiang-Yi; Shen, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Ching; Liang, Chi-lin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2012-01-17

    An important question in healthcare for older patients is whether age-related changes in cortical reorganization can be measured with advancing age. This study investigated the factors behind such age-related changes, using time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). We hypothesized that brain rhythms was affected by age-related changes, which could be reflected in the ERP indices. An oddball task was conducted in two experimental groups, namely young participants (N=15; mean age 23.7±2.8 years) and older participants (N=15; mean age 70.1±7.9 years). Two types of stimuli were used: the target (1 kHz frequency) and standard (2 kHz frequency). We scrutinized three ERP indices: event-related spectral power (ERPSP), inter-trial phase-locking (ITPL), and event-related cross-phase coherence (ERPCOH). Both groups performed equally well for correct response rate. However, the results revealed a statistically significant age difference for inter-trial comparison. Compared with the young, the older participants showed the following age-related changes: (a) power activity decreased; however, an increase was found only in the late (P3, 280-450 ms) theta (4-7 Hz) component over the bilateral frontal and temporo-frontal areas; (b) low phase-locking in the early (N1, 80-140 ms) theta band over the parietal/frontal (right) regions appeared; (c) the functional connections decreased in the alpha (7-13 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands, but no difference emerged in the theta band between the two groups. These results indicate that age-related changes in task-specific brain activity for a normal aging population can be depicted using the three ERP indices.

  19. Age-related increase in top-down activation of visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Whiting, Wythe L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, during visual search and discrimination tasks, older adults place greater emphasis than younger adults on top-down attention. This experiment investigated the relative contribution of target activation and distractor inhibition to this age difference. Younger and older adults performed a singleton discrimination task in which either an E or an R target (colour singleton) was present among distractor letters. Relative to a baseline condition in which the colours of the targets and distractors remained constant, an age-related slowing of performance was evident when either the colour of the target or that of the distractors varied across trials. The age-related slowing was more pronounced in response to target colour variation, suggesting that older adults place relatively greater emphasis on the top-down activation of target features. PMID:17455072

  20. A Bayesian Approach to Multistage Fitting of the Variation of the Skeletal Age Features

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    Dong Hua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of skeletal maturity is important clinically. Skeletal age assessment is usually based on features encoded in ossification centers. Therefore, it is critical to design a mechanism to capture as much as possible characteristics of features. We have observed that given a feature, there exist stages of the skeletal age such that the variation pattern of the feature differs in these stages. Based on this observation, we propose a Bayesian cut fitting to describe features in response to the skeletal age. With our approach, appropriate positions for stage separation are determined automatically by a Bayesian approach, and a model is used to fit the variation of a feature within each stage. Our experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the traditional fitting using only one line or one curve not only in the efficiency and accuracy of fitting but also in global and local feature characterization.

  1. Aging assessment of reactor instrumentation and protection system components. Aging-related operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, A.C.; Hagen, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the aging-related operating experiences throughout a five-year period (1984--1988) of six generic instrumentation modules (indicators, sensors, controllers, transmitters, annunciators, and recorders) was performed as a part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. The effects of aging from operational and environmental stressors were characterized from results depicted in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The data are graphically displayed as frequency of events per plant year for operating plant ages from 1 to 28 years to determine aging-related failure trend patterns. Three main conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) Instrumentation and control (I&C) modules make a modest contribution to safety-significant events: 17% of LERs issued during 1984--1988 dealt with malfunctions of the six I&C modules studied, and 28% of the LERs dealing with these I&C module malfunctions were aging related (other studies show a range 25--50%); (2) Of the six modules studied, indicators, sensors, and controllers account for the bulk (83%) of aging-related failures; and (3) Infant mortality appears to be the dominant aging-related failure mode for most I&C module categories (with the exception of annunciators and recorders, which appear to fail randomly).

  2. Glycation: the angiogenic paradox in aging and age-related disorders and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, F; Grossin, N; Chassagne, P; Puisieux, F; Boulanger, E

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis is generally a quiescent process which, however, may be modified by different physiological and pathological conditions. The "angiogenic paradox" has been described in diabetes because this disease impairs the angiogenic response in a manner that differs depending on the organs involved and disease evolution. Aging is also associated with pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Glycation, the post-translational modification of proteins, increases with aging and the progression of diabetes. The effect of glycation on angiogenesis depends on the type of glycated proteins and cells involved. This complex link could be responsible for the "angiogenic paradox" in aging and age-related disorders and diseases. Using diabetes as a model, the present work has attempted to review the age-related angiogenic paradox, in particular the effects of glycation on angiogenesis during aging.

  3. Age at menarche and pregnancy-related pelvic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Mette J; Biering, Karin; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Menarcheal age is a predictor of several complications related to pregnancy and diseases later in life. We aimed to study if menarcheal age is a risk factor for pregnancy-related pelvic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the Danish National Birth...... Cohort, a cohort of pregnant women, recruited during 1996-2002, and their children. In the second trimester of pregnancy the women provided information about age at menarche and potential confounders. Selection of cases (n = 2227) was based on self-reported pelvic pain during pregnancy from an interview...... done 6 months post-partum. The controls (n = 2588) were randomly selected among women who did not report pelvic pain. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (OR) for pregnancy-related pelvic pain according to age at menarche. RESULTS: In the cohort, 18.5% of all pregnant women...

  4. Oxidation stress role in age-related cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žorić Lepša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Age-related cataract not only diminishes human life quality but it also represents a big impact on healthcare budget of almost every country as the population ages globally. Hence, cataract prevention is a big and true challenge, but a very difficult task to be accomplished. Nowadays cataract is more than a routinely recognized and almost always successfully operated ophthalmologic disease. The diagnosis of age-related cataract diagnosis might alert doctors to some systemic disorders on the whole body level. Increasing age is certainly the most essential age-related cataract risk factor. However, it seems that cataract could be a multifactor disease because of its individual, familiar, racial and gender expression differences. Oxidation stress. Oxidation stress and its form caused by ultraviolet light-photo-oxidative stress - are considered to be crucial in the etiopatho­genesis of cataract. All biomolecules suffer damages during cataract formation. On the other side, the lens posses a range of antioxidant elements and mechanisms of their action, which enable long lasting maintenance of lens transparency and functioning. Although they are primary characteristics of the lens, these antioxidant elements also depend on their systemic availability and consumption. This paper is a short literature review of the relation between oxidation stress and age-related cataract.

  5. A variational approach to homogeneous scalar fields in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo', R; Magli, G

    2006-01-01

    A result of existence of homogeneous scalar field solutions between prescribed configurations is given, using a modified version of Euler--Maupertuis least action variational principle. Solutions are obtained as limit of approximating variational problems, solved using techniques introduced by Rabinowitz.

  6. Zooming in on the hippocampus in aging and age-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, L.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure important for memory and emotion regulation. The hippocampal formation is susceptible to aging and age-related diseases, which is manifested as volume loss, visible on MRI scans. The hippocampal formation consists of several subfields with different cel

  7. Cellular senescence in aging and age-related disease: from mechanisms to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childs, B.G.; Durik, M.; Baker, D.J.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a process that imposes permanent proliferative arrest on cells in response to various stressors, has emerged as a potentially important contributor to aging and age-related disease, and it is an attractive target for therapeutic exploitation. A wealth of information about senesc

  8. Paleomagnetic secular variation and environmental magnetism of Holocene-age sediments from Tulare Lake, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Janine; Jackson, Brandon; Heaton, Eric; Negrini, Rob

    2016-05-01

    The lake-level record from Tulare Lake, CA has been shown to provide valuable constraints on late Pleistocene and Holocene runoff from the Sierra Nevada mountain range into the San Joaquin Valley of California, one of the world's most prolific agricultural centers. This project uses the magnetic properties of the Tulare Lake sediments in order to date the sediments and to constrain the relative lake level at the time of deposition. Shallowing lake conditions were identified leading up to a prominent unconformity; magnetic mineralogy and grain size indicators, primarily decreasing ARM/IRM and S-Ratio values suggest coarser grain sizes and more oxidizing conditions. Approximately half of the samples possessed well-behaved paleomagnetic directions suitable for paleomagnetic secular variation dating. The results indicate that the sediments below the unconformity were deposited approximately 7600-8500 cal yr BP, and the sediments above the unconformity were deposited approximately 2500-800 cal yr BP. The ages of the corresponding sediments are consistent with the time intervals during which previous studies indicate that lake level was above the elevation of this site, before and after a mid Holocene regression.

  9. Life stress, glucocorticoid signaling, and the aging epigenome: Implications for aging-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Nils C; Chrousos, George P; Binder, Elisabeth B; Zannas, Anthony S

    2017-03-01

    Life stress has been associated with accelerated cellular aging and increased risk for developing aging-related diseases; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. A highly relevant process that may underlie this association is epigenetic regulation. In this review, we build upon existing evidence to propose a model whereby exposure to life stress, in part via its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and the glucocorticoid signaling system, may alter the epigenetic landscape across the lifespan and, consequently, influence genomic regulation and function in ways that are conducive to the development of aging-related diseases. This model is supported by recent studies showing that life stressors and stress-related phenotypes can accelerate epigenetic aging, a measure that is based on DNA methylation prediction of chronological age and has been associated with several aging-related disease phenotypes. We discuss the implications of this model for the prevention and treatment of aging-related diseases, as well as the challenges and limitations of this line of research.

  10. Age-Related Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (Ages) in Bone Matrix on Osteoclastic Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gandhi, Chintan; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2015-12-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the role of in situ AGEs accumulation in osteoclastic resorption. To address this issue, this study cultured human osteoclast cells directly on human cadaveric bone slices from different age groups (young and elderly) to warrant its relevance to in vivo conditions. The cell culture was terminated on the 3rd, 7th, and 10th day, respectively, to assess temporal changes in the number of differentiated osteoclasts, the number and size of osteoclastic resorption pits, the amount of bone resorbed, as well as the amount of matrix AGEs released in the medium by resorption. In addition, the in situ concentration of matrix AGEs at each resorption pit was also estimated based on its AGEs autofluorescent intensity. The results indicated that (1) osteoclastic resorption activities were significantly correlated with the donor age, showing larger but shallower resorption pits on the elderly bone substrates than on the younger ones; (2) osteoclast resorption activities were not significantly dependent on the in situ AGEs concentration in bone matrix, and (3) a correlation was observed between osteoclast activities and the concentration of AGEs released by the resorption. These results suggest that osteoclasts tend to migrate away from initial anchoring sites on elderly bone substrate during resorption compared to younger bone substrates. However, such behavior is not directly related to the in situ concentration of AGEs in bone matrix at the resorption sites.

  11. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine;

    2014-01-01

    Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray and...

  12. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  13. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  14. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  15. Age-related retinopathy in NRF2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cumulative oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in retinal antioxidant and detoxification responses. The purposes of this study were to determine whether NRF2-deficient mice would develop AMD-like retinal pathology with aging and to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eyes of both wild type and Nrf2(-/- mice were examined in vivo by fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG. Structural changes of the outer retina in aged animals were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence labeling. Our results showed that Nrf2(-/- mice developed age-dependent degenerative pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Drusen-like deposits, accumulation of lipofuscin, spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV and sub-RPE deposition of inflammatory proteins were present in Nrf2(-/- mice after 12 months. Accumulation of autophagy-related vacuoles and multivesicular bodies was identified by electron microscopy both within the RPE and in Bruch's membrane of aged Nrf2(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that disruption of Nfe2l2 gene increased the vulnerability of outer retina to age-related degeneration. NRF2-deficient mice developed ocular pathology similar to cardinal features of human AMD and deregulated autophagy is likely a mechanistic link between oxidative injury and inflammation. The Nrf2(-/- mice can provide a novel model for mechanistic and translational research on AMD.

  16. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  17. The Rationale for Delaying Aging and the Prevention of Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Barzilai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [Excerpt] We offer a different approach to delaying or preventing age-related diseases. To understand the necessity for a new approach we have plotted the mortality rates in Israelis in relation to specific age groups and diseases. With the common phenomenon of aging of Western populations it is of utmost importance to follow time-dependent and age-dependent mortality patterns to predict future needs of Western health systems. Age-specific, gender-specific, and cause-of-death-specific mortality rates were extracted from the statistical abstract of Israel1 and include data for the period of 1975–2010; these are presented in Figure 1, separately for men (A and women (B. Detailed age-specific causes of death data were available for the year 2009. Data presented were restricted to 5-year age groups starting at age 50, and for cause-specific mortality to the following age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, 75–84, and 85+. Causes of mortality were separated into malignant diseases, acute myocardial infarction, other ischemic heart diseases, other forms of heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, diseases of kidney, infectious diseases, all external causes, signs/symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and all other diseases. Figure 1 is similar to the one posted on the National Institute of Aging website and similar to data across the industrial world. The striking feature of this graph is that aging is a major log scale risk for most diseases, including the major killers: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. For example, while aging is a 100-fold risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD according to Figure 1, hypercholesterolemia is known to carry only a three-fold risk for CVD. For each of the mentioned diseases, aging is a log risk greater than the most important known risk factor for that disease.

  18. Sources of tooth wear variation early in life among known-aged wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Head, Brian R; Sauther, Michelle L; Ungar, Peter S; O'Mara, M Teague

    2014-11-01

    Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar display a high frequency of individuals with notable and sometimes extreme tooth wear. Adult lemurs display a range of tooth wear even among individuals of the same age, but we do not know at what age this variation first appears. This study's goal was to determine whether wear variation occurs in younger wild lemurs. Based on the decade-long study of ring-tailed lemur feeding and dental ecology at BMSR, we hypothesized that younger, natal lemurs (under 5 years of age), would display variation in their degree of tooth wear that would correspond to microhabitat differences, given differences in food availability in different troops' home ranges. We also hypothesized that wear would differ between sexes at this young age, given differences in feeding between males and females in this population. Hypotheses were tested using dental topographic analyses using dental impressions collected from known-aged lemurs across 10 years at BMSR. Results illustrate significant differences in wear-related tooth topography (i.e., relief and slope, presented here as "occlusal lift") for microhabitat, sex and troop affiliation among lemurs under 5 years of age in this population. Although, all lemurs in this population consume mechanically challenging tamarind fruit, those in more disturbed habitats eat additional introduced foods, some of which are also mechanically challenging. Thus, dietary variation is the likely cause of variation in tooth wear. The wear variation we show at a young age suggests caution when assigning age based on tooth wear in living and fossil primates. These wear-related tooth shape changes early in life, which reflects sex, habitat variation and levels of anthropogenic disturbance, may potentially impact reproductive fitness later in life.

  19. Genetic control of the alternative pathway of complement in humans and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Laura A; Edwards, Albert O; Ryu, Euijung; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Baratz, Keith H; Brown, William L; Charbel Issa, Peter; Scholl, Hendrik P; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina E; Bailey, Kent R; Oppermann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the alternative pathway of complement is implicated in common neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We explored the impact of common variation in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway on complement activation in human blood and in AMD. Genetic variation across the genes encoding complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB) and component 3 (C3) was determined. The influence of common haplotypes defining transcriptional and translational units on complement activation in blood was determined in a quantitative genomic association study. Individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB were associated with distinct and novel effects on plasma levels of precursors, regulators and activation products of the alternative pathway of complement in human blood. Further, genetic variation in CFH thought to influence cell surface regulation of complement did not alter plasma complement levels in human blood. Plasma markers of chronic activation (split-products Ba and C3d) and an activating enzyme (factor D) were elevated in AMD subjects. Most of the elevation in AMD was accounted for by the genetic variation controlling complement activation in human blood. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement in blood is under genetic control and increases with age. The genetic variation associated with increased activation of complement in human blood also increased the risk of AMD. Our data are consistent with a disease model in which genetic variation in the complement system increases the risk of AMD by a combination of systemic complement activation and abnormal regulation of complement activation in local tissues.

  20. Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging.

  1. Ageism, age relations, and garment industry work in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.

  2. Age-Related Neurodegeneration and Memory Loss in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Lockrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a condition where a complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy causes variable intellectual disability, and progressive memory loss and neurodegeneration with age. Many research groups have examined development of the brain in DS individuals, but studies on age-related changes should also be considered, with the increased lifespan observed in DS. DS leads to pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD by 40 or 50 years of age. Progressive age-related memory deficits occurring in both AD and in DS have been connected to degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Inflammation and oxidative stress are early events in DS pathology, and focusing on these pathways may lead to development of successful intervention strategies for AD associated with DS. Here we discuss recent findings and potential treatment avenues regarding development of AD neuropathology and memory loss in DS.

  3. Pharmacogenetics and nutritional supplementation in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampton BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blake M Hampton, Jaclyn L Kovach, Stephen G Schwartz Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS recommended treatment with antioxidants plus zinc in patients with intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration in order to reduce progression risks. Recent pharmacogenetic studies have reported differences in treatment outcomes with respect to variants in genes for CFH and ARMS2, although the treatment recommendations based on these differences are controversial. Different retrospective analyses of subsets of patients from the same AREDS trial have drawn different conclusions. The practicing clinician, who is not an expert on genetics, clinical trial design, or statistical analysis, may be uncertain how to interpret these results. Based on the balance of the available literature, we suggest not changing established practice recommendations until additional evidence from clinical trials becomes available. Keywords: Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS, age-related macular degeneration, age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2, complement factor H (CFH, pharmacogenetics, randomized clinical trial (RCT

  4. Towards age/rotation/magnetic activity relation with seismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Savita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of stellar ages directly impacts the characterization of a planetary system as it puts strong constraints on the moment when the system was born. Unfortunately, the determination of precise stellar ages is a very difficult task. Different methods can be used to do so (based on isochrones or chemical element abundances but they usually provide large uncertainties. During its evolution a star goes through processes leading to loss of angular momentum but also changes in its magnetic activity. Building rotation, magnetic, age relations would be an asset to infer stellar ages model independently. Several attempts to build empirical relations between rotation and age (namely gyrochronology were made with a focus on cluster stars where the age determination is easier and for young stars on the main sequence. For field stars, we can now take advantage of high-precision photometric observations where we can perform asteroseismic analyses to improve the accuracy of stellar ages. Furthermore, the variability in the light curves allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar rotation and magnetic activity. By combining these precise measurements, we are on the way of understanding and improving relations between magnetic activity, rotation, and age, in particular at different stages of stellar evolution. I will review the status on gyrochronology relationships based on observations of young cluster stars. Then I will focus on solar-like stars and describe the inferences on stellar ages, rotation, and magnetism that can be provided by high-quality photometric observations such as the ones of the Kepler mission, in particular through asteroseismic analyses.

  5. Responses of azeotropes and relative volatilities to pressure variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2015-01-01

    of two columns. Because operating costs are highly sensitive to the pressure dependence of azeotropic compositions, reliable and accurate phase equilibrium thermodynamic property information is needed to computationally explore pressure variation for such processes. An analysis of property modeling has...

  6. Present and Possible Therapies for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Khan; Ketan Agarwal; Mohamed Loutfi; Ahmed Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population worldwide and is defined as a chronic, progressive disorder characterized by changes occurring within the macula reflective of the ageing process. At present, the prevalence of AMD is currently rising and is estimated to increase by a third by 2020. Although our understanding of the several components underpinning the pathogenesis of this condition has increased significantly, the treatment ...

  7. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  8. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks.

  9. Geomagnetic secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mount Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, J. C.; Bucur, I.; Thompson, J. F. C.

    1985-12-01

    The variation of geomagnetic field direction in Sicily during the past 700 yr has tentatively been determined using lavas of known date from Mount Etna1. Additional palaeomagnetic studies on several hundred volcanic samples, combined with archaeomagnetic investigations carried out on Norman buildings, have improved the previous results and permit a reconstruction of the geomagnetic variation curve to about AD 1000. This curve agrees well with those obtained for other European countries2-6 and may be used as a reference for checking the ages attributed to archaeological structures as well as volcanic products in southern Italy during the past 1,000 yr. The present results cast serious doubts on the true ages of numerous historically dated lavas from Mount Etna, most of which are at least several centuries older than previously believed. The conclusions have implications for the succession of eruptions, effusion rates, magmatic evolution, and so on, and demonstrate the inconsistency of eruptive models based on historical records alone.

  10. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular Meshwork Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Gold

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the normal aging effects on trabecular meshwork (TM parameters using Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT images. Patients and Methods. One eye from 45 participants with open angles was imaged. Two independent readers measured TM area, TM length, and area and length of the TM interface shadow from 3 age groups (18–40, 41–60, and 61–80. Measurements were compared using stepwise regression analysis. Results. The average TM parameters were 0.0487 (±0.0092 mm2 for TM area, 0.5502 (±0.1033 mm for TM length, 0.1623 (±0.341 mm2 for TM interface shadow area, and 0.7755 (±0.1574 mm for TM interface shadow length. Interobserver reproducibility coefficients ranged from 0.45 (TM length to 0.82 (TM area. TM area and length were not correlated with age. While the TM interface shadow length did not correlate with age, the TM interface shadow area increased with age. Race, sex, intraocular pressure, and gonioscopy score were not correlated with any TM parameters. Conclusion. Although the TM measurements were not correlated with age, the TM interface shadow area increased with age. Further study is required to determine whether there is any relationship between the age-related ASOCT findings of the TM interface shadow area and physiologic function.

  11. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Tecchio, Franca; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG) resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16-85). We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD) according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zappasodi

    Full Text Available The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16-85. We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population.

  13. Age-related macular degeneration: current treatment and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutray, Tanya; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment among older adults in the developed world. Epidemiological studies have revealed a number of genetic, ocular and environmental risk factors for this condition, which can be addressed by disease reduction strategies. We discuss the various treatment options for dry and exudative age-related macular degeneration available and explain how the recommended treatment depends on the exact type, location and extent of the degeneration. Currently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition therapy is the best available treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration but is limited by the need for repeated intravitreal injections. The current treatment regime is being refined through research on optimal treatment frequency and duration and type of anti-VEGF drug. Different modes of drug delivery are being developed and in the future other methods of VEGF inhibition may be used.

  14. Mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; LeCouter, Jennifer; Yaspan, Brian L; Ye, Weilan

    2014-01-01

    As the age of the population increases in many nations, age-related degenerative diseases pose significant socioeconomic challenges. One of the key degenerative diseases that compromise quality of life is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a multi-faceted condition that affects the central retina, which ultimately leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. The pathophysiology and risk factors for AMD are complex, and the symptoms manifest in multiple related but distinct forms. The ability to develop effective treatments for AMD will depend on a thorough understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, risk factors, and driver molecular pathways, as well as the ability to develop useful animal models. This review provides an overview of the aforementioned aspects in AMD.

  15. Pathophysiology of age-related hearing loss (peripheral and central).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Extrinsic factors include noise, ototoxic medication and diet. However, presbycusis may not be related to the intrinsic and extrinsic factors separately. Presbycusis affects not only the physical, cognitive and emotional activities of patients, but also their social functioning. As a result, patients' quality of life deteriorates, compounded by various symptoms including depression, social isolation and lower self-esteem. Presbycusis is classified into six categories, as based on results of audiometric tests and temporal bone pathology, established by Schuknecht (1993): sensory, neural, metabolic or strial, cochlear conductive, mixed and indeterminate types. Among these, metabolic presbycusis is the mainstay of presbycusis types. Age-related changes also develop in the central hearing system. Functional decline of the central auditory system, caused by aging, reduces speech-understanding in noisy background and increase temporal processing deficits in gap-detection measures. This study reviews the literature on the age-related hearing loss.

  16. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  17. Age at first reproduction explains rate variation in the strepsirrhine molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantes, C; Steiper, M E

    2009-10-27

    Although the molecular clock hypothesis posits that the rate of molecular change is constant over time, there is evidence that rates vary among lineages. Some of the strongest evidence for variable molecular rates comes from the primates; e.g., the "hominoid slowdown." These rate differences are hypothesized to correlate with certain species attributes, such as generation time and body size. Here, we examine rates of molecular change in the strepsirrhine suborder of primates and test whether body size or age at first reproduction (a proxy for generation time) explains patterns of rate variation better than a null model where the molecular clock is independent of these factors. To examine these models, we analyzed DNA sequences from four pairs of recently diverged strepsirrhine sister taxa to estimate molecular rates by using sign tests, likelihood ratio tests, and regression analyses. Our analysis does not support a model where body weight or age at first reproduction strongly influences rates of molecular evolution across mitochondrial and nuclear sites. Instead, our analysis supports a model where age at first reproduction influences neutral evolution in the nuclear genome. This study supports the generation time hypothesis for rate variation in the nuclear molecular clock. Molecular clock variation due to generation time may help to resolve the discordance between molecular and paleontological estimates for divergence date estimates in primate evolution.

  18. Vision rehabilitation of persons with age related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Dennis W; Brown, William L

    2011-05-01

    As the population of the United States ages, there is an increase in the number of persons with age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Even as new prevention and treatment techniques are developed, the vision loss associated with ARMD may lead to loss of independence and quality of life. Low vision is a rehabilitative process designed to improve visual function and restore independence. This paper is a review of the current research related to low vision in the areas of magnification, contrast and illumination, reading, training, driving and outcomes assessment.

  19. Variation in the Markers of Nutritional and Oxidative State in a Long-Lived Seabird: Associations with Age and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urvik, Janek; Meitern, Richard; Rattiste, Kalev; Saks, Lauri; Hõrak, Peeter; Sepp, Tuul

    2016-01-01

    Age-related declines in life-history traits have been widely observed in free-living animals. Several theories link senescence to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure several widely used markers of oxidative and nutritional state in a long-lived seabird, the common gull (Larus canus), in order to assess the suitability of these markers for describing deterioration in physiological condition associated with chronological age and survival. Associations with longevity and individual consistency of these parameters over the years (repeatability) were also assessed. Senescence in fitness parameters was observed during the study period: in females, laying date and clutch mass were related to bird age in a curvilinear manner, with middle-aged birds breeding earlier and laying heavier eggs. The only parameter associated with aging processes was glutathione concentration in erythrocytes, which was lower in female birds with longer life spans. Of indexes of nutritional state, plasma triglyceride concentration showed a between-individual increase with age, suggesting selective mortality of birds with low levels. Additionally, total plasma protein levels of individual males increased with age. The mostly negative results of this study hint that the commonly used parameters of physiological condition and oxidative state used in this study do not adequately reflect an individual's long-term health condition. Alternatively, it is possible that in common gulls, senescence occurs in reproductive mechanisms but not in mechanisms responsible for maintaining an organism's redox balance, consistent with the idea that different aspects of an organism's physiological condition age at different rates. Significant interannual repeatability was detected in three plasma constituents-carotenoids, uric acid, and total protein-all of which can possibly be linked to variation in dietary habits.

  20. Frequency variations of the earth's obliquity and the 100-kyr ice-age cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Shou

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the earth's climate are induced by variations in the earth's orbital parameters which modulate the seasonal distribution of solar radiation. Periodicities in the geological climate record with cycles of 100, 41, and 23 kyr have been linked with changes in obliquity, eccentricity, and precession of the equinoxes. The effect of variations of eccentricity during a 100 kyr period is weak relative to the signals from obliquity and precession variations and it may therefore be expected that the 100 kyr signal in the climate record would be of low intensity. However, this signal dominates the climate record and internal nonlinear processes within the climate system have previously been proposed to account for this fact. The author shows that variations in the frequency of the obliquity cycle can give rise to strong 100-kyr forcing of climate.

  1. Nitroxide Pharmaceutical Development for Aging-Related Degeneration & Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Zarling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed. Tempol (TP, Tempol Hydroxylamine (TP-H, and TP-H prodrug (OT-551 are evaluated in (1 nonsmokers versus smokers with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, rapidly reversed by cutaneous TP; (2 elderly cancer patients at risk for radiation-induced skin burns or hair loss, prevented by topical TP; and (3 elderly smoker or nonsmoker Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD patients at risk for vision loss, prevented by daily eye drops of OT-551. The human data indicates safety and efficacy for these nitroxide drugs. Both TP and TP-H topically penetrate and function in skin or mucosa, protecting and treating radiation burns and hair loss or smoking-induced cutaneous vascular dysfunction. TP and TP-H do not penetrate the cornea, while OT-551 does effectively penetrate and travels to the back of the eye, preserving visual acuity and reducing low luminance deficit and night vision loss in dry AMD smokers and non-smoker patients. Topical, oral or injectable drug formulations are discussed.

  2. Natural selection and genital variation: a role for the environment, parasites and sperm ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Male genitalia are more variable between species (and populations) than other organs, and are more morphologically complex in polygamous compared to monogamous species. Therefore, sexual selection has been put forward as the major explanation of genital variation and complexity, in particular cryptic female choice for male copulatory courtship. As cryptic female choice is based on differences between males it is somewhat paradoxical that there is such low within-species variation in male genitalia that they are a prime morphological identification character for animal species. Processes other than sexual selection may also lead to genitalia variation but they have recently become neglected. Here I focus on pleiotropy and natural selection and provide examples how they link genitalia morphology with genital environments. Pleiotropy appears to be important because most studies that specifically tested for pleiotropic effects on genital morphology found them. Natural selection likely favours certain genital morphology over others in various environments, as well as by reducing re-infection with sexually transmitted diseases or reducing the likelihood of fertilisation with aged sperm. Both pleiotropy and natural selection differ locally and between species so may contribute to local variation in genitalia and sometimes variation between monogamous and polygamous species. Furthermore, the multitude of genital environments will lead to a multitude of genital functions via natural selection and pleiotropy, and may also contribute to explaining the complexity of genitalia.

  3. The relation of structural integrity and task-related functional connectivity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Marstaller, Lars; Choupan, Jeiran; Sepehrband, Farshid; Ziaei, Maryam; Reutens, David

    2015-10-01

    The relations among structural integrity, functional connectivity (FC), and cognitive performance in the aging brain are still understudied. Here, we used multimodal and multivariate approaches to specifically examine age-related changes in task-related FC, gray-matter volumetrics, white-matter integrity, and performance. Our results are two-fold, showing (i) age-related differences in FC of the working memory network and (ii) age-related recruitment of a compensatory network associated with better accuracy on the task. Increased connectivity in the compensatory network correlates positively with preserved white-matter integrity in bilateral frontoparietal tracks and with larger gray-matter volume of right inferior parietal lobule. These findings demonstrate the importance of structural integrity and FC in working memory performance associated with healthy aging.

  4. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  5. Age-related changes in skin topography and microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Mac-Mary, Sophie; Marsaut, David; Sainthillier, Jean Marie; Nouveau, Stéphanie; Gharbi, Tijani; de Lacharriere, Olivier; Humbert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    Skin topography and microvasculature undergo characteristic changes with age. Although several non-invasive bioengineering methods are currently available to measure them quantitatively, few publications have referred to their relationship with age in different anatomical sites. This study was carried out to observe the age-related changes of the skin topography and skin microcirculation. The microrelief was assessed with special processing software from scanning by interference fringe profilometry of silicone replicas performed on two sites (volar forearm and back of hand) on 50 female volunteers (aged 20-74 years who consisted of ten probands in each decade). The superficial vascular network of both sites was assessed by videocapillaroscopy, and the subpapillary vascular plexus was studied with laser Doppler flowmetry. Skin color, which is affected by blood flow, was observed by colorimeter. The skin roughness and the mean height between peak and valley increased with age. There were statistically significant differences between the evaluated sites. This study also shows that the capillary loops in the dermal papillae decrease but the subpapillary plexus increase with age. The interference fringe profilometry associated with videocapillaroscopy may be useful and accurate to measure the efficacy of medical or cosmetic products to delay skin aging.

  6. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Margaret Po-Shan; LeVatte, Terry L; O'Reilly, Amanda M; Smith, Benjamin J; Tremblay, François; Brown, Richard E; Clarke, David B

    2016-05-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in developmental processes and age-associated cognitive decline; however, little is known concerning the effects of NCAM in the visual system during aging. Using anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays, we analyzed age-related changes in visual function of NCAM deficient (-/-) and wild-type mice. Anatomical analyses indicated that aging NCAM -/- mice had fewer retinal ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging.

  7. A variational matrix product ansatz for dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Haegeman, Jutho; Weir, David J; Cirac, J Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A variational ansatz for momentum eigenstates of translation invariant quantum spin chains is formulated. The matrix product state ansatz works directly in the thermodynamic limit and allows for an efficient and stable implementation of the variational principle. Unlike previous approaches, the ansatz includes topologically non-trivial states (kinks, domain walls) for systems with symmetry breaking. The method is benchmarked using the S=1/2 XXZ antiferromagnet, the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet and the S=1 XXZ antiferromagnet, and we obtain surprisingly accurate results.

  8. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  9. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in old age: Integrating age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Helena; Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Luszcz, Mary A

    2015-12-01

    Late life involves a variety of different challenges to well-being. This study extends and qualifies propositions drawn from the paradox of well-being in aging using 15-year longitudinal data on depressive symptoms from old and very old participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Baseline N = 2,087; Mage = 78.69 years; range: 65-103 years; 49.40% women). We first examined age-related trajectories in depressive symptoms from young-old to oldest-old, taking into account (changes in) relevant correlates, pathology, and mortality; and, second, we investigated gender differences in these trajectories. Results revealed that age-related trajectories of depressive symptoms were predictive of mortality hazards. The unique predictive effects of both level of, and change in, depressive symptoms were independent of one another and held after taking into account education as well as changes in marital status, living arrangements, cognitive function, and illness burden. In addition, results indicated that depressive symptoms were elevated among participants suffering from arthritis, and increased with age more markedly in men than in women. In particular, the significant Age × Gender interaction indicated that the gender gap in depressive symptoms reduced from young-old to old-old and reversed in very old age when men showed more depressive symptoms than women. Qualifying the paradox of well-being in aging, findings demonstrated that depressive symptoms increased from young-old to oldest-old and suggest that age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes should be examined in concert to advance our understanding of individual differences in depressive symptom trajectories in late life.

  10. Breadth and age-dependency of relations between cortical thickness and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Habeck, Christian; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Barulli, Daniel; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have identified a large number of neural measures that could be involved in age-related declines in cognitive functioning. A popular method of investigating neural-cognition relations has been to determine the brain regions in which a particular neural measure is associated with the level of specific cognitive measures. Although this procedure has been informative, it ignores the strong interrelations that typically exist among the measures in each modality. An alternative approach involves investigating the number and identity of distinct dimensions within the set of neural measures and within the set of cognitive measures prior to examining relations between the two types of measures. The procedure is illustrated with data from 297 adults between 20 and 79 years of age with cortical thickness in different brain regions as the neural measures, and performance on 12 cognitive tests as the cognitive measures. The results revealed that most of the relations between cortical thickness and cognition occurred at a general level corresponding to variance shared among different brain regions and among different cognitive measures. In addition, the strength of the thickness-cognition relation was substantially reduced after controlling the variation in age, which suggests that at least some of the thickness-cognition relations in age-heterogeneous samples may be attributable to the influence of age on each type of measure. PMID:26356042

  11. Age-related loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Brice A.; Stanley, Emily M.; Frederick-Duus, Danielle; Fadel, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological alterations—such as changes in sleep patterns, metabolism and food intake—suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction, but the effects of senescence on specific hypothalamic nuclei and neuronal groups that mediate these alterations is unclear. The lateral hypothalamus and contiguous perifornical area (LH/PFA) contains several populations of neurons, including those that express the neuropeptides orexin (hypocretin) or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). Collectively, orexin and MCH neurons influence many integrative homeostatic processes related to wakefulness and energy balance. Here, we determined the effect of aging on numbers of orexin and MCH neurons in young adult (3–4 months) and old (26–28 months) Fisher 344/Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. Aged rats exhibited a loss of greater than 40% of orexin-immunoreactive neurons in both the medial and lateral (relative to the fornix) sectors of the LH/PFA. MCH-immunoreactive neurons were also lost in aged rats, primarily in the medial LH/PFA. Neuronal loss in this area was not global as no change in cells immunoreactive for the pan-neuronal marker, NeuN, was observed in aged rats. Combined with other reports of altered receptor expression or behavioral responses to exogenously-administered neuropeptide, these data suggest that compromised orexin (and, perhaps, MCH) function is an important mediator of age-related homeostatic disturbances of hypothalamic origin. The orexin system may represent a crucial substrate linking homeostatic and cognitive dysfunction in aging, as well as a novel therapeutic target for pharmacological or genetic restoration approaches to preventing or ameliorating these disturbances. PMID:21262323

  12. Humanin and Age-related diseases: A new link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei eGong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI-R, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  13. Age-related bone loss in the LOU/c rat model of healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Li, Ailian; Henderson, Janet E; Ferland, Guylaine; Gaudreau, Pierrette

    2009-03-01

    Inbred albino Louvain (LOU) rats are considered a model of healthy aging due to their increased longevity in the absence of obesity and with a low incidence of common age-related diseases. In this study, we characterized the bone phenotype of male and female LOU rats at 4, 20 and 27 months of age using quantitative micro computed tomographic (mCT) imaging, histology and biochemical analysis of circulating bone biomarkers. Bone quality and morphometry of the distal femora, assessed by mCT, was similar in male and female rats at 4 months of age and deteriorated over time. Histochemical staining of undecalcified bone showed a significant reduction in cortical and trabecular bone by 20 months of age. The reduction in mineralized tissue was accompanied by reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and a significant increase in marrow adiposity. Biochemical markers of bone turnover, C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, correlated with the age-related bone loss whereas the calciotropic hormones PTH and vitamin D remained unchanged over time. In summary, aged LOU rats exhibit low-turnover bone loss and marrow fat infiltration, which are the hallmarks of senile osteoporosis, and thus represent a novel model in which to study the molecular mechanisms leading to this disorder.

  14. Age-related differences in mandibular ramus growth: a histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, M G; Enlow, D H; Noachtar, R

    1995-01-01

    Histologic reconstructions of remodeling variations of the mandibular ramus are demonstrated. This is significant because morphogenic relationships between the ramus and corpus establish mandibular arch position. Ground and polished microscopic sections were obtained from the ramus of 30 well-preserved human mandibles, dental age 1 to 13 years. The distribution of the various types of endosteal and periosteal bone tissues and resorptive versus depository surfaces was recorded. Fourteen of the 30 specimens and the majority of the mandibles at all ages examined exhibited the classic pattern of deposition and resorption (Type A or classic pattern) described by Enlow. Nine mandibles followed a second variation (Type B or vertical variation) involving a gonial angle alignment change. Seven followed a pattern of deposition and resorption similar to what Björk might have called a forward rotating pattern (Type C or rotation variation). The differences in these patterns are large enough to suggest that a common description of one pattern of remodeling for all mandibles is incomplete. Unfortunately, the process of mandibular growth and remodeling does not appear to correlate well with dental age and the basis for changes in patterns may be more complex than first imagined. If temporal differences exist, they are not related directly to dental development. In theory, the differences in pattern are great enough to influence the outcome of mandibular orthopedic treatment.

  15. Using continuation-ratio logits to analyze the variation of the age composition of fish catches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Gislason, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2000-01-01

    continuation- ratio logits and the theory for generalized linear mixed models. Continuation-ratio logits are designed far ordered multinomial response and have the feature that the associated log-likelihood splits into separate terms for each category levels, Thus, generalized linear mixed models can...... of the sampling is desirable, because it leads to better estimates of the age composition, and the corresponding variances and covariances. The analysis is impeded by the fact that the response is ordered categorical. This paper introduces an easily applicable method to analyze such data. The method combines...... be applied separately to each level of the logits. The method is illustrated by the analysis of age-composition data collected from the Danish sandeel fishery in the North Sea in 1993. The significance of possible sources of variation is evaluated, and formulae for estimating the proportions of each age...

  16. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  17. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    the mechanisms involved in the age-related defective bone formation. Evidence Acquisition: The mechanisms discussed in this review are based on a PubMed search and knowledge of the authors in the field. Evidence Synthesis: Available basic and clinical studies indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved...

  18. The Relative Impact of Age and Attractiveness Stereotypes on Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, James M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the impact of old-age and attractiveness stereotypes on persuasion. College students (N=220) read essays attributed to young or old authors. Attractive authors were rated higher and were more persuasive relative to unattractive authors when the essay was weak. (Author/JAC)

  19. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...

  20. The Experience of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y. H.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Hassell, Jennifer B.; Keeffe, Jill E.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative article describes the impact of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) among 15 participants: how a person makes sense of ARMD, the effect of ARMD on the person's quality of life, the psychological disturbances associated with the limitations of ARMD, and the influence of ARMD on social interactions. Such in-depth appreciation of…

  1. Relations among Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Predictors of Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…

  2. Age-related maculopathy: A genetic and epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the 19th century, age-related maculopathy (ARM) was described for the first time as an agerelated abnormality of the macula lutea. ARM consists of a variety of clinical signs, from the early stages with soft distinct drusen, indistinct drusen and pigment alterations up to the late st

  3. Soybean β-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Tanigawa

    Full Text Available Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG, one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV, which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.

  4. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...... diversity in social relations and high social participation were important factors for maintaining functional ability among the 75-year-old men and women, while social support was a risk factor for functional decline among the 80-year-old men. The present study suggests that being "embedded" in a strong...

  5. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...... diversity in social relations and high social participation were important factors for maintaining functional ability among the 75-year-old men and women, while social support was a risk factor for functional decline among the 80-year-old men. The present study suggests that being "embedded" in a strong...

  6. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by means...... normal donors aged 16-83 years were tested in compression. The deformation was measured simultaneously in bone and cartilage to obtain the mechanical properties of both tissues. RESULTS: The stiffnesses and elastic energies of both cartilage and bone showed an initial increase, with maxima at 40 years......, followed by a steady decline. The viscoelastic energy was maximal at younger ages (16-29 years), followed by a steady decline. The energy absorption capacity did not vary with age. Stiffnesses and elastic energies were correlated significantly between cartilage and bone. CONCLUSIONS: The present study...

  7. Age-Related Decline in Brain Resources Modulates Genetic Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597

  8. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  9. The laboratory rat: Relating its age with human′s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By late 18 th or early 19 th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years. Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor.

  10. Stressful situations and coping strategies in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud de Minzi, María Cristina; Sacchi, Carla

    2005-10-01

    Whether people cope differently with negative events at different ages was assessed by relation to age by type of situation perceived as potentially stressful and by type of coping strategy used, and also whether the kind of coping strategy used to reduce the potential stressor was related to type of stressor. To do this the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Ways of Coping Checklist of Lazarus and Folkman was examined in an Argentine sample of 153. The factor analysis of checklist scores identified five factors: Cognitive redefinition, Problem focus, Seeking social support, Wishful thinking, and Avoidance. For two groups, ages 20 to 24 and 40 to 45 years, analysis indicated a significant association of type of situation perceived as potentially stressful with age. The middle-age group (40-45 yr.) chose a way of coping in problem solution but the young adult group (20-24 yr.) seemed more often to elude problems. It appears that the type of stressor influences type of coping.

  11. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  12. Quantifying the magnitude, spatiotemporal variation and age of aquatic CO2 fluxes in western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude regions are experiencing accelerated atmospheric warming, and understanding the terrestrial response to this is of crucial importance as: a) there is a large store of carbon (C) in permafrost soils which may be released and feedback to climate change; and, b) ice sheet melt in this region is accelerating, and whilst this will cause albedo and heat flux changes, the role of this in atmospheric gas release is poorly known. To understand how sensitive arctic environments may respond to future warming, we need measurements that document current C flux rates and help to understand C cycling pathways. Although it has been widely hypothesised that arctic regions may become increasingly significant C sources, the contribution of aquatic C fluxes which integrate catchment-wide sources has been little studied. Using a floating chamber method we directly measured CO2 fluxes from spatially distributed freshwaters (ice sheet melt, permafrost melt, and lakes/ponds) in the Kangerlussuaq region of western Greenland during the early part of the summer 2014 melt season. Fluxes from freshwaters with permafrost sources were in the range -3.15 to +1.28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Fluxes from a river draining the ice sheet and the Russell Glacier were between -2.19 and +4.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. These ranges show the systems can be both sources (efflux) and sinks (influx) of CO2. Most freshwater data worldwide shows CO2 efflux and so recording aquatic systems being a CO2­ ­sink is unusual. Our data show spatial and temporal variations that are related to hydraulic as well as biogeochemical processes. Additionally, where we recorded CO2 efflux we collected effluxed CO2 for radiocarbon analysis. The measured age of the released gas will help to identify the sources and dominant transport processes of CO­2 (e.g. entrained modern atmospheric CO2, or old CO2 trapped during ice formation released through ice melt, or CO2 derived from respiration of soil and sediment organic matter

  13. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  14. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  15. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  16. New progress in brain aging and its related neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei ZHU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging-related neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA have become one of the major diseases endangering the health of old people in China. Although the mechanism of brain aging and pathogenesis of its related neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear, protein pathological studies such as tau, α-synuclein (α-Syn, TDP-43 and amyloid-β protein (Aβ based on brain tissue bank and case registration database are opening the door to solve the mystery in the brain aging process and unlock pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Research on functional neuroimaging including 11C-PIB PET and 18F-FDDNP PET in Alzheimer's disease and 18F-FDG PET in Parkinson's disease, and biomarkers such as total-tau, phosphorylated-tau, and the 42 amino acid fragment of β-amyloid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease now become hot topics in the field of elderly dementia and movement disorders. Clinicopathological correlation research of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy is also one of focuses in the geriatric neurological diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.004

  17. Age-related macular degeneration: Complement in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Strauss, Erich C; Yaspan, Brian L

    2016-06-01

    The complement system plays a key role in host-defense against common pathogens but must be tightly controlled to avoid inflammation and tissue damage. Polymorphisms in genes encoding two important negative regulators of the alternative complement pathway, complement factor H (CFH) and complement factor I (CFI), are associated with the risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision impairment in the ageing population. In this review, we will discuss the genetic basis of AMD and the potential impact of complement de-regulation on disease pathogenesis. Finally, we will highlight recent therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling complement activation in patients with AMD.

  18. Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 20...

  19. New developments in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon da Cruz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that over 3 million people (9% of global blindness are blinded by age-related macular degeneration (AMD. AMD affects people over the age of 55. There are two main types of AMD, dry and wet. In dry AMD, patients slowly lose vision through progressive atrophy of the macular tissue. Wet, or exudative, AMD, is associated with new blood vessels called subretinal neovascular membranes (or SRNVM and affected patients lose vision more rapidly due to fluid leakage and haemorrhage at the macula.

  20. Future Therapies of Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after the age of 50 years. While VEGF inhibitors are promising drugs for treating patients with ocular neovascularization, there are limitations to their potential for improving vision in AMD patients. Thus, future therapies are required to have the potential to improve visual outcomes. This paper will summarize the future strategies and therapeutic targets that are aimed at enhancing the efficacy and duration of effect of antiangiogenic strategies.

  1. Innate immunity and inflammation in ageing: a key for understanding age-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonna-Romano Giuseppina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The process of maintaining life for the individual is a constant struggle to preserve his/her integrity. This can come at a price when immunity is involved, namely systemic inflammation. Inflammation is not per se a negative phenomenon: it is the response of the immune system to the invasion of viruses or bacteria and other pathogens. During evolution the human organism was set to live 40 or 50 years; today, however, the immune system must remain active for much a longer time. This very long activity leads to a chronic inflammation that slowly but inexorably damages one or several organs: this is a typical phenomenon linked to ageing and it is considered the major risk factor for age-related chronic diseases. Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes and even sarcopenia and cancer, just to mention a few – have an important inflammatory component, though disease progression seems also dependent on the genetic background of individuals. Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory genotypes are related to unsuccessful ageing, and, reciprocally, controlling inflammatory status may allow a better chance of successful ageing. In other words, age-related diseases are "the price we pay" for a life-long active immune system: this system has also the potential to harm us later, as its fine tuning becomes compromised. Our immune system has evolved to control pathogens, so pro-inflammatory responses are likely to be evolutionarily programmed to resist fatal infections with pathogens aggressively. Thus, inflammatory genotypes are an important and necessary part of the normal host responses to pathogens in early life, but the overproduction of inflammatory molecules might also cause immune-related inflammatory diseases and eventually death later. Therefore, low responder genotypes involved in regulation of innate defence mechanisms, might better control inflammatory responses and age-related disease development, resulting in an increased

  2. Age-related decline in global form suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Starman, Kornelija; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Visual selection of illusory 'Kanizsa' figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form--an instance of 'global precedence' in visual processing. Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global-local task requiring selection of either a 'global' Kanizsa- or a 'local' non-Kanizsa configuration (in the presence of the respectively other configuration) by analyzing event-related lateralizations (ERLs). Behaviorally, older participants showed a more pronounced global-precedence effect. Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) 'positivity posterior contralateral' (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing differences in the subsequent (250-500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanizsa, as compared to non-Kanizsa, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages--indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode and switching to the required local state of attentional resolution.

  3. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain.

  4. Principles and practice of hormetic treatment of aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Suresh Is

    2008-02-01

    Aging is characterized by stochastic accumulation of molecular damage, progressive failure of maintenance and repair, and consequent onset of age-related diseases. Applying hormesis in aging research and therapy is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress. Studies on the beneficial biological effects of repeated mild heat shock on human cells in culture, and other studies on the anti-aging and life-prolonging effects of proxidants, hypergravity, irradiation and ethanol on cells and organisms suggest that hormesis as an antiaging and gerontomodulatory approach has a promising future. Its clinical applications include prevention and treatment of diabetes, cataract, osteoporosis, dementia and some cancers.

  5. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  6. [Etiology and pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, P; Holz, F G; Charbel Issa, P

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in Germany. Due to the demographic development a further increase of affected patients is to be expected. Improved understanding of AMD pathogenesis resulted from the molecular biological approaches in recent years and showed an association of genetic factors with AMD. The complement factor H gene and the second high-risk locus ARMS2 in particular were found to contribute a significant risk for development of the disease. Ageing and environmental factors, such as smoking, modulate the individual genetic risk profile. A detailed understanding of the complex AMD pathogenesis is also relevant in ophthalmological practice to understand new treatment strategies. In this review we aim to give an overview of the interplay of ageing, external environmental factors and genetic risk variants leading to AMD.

  7. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

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    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  8. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

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    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  9. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...

  10. Age-related differences in adaptive decision making

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    Irwin P. Levin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available While previous research has found that children make more risky decisions than their parents, little is known about the developmental trajectory for the ability to make advantageous decisions. In a sample of children, 5--11 years old, we administered a new risky decision making task in which the relative expected value (EV of the risky and riskless choice options was varied over trials. Younger children (age 5--7 showed significantly less responsiveness to EV differences than their parents on both trials involving risky gains and trials involving risky losses. For older children (age 8--11 this deficit was smaller overall but was greater on loss trials than on gain trials. Children of both ages made more risky choices than adults when risky choices were disadvantageous. We further analyzed these results in terms of children's ability to utilize probability and outcome information, and discussed them in terms of developing brain structures vital for decision making under uncertainty.

  11. The role of epigenetics in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms influence gene expression and can explain how interactions between genetics and the environment result in particular phenotypes during development. The extent to which this epigenetic effect contributes to phenotype heritability in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is currently ill defined. However, emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are relevant to AMD and as such provide an exciting new avenue of research for AMD. This review addresses information on the impact of posttranslational modification of the genome on the pathogenesis of AMD, such as DNA methylation changes affecting antioxidant gene expression, hypoxia-regulated alterations in chromatin structure, and histone acetylation status in relation to angiogenesis and inflammation. It also contains information on the role of non-coding RNA-mediated gene regulation in AMD at a posttranscriptional (before translation) level. Our aim was to review the epigenetic mechanisms that cause heritable changes in gene activity without changing the DNA sequence. We also describe some long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell, which are not necessarily heritable but remains to be defined in the future. Increasing understanding of the significance of common and rare genetic variants and their relationship to epigenetics and environmental influences may help in establishing methods to assess the risk of AMD. This in turn may allow new therapeutic interventions for the leading cause of central vision impairment in patients over the age of 50 years in developed countries. Search strategy We searched the MEDLINE/PubMed database following MeSH suggestions for articles including the terms: 'ocular epigenetic mechanisms', 'human disease epigenetics', and 'age-related macular degeneration genetics'. The headline used to locate related articles in PubMed was 'epigenetics in ocular disease', and to restrict search, we used the

  12. Modelling the genetic risk in age-related macular degeneration.

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    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.

  13. Apparent diffusion coefifcient values of normal testis and variations with age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athina C Tsili; Dimitrios Giannakis; Anastasios Sylakos; Alexandra Ntorkou; Loukas G Astrakas; Nikolaos Soifkitis; Maria I Argyropoulou

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of scrotal pathology has recently been reported. A standard reference of normal testicular apparent diffusion coefifcient (ADC) values and their variations with age is necessary when interpreting normal testicular anatomy and pathology. We evaluated 147 normal testes using DWI, including 71 testes from 53 men aged 20-39 years (group 1), 67 testes from 42 men aged 40-69 years (group 2) and nine testes from six men older than 70 years (group 3). DWI was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multislice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm-2. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal testicular parenchyma were calculated for each age group separately. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. The ADC values (× 10-3 mm2 s-1) of normal testicular tissue were different among age groups (group 1:1.08 ± 0.13;group 2:1.15 ± 0.15 and group 3:1.31 ± 0.22). ANOVA revealed differences in mean ADC among age groups (F=11.391, P<0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.008) and between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.043), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.197). Our ifndings suggest that ADC values of normal testicular tissue increase with advancing age.

  14. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of normal testis and variations with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina C Tsili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI in the evaluation of scrotal pathology has recently been reported. A standard reference of normal testicular apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values and their variations with age is necessary when interpreting normal testicular anatomy and pathology. We evaluated 147 normal testes using DWI, including 71 testes from 53 men aged 20-39 years (group 1, 67 testes from 42 men aged 40-69 years (group 2 and nine testes from six men older than 70 years (group 3. DWI was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multislice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm−2 . The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal testicular parenchyma were calculated for each age group separately. Analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3 was used for statistical purposes. The ADC values (× 10−3 mm 2 s−1 of normal testicular tissue were different among age groups (group 1: 1.08 ± 0.13; group 2: 1.15 ± 0.15 and group 3: 1.31 ± 0.22. ANOVA revealed differences in mean ADC among age groups (F = 11.391, P < 0.001. Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.008 and between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.043, but not between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.197. Our findings suggest that ADC values of normal testicular tissue increase with advancing age.

  15. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  16. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  17. Oxidative modification of proteins: age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Bulbul; Chakravarti, Deb N

    2007-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological phenomenon which involves progressive loss of different physiological functions of various tissues of living organisms. It is the inevitable fate of life and is a major risk factor for death and different pathological disorders. Based on a wide variety of studies performed in humans as well as in various animal models and microbial systems, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to play a key role in the aging process. The production of ROS is influenced by cellular metabolic activities as well as environmental factors. ROS can react with all major biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. Since, in general, proteins are the key molecules that play the ultimate role in various structural and functional aspects of living organisms, this review will focus on the age-related oxidative modifications of proteins as well as on mechanism for removal or repair of the oxidized proteins. The topics covered include protein oxidation as a marker of oxidative stress, experimental evidence indicating the role of ROS in protein oxidation, protein carbonyl content, enzymatic degradation of oxidized proteins, and effects of caloric restriction on protein oxidation in the context of aging. Finally, we will discuss different strategies which have been or can be undertaken to slow down the oxidative damage of proteins and the aging process.

  18. Nitroxide pharmaceutical development for age-related degeneration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarling, Jacob A; Brunt, Vienna E; Vallerga, Anne K; Li, Weixing; Tao, Albert; Zarling, David A; Minson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed. Tempol (TP), Tempol Hydroxylamine (TP-H), and TP-H prodrug (OT-551) are evaluated in (1) non-smokers versus smokers with cutaneous microvascular dysfunction, rapidly reversed by cutaneous TP; (2) elderly cancer patients at risk for radiation-induced skin burns or hair loss, prevented by topical TP; and (3) elderly smoker or non-smoker AMD patients at risk for vision loss, prevented by daily eye drops of OT-551. The human data indicates safety and efficacy for these nitroxide drugs. Both TP and TP-H topically penetrate and function in skin or mucosa, protecting and treating radiation burns and hair loss or smoking-induced cutaneous vascular dysfunction. TP and TP-H do not penetrate the cornea, while OT-551 does effectively penetrate and travels to the back of the eye, preserving visual acuity and preserving normal and low light luminance in dry AMD smokers and non-smoker patients. Topical, oral, or injectable drug formulations are discussed.

  19. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted.

  20. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

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    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  1. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

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    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  2. Age-Related Deficits in Conjunctive Representation of Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer, Nichole; Marrone, Diano F.

    2014-01-01

    Although some evidence is consistent with the notion that distinct cortical systems support memory and perception, mounting evidence supports a representational-hierarchical view of cognition, which posits that distinctions lie in simple feature representations versus more complex conjunctive representations of many stimulus features simultaneously. Thus, typical memory tasks engage different regions from typical perception tasks because they inherently test information on opposing ends of this continuum. Memory deficits are reliably reported with age, but the tasks used to make these conclusions predominantly rely on conjunctive representations. To test the extent to which age-related deficits may be accounted for by perceptual processing, this study investigated discriminations involving conjunctive representations in older adults. Results show that adults aged 50 to 77 are impaired, relative to their younger counterparts, on discriminations requiring feature conjunctions, but not simple feature representations. These findings support recent data showing an agerelated decline in the ability to form conjunctive representations. Furthermore, these data suggest that some ‘mnemonic’ deficits associated with age may in fact be the result of deficits in perception rather than memory. PMID:25308561

  3. NSAIDs may protect against age-related brain atrophy

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    Barbara B Bendlin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in humans is associated with brain differences including decreased number of activated microglia. In animals, NSAIDs are associated with reduced microglia, decreased amyloid burden, and neuronal preservation. Several studies suggest NSAIDs protect brain regions affected in the earliest stages of AD, including hippocampal and parahippocampal regions. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the protective effect of NSAID use on gray matter volume in a group of middle-aged and older NSAID users (n = 25 compared to non-user controls (n = 50. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Non-user controls showed smaller volume in portions of the left hippocampus compared to NSAID users. Age-related loss of volume differed between groups, with controls showing greater medial temporal lobe volume loss with age compared to NSAID users. These results should be considered preliminary, but support previous reports that NSAIDs may modulate age-related loss of brain volume.

  4. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  5. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  6. Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  7. A Golden Age of General Relativity? Some remarks on the history of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Goenner, Hubert F M

    2016-01-01

    In papers on the history of general relativity and in personal remembrances of relativists, keywords like "renaissance" and "golden age" of general relativity have been used. We try to show that the first label rests on a weak empirical basis. The second one, while describing a period of vivid growth in research in general relativity, exaggerates the importance of this particular development.

  8. The emerging role of Notch pathway in ageing: Focus on the related mechanisms in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases.

  9. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Joly

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD and reversal learning (PDR tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  10. Touchscreen-based cognitive tasks reveal age-related impairment in a primate aging model, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marine; Ammersdörfer, Sandra; Schmidtke, Daniel; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs are suggested to represent promising novel non-human primate models for aging research. However, standardized and cross-taxa cognitive testing methods are still lacking. Touchscreen-based testing procedures have proven high stimulus control and reliability in humans and rodents. The aim of this study was to adapt these procedures to mouse lemurs, thereby exploring the effect of age. We measured appetitive learning and cognitive flexibility of two age groups by applying pairwise visual discrimination (PD) and reversal learning (PDR) tasks. On average, mouse lemurs needed 24 days of training before starting with the PD task. Individual performances in PD and PDR tasks correlate significantly, suggesting that individual learning performance is unrelated to the respective task. Compared to the young, aged mouse lemurs showed impairments in both PD and PDR tasks. They needed significantly more trials to reach the task criteria. A much higher inter-individual variation in old than in young adults was revealed. Furthermore, in the PDR task, we found a significantly higher perseverance in aged compared to young adults, indicating an age-related deficit in cognitive flexibility. This study presents the first touchscreen-based data on the cognitive skills and age-related dysfunction in mouse lemurs and provides a unique basis to study mechanisms of inter-individual variation. It furthermore opens exciting perspectives for comparative approaches in aging, personality, and evolutionary research.

  11. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Visual selection of illusory ‘Kanizsa’ figures, an assembly of local elements that induce the percept of a whole object, is facilitated relative to configurations composed of the same local elements that do not induce a global form – an instance of ‘global precedence’ in visual processing....... Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global....... Electrophysiologically, this effect was accompanied by an early (150-225 ms) ‘positivity posterior contralateral’ (PPC), which was elicited for older, but not younger, participants, when the target was a non-Kanizsa configuration and the Kanizsa figure a distractor (rather than vice versa). In addition, timing...

  12. An Immunologic Study on Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Forty-one patients with age-related macular degeneration(AMD) were detected for serum autoantibodies against normal humanretinal protein by means of Western immunoblot analysis.Twenty-sevenout of the 41 patients showed positive response,with a rate of 66 percent.The positive rate of antiretinal antibody in the AMD patients wassignificantly higher than that in normal controls (18%) and in patients withother retinal diseases (24%) (p<0.0005).These antiretinal antibodies fromthe AMD patients partly reacted...

  13. Pinpointing the Earliest Defects in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Kristinn P; Shan Duan; Haraldur Sigurdsson; Hjorvar Petursson; Zhenglin Yang; Yu Zhao; Bernstein, Paul S.; Jian Ge; Fridbert Jonasson; Einar Stefansson; Gudleif Helgadottir; Norman A Zabriskie; Thorlakur Jonsson; Asgeir Björnsson; Theodora Thorlacius

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. The two forms of advanced AMD, geographic atrophy and neovascular AMD, represent different pathological processes in the macula that lead to loss of central vision. Soft drusen, characterized by deposits in the macula without visual loss, are considered to be a precursor of advanced AMD. Recently, it has been proposed that a common missense variant, Y402H, in t...

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mahdy; Kurz, Maximilian; Holzhey, Annekatrin; Melchert, Corinna; Rades, Dirk; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new approach to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The INTREPID trial suggested that SRT could reduce the frequency of regular intravitreal injections (IVIs) with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs, which are necessary to control disease activity. However, the efficacy of SRT in nAMD and resulting morphological changes have not been validated under real-life circumstances, an issue, which we would like to address ...

  15. The role of epigenetics in age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that epigenetic mechanisms influence gene expression and can explain how interactions between genetics and the environment result in particular phenotypes during development. The extent to which this epigenetic effect contributes to phenotype heritability in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is currently ill defined. However, emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic changes are relevant to AMD and as such provide an exciting new avenue of research fo...

  16. The Burden of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jordana K. Schmier; Mechelle L. Jones; Halpern, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) becomes more prevalent as a result of longer life expectancy and the number of elderly people worldwide, it will become increasingly important to understand its potential health and economic impact for appropriate healthcare planning. This review identified published literature on costs and resource use associated with AMD. Despite the increasing prevalence of AMD, the worldwide burden of illness is unknown. Several studies of direct medical costs, bo...

  17. Binocular Refraction in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Skrbek, Matěj

    2013-01-01

    We’ve been finding possible association of central vision damage with binocular vision disorders in our clients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), but whose visual acuity still allowed us to examine their binocular vision. Our findings show that there is a significant number of patients with heterophoria in horizontal, as well as vertical direction. The clients rate the vision with prismatic correction as more comfortable, clearer and long-term tolerable. Getting used ...

  18. Vitreomacular traction and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Simms, Amy E; Bakri, Sophie J

    2011-05-01

    The interaction between the vitreous and the internal limiting membrane of the retina is important in the pathoetiology of numerous ocular disease processes. Recent studies have focused on the vitreo-retinal interface in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), linking vitreo-retinal adhesion to exudative AMD in particular. This review summarizes our knowledge of vitreous anatomy and recent investigations regarding vitreomacular adhesion and AMD.

  19. Mitochondrial sirtuins as therapeutic targets for age-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jennifer; Donmez, Gizem

    2013-03-01

    Sirtuins are a class of histone deacetylases that have a wide range of regulatory roles in the cell. Three sirtuins, SIRT3 to SIRT5, localize to and function within the mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to be the underlying mechanism of several age-related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegeneration. This review examines current evidence that mitochondrial sirtuins are involved in regulating mitochondrial function and pathogenesis.

  20. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velilla, Sara; García-Medina, José Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo; Pons-Vázquez, Sheila; Pinazo-Durán, M. Dolores; Gómez-Ulla, Francisco; Arévalo, J. Fernando; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health. PMID:24368940

  1. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Velilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health.

  2. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  3. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  4. Results of submacular surgery in age-related macula degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Laue, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Due to a disruption of barrier function of the membrane Bruch and a change of the phagocities retinal pigment epithelial (rpe), exists possibility for progress of pathologist invasion of new vessels from the choroidea under the retina. On the position of the macula it will cause quick loss of central visual acuity. The most frequent cause for a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) is age-related macula degeneration (AMD); further causes are based on idiopathic or postinflammable reasons. ...

  5. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David A Geier,1,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Lisa K Sykes,2 Mark R Geier1,2 1Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 2Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 3Research Department, CONEM US Autism Research Group, Allen, TX, USA Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs, of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs. Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009 of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218.Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. Keywords: genotype, phenotype

  6. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized.

  7. Resveratrol and novel potent activators of SIRT1: effects on aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Mitchell D; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2008-10-01

    Studies show that the plant polyphenol resveratrol can extend the life span of yeast, worms, flies, and fish. It also mitigates the metabolic dysfunction of mice fed high-fat diets. Resveratrol appears to mediate these effects partly by activating SIRT1, a deacetylase enzyme that regulates the activity of several transcriptional factors and enzymes responsive to nutrient availability. However, few foods contain resveratrol and humans metabolize it extensively, resulting in very low systemic bioavailability. Substantial research effort now focuses on identifying and testing more bioavailable and potent activators of SIRT1 for use as pharmacologic interventions in aging and age-related disorders.

  8. Age-related changes to the production of linguistic prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Daniel R.

    The production of speech prosody (the rhythm, pausing, and intonation associated with natural speech) is critical to effective communication. The current study investigated the impact of age-related changes to physiology and cognition in relation to the production of two types of linguistic prosody: lexical stress and the disambiguation of syntactically ambiguous utterances. Analyses of the acoustic correlates of stress: speech intensity (or sound-pressure level; SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), key word/phrase duration, and pause duration revealed that both young and older adults effectively use these acoustic features to signal linguistic prosody, although the relative weighting of cues differed by group. Differences in F0 were attributed to age-related physiological changes in the laryngeal subsystem, while group differences in duration measures were attributed to relative task complexity and the cognitive-linguistic load of these respective tasks. The current study provides normative acoustic data for older adults which informs interpretation of clinical findings as well as research pertaining to dysprosody as the result of disease processes.

  9. Evolution of pancreas in aging: degenerative variation or early changes of disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarojanasiri, Tanyaporn; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic changes in aging have been described for many decades. They involve not only pancreatic parenchyma but also pancreatic ductal, microscopic, and exocrine functional changes. There have been many studies of these changes based on pathology and various imaging modalities, as well as functional studies. The pancreatic volume was found to decrease with advancing age, with a higher incidence of pancreatic steatosis, as demonstrated in autopsy and imaging studies. The pancreatic ductal structure has been described with wide ranges of normal variation, but many studies have shown a tendency toward enlargement with advancing age. By endoscopic ultrasound imaging, the aging pancreas may exhibit abnormal findings similar to chronic pancreatitis. Microscopically, there has been evidence of patchy lobular fibrosis and papillary hyperplasia and demonstrable k-ras mutation in both normal and dysplastic ductal mucosa. The evidence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency has yielded conflicting results, but most studies have shown a tendency toward decreased pancreatic exocrine function in the elderly. Differentiating pancreatic change in the elderly from early chronic pancreatitis may be difficult as there are limited studies to compare these two conditions in terms of structural and functional changes.

  10. Modulation of age-related insulin sensitivity by VEGF-dependent vascular plasticity in adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Seki, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Hideki; Fischer, Carina; Li, Jingrong; Lim, Sharon; Samani, Nilesh J; Zang, Jingwu; Cao, Yihai

    2014-10-14

    Mechanisms underlying age-related obesity and insulin resistance are generally unknown. Here, we report age-related adipose vascular changes markedly modulated fat mass, adipocyte functions, blood lipid composition, and insulin sensitivity. Notably, VEGF expression levels in various white adipose tissues (WATs) underwent changes uninterruptedly in different age populations. Anti-VEGF and anti- VEGF receptor 2 treatment in different age populations showed marked variations of vascular regression, with midaged mice exhibiting modest sensitivity. Interestingly, anti-VEGF treatment produced opposing effects on WAT adipocyte sizes in different age populations and affected vascular density and adipocyte sizes in brown adipose tissue. Consistent with changes of vasculatures and adipocyte sizes, anti-VEGF treatment increased insulin sensitivity in young and old mice but had no effects in the midaged group. Surprisingly, anti-VEGF treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity in midaged obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Our findings demonstrate that adipose vasculatures show differential responses to anti-VEGF treatment in various age populations and have therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity and diabetes with anti-VEGF-based antiangiogenic drugs.

  11. Influence of Age-Related Versus Non-Age-Related Renal Dysfunctionon Survival in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Brisco, Meredith A.; Han, Gang; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander J.; Cheng, Susan J.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging results in a predictable decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and low GFR is associated with worsened survival. If this survival disadvantage is directly caused by the low GFR, as opposed to the disease causing the low GFR, the risk should be similar regardless of the underlying mechanism. Our objective was to determine if age related declines in estimated GFR (eGFR) carry the same prognostic importance as disease attributable losses in patients with ventricular dysfunction. We analyzed the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) limited data set (n=6337). The primary analysis focused on determining if the eGFR mortality relationship differed by the extent the eGFR was consistent with normal ageing. Mean eGFR was 65.7 ± 19.0ml/min/1.73m2. Across the range of age in the population (27 to 80 years), baseline eGFR decreased by 0.67 ml/min/1.73m2 per year (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). The risk of death associated with eGFR was strongly modified by the degree to which the low eGFR could be explained by aging (p interaction <0.0001). For example, in a model incorporating the interaction, uncorrected eGFR was no longer significantly related to mortality (adjusted HR=1.0 per 10 ml/min/1.73m2, 95% CI 0.97–1.1, p=0.53) whereas a disease attributable decrease in eGFR above the median carried significant risk (adjusted HR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). In conclusion, in the setting of LV dysfunction, renal dysfunction attributable to normal aging had a limited risk for mortality, suggesting that the mechanism underlying renal dysfunction is critical in determining prognosis. PMID:24216124

  12. Age-related gestation length adjustment in a large iteroparous mammal at northern latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Røed, Knut H; Holand, Øystein; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Nieminen, Mauri

    2009-09-01

    1. There is considerable interest in patterns of age-dependent reproductive effort and reproductive timing of large iteroparous mammals living in strongly seasonal environments. Due to lack of data on both timing of mating and birth, there is generally little insight into whether variation in gestation length play a role for life-history patterns observed for large mammals at northern latitudes. 2. Based on data on both timing of mating and birth of 88 female reindeer (and paternity confirmed with DNA fingerprinting), we explore the view that adjustment of gestation length plays a role in the reproductive tactic. 3. Observed gestation lengths of reindeer varied between 211 and 229 days (mean of 221 days). Consistent with a dynamic view of gestation length, variation could be predicted from life-history traits. Gestation length was longer for male than female offspring, which is expected in polygynous species where males benefit more from extra allocation of maternal resources. Gestation length increased with maternal age both due to direct effects and indirect effects linked to earlier mating of older, heavier females. Early mating females increased gestation length. A relatively small effect of female age on birth mass operated through variation in gestation length. 4. Our analysis supports the view that adjustment of gestation length is a part of the reproductive tactic of large mammals in northern environments.

  13. Relative Entropy and Variational Properties of Generalized Gibbsian Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Külske, Christof; Ny, Arnaud Le; Redig, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We study the relative entropy density for generalized Gibbs measures. We first show its existence and obtain a familiar expression in terms of entropy and relative energy for a class of “almost Gibbsian measures” (almost sure continuity of conditional probabilities). For quasilocal measures, we obta

  14. The energy-redox axis in aging and age-related neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Li-Peng; Garcia, Jerome V; Han, Derick; Cadenas, Enrique

    2009-11-30

    Decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity is a feature of the aging process that accompanies redox alterations, such as increased generation of mitochondrial oxidants, altered GSH status, and increased protein oxidation. The decrease in mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity and altered redox status should be viewed as a concerted process that embodies the mitochondrial energy-redox axis and is linked through various mechanisms including: (a) an inter-convertible reducing equivalents pool (i.e., NAD(P)(+)/NAD(P)H) and (b) redox-mediated protein post-translational modifications involved in energy metabolism. The energy-redox axis provides the rationale for therapeutic approaches targeted to each or both component(s) of the axis that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function and that have implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Complexity in caring for an ageing heart failure population: concomitant chronic conditions and age related impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Steeman, Els; Leventhal, Marcia E; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Hengartner-Kopp, Beatrice; Conca, Antoinette; Bernasconi, Arlette T; Petry, Heidi; Brunner-La Rocca, Hanspeter

    2004-12-01

    The complexity of caring for the ageing heart failure (HF) population is further complicated by concomitant chronic conditions (i.e., polypharmacy, depression), age related impairments (i.e., hearing, visual and cognitive impairments, impairments in activities of daily living (ADL/IADL), and other issues (e.g., health illiteracy, lack of social support). This paper provides an overview of these risk factors, outlines how they individually and in interplay endanger favourable outcome by putting patients at risk for poor self-management. Moreover, suggestions are made on how these issues could be addressed and integrated in heart failure management by applying gerontological care principles in caring for the ageing heart failure population.

  16. Age-related neuroinflammatory changes negatively impact on neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory changes, characterized by an increase in microglial activation and often accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β, are common to many, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases. Similar, though less dramatic neuroinflammatory changes are also known to occur with age. Among the consequences of these changes is an impairment in synaptic function and the evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines may be the primary contributory factor responsible for the deficits in synaptic plasticity which have been identified in aged rodents. Specifically a decrease in the ability of aged rats to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP in perforant path-granule cells of the hippocampus is associated with increased microglial activation. This review considers the evidence which suggests a causal relationship between these changes and the factors which contribute to the age-related microglial activation, and reflects on data which demonstrate that agents which inhibit microglial activation also improve ability of rats to sustain LTP.

  17. Serum chemistry profiles for Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche): variations with age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váhala, J; Kase, F

    1993-09-01

    1. Over an 8-year period, 19 biochemical parameters have been determined at various ages in the blood serum of 92 clinically healthy Lechwe waterbucks (Kobus leche), 33 males and 59 females. 2. Significant differences have been noted with age. In neonates, the lowest values of total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, AST, ALT and iron have been noted; the highest ones have been seen for cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus. 3. With regard to sex, raised values of glucose, urea, alkaline phosphatase and ALT, and lowered values of cholesterol, have been noted in juvenile females compared with males of the same age. 4. In adult females, higher levels of urea and cholesterol and lower levels of glucose, triglycerides and natrium have been recorded compared with males. 5. With sex and age, no significant changes have been found in the levels of GGT, magnesium, chlorides and copper. 6. Our findings are discussed with those abstracted from the literature for related species.

  18. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Andrew T.; Blighe, Alan J.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach. PMID:26605694

  19. Depth-dependent variations in Achilles tendon deformations with age are associated with reduced plantarflexor performance during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Jason R; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-08-01

    The anatomical arrangement of the Achilles tendon (AT), with distinct fascicle bundles arising from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, may facilitate relatively independent behavior of the triceps surae muscles. A reduced capacity for sliding between adjacent tendon fascicles with age may couple gastrocnemius and soleus muscle behavior, thereby potentially contributing to diminished plantarflexor performance commonly observed in old adults. Nine healthy young (mean age, 23.9 yr) and eight healthy old (69.9 yr) adults walked at three speeds (0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 m/s) on a force-sensing treadmill. We coupled dynamic ultrasound imaging of the free AT with motion capture and inverse dynamic analyses to compute, in part: 1) depth-dependent variations in AT tissue displacements and elongations and 2) net ankle joint kinetics during push-off. The difference in displacements between superficial and deep AT regions, and in their corresponding elongations, did not differ between old and young adults at the slower two walking speeds (P > 0.61). However, old adults walked with 41% smaller depth-dependent variations in free AT displacements and elongations at 1.25 m/s (P = 0.02). These more uniform tendon deformations in old adults most strongly correlated with reduced peak ankle moment (R(2) = 0.40), but also significantly correlated with reduced peak power generation (R(2) = 0.15) and positive ankle work during push-off (R(2) = 0.19) (P > 0.01). Our findings: 1) demonstrate a potential role for nonuniform AT deformations in governing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon function and 2) allude to altered tendon behavior that may contribute to the age-related reduction in plantarflexor performance during walking.

  20. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Anand Mudar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches.

  1. Age-related differences in attentional bias for emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszczyk, Jennifer C; Fernandes, Myra A

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests an aging-related positivity effect in orienting to faces. However, these studies have eschewed direct comparison of orienting when positive and negative faces are presented simultaneously, thereby potentially underestimating the degree to which emotional valence influences such effects. In the current study younger and older adults viewed face pairs for 1000 ms, and upon face-pair offset indicated the location of a dot that appeared in the former location of one of the faces, to assess attentional orienting. When shown negative-neutral pairs, both age groups were biased to attend to negative faces, but when shown positive-negative pairs only younger adults showed a bias toward negative; older adults showed a lack of orienting toward either emotional face. Results suggest younger adults have a negativity bias in attention orienting regardless of the valence of nearby stimuli, whereas older adults show an absence of this bias when positive information is present.

  2. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Garssen; I. Deerenberg; J.P. Mackenbach; A. Kerkhof; A.E. Kunst

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 2055 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes

  3. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J; Crary, John F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M; Ironside, James W; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R; Munoz, David G; Murray, Melissa E; Nelson, Peter T; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G; Bieniek, Kevin F; Bigio, Eileen H; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J; Mann, David M; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C; Vinters, Harry V; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M; Yamada, Masahito; Dickson, Dennis W

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  4. Variation in prolactin is related to variation in sexual behavior and contact affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.

  5. Relations of Naturally Occurring Variations in State Anxiety and Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissel, Emily E E; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2016-08-01

    Although effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been extensively examined, anxiety-cognition relationships are often defined by between-person relationships. The current research investigated the effects of within-person variations in state anxiety on cognitive performance based on measures from three separate sessions in a sample of 1,769 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 99 years of age. Some of the adults in the sample exhibited a wide range of state anxiety across the three sessions, whereas others were fairly stable. Although one might have expected that cognitive performance would be low only on sessions in which the level of state anxiety was high, this pattern was not evident in any of five different cognitive abilities (vocabulary, memory, reasoning, spatial relations, or perceptual speed tasks). Instead, one's average level of anxiety was a more important determinant of cognitive performance than one's current level of state anxiety. Specifically, for memory and reasoning abilities, trait anxiety alone related to decreased cognitive function, regardless of state anxiety. For spatial relations and speed abilities, low state anxiety was related to decreased cognitive function in participants with high trait anxiety.

  6. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  7. Contingent negative variation in the aged with memory impairment in the course of advance towards dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Yianjian; Jiang Zhanglin; Wu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Aim To investigate the feature and general trend of the contingent negativc variation (CNV) in the aged with memory iapairment(AMI) in the course of advance towards dementia. Method CNV and Hasegawa's dementia scale for the aged(HDS)in 69 of AMI(serving as the study group) and 22 of normal elderly subjects selected from well-matched in age(serving as the control group) were examined at first. 2-3 years later, 22 of the stuty group were examined again. The wave forms and relevant indexes of CNV were observed and analyzed. Results The results showed that the RT and the time of the PINY was longer, the amplitudes and the areas of the EW and the whole wave of the CNV decreased along with the development of the memory and cognitive dysfunction in AMI. Conclusion A significant relationship was observed between severity of cognitive dysfunction, and the reduction degree of amplitude, prolongatia of RT on CNV. The CNV could constitute a valuable clue for the study of pathophysiological brain function in the early stage of mental deterioration and useful for dynamically observing the course and degree of the cognitive dysfunction in AMI.

  8. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.

  9. Relative Expression of Indicators for Wound Age Estimation in Forensic Pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiu-xiang; WANG Xiao-wei; ZHANG Lei; LI San-qiang; GAO Cai-rong; WANG Ying-yuan; SUN Jun-hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to understand which kind of function genes play an important role for es-timating wound age, the variation of difference genes’ mRNA expression were compared after injury. Methods T he mRNA expression levels of seven candidate genes (ICAM-1, NF-κB, MX2, MT1, MT2, sTnI, and Cox6c) were analyzed in contused rat skeletal muscle at different time points using real-time fluorescent quantitative PC R (R T-qPC R ). T he rawC t values were normalized relative to that of RPL32 mRNA , and converted to standard C t values. A t each time point after injury, the standard deviations (SD ) of the standard C t values were calculated by SPSS. Results T he expression trends of the seven genes were all found to be related to wound age, but there were lower variation coefficients and greater reliability of sTnI and Cox6c when compared with other genes. Conclusion T he genes encoding struc-tural proteins or proteins that performbasic functions can be suitable for wound age estimation.

  10. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies.

  11. Binocular refraction in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbek, Matej

    2013-04-01

    We've been finding possible association of central vision damage with binocular vision disorders in our clients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), but whose visual acuity still allowed us to examine their binocular vision. Our findings show that there is a significant number of patients with heterophoria in horizontal, as well as vertical direction. The clients rate the vision with prismatic correction as more comfortable, clearer and long-term tolerable. Getting used to prismatic correction was spontaneous and non-problematic. Based on these results we expect to find possibly the most effective rehabilitation of vision in patients suffering from ARMD.

  12. Lifelong expression of apolipoprotein D in the human brainstem: correlation with reduced age-related neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Navarro

    Full Text Available The lipocalin apolipoprotein D (Apo D is upregulated in peripheral nerves following injury and in regions of the central nervous system, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, during aging and progression of certain neurological diseases. In contrast, few studies have examined Apo D expression in the brainstem, a region necessary for survival and generally less prone to age-related degeneration. We measured Apo D expression in whole human brainstem lysates by slot-blot and at higher spatial resolution by quantitative immunohistochemistry in eleven brainstem nuclei (the 4 nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, facial motor nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, and Roller`s nucleus. In contrast to cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, apolipoprotein D was highly expressed in brainstem tissue from subjects (N = 26, 32-96 years of age with no history of neurological disease, and expression showed little variation with age. Expression was significantly stronger in somatomotor nuclei (hypoglossal, oculomotor, facial than visceromotor or sensory nuclei. Both neurons and glia expressed Apo D, particularly neurons with larger somata and glia in the periphery of these brainstem centers. Immunostaining was strongest in the neuronal perinuclear region and absent in the nucleus. We propose that strong brainstem expression of Apo D throughout adult life contributes to resistance against neurodegenerative disease and age-related degeneration, possibly by preventing oxidative stress and ensuing lipid peroxidation.

  13. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: Current therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J Augustin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert J Augustin, Stefan Scholl, Janna KirchhofDepartment of Ophthalmology, Klinikum Karlsruhe, GermanyAbstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD is now the leading cause of blindness and severe vision loss among people over the age of 40 in the Western world. Its prevalence is certain to increase substantially as the population ages. Treatments currently available for the disease include laser photocoagulation, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of corticosteroids and anti-angiogenic agents. Many studies have reported the benefits of each of these treatments, although none is without its risks. No intervention actually cures AMD, nor the neovascularization associated with it. However, its symptoms are treated with varying degrees of success. Some treatments stabilize or arrest the progress of the disease. Others have been shown to reverse some of the damage that has already been done. These treatments can even lead to visual improvement. This paper will review the major classes of drugs and therapies designed to treat this condition.Keywords: wet AMD, neovascularization, PDT, steroids, anti-angiogenesis

  14. Long-term variations in sunspot magnetic field - area relation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagovitsyn, Yury A; Osipova, Aleksandra A

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of sunspot magnetic field strengths (H) from the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and area (S) of sunspots from the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of Pulkovo Observatory, we investigate the changes in the relation between H and S over the period of about two solar cycles (1994-2013). The data were fitted by H = A + B log S, where A = (778+/-46) and B = (778+/-25). We show that the correlation between H and S varies with the phase of solar cycle, and $A$ coefficient decreases significantly after year 2001, while B coefficient does not change significantly. Furthermore, our data confirm the presence of two distinct populations in distribution of sunspots (small sunspots with weaker field strength and large sunspots with stronger field). We show that relative contribution of each component to the distribution of sunspots by their area changes with the phase of solar cycle and on longer-then-cycle periods. We interpret these changes as a signature of a long-term (centennial) v...

  15. Aging Men’s Health-Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Peak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual review summarizes the current research on older men and their health-related behaviors with special attention given to the influence of the hegemonic masculinity framework over the life span. The authors consider whether masculinity precepts can be modified to enable men to alter their gendered morbidity/mortality factors and achieve healthier and longer lives. Also included is an overview of the gender-based research and health education efforts to persuade men to adopt more effective health-related behaviors or health practices earlier in the life span. Given the current attention being paid to men’s health, for example, their higher risk of morbidity and mortality both generally and at younger ages, and the associated health care costs tied to those risks, the ethical and economic implications of this review may prove useful.

  16. Ranibizumab vs. aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Hedegaard, Morten; Chan, Keith;

    2015-01-01

    , a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to indirectly compare posologies of aflibercept and ranibizumab (0.5 mg). The efficacy outcome, mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) on the ETDRS chart, was evaluated at 3 and 12 months; and safety data at 12 months. Standard...... for wet AMD. Reduced frequency aflibercept was associated with the poorest visual outcomes, and sample sizes were small. Findings from these analyses provide novel evidence of the comparative efficacy and safety of aflibercept and ranibizumab for wet AMD.......OBJECTIVE: Although a reduced aflibercept (2.0 mg) injection frequency relative to the approved dosing posology is included in national treatment guidelines for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is limited evidence of its comparative efficacy. The objective was to compare...

  17. Racial and Ethnic Variations in Preventive Dental Care Utilization among Middle-aged and Older Americans, 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei eWu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined recent trends of preventive dental care utilization among Americans aged 50 and above, focusing on variations across racial and ethnic groups including Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and Asians. Methods: Self-reported information on oral health behaviors was collected from 644,635 participants in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS between 1999 and 2008.Results: Despite a significant upward trend of frequency of dental cleaning from 1999 to 2008 (OR=1.02, in 2008 still only 56 to 77% of any ethnic or racial group reported having had a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. Relative to Whites, Blacks (OR=.64 were less likely to have a dental cleaning in the previous 12 months. These variations persisted even when SES, health conditions, health behaviors, and number of permanent teeth were controlled. In contrast, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives did not differ from Whites in dental cleanings. Discussion: This is the first study to provide national estimates of the frequency of dental cleaning and associated trends over time for five major ethnic groups aged 50 and above in the U.S. simultaneously. Our findings suggest that public health programs with an emphasis on educating middle-aged and older minority populations on the benefits of oral health could have a large impact, as there is much room for improvement. Given the importance of oral health and a population that is rapidly becoming older and more diverse, the need for improved dental care utilization is significant.

  18. The role of DNA methylation in aging, rejuvenation, and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adiv A; Akman, Kemal; Calimport, Stuart R G; Wuttke, Daniel; Stolzing, Alexandra; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-10-01

    DNA methylation is a major control program that modulates gene expression in a plethora of organisms. Gene silencing through methylation occurs through the activity of DNA methyltransferases, enzymes that transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the carbon 5 position of cytosine. DNA methylation patterns are established by the de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) DNMT3A and DNMT3B and are subsequently maintained by DNMT1. Aging and age-related diseases include defined changes in 5-methylcytosine content and are generally characterized by genome-wide hypomethylation and promoter-specific hypermethylation. These changes in the epigenetic landscape represent potential disease biomarkers and are thought to contribute to age-related pathologies, such as cancer, osteoarthritis, and neurodegeneration. Some diseases, such as a hereditary form of sensory neuropathy accompanied by dementia, are directly caused by methylomic changes. Epigenetic modifications, however, are reversible and are therefore a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Numerous drugs that specifically target DNMTs are being tested in ongoing clinical trials for a variety of cancers, and data from finished trials demonstrate that some, such as 5-azacytidine, may even be superior to standard care. DNMTs, demethylases, and associated partners are dynamically shaping the methylome and demonstrate great promise with regard to rejuvenation.

  19. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikel, Karen A; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Taylor, Allen

    2012-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/week of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available.

  20. Age related macular degeneration and drusen: neuroinflammation in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, Elisa; Piras, Antonio; Nuzzi, Raffaele; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2011-09-15

    Inflammation protects from dangerous stimuli, restoring normal tissue homeostasis. Inflammatory response in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation") has distinct features, which are shared in several diseases. The retina is an immune-privileged site, and the tight balance of immune reaction can be disrupted and lead to age-related macular disease (AMD) and to its peculiar sign, the druse. Excessive activation of inflammatory and immunological cascade with subsequent induction of damage, persistent activation of resident immune cells, accumulation of byproducts that exceeds the normal capacity of clearance giving origin to a chronic local inflammation, alterations in the activation of the complement system, infiltration of macrophages, T-lymphocytes and mast-cells from the bloodstream, participate in the mechanisms which originate the drusen. In addition, aging of the retina and AMD involve also para-inflammation, by which immune cells react to persistent stressful stimuli generating low-grade inflammation, aimed at restoring function and maintaining tissue homeostasis by varying the set point in relation to the new altered conditions. This mechanism is also seen in the normal aging retina, but, in the presence of noxious stimuli as in AMD, it can become chronic and have an adverse outcome. Finally, autophagy may provide new insights to understand AMD pathology, due to its contribution in the removal of defective proteins. Therefore, the AMD retina can represent a valuable model to study neuroinflammation, its mechanisms and therapy in a restricted and controllable environment. Targeting these pathways could represent a new way to treat and prevent both exudative and dry forms of AMD.

  1. Inflammation and its role in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Anu; Paterno, Jussi J; Blasiak, Janusz; Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a cellular response to factors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and tissues. Cell-associated and soluble pattern-recognition receptors, e.g. Toll-like receptors, inflammasome receptors, and complement components initiate complex cellular cascades by recognizing or sensing different pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns, respectively. Cytokines and chemokines represent alarm messages for leukocytes and once activated, these cells travel long distances to targeted inflamed tissues. Although it is a crucial survival mechanism, prolonged inflammation is detrimental and participates in numerous chronic age-related diseases. This article will review the onset of inflammation and link its functions to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is the leading cause of severe vision loss in aged individuals in the developed countries. In this progressive disease, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the death of photoreceptors, leading to a loss of central vision. The RPE is prone to oxidative stress, a factor that together with deteriorating functionality, e.g. decreased intracellular recycling and degradation due to attenuated heterophagy/autophagy, induces inflammation. In the early phases, accumulation of intracellular lipofuscin in the RPE and extracellular drusen between RPE cells and Bruch's membrane can be clinically detected. Subsequently, in dry (atrophic) AMD there is geographic atrophy with discrete areas of RPE loss whereas in the wet (exudative) form there is neovascularization penetrating from the choroid to retinal layers. Elevations in levels of local and systemic biomarkers indicate that chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of both disease forms.

  2. Comparison of Variations in the Chemical Constituents of the Rhizome and Culm of Phyllostachys pubescens at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was conducted on Phyllostachys pubescens by analyzing the chemical constituents of its rhizome and culm at different ages. Our results indicated that the ash contents of the rhizome and culm of P. pubescens at different ages showed the largest coefficient of variation (CV, followed by alcohol benzene extractives. The CVs of acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, and pentosan were relatively small. Analysis of t-tests indicated that significant differences were found in the contents of extractives, acid-insoluble lignin, holocellulose, and ash of rhizome and culm (p < 0.05. The differences in contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose and pentosan were not significant. Analysis of multiplicity showed that the contents of HNO3-C2H5OH cellulose, pentosan, and ash were not significantly different in bamboos at the ages examined. Likewise, the contents of lignin, alcohol benzene extractives, and holocellulose exhibited no significant difference between one-year-old and three-year-old bamboos. However, the differences in these parameters between five-year-old bamboos and one- and three-year-old bamboos were all statistically significant. Our results suggest that three-year-old P. pubescens is suitable for use as a raw material for papermaking. In addition, our findings provide a theoretical basis for effective utilization of P. pubescens and enhancement of its value.

  3. [Age-related macular degeneration: paradigm shift from recent findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes recent advances in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), based mainly on our own research findings. First, we investigated the effect of choroidal abnormality and found that choroidal hyperpermeability was observed more often in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) than in eyes with typical AMD; however, even in eyes with typical AMD, substantial proportion of eyes showed hyperpermeability. Exudative AMD eyes with choroidal hyperpermeability showed thickened choroid more widely than previously demonstrated, and there were more frequent abnormalities with fundus autofluorescence examination. Thus, rather than classifying exudative AMD into PCV and typical AMD, AMD classification by choroidal hyperpermeability may be useful in illustrating the difference of certain clinical characteristics. Second, we investigated the importance of vitreomacular adhesion in the treatment outcome of exudative AMD. The currently prevailing hypothesis is that premacular VEGF concentration is lower in eyes with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) than in eyes without PVD, thus leading to good treatment outcomes; however, in the current study, we showed that not only VEGF but also anti-angiogenic factor, interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), is affected according to PVD. These results suggest that the effect of PVD on the intraocular environment is more complicated than previously thought, and may have diverse functions. Last, we explained the mechanism of AMD progression based mainly on our basic research. Our research showed that age-related decline of autophagic activity may, at least partly, contribute to the precursor lesion of AMD.

  4. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  5. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petrarca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Petrarca, Timothy L JacksonDepartment of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET. Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002, with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections.Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, neovascular, radiation therapy, epimacular brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, anti-VEGF

  6. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  7. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  8. 14-year incidence, progression, and visual morbidity of age-related maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesgaard, Helena; Nielsen, Niels V; Vinding, Troels;

    2005-01-01

    To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss.......To describe the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) lesions and the related visual loss....

  9. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.

  10. Habitat-related variation in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrtová, Ester; Košnar, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Differences in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica were investigated between the primary (relict) and the secondary (semi-natural) forest-free habitats of the Bohemian Forest (870-1200 m a.s.l.) and of the Alps (1045-1935 m a.s.l.) to understand the factors promoting the seedling recruitment of G. pannonica and their importance for species distribution, population structure, and conservation. In the communities with adult plants of G. pannonica, we recorded environmental variables (the slope, the altitude, and the covers of bare ground, litter, and rocks), estimated parameters of the vegetation (the covers of herbs, bryophytes, and dwarf shrubs), and counted the seedlings of G. pannonica. In a field experiment, we investigated seedling survival under different soil moisture regimes. We also observed seasonal dynamics of seedling recruitment in permanent plots over the course of three years. In the primary habitats of both regions, G. pannonica grew in a relatively wide range of communities, and its seedlings occurred in each area. In the secondary habitats of the Bohemian Forest, a very low frequency of the seedlings was recorded. The number of seedlings increased with the covers of the moss layer and of bare soil and decreased with the cover of the herb layer, especially of graminoids. The seedling mortality was significantly lower in the plots with higher soil moistures, and the emergence of new-born seedlings was concentrated in the spring season, when the soil received a high water supply due to melting of snow. For the successful generative reproduction of G. pannonica, our findings highlight the critical importance of the microsites with low levels of competition and of sufficient soil moisture G. pannonica. It seems that because of the long-term lack of grazing disturbances, the structures of the secondary habitats of G. pannonica in the Bohemian Forest have become unfavourable for seedling establishment and generative reproduction of this threatened

  11. The burden of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Jordana K; Jones, Mechelle L; Halpern, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) becomes more prevalent as a result of longer life expectancy and the number of elderly people worldwide, it will become increasingly important to understand its potential health and economic impact for appropriate healthcare planning. This review identified published literature on costs and resource use associated with AMD. Despite the increasing prevalence of AMD, the worldwide burden of illness is unknown. Several studies of direct medical costs, both those associated with ophthalmic care and those associated with other care, have been conducted and have identified increased medical care associated with AMD. Direct non-medical costs include the cost for vision aids; while these costs may be substantial, they are difficult to quantify as no comprehensive sources track the distribution or use of vision aids. Because AMD is uncommon among people of working age, there is less concern regarding the impact of indirect (workplace) costs among AMD patients. However, indirect costs are incurred by caregivers who leave the workforce early or change their work patterns in order to provide assistance to AMD patients; the magnitude of caregiver-related costs is unknown. The cost effectiveness of some interventions for AMD has been explored. Supplementation with zinc and antioxidants for non-exudative (dry) AMD has been shown to result in an acceptable cost per QALY and is considered cost effective. Studies suggest that laser photocoagulation is cost effective but that photodynamic therapy with verteporfin appears to be cost effective only among patients with good visual acuity at baseline or when models extend longer than 5 years. Further research is needed to integrate the information on various components of AMD-related costs into a comprehensive burden of illness estimate and to evaluate basic utility assumptions in existing models.

  12. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  13. Variation in brachial plexus formation, branching pattern and relation with major vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anwer Khan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers revealed some rare variations in the formation, branching pattern and relations of the brachial plexus. These variations are of clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anesthesiologists. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1591-1594

  14. Variation in Age and Training on Selected Biochemical Variables of Indian Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Manna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to find out the variation of age and training on biochemical variables of Indian elite hockey players. A total of 120 hockey players who volunteered for the present study, were equally divided (n=30 into 4 groups: under 16 years (14-15 yrs; under 19 years (16-18 yrs; under 23 years (19-22 yrs; and senior (23-30 yrs. The training sessions were divided into 3 phases: Transition Phase (TP, Preparatory Phase (PP, and Competitive Phase (CP. The training programme consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill training; and completed 4 hours in morning and evening sessions, 5 days/week. Selected biochemical parameters were measured and data were analyzed by applying Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc test. The mean values of haemoglobin (Hb, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C have been increased significantly (P<0.05 with the advancement of age of players. A significant increase (P<0.05 in serum urea, uric acid and HDL-C and a significant decrease (P<0.05 in Hb, TC, TG and LDL-C have been noted in PP and CP when compared to that of TP. The present study would provide useful information for biochemical monitoring of training of hockey players.

  15. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Noelle Rathcke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CHI3LI encoding the inflammatory glycoprotein YKL-40 is located on chromosome 1q32.1. YKL-40 is involved in inflammatory processes and patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D have elevated circulating YKL-40 levels which correlate with their level of insulin resistance. Interestingly, it has been reported that rs10399931 (-329 G/A of CHI3LI contributes to the inter-individual plasma YKL-40 levels in patients with sarcoidosis, and that rs4950928 (-131 C/G is a susceptibility polymorphism for asthma and a decline in lung function. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped in 6514 individuals from the Inter99 cohort and 2924 individuals from the outpatient clinic at Steno Diabetes Center. In cas-control studies a total of 2345 T2D patients and 5302 individuals with a normal glucose tolerance test were examined. We found no association between rs10399931 (OR, 0.98 (CI, 0.88-1.10, p = 0.76, rs4950928 (0.98 (0.87-1.10, p = 0.68 or any of the other SNPs with T2D. Similarly, we found no significant association between any of the 11 tgSNPs and T2D related quantitative traits, all p>0.14. None of the identified haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D, all p>0.16. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: None of the examined SNPs or haplotype blocks of CHI3LI showed any association with T2D or T2D related quantitative traits. Estimates of insulin resistance and dysregulated glucose homeostasis in T2D do not seem to be accounted for by the examined variations of CHI3LI.

  16. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time...... measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  17. Metabolomics of human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-07-01

    Neurons in the mature human central nervous system (CNS) perform a wide range of motor, sensory, regulatory, behavioral, and cognitive functions. Such diverse functional output requires a great diversity of CNS neuronal and non-neuronal populations. Metabolomics encompasses the study of the complete set of metabolites/low-molecular-weight intermediates (metabolome), which are context-dependent and vary according to the physiology, developmental state, or pathologic state of the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. Therefore, the use of metabolomics can help to unravel the diversity-and to disclose the specificity-of metabolic traits and their alterations in the brain and in fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the current applications of metabolomics in studies of CNS aging and certain age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurometabolomics will increase knowledge of the physiologic and pathologic functions of neural cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a metabolic context.

  18. Age-related changes in the efficacy of crystalloid cardioplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magovern, J A; Pae, W E; Waldhausen, J A

    1991-09-01

    Recent work has shown that multi-dose St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia solution (STHC) may not provide reliable protection of the neonatal myocardium. We have used an isolated working heart model to study the age-related development of this observation. Sets of eight hearts from 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-week-old rabbits were subjected to 90 min of ischemia at 10 degrees C. STHC was infused at 30-min intervals in a dose of 10 ml/kg. There were no differences in the preservation of ATP stores during ischemia among the groups. The percentage recovery of preischemic mean aortic pressure, left atrial pressure, and heart rate were not different among groups, but the percentage recovery of aortic flow (AF) (expressed as means +/- standard error of the mean) was significantly lower in the 2- and 4-week hearts (44.1 +/- 8.2 and 66.2 +/- 7.7%) than in the 6- and 8-week hearts (93.0 +/- 6.4 and 97.6 +/- 4.7%). We have confirmed that the use of multi-dose STHC impairs recovery of ventricular function in the neonatal rabbit heart. This effect, however, diminishes rapidly as the immature animal develops and is not present by 6 weeks of age. Additional experimentation is necessary to identify those aspects of the developing myocardium that account for these observations.

  19. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  20. Age velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae proportional to t^beta and determine the exponents beta_R and beta_z derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and ~beta_R and ~beta_z from heating histories. Values of beta_z are in almost all simulations larger than values of ~beta_z, whereas values of beta_R are similar to or mildly larger than values of ~beta_R. Moreover, values of beta_z (~beta_z) are generally larger than values of beta_R (~beta_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We exam...

  1. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith;

    2016-01-01

    at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... to training, thereby attenuating the overall benefits of training. We hypothesize that light load resistance training is more efficient when both adherence and physical improvement are considered longitudinally. We launched the interdisciplinary project on Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle....... Moreover, we will evaluate changes in physical performance, muscle fiber type and acute anabolic response to whey protein ingestion, sensory adaptation, gut microbiome, and a range of other measures, combined with questionnaires on life quality and qualitative interviews with selected subjects. The CALM...

  2. Metalloproteinases and metalloproteinase inhibitors in age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Simona; Gamba, Paola; Poli, Giuseppe; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix is an important feature of embryonic development, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue repair and remodeling. It is precisely regulated under physiological conditions, but when dysregulated it becomes a cause of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, diabetic vascular complications, and neurodegeneration. Various types of proteinases are implicated in extracellular matrix degradation, but the major enzymes are considered to be metalloproteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAMs) that include ADAMs with a thrombospondin domain (ADAMTS). This review discusses involvement of the major metalloproteinases in some age-related chronic diseases, and examines what is currently known about the beneficial effects of their inhibitors, used as new therapeutic strategies for treating or preventing the development and progression of these diseases.

  3. The genetics of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guymer, Robyn

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To review the genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathogenesis of AMD, the leading cause of severe visual disability and blindness in our community, remains unknown. However, AMD is regarded as a genetic disease where family history of AMD is a significant risk factor for the disease. Understanding the genetic factors associated with AMD offers the greatest chance for understanding the underlying disease processes. METHODS: Through a review of the literature and the use of original research findings, the current knowledge of the genetics of AMD is explored. CONCLUSION: AMD is increasing in prevalence and remains a major challenge for eye heath providers. Finding the genes that are associated with AMD offers the greatest chance for the development of preventative strategies and treatments.

  4. AMO Teledioptric System for age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jim-Son; Ting, Albert C.

    1994-05-01

    A 2.5 X magnification system consisting of a two-zone intraocular implant and a spectacle was developed, tested, and clinically tried by fifty patients with cataract ad age-related macular degeneration. Optical bench testing results and clinical data confirmed that the field of view of the system was 2.6 times wider than an equivalent external telescope. The study also demonstrated that the implant itself was clinically equivalent to a standard monofocal intraocular lens for cataract. The clinical study indicated that higher magnification without compromising the compactness and optical quality was needed as the disease progressed. Also, a sound vision rehabilitation process is important to provide patients the full benefits of the system.

  5. [Future methods of treatment in age related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlea, C

    2012-01-01

    In the present time the treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) begins to develop. Many medical therapies are presently tested in the two types of ARMD, geographic atrophy and exudative ARMD. In atrophic ARMD, new drugs are aimed to spare photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium, to prevent oxidative damage on the retina and to suppress the inflammation process. In exudative ARMD, new therapies are already in use and in progress, especially the anti-VEGF factors, and others try to improve visual prognosis in targeting other mechanism or cells involved in the angiogenesis process. This article reviews and summarizes the available data, presented in several scientific meetings, congresses or given directly by the companies involved.

  6. Wearable diagnostic system for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, N; Zadeh, E Ghafar; Magierowski, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel head-mounted point-of-care diagnostic system for detection and continuous monitoring of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). This wearable embedded open-source platform enables accurate monitoring of AMD by taking advantage of multiple standard graphical interface techniques such as Amsler Grid, Threshold Amsler Grid, Macular Computerized Psychophysical Test and Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP). Here, we describe the proposed multi-Grid or so-called NGRID software and elaborate on the hardware prototype. This prototype includes a commercially available Oculus HMD incorporated with a single board computer. As the first step towards a fully integrated wearable system, this paper successfully proves the functionality of head-mounted graphical interface device ready for a live demonstration. Participants can experience this device and take a 10-minute AMD eye-exam. Furthermore, NGRID has been approved and permitted for an in-hospital clinical trial.

  7. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  8. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Weijden, F. van der; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content,

  9. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial to the next revealed repetition facilitation of the target-defining dimension and of the motor response-originating from preattentive perceptual and motor execution stages, respectively-to be independent of age. Critically, we demonstrated specific age deficits on intermediate processing stages when intertrial changes required more executively controlled processes, such as flexible stimulus-response (re-)mapping across trials.

  10. Observations of geometry and ages constrain relative motion of Hawaii and Louisville plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Kroenke, Loren W.

    2009-07-01

    The classic view of linear island chains as volcanic expressions of interactions between changing plate tectonic motions and fixed mantle plumes has come under renewed scrutiny. In particular, observed paleolatitudes from the Emperor seamounts imply that the Hawaii hotspot was > 5-15° further north during formation of these seamounts and that rapid retardation of its southward migration was the primary agent forming the angular Hawaii-Emperor bend. Supporting this view are predictions from fluid dynamic experiments that suggest the general mantle circulation may displace narrow mantle plumes; consequently the surface locations of hotspots are not fixed and may have varied considerably in the past. However, the locations and ages of available rock samples place fundamental limits on the relative motion between the Hawaii and Louisville hotspots. Here we use such data to estimate empirical age progression curves for separate chains and calculate the continuous variations in hotspot separations through time. While the data are sparse, the inferred inter-hotspot motion for ages > 55 Myr appears significant but the observed relative motion is only about half of what is predicted by mantle dynamics models. To reconcile the observed paleolatitudes with our observed relative motion requires either a larger contemporaneous southward motion of the Louisville hotspot than previously suggested or a moderate component of true polar wander.

  11. Age-related changes in involuntary and voluntary attention as reflected in components of the event-related potential (ERP).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of age-related changes in both involuntary and voluntary attention in adult Ss as manifested in scalp-recorded event related potential (ERP)s. A decline in orienting with old age was inferred from a substantial reduction with age in the magnitude of deviance-related ERP componen

  12. Individual variation in levels of haptoglobin-related protein in children from Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather J Imrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Haptoglobin related protein (Hpr is a key component of trypanosome lytic factors (TLF, a subset of high-density lipoproteins (HDL that form the first line of human defence against African trypanosomes. Hpr, like haptoglobin (Hp can bind to hemoglobin (Hb and it is the Hpr-Hb complexes which bind to these parasites allowing uptake of TLF. This unique form of innate immunity is primate-specific. To date, there have been no population studies of plasma levels of Hpr, particularly in relation to hemolysis and a high prevalence of ahaptoglobinemia as found in malaria endemic areas. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure levels of plasma Hpr in Gabonese children sampled during a period of seasonal malaria transmission when acute phase responses (APR, malaria infection and associated hemolysis were prevalent. Median Hpr concentration was 0.28 mg/ml (range 0.03-1.1. This was 5-fold higher than that found in Caucasian children (0.049 mg/ml, range 0.002-0.26 with no evidence of an APR. A general linear model was used to investigate associations between Hpr levels, host polymorphisms, parasitological factors and the acute phase proteins, Hp, C-reactive protein (CRP and albumin. Levels of Hpr were associated with Hp genotype, decreased with age and were higher in females. Hpr concentration was strongly correlated with that of Hp, but not CRP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Individual variation in Hpr levels was related to Hp level, Hp genotype, demographics, malaria status and the APR. The strong correlations between plasma levels of Hp and Hpr suggest that they are regulated by similar mechanisms. These population-based observations indicate that a more dynamic view of the relative roles of Hpr and Hpr-Hb complexes needs to be considered in understanding innate immunity to African trypanosomes and possibly other pathogens including the newly discovered Plasmodium spp of humans and

  13. Varying Variation: The Effects of Within- Versus Across-Feature Differences on Relational Category Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Anne Livins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning of feature-based categories is known to interact with feature-variation in a variety of ways, depending on the type of variation (e.g., Markman & Maddox, 2003. However, relational categories are distinct from feature-based categories in that they determine membership based on structural similarities. As a result, the way that they interact with feature variation is unclear. This paper explores both experimental and computational data and argues that, despite its reliance on structural factors, relational category-learning should still be affected by the type of feature variation present during the learning process. It specifically suggests that within-feature and across-feature variation should produce different learning trajectories due to a difference in representational cost. The paper then uses the DORA model (Doumas, Hummel, & Sandhofer, 2008 to discuss how this account might function in a cognitive system before presenting an experiment aimed at testing this account. The experiment was a relational category-learning task and was run on human participants and then simulated in DORA. Both sets of results indicated that learning a relational category from a training set with a lower amount of variation is easier, but that learning from a training set with increased within-feature variation is significantly less challenging than learning from a set with increased across-feature variation. These results sup-port the claim that, like feature-based category-learning, relational category-learning is sensitive to the type of feature variation in the training set.

  14. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  15. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  16. Age-Related Differences in Evaluating Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafic, Maida; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that the evaluation of developmental stability changes across adulthood. Results of Study 1 ("N" = 119) supported the expectation that older adults ("M"[subscript age] = 65.29 years)--compared to younger ("M"[subscript age] = 23.38 years) and middle-aged adults…

  17. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve, in relation to the piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Lewis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations can be seen in any part of the body and unless they are identified through imaging, during surgery, or on autopsy most of them will never be detected. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriformis have been described for many years and so has possible implications these variations might play in certain pathologies, such as sciatica. Identifying the frequency of anatomical variations in the population is relevant to identify patients that might not be treated effectively with standard medical care. These patients might require specialized care due to their unique anatomy. In this study 51 cadavers where examined for anatomical variations in the relation of the sciatic nerve to the piriformis muscle. We found that out of 102 lower limbs examined, 90 contained normal anatomy (89%. We identified two distinct variations of anatomy in the cadavers examined: one variation showing the common fibular branch of the sciatic nerve passing through the piriformis (occurring in 9 out of 102 or 8.8% of lower limbs examined; the second variation was the common fibular branch passing over the piriformis (found in 3 out of the 102 limbs or 2.9%.

  18. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  19. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  20. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Hendrik P N; Charbel Issa, Peter; Walier, Maja; Janzer, Stefanie; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Börncke, Florian; Fritsche, Lars G; Chong, Ngaihang V; Fimmers, Rolf; Wienker, Thomas; Holz, Frank G; Weber, Bernhard H F; Oppermann, Martin

    2008-07-02

    Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112) and controls (n = 67). Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH), factor B-C2 (BF-C2) and complement C3 (C3) genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (pAMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  1. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  2. Aging and associative recognition: A view from the DRYAD model of age-related memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    How do we best characterize the memory deficits that accompany aging? A popular hypothesis, articulated originally by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) and reviewed in the accompanying article by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016), suggests that older adults are selectively deficient in establishing associations between to-be-learned memoranda and as a result have deficits in memory for sources or contexts. An alternative proposal, called density of representations yields age-related deficits (DRYAD) and outlined in recent articles by Benjamin (2010) and colleagues (Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes disproportionate deficits in memory to a global, rather than a selective, deficit of memory. In an attempt to adjudicate between these competing positions, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) discussed 2 sets of experimental data that they claim speak against the global deficit model. Here I review some general principles of how the global-deficit view is applied to experimental paradigms and demonstrate that even a simplified form of DRYAD can comfortably accommodate the critical findings cited by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin. I also evaluate aspects of their results that may be problematic for DRYAD and describe ways in which DRYAD's account of associative recognition can be falsified. I end with a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches and consider ways in which the associative deficit hypothesis and DRYAD might work more profitably together than apart.

  3. Age-related macular degeneration: beyond anti-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David L

    2014-01-06

    Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration have been developed. These agents, originally developed for their anti-angiogenic mechanism of action, probably also work through an anti-permeability effect in preventing or reducing the amount of leakage from submacular neovascular tissue. Other treatment modalities include laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin, and submacular surgery. In reality, these latter treatments can be similarly categorized as anti-angiogenic because their sole aim is destroying or removing choroidal neovascularization (CNV). At the cellular level, CNV resembles stereotypical tissue repair that consists of several matricellular components in addition to neovascularization. In the retina, the clinical term CNV is a misnomer since the term may more appropriately be referred to as aberrant submacular repair. Furthermore, CNV raises a therapeutic conundrum: To complete or correct any reparative process in the body, angiogenesis becomes an essential component. Anti-angiogenic therapy, in all its guises, arrests repair and causes the hypoxic environment to persist, thus fueling pro-angiogenesis and further development of CNV as a component of aberrant repair. However, we realize that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy preserves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration, albeit temporarily and therefore, repeated treatment is needed. More importantly, however, anti-angiogenic therapy demonstrates that we can at the very least tolerate neovascular tissue beneath the macula and preserve vision in contrast to our historical approach of total vascular destruction. In this clinical scenario, it may be possible to look beyond anti-angiogenesis if our goal is facilitating submacular repair without destroying the neurosensory retina. Thus, in this situation of neovascular tolerance, it may be timely to consider treatments that facilitate

  4. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD. Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory

  5. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Peter X; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  6. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodan, Andrei; Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart J F; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content, pH, buffering capacity, mucins MUC5B and MUC7, albumin, secretory IgA, cystatin S, lactoferrin, chitinase, amylase, lysozyme, and proteases were measured using ELISAs and enzymatic activity assays. Significant differences were found between male and female subjects. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, protein content, MUC5B, secretory IgA, and chitinase activity were all lower in female subjects compared with male subjects, whereas MUC7 and lysozyme activity were higher in female subjects. There was no significant difference between sexes in salivary flow rate, albumin, cystatin S, amylase, and protease activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) and spectral clustering (SC) were used to assess intervariable relationships within the data set and to identify subgroups. Spectral clustering identified two clusters of participants, which were subsequently described. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the distribution and inter-relations of a set of important salivary biochemical variables in a systemically healthy young adult population, free of apparent caries lesions and periodontal disease. It highlights significant gender differences in salivary biochemistry.

  7. Relationships between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity, and health-related QOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Yasuko; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kihara, Minoru; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the associations between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ninety-seven volunteers, including 52 hypertensive patients and 45 healthy subjects (average age, 48 years) participated in this study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured using TM2425 (A&D Co). Physical activity was measured using actigraphy, and HRQOL was assessed by a Medical Outcome Study Short-Forum 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). Awake mean physical activity positively correlated with the nocturnal dip in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.242, p physical functioning positively correlated with awake mean physical activity (r = 0.265, p physical activity (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). Using multiple regression analysis, the nocturnal dip in SBP was found to be correlated with awake and sleep mean physical activities (p physical activity is associated with the nocturnal dip in blood pressure. Moreover, physical activity correlates with some of the factors of HRQOL.

  8. Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) provides detailed insight into the health of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This is highly valuable in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as RPE damage is a hallmark of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise current clinical descriptions regarding the appearance of AMD using FAF and to integrate these findings into a chair-side reference. A wide variety of FAF patterns have been described in AMD, which is consistent with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. In particular, FAF imaging in early to intermediate AMD has the capacity to reveal RPE alterations in areas that appear normal on funduscopy, which aids in the stratification of cases and may have visually significant prognostic implications. It can assist in differential diagnoses and also represents a reliable, sensitive method for distinguishing reticular pseudodrusen. FAF is especially valuable in the detection, evaluation, and monitoring of geographic atrophy and has been used as an endpoint in clinical trials. In neovascular AMD, FAF reveals distinct patterns of classic choroidal neovascularization noninvasively and may be especially useful for determining which eyes are likely to benefit from therapeutic intervention. FAF represents a rapid, effective, noninvasive imaging method that has been underutilized, and incorporation into the routine assessment of AMD cases should be considered. However, the practicing clinician should also be aware of the limitations of the modality, such as in the detection of foveal involvement and in the distinction of phenotypes (hypo-autofluorescent drusen from small areas of geographic atrophy). PMID:27668639

  9. Stereotactic radiotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mahdy; Kurz, Maximilian; Holzhey, Annekatrin; Melchert, Corinna; Rades, Dirk; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is a new approach to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The INTREPID trial suggested that SRT could reduce the frequency of regular intravitreal injections (IVIs) with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs, which are necessary to control disease activity. However, the efficacy of SRT in nAMD and resulting morphological changes have not been validated under real-life circumstances, an issue, which we would like to address in this retrospective analysis. Patients who met the INTREPID criteria for best responders were eligible for SRT. A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients were treated. Thereafter, patients were examined monthly for 12 months and received pro re nata IVI of aflibercept or ranibizumab. Outcome measures were: mean number of injections, best-corrected visual acuity, and morphological changes of the outer retina-choroid complex as well as patient safety. Mean number of IVI decreased by almost 50% during the 12 months after SRT compared to the year before, whereas visual acuity increased by one line (logMAR). Morphological evaluation showed that most changes affect outer retinal layers. Stereotactic radiotherapy significantly reduced IVI retreatment in nAMD patients under real-life circumstances. Therefore, SRT might be the first step to stop visual loss as a result of IVI undertreatment, which is a major risk. PMID:28033280

  10. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  11. Activity loss and depression in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of severe vision loss in older persons and is associated with high rates of disability and depression. The authors evaluated 51 patients with bilateral AMD to investigate the interrelationships of disease severity, disability, and depression and focused on loss of valued activities as an emblematic disabling consequence of AMD. They characterized depression by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score, a syndromal state based on the CES-D, and as a level of distress (Index of Affective Suffering; IAS). Thirty subjects (58.8%) had loss of a valued, discretionary activity. They had worse visual acuity and more depressive symptoms and were represented in higher IAS levels than other subjects. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with IAS levels, but not with CES-D scores or syndromal depression. A regression model demonstrated that activity loss mediated the relationship between visual acuity and IAS level. Affective distress occurs in AMD, largely to the extent that valued activities are relinquished because of vision loss. IAS levels best illuminated this relationship, suggesting the value of this dimension of affective functioning in studies of the consequences of chronic disease.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Thomas G.; Schulte, Stefanie; Onken, Johanna; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT) amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years) and 25 older (aged 60–75 years) healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P < .001), which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P < .001). Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P < .001), and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism. PMID:24772423

  13. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heinzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years and 25 older (aged 60–75 years healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P<.001, which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P<.001. Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P<.001, and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism.

  14. Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine

    2012-01-01

    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....

  15. The role of hydrogen sulfide in aging and age-related pathologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perridon, B.W. (Bernard W.); Leuvenink, H.G.D. (Henri G.D.); J.-L. Hillebrands (Jan-Luuk); H. van Goor (Harry); Bos, E.M. (Eelke M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhen humans grow older, they experience inevitable and progressive loss of physiological function, ultimately leading to death. Research on aging largely focuses on the identification of mechanisms involved in the aging process. Several proposed aging theories were recently combined as t

  16. Aging on a different scale - chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, J.P.; Jonker, M.J.; Vijg, J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make

  17. The Associative Memory Deficit in Aging Is Related to Reduced Selectivity of Brain Activity during Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverino, Cristina; Fatima, Zainab; Sarraf, Saman; Oder, Anita; Strother, Stephen C; Grady, Cheryl L

    2016-09-01

    Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance. Healthy young and older adults were scanned while performing an incidental encoding task for pictures of objects and houses under item or associative instructions. An old/new recognition test was administered outside the scanner. We used agnostic canonical variates analysis and split-half resampling to detect whole-brain patterns of activation that predicted item versus associative encoding for stimuli that were later correctly recognized. Older adults had poorer memory for associations than did younger adults, whereas item memory was comparable across groups. Associative encoding trials, but not item encoding trials, were predicted less successfully in older compared with young adults, indicating less distinct patterns of associative-related activity in the older group. Importantly, higher probability of predicting associative encoding trials was related to better associative memory after accounting for age and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. These results provide evidence that neural distinctiveness at encoding supports associative memory and that a specific reduction of selectivity in neural recruitment underlies age differences in associative memory.

  18. Age-related changes in mucins from human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, P C; Denny, P A; Klauser, D K; Hong, S H; Navazesh, M; Tabak, L A

    1991-10-01

    The predominant mucins in human whole saliva, MG1 and MG2, serve to protect and to lubricate the oral cavity. In this study, both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivas were collected from two groups of subjects: young (18-35 years of age) and aged (65-83 years of age). The subjects were in apparent good health. Saliva samples from each subject were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The gels were stained with Stains-all, and both MG1 and MG2 were quantitated by video-image densitometry. The protocol gave reproducible values for each mucin. The stimulated and unstimulated salivas from aged subjects showed significant reductions in concentrations of both MG1 and MG2, as quantitated in mucin dye-binding units. Possible associations of these reductions with the aging process are discussed.

  19. Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: a comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber number, fiber type distribution and muscle specific tension), in men and male rodents at similar relative age. It appears that muscle aging in male F344*BN rat resembles that in men most; 32-35-month-old rats exhibit similar signs of muscle weakness to those of 70-80-yr-old men, and the decline in 36-38-month-old rats is similar to that in men aged over 80 yrs. For male C57BL/6 mice, age-related decline in muscle force generating capacity seems to occur only at higher relative age than in men. We conclude that the effects on determinants of muscle force differ between species as well as within species, but qualitatively show the same pattern as that observed in men.

  20. Shape variability of the adult human acetabulum and acetabular fossa related to sex and age by geometric morphometrics. Implications for adult age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Millán, Marta; Rissech, Carme; Turbón, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to explore shape variability of the acetabulum during the human adult life span, in relation to sex and age. The human acetabular shape was analysed in 682 os coxae from three different documented skeletal collections from the Iberian Peninsula. Two landmarks and thirty-two sliding semi-landmarks were used for the geometric morphometric procedures and a clock-wise standard was used for orientation. The 180° meridian (6:00) line was positioned over the midpoint of the acetabular notch and 36 reference points in 10° increments along the rim were marked. Data showed that size, sex and age significantly influence acetabular shape variation. Sex differences were significant in individuals younger than 65 years old and were characterised by males exhibiting relatively extended acetabular rim profiles from 10:00 to 1:00, narrower acetabular notches, and reduced acetabular fossae. In addition, three main age-related changes occurred to the acetabular shape in both sexes: outer acetabular profile modification, with extension from 10:00 to 1:00 and reduction from 7:00 to 9:00, acetabular notch narrowing, and acetabular fossa reduction. The age-related changes that were observed are shared by both sexes and seem to be related to bone production associated with age. Specifically, age appears to affect the entire border of the lunate surface: the acetabular rim, both acetabular horns, and the outer edge of the acetabular fossa. Furthermore, shape data confirmed the clover-leaf shape of the acetabular fossa in both males and females. These results improve our understanding of acetabular shape, and assist in refining age-estimation methods and enhancing hip surgery and rehabilitation.

  1. Wet age related macular degeneration management and follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Malciolu Radu; Alexandra, Nica Maria

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is referred to as the leading cause of irreversible visual loss in developed countries, with a profound effect on the quality of life. The neovascular form of AMD is characterized by the formation of subretinal choroidal neovascularization, leading to sudden and severe visual loss. Research has identified the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological component in neovascular AMD and its intraocular inhibition as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The introduction of anti-VEGF as a standard treatment in wet AMD has led to a great improvement in the prognosis of patients, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of cases. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by a difficulty in maintaining the treatment schedule due to the increase in the amount of patients, stress of monthly assessments, as well as the associated economic burden. Therefore, treatment strategies have evolved from fixed monthly dosing, to individualized regimens, aiming for comparable results, with fewer injections. One such protocol is called "pro re nata", or "treat and observe". Patients are given a loading dose of 3 monthly injections, followed by an as-needed decision to treat, based on the worsening of visual acuity, clinical evidence of the disease activity on fundoscopy, or OCT evidence of retinal thickening in the presence of intra or subretinal fluid. A different regimen is called "treat and extend", in which the interval between injections is gradually increased, once the disease stabilization is achieved. This paper aims to review the currently available anti-VEGF agents--bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept, and the aforementioned treatment strategies.

  2. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group — United States, 2001–2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  3. Metabolic rate variation over adult lifetime in the butterfly Vanessa cardui (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae): aging, feeding, and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William A; Wood, C A L; Ebersole, John; Stevenson, R D

    2010-01-01

    Questions about the adaptive importance of metabolic rate can be approached only when measurements of differences between individuals are repeatable. We made daily measurements of CO(2) production, body mass, and food uptake over the adult life span of unmated Vanessa cardui kept under constant environmental conditions in both fed and unfed treatments. Mass and CO(2) production generally declined with age in both treatments, though with much day-to-day variability in the fed treatment. For the full samples, metabolic rate was repeatable for the unfed treatment (repeatability r = 0.60) but not for the fed treatment (r = 0.03). Differences between fed and unfed individuals of the same age range were repeatable for the unfed treatment (r = 0.39) but not for the fed treatment (r = -0.20). Removing age effects on CO(2) production yielded still higher repeatability in the unfed treatment (r = 0.83), though not in fed butterflies of the same age range (r = -0.02). However, repeatability of CO(2) production of fed butterflies increased sharply with age, rising to 0.82 for butterflies age 8-10 d. Although food uptake mass was repeatable (r = 0.52), feeding history explained little variation in CO(2) production. We conclude that for V. cardui and possibly for other insects of similar feeding habit, variation in metabolic rate between individuals is best represented by measurements of unfed individuals of the same age or of older fed individuals.

  4. Quantitative Variation of Flavonoids and Diterpenes in Leaves and Stems of Cistus ladanifer L. at Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Valares Masa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compounds derived from secondary metabolism in plants perform a variety of ecological functions, providing the plant with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The basal levels of these metabolites for each organ, tissue or cell type depend on the development stage of the plant and they may be modified as a response to biotic and/or abiotic stress. As a consequence, the resistance state of a plant may vary in space and time. The secondary metabolites of Cistus ladanifer have been quantified in leaves and stems throughout autumn, winter, spring and summer, and at different ages of the plant. This study shows that there are significant differences between young leaves, mature leaves and stems, and between individuals of different ages. Young leaves show significantly greater synthesis of flavonoids and diterpenes than mature leaves and stems, with a clear seasonal variation, and the differences between leaves at different growth stages and stems is maintained during the quantified seasons. With respect to age, specimens under one year of age secreted significantly lower amounts of compounds. The variation in the composition of secondary metabolites between different parts of the plant, the season and the variations in age may determine the interactions of Cistus ladanifer with the biotic and abiotic factors to which it is exposed.

  5. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Buśko, Krzysztof; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Tasiopoulos, Ioannis; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD) performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old), separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+), were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength). An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045), but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020), was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR) test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031) was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs) was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068), where larger differences in male than female athletes were observed between the 12–13 and 14–17 groups. From a practical perspective, coaches can use these findings as reference for the evaluation of their athletes. Because the anthropometric characteristics and neuromuscular fitness varied by sex (i.e., highest scores in males, except flexibility) and age (i.e., highest scores in the 18–32 age group) with unique sport-specific patterns in TKD athletes, these findings would be important

  6. [Age-related characteristics of structural support for ovarian function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval'skiĭ, G B

    1984-12-01

    Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.

  7. mTOR and autophagy in normal brain aging and caloric restriction ameliorating age-related cognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengying; Chu, Xiaolei; Yin, Miaomiao; Liu, Xiaolei; Yuan, Hairui; Niu, Yanmei; Fu, Li

    2014-05-01

    Defect of autophagy is common to many neurodegenerative disorders because it serves as a major degradation pathway for the clearance of various aggregate-prone proteins. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which is recognized as the most important negative regulator of autophagy, is also involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of mTOR and its dependent autophagy in normal brain during aging remains unknown. Furthermore, caloric restriction (CR) is frequently used as a tool to study mechanisms behind aging and age-associated diseases because CR can prevent age-related diseases and prolong lifespan in several model organisms. Inhibiting mTOR and promoting autophagy activity play roles in aging delayed by CR. However, whether CR can ameliorate age-related cognition deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activate autophagy in hippocampus needs to be further investigated. Here we showed a decline of autophagic degradation in mice hippocampus in correlation with age-dependent cognitive dysfunction, whereas the activity of mTOR and its upstream brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling was decreased with aging. In addition, facilitating the mTOR pathway successfully declines and sustains autophagic degradation with aging in hippocampus by CR treatment and is involved in CR by ameliorating age-related cognitive deficits.

  8. Neuronal histaminergic system in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ling; Swaab, Dick F; Bao, Ai-Min

    2013-07-01

    The neuronal histaminergic system is involved in many physiological functions and is severely affected in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The properties of the neuronal histaminergic system in experimental animals and the alterations observed in postmortem brain material of PD or AD patients are reviewed. The production of neuronal histamine shows diurnal fluctuations in control subjects who had no neuropsychiatric disorders, while this fluctuation was strongly altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD. In addition, different alterations shown as expression levels of histidine decarboxylase (the key enzyme for histamine production), histamine-methyltransferase (the histamine deactivating enzyme), and histamine receptors (H(1-4)R) were found in various neurodegenerative disorders. Discrepancies between results from animal models and postmortem human brain material studies have made clear that the validation of animal models is absolutely necessary and that studies on patients and human postmortem material are essential to understand the changes of neuronal histaminergic system occurring in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Evaluation of Elastin/Collagen Content in Human Dermis in-Vivo by Multiphoton Tomography—Variation with Depth and Correlation with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pittet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM that measures the autofluorescence (AF and second harmonic generation (SHG was used to quantify the levels of elastin and collagen and to determine the SAAID (SHG-to-AF Aging Index of Dermis at two different skin depths. A 50 MHz ultrasound scanner was used for the calculation of the Sub Epidermal Non Echogenic Band (SENEB. The measurements of the skin mechanical properties were done with a cutometer. All measurements were performed on two groups of 30 healthy female volunteers. The MPM showed a decrease of the quantity of collagen and elastin as a function of depth of the dermis as well as age. The SAAID was lower for the older skin in the deeper dermis. Ultrasound imaging revealed a significant decrease of SENEB as a function of aging. The mechanical properties confirmed a loss of cutaneous elasticity and firmness. Although multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique to study the characteristics of the dermis and its age-related damage, the location of the measurements (depth remains very important for the validation of these variations. These variations do not seem to be homogeneous according to the part of the dermis that is studied.

  10. Age-related differences in biomedical and folk beliefs as causes for diabetes and heart disease among Mexican origin adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Wilkinson, Anna V; Sandoval, Juan-Miguel; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    An understanding of health beliefs is key to creating culturally appropriate health services for Hispanic populations in the US. In this study we explore age-based variations in causal beliefs for heart disease and diabetes among Mexican origin adults in Houston, TX. This cross-sectional study included 497 adults of Mexican origin. Participants were asked to indicate the importance of biomedically defined and folk illness-related risk factors as causes for heart disease and diabetes. Biomedical risk factors were ranked highest as causes of diabetes and heart disease among all participants. Folk illness-related factors were ranked below biomedical factors as causes of heart disease among all age groups. Susto was ranked above the median as a risk factor for diabetes among older participants. Age-related differences in causal beliefs may have implications for designing culturally appropriate health services, such as tailored diabetes interventions for older Mexican origin adults.

  11. Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil

    2007-05-30

    This study investigates the changes in aberrations with monocular accommodation as a function of age. Second-order and higher order wavefront aberrations and pupil size were measured as a function of accommodation demand over the range of 0-4 D in the right eyes of 47 normal subjects with ages between 17 and 56 years. Higher order ocular Zernike aberrations were analyzed for the natural pupil size in terms of their equivalent defocus and were also determined for fixed pupil diameters of 4.5 mm in the unaccommodated eyes and 2.5 mm in the accommodating eyes. With relaxed accommodation (0 D accommodation stimulus), the major change with age was in the value of C4(0), which increased in positive value over the age range studied, although the total higher order RMS wavefront aberration did not increase. When the data were analyzed for natural pupils, spherical aberration was again found to change systematically in the positive direction with age. The equivalent defocus of total higher order RMS error for natural pupils showed no significant correlation with age (p > .05). With active accommodation, spherical aberration was found to decrease and become negative as the accommodative response increased in the younger subjects (40 years), the spherical aberration showed only small changes, some of which were positive, within the limited amplitude of accommodation available. Other higher order aberrations and the RMS of higher order aberrations did not appear to change systematically with accommodation, except in the oldest subjects. The change with age in the relationship between aberration and accommodation is interpreted in terms of the changing gradients of refractive index and surface curvatures of the crystalline lens.

  12. Affect Trumps Age: A Person-in-Context Relational View of Age and Motivation in SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenninger, Simone E.; Singleton, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings (see, for example, Muñoz and Singleton, 2011) indicate that age of onset is not a strong determinant of instructed foreign language (FL) learners' achievement and that age is intricately connected with social and psychological factors shaping the learner's overall FL experience. The present study, accordingly, takes a…

  13. Effects of Age and Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly; Ross, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that aging adversely affects the ability to perceive time-varying acoustic cues. Here we review how physiological measures are being used to explore the effects of aging (and concomitant hearing loss) on the neural representation of temporal cues. Also addressed are the implications of current research findings on the…

  14. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  15. Age-related findings on MRI in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Deepak S. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hyman, Shelley L. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia); Steinberg, Adam [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); North, Kathryn N. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    T2 hyperintensities (T2H) on MRI are the most common CNS lesions in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The aim was to determine the frequency, signal characteristics and localization of T2H at different ages. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of different MR imaging sequences in detecting these lesions. We studied prospectively a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults with NF1 using T2-volume (T2-V) and conventional MRI sequences. Lesions were designated as either discrete or diffuse, and the region of signal abnormality was recorded. A total of 103 patients were studied (age range 8.0-25.4 years, mean 13.9 years). The frequency, size, and intensity of T2H decreased with age in the basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum/brainstem (CB/BS). The majority of thalamic and CB/BS lesions were diffuse. Of the total cohort, 80% had diffuse bilateral hippocampal hyperintensities and 18.4% had hemispheric lesions best demonstrated on FLAIR; there was no significant difference in the frequency or signal intensity of hemispheric lesions with age. Lesions in the cerebral hemispheres and hippocampus imaged by MR do not change in prevalence over time, suggesting a different pathological basis from the lesions in the in BG and CB/BS that resolve with age. FLAIR and T2-V sequences are more sensitive in detecting lesions than standard T2-weighted sequences. (orig.)

  16. Niemann-Pick C disease gene mutations and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zech

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95% or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563, FTLD (n = 133 and PSP (n = 94, and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1% and seven control subjects (0.8%, but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted.

  17. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  18. Visual outcomes in relation to time to treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Bloch, Sara Brandi; Fuchs, Josefine;

    2015-01-01

    1185 eyes in 1099 patients who began vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor treatment for nAMD during four separate periods in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012 using a fixed loading-dose regimen of three ranibizumab injections. RESULTS: Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation remained......PURPOSE: To study the relation between the interval from diagnosis to initiation of intravitreal injection therapy and visual outcome in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to report changes over time in fellow-eye status. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. The study included....... CONCLUSION: In this study, 2-week-earlier injection was associated with the equivalent of a 5-Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letter-gain in mean visual acuity at 3 months after presentation. The difference is larger than expected from the 2-week-longer duration of disease at the study end...

  19. The Method of Variation of Parameters for Solving a Dynamical System of Relative Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2011-01-01

    The integration method of a dynamical system of relative motion is studied,and the method of variation of parameters for the dynamical equations of relative motion is presented.First,the dynamic equations of relative motion are brought into the frame of generalized Birkhoffian systems and are expressed in the contravariant algebraic form.Second,an auxiliary system is constructed and its complete solution is found.Finally,the variation of parameters is given,and a complete solution of the problem is obtained by taking advantage of the properties of generalized canonical transformations.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.An important direction in analytical dynamics is to present new and versatile integration methods for a complex mechanical system.The motion of a complex system may include the motion of a carrier,as well as the motion of a carried system relative to the carrier.Whittaker[1] studied the Lagrange equations of a holonomic system subject to uniform rotation constraints.Lur'e studied the dynamics of relative motion ofa holonomic system.[2] Mei took the dynamics of relative motion as a special topic to review and research in his monographs.[3-8] Over the past twenty years,research on the dynamics of relative motion has been fruitful.[3- 24]%The integration method of a dynamical system of relative motion is studied, and the method of variation of parameters for the dynamical equations of relative motion is presented. First, the dynamic equations of relative motion are brought into the frame of generalized Birkhoffan systems and are expressed in the contravariant algebraic form. Second, an auxiliary system is constructed and its complete solution is found. Finally, the variation of parameters is given, and a complete solution of the problem is obtained by taking advantage of the properties of generalized canonical transformations. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  20. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  1. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  2. Genetic Factors Explain Variation in the Age at Onset of Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Duffy, David Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the age at onset of psoriasis in a population-based twin sample. Questionnaire-data in 10,725 twin pairs, 20-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, was collected, and analysed using survival regression analysis. Median age at onset was 25 and 28 years...

  3. Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…

  4. Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Meat intake is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in order to identify biological pathways involved in meat carcinogenesis. We performed a literature search of Pub...... a polymorphism in XPC and meat was found in one prospective and one case-control study; however, the directions of the risk estimates were opposite. Thus, none of the findings were replicated. The results from this systematic review suggest that genetic variation in the inflammatory response and DNA repair...... pathway is involved in meat-related colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas no support for the involvement of heme and iron from meat or cooking mutagens was found. Further studies assessing interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to CRC in large well-characterised prospective...

  5. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  6. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  7. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cartocci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1 and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2. Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  8. Morfologia e funcionalidade do pneumócito tipo II e sua relação e variação com a idade gestacional em bovinos Morphology and functionality of the type II pneumocytes and their variation in relation to bovine gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Toquetti

    2009-11-01

    árias para a síntese de proteínas surfactantes. Entretanto, mais estudos clínicos sobre a funcionalidade do sistema respiratório abrem novas fronteiras de experimentos sobre fisiologia respiratória em recém-nascidos bovinos.The aim of this study was to characterize the presence of type II pneumocyte and the beginning of the surfactant protein production in bovines to the correlated gestational age. Lungs of fetuses at 4 months gestational age were found to be in the canalicular development phase, without presence of type II pneumocytes or appearance of electrophoretic bands compatible with the presence of the surfactant protein. In fetuses at 5 months of gestational age, the lungs were at the terminal sac phase, with the presence of primitive alveolus, formed by cubical epithelium and areas formed by pneumocytes I and pneumocytes II. No electrophoretic bands compatible to the surfactants proteins were identified. In contrast, lungs of fetuses at 6 months of gestational age showed, development of terminal sac phase, with the presence of type I and type II pneumocytes. In this phase, proteic determination for the SDS - PAGE analysis showed the presence of bands between 26 to 36kDa, demonstrating SP - A production, which is the surfactant protein found in highest amount. From the 7th gestational month on, the phase of terminal sac is more evident and complex, with intense sprouting vascularization. The type I pneumocyte had a more squamous aspect and type II pneumocyte were more globular. In the SDS - PAGE analysis of the bronchial - alveolar wash, surfactant protein bands had been observed with a profile similar to that of the newborn animals. In newborn animals, lungs in alveolar phase showed the development of type I and II pneumocytes. The profile of the bronchial - alveolar wash from the newborn was similar to an adult animal, presenting the same bands in triplets. These results suggest that early born fetuses, from 7 months of pregnancy could have a guarantee of

  9. Age-related hearing loss: ear and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    Loss of sensory function in the aged has serious consequences for economic productivity, quality of life, and healthcare costs in the billions each year. Understanding the neural and molecular bases will pave the way for biomedical interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse these conditions. This chapter summarizes new information regarding age changes in the auditory system involving both the ear (peripheral) and brain (central). A goal is to provide findings that have implications for understanding some common biological underpinnings that affect sensory systems, providing a basis for eventual interventions to improve overall sensory functioning, including the chemical senses.

  10. Last deglacial relative sea level variations in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun'ichi Okuno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present relative sea level (RSL curves in Antarctica derived from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA predictions based on the melting scenarios of the Antarctic ice sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM given in previous works. Simultaneously, Holocene-age RSL observations obtained at the raised beaches along the coast of Antarctica are shown to be in agreement with the GIA predictions. The differences from previously published ice-loading models regarding the spatial distribution and total mass change of the melted ice are significant. These models were also derived from GIA modelling; the variations can be attributed to the lack of geological and geographical evidence regarding the history of crustal movement due to ice sheet evolution. Next, we summarise the previously published ice load models and demonstrate the RSL curves based on combinations of different ice and earth models. The RSL curves calculated by GIA models indicate that the model dependence of both the ice and earth models is significantly large at several sites where RSL observations were obtained. In particular, GIA predictions based on the thin lithospheric thickness show the spatial distributions that are dependent on the melted ice thickness at each sites. These characteristics result from the short-wavelength deformation of the Earth. However, our predictions strongly suggest that it is possible to find the average ice model despite the use of the different models of lithospheric thickness. By sea level and crustal movement observations, we can deduce the geometry of the post-LGM ice sheets in detail and remove the GIA contribution from the crustal deformation and gravity change observed by space geodetic techniques, such as GPS and GRACE, for the estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change associated with recent global warming.

  11. Tocotrienol rich fraction reverses age-related deficits in spatial learning and memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridi, Nursiati Mohamad; Abd Rani, Nazirah; Abd Latiff, Azian; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity. Brains were also collected to measure vitamin E levels. Results showed that aged rats exhibited reduced exploratory activity, enhanced anxiety and decreased spatial learning and memory compared with young rats. DNA damage and plasma MDA were increased, and vitamin E levels in plasma and brain were reduced in aged rats. Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats.

  12. Assessing the relative importance of climate variables to rice yield variation using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-10-01

    Climate factors have distinct impacts on crop yields. Understanding the relative importance of these factors to crop yield variation could provide valuable information about crop planting and management under climate change condition for policymakers and farmers. The current study investigated the applicability of support vector machines (SVMs) in determining the relative importance of climate factors (mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine hours, daily temperature range, and rainy days) to yield variation of paddy rice in southwestern China. The SVM models were compared with traditional artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression. The performance accuracy was evaluated by mean absolute error (MAE), mean relative absolute error (MRAE), root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), and coefficient of determination ( R 2). Comparative results showed that SVMs outperformed artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression. The SVM with radial basis function performed best with MAE of 0.06 t ha-1, MRAE of 0.9 %, RMSE of 0.15 t ha-1, RRMSE of 2.23 %, and R 2 of 0.94. The results showed that SVMs are suitable for determining the effects of climate on crop yield variability. The relative importance of the studied climate factors to rice yield variation was in order of sunshine hours > daily temperature range > rainfall > relative humidity > mean temperature > rainy days in the current study area.

  13. Age-related changes in neural control of posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma

    2016-01-01

    As we get older many physiological functions decline, including muscle strength, flexibility, and memory. Also in the aging brain there are changes, such as shrinkage of its volume. Since we need our brain to keep our balance while standing, it seems likely that these changes also affect our balance

  14. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  15. [Age-related characteristics of experimental hypothyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromakova, I A; Zil'berman, S Ts; Konovalenko, O O

    2002-01-01

    The rate of both the synthesis of liver and plasma proteins and RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities in liver were studied in rats of various ages at experimental hypothyroidism. There has been marked more significant decrease in plasma protein synthesis with age. Both the rate of liver and plasma protein synthesis have been shown to be reduced at experimental hypothyroidism but synthesis of plasma proteins was inhibited to a greater extent. Considerable changes were observed neither in liver and plasma protein synthesis nor in the balance between these two groups of the protein synthesis in old rats. RNA-1 and RNA-2 polymerase activities decreased at hypothyroidism. At all ages the activity of bound enzymes decreased to a larger extent as compared to free forms. The activity of RNA-polymerase 2 was more inhibited than that of RNA-polymerase 1. Reducing protein- and RNA-synthetic processes in the liver with age correlated with the peculiarities of the carbohydrate metabolism: in those young animals with an impaired glucose tolerance the inhibitory effect of hypothyroidism on the intensity of protein and RNA synthesis was more potent as compared to old animals.

  16. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  17. Novel Directions In Therapy Against Age-Related Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wu (Haiyan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Genomic instability is recognized as one of the primary mechanisms that lead to organismal aging, and leads to progeria when developing in an accelerated pace due to defective genomic maintenance systems, such as nucleotide excision repair, in humans and mouse models of

  18. Age Differences in Brain Activity during Emotion Processing: Reflections of Age-Related Decline or Increased Emotion Regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processi...

  19. Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…

  20. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  1. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations.

  2. Variation in CAPN10 in relation to type 2 diabetes, obesity and quantitative metabolic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorit P; Urhammer, Søren A; Eiberg, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The first type 2 diabetes (T2D) gene to be identified in a genome wide scan followed by positional cloning was CAPN10 encoding the cysteine protease calpain-10. Subsequently, a large number of studies have investigated variation in CAPN10 in relation to T2D. Two CAPN10 single nucleotide...

  3. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cor...

  4. Vision rehabilitation for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W

    1999-01-01

    Though the numbers of patients with ARMD are high, associated referrals for vision rehabilitation are not. Practitioners need to refer patients with age-related maculopathy when medical and surgical treatment are no longer possible, and patients need to be educated to that fact. The impact of improving activities of daily living may be monumental and benefits society as a whole. People who are visually impaired are often ill-prepared to deal with the substantial adjustment involved, further stressing their entire support system. It may not be safe for visual and systemic reasons for older adults to cook, clean, and maintain their home. Poor vision contributes to the already increased risk of falls and subsequent fractures in these patients. Individuals who may have already been told they can no longer drive now face the possibility of being unable to live in their houses. Their independence may be threatened dramatically and abruptly. All these circumstances contribute to anxiety and depression. Patients with ARMD need to be educated about their disease process (teaching that can never be assumed to have been initiated). They need to be educated that they will not go completely blind and that, with assistance, they can accomplish a great deal. With today's technology, it is not difficult to help visually impaired individuals with ARMD, unless they are not referred or lack motivation. The primary complaint of an individual with ARMD is recognition of central detail. This affects all activities of daily living, and patient performance is subject to the duration and severity of the disease (including the size, density, and location of the central scotoma) and to their understanding of the disease. Rubin and coworkers, found that slow reading performance of patients with a dense central scotoma might reflect inherent limitations of peripheral retina for complex visual tasks. ARMD in most cases lends itself to magnification that enlarges the object beyond the blind spot

  5. Biological Variation in Circulating Levels of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-Associated Serine Protease-2 and the Influence of Age, Gender and Physical Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Thiel, S.

    2007-01-01

    is needed. We here investigate variations of MBL and MASP-2 in healthy persons over time and in relation to gender, age and physical activity. MBL and MASP-2 concentrations were determined in serum from healthy adults over a 3-week period and this was repeated 6 months later (n = 32); during a 24-h period...... (n = 16); and in relation to physical exercise (n = 14). Concentrations in serum and plasma were compared (n = 198). No significant variation over 6 months and no circadian variation was found for MBL (P = 0.39 and P = 0.34 respectively) or MASP-2 (P = 0.54 and P = 0.55). Physical exercise did...... not affect the levels (P > 0.8). Serum and plasma levels were only marginally different, and were independent of age and gender. Circulating levels of MBL and MASP-2 are stable over time in healthy individuals, which is advantageous for their potential application as biomarkers....

  6. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; BATES, JOHN E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...

  7. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Krabbe, K;

    2000-01-01

    study of age-related decline in intellectual function and MRI at age 80 years. METHODS: From a cohort of 698 people born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in Denmark, 68 healthy non-demented individuals had been tested with the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) at ages 50, 60, and 70...... are related to decline in intelligence but, in healthy octogenarians, the cumulative effect of these features alone explains only a small part of the large differences among individuals in age-related decline in intelligence. Interpretation of the presence and severity of white-matter hyperintensities......, and they agreed to further WAIS testing at age 80, and cerebral MRI at age 80-82 (mean age 82.3 years). We scored separately the numbers of periventricular and deep white-matter hyperintensities. FINDINGS: Scores for periventricular hyperintensities in this sample included all possible degrees of severity...

  8. Age differences in brain activity during emotion processing: reflections of age-related decline or increased emotion regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that physical health and cognitive abilities decline with aging, the ability to regulate emotion remains stable and in some aspects improves across the adult life span. Older adults also show a positivity effect in their attention and memory, with diminished processing of negative stimuli relative to positive stimuli compared with younger adults. The current paper reviews functional magnetic resonance imaging studies investigating age-related differences in emotional processing and discusses how this evidence relates to two opposing theoretical accounts of older adults' positivity effect. The aging-brain model [Cacioppo et al. in: Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 2011] proposes that older adults' positivity effect is a consequence of age-related decline in the amygdala, whereas the cognitive control hypothesis [Kryla-Lighthall and Mather in: Handbook of Theories of Aging, ed 2. New York, Springer, 2009; Mather and Carstensen: Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:496-502; Mather and Knight: Psychol Aging 2005;20:554-570] argues that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' greater focus on regulating emotion. Based on evidence for structural and functional preservation of the amygdala in older adults and findings that older adults show greater prefrontal cortex activity than younger adults while engaging in emotion-processing tasks, we argue that the cognitive control hypothesis is a more likely explanation for older adults' positivity effect than the aging-brain model.

  9. Variation in CHI3LI in relation to type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Holmkvist, Johan; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    (SNPs) or haplotypes thereof the CHI3LI locus might influence risk of T2D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between SNPs and haplotype blocks of CHI3LI and T2D and T2D related quantitative traits. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven SNPs of CHI3LI were genotyped...

  10. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  11. Relative age effect and soccer refereeing: a 'strategic adaptation' of relatively younger children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Radel, Rémi; Raspaud, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggested that the relative age effect (RAE) has a psychological influence on children and their decision to engage in a particular sport. Relatively younger children seem to have lower self-esteem. Indeed, because of the disadvantages of being younger, it is assumed that these players experience more situations of failure and inferiority. Because of these negative performance cues, it is likely that these young players feel less competent, which eventually leads to a higher dropout rate. These children can also decide to participate in sports in which physical attributes are less important. This shift from one sport to another can be interpreted as a 'strategic adaptation'. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate whether refereeing could be another form of 'strategic adaptation'. If a child chooses a specific sport but then does not feel competent enough to be a player, refereeing might be an alternate path followed to stay in the environment of a sport they like. Given the minimal age limits for refereeing, two hypotheses were formulated: (1) 'reversed' RAE would be observed in district referees younger than 18 years old and (2) no RAE would be observed in district referees older than 18 years old, regional referees and national referees. The birthdates of all official male soccer referees (n=13,952) were collected from the federation database. Results show that the distribution of all district referees was significantly unbalanced (χ(2)=18.73, df=3, P<0.001) with an over-representation of individuals who were born in the second half of the competitive year. As expected, this imbalance was exclusively located in district referees of 18 years old and less (χ(2)=8.03, df=3, P<0.05), while the distribution was uniform for adults (χ(2)=5.17, df=3, P<0.16). Concerning regional referees (χ(2)=2.09, df=3, P<0.554) and national referees (χ(2)=3.75, df=3, P<0.290), the results also provide support for our initial hypothesis as uniform

  12. Age and Task-Related Effects on Young Children's Understanding of a Complex Picture Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Denyse; Schneider, Phyllis; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined age- and task-related effects in story schema knowledge across an independent narrative task (story formulations) and a supported narrative task (answering questions). We also examined age-related changes to questions about the story as a whole. Participants were typically developing English-speaking children aged 4, 5,…

  13. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  14. Variation of Serum Protein Level in Xiang Piglets at Different Month of Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChiYujie; GaoXuejung; 等

    1995-01-01

    Usual clinieal methods were used to determine the concentrations of serum protein,albumin and globulin in Xiang piglets from the lst month to the 6th month of age.Thirteen piglets(eight males and five females)born is Spring were selected from the Livestock Experimental Station of NEAU.The results showed that the serum protein level was different at different month of age.The lowest level was found at the 1st month of age,and the highest at the 4th month of age.The difference in serum protein concentration was significant between different months of age.There was ,however,no significant difference between sexes at the same month of age.

  15. Gluten Intolerance: Sex- and Age-Related Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Llorente-Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gluten intolerance is an immune-mediated enteropathy associated with gluten-containing foods in genetically susceptible patients. The typical form mainly affecting children shows failure to thrive and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. The adult form is less typical, presenting vague gastrointestinal symptoms, iron deficiency (with or without anemia or nonspecific serum chemistry abnormalities. The present study aims to analyze clinical and biochemical differences of celiac disease (CD according to sex and age.

  16. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  17. Variation of the fine-structure constant from the de Sitter invariant special relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-Xia; XIAO Neng-Chao; YAN Mu-Lin

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the variation of the fine-structure constant,α.There are obvious discrepancies among the results of α-variation from recent Quasi-stellar observation experiments and from the Oklo uranium mine analysis.We use dS Sitter invariant Special Relativity (SRc,R) and Dirac large number hypothesis to discuss this puzzle,and present a possible solution to the disagreement.By means of the observational data and the discussions presented in this paper,we estimate the radius of the Universe in SRc,R which is about ~2(√5)×1011l.y.

  18. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Jeseta, Michal; Musilova, Petra; Pavlok, Antonin; Kubelka, Michal; Motlik, Jan; Rubes, Jiri; Anger, Martin

    2011-04-27

    It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), combined with whole genome amplification (WGA), to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed.

  19. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Hornak

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, combined with whole genome amplification (WGA, to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed.

  20. Relation between age-related decline in intelligence and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities in healthy octogenarians: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, E; Mortensen, E L; Krabbe, K;

    2000-01-01

    study of age-related decline in intellectual function and MRI at age 80 years. METHODS: From a cohort of 698 people born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in Denmark, 68 healthy non-demented individuals had been tested with the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) at ages 50, 60, and 70...... are related to decline in intelligence but, in healthy octogenarians, the cumulative effect of these features alone explains only a small part of the large differences among individuals in age-related decline in intelligence. Interpretation of the presence and severity of white-matter hyperintensities...

  1. Biological variation in circulating levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 and the influence of age, gender and physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Christensen, I J; Thiel, S

    2007-01-01

    is needed. We here investigate variations of MBL and MASP-2 in healthy persons over time and in relation to gender, age and physical activity. MBL and MASP-2 concentrations were determined in serum from healthy adults over a 3-week period and this was repeated 6 months later (n = 32); during a 24-h period...... (n = 16); and in relation to physical exercise (n = 14). Concentrations in serum and plasma were compared (n = 198). No significant variation over 6 months and no circadian variation was found for MBL (P = 0.39 and P = 0.34 respectively) or MASP-2 (P = 0.54 and P = 0.55). Physical exercise did......Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) are central components of the MBL pathway of complement activation, and may have potential as clinical biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC). Prior to clinical usage, knowledge of the biological variations of the molecules...

  2. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D; Rauh, Benjamin A; Gant, John C; Blalock, Eric M; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca(2+)-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP.

  3. Aging and Wisdom: Age-related changes in economic and social decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eLim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a ‘phenomenon of decline’ and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: 1 prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations, 2 resolving social conflicts, 3 emotional homeostasis, 4 self-reflection, 5 dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  4. Aging and wisdom: age-related changes in economic and social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kenneth Teck Kiat; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    World life expectancy is increasing and many populations will begin to age rapidly. The impeding prevalence of a greater number of older people living longer lives will have significant social and economic implications. It is important to understand how older people make economic and social decisions. Aging can be associated with a "phenomenon of decline" and also greater wisdom. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between wisdom and aging. It reviews and connects the behavioral sciences and neuroscience literature on age differences in the following social and economic decision making domains that represent subcomponents of wisdom: (1) prosocial behavior in experimental economic games and competitive situations; (2) resolving social conflicts; (3) emotional homeostasis; (4) self-reflection; (5) dealing effectively with uncertainty in the domains of risk, ambiguity and intertemporal choice. Overall, we find a lack of research into how older people make economic and social decisions. There is, however, some evidence that older adults outperform young adults on certain subcomponents of wisdom, but the exact relationship between old age and each subcomponent remains unclear. A better understanding of these relationships holds the potential to alleviate a wide range of mental health problems, and has broad implications for social policies aimed at the elderly.

  5. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds.

  6. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel López-Rull

    Full Text Available Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins, pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds.

  7. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a lower...... a given cultivar, Tleaf was generally higher, (1.5-3.7°C) at high as compared to moderate RH. Following desiccation, leaf weight loss was differentially enhanced (8-66%) in high RH-grown plants, indicating a wide variation in high RH tolerance. High RH mainly decreased plant water loss during the light...

  8. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  9. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  10. [The coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CVRR) on electrocardiogram in patients with essential hypertension with reference to aging, hemodynamics and sympatho-adrenomedullary function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, M; Kikuchi, K; Kobayakawa, H; Yamamoto, M; Kudoh, C; Wada, A; Sakamoto, T; Sawai, N; Mukai, H; Iimura, O

    1991-09-01

    To evaluate the significance of parasympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertension, we measured the coefficients of variation of RR intervals (CVRR) on electrocardiogram and examined the relationships between CVRR and aging, hemodynamics and sympatho-adrenomedullary function in normotensive subjects (NT) and in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma noradrenaline concentration (pNA), plasma adrenaline concentration (pAd) and CVRR resting in a supine position were simultaneously measured in 37 NT (33.8 +/- 2.0 years) and 47 mild-to-moderate EHT (51.3 +/- 1.5 years). In both NT and EHT, significantly negative correlations between CVRR and age (NT: r = -0.54, p less than 0.001, EHT: r = -0.41, p less than 0.005) were observed, however, CVRR correlated with neither MAP, HR nor pAd. CVRR tended to correlate negatively with pNA (r = -0.27, p less than 0.1) in NT, unlike in EHT. The mean value of CVRR in EHT (n = 10, age: 38.3 +/- 1.6 years, CVRR: 3.61 +/- 0.37%) was significantly (p less than 0.005) lower than in age-matched NT (n = 10, age: 38.3 +/- 2.5 years, CVRR: 5.76 +/- 0.45%). These results indicate that the parasympathetic tone suggested by CVRR may be related to aging and sympathetic nerve activity, and that parasympathetic function might be impaired in EHT.

  11. Lack of Acid Sphingomyelinase Induces Age-Related Retinal Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill X Wu

    Full Text Available Mutations of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase cause Niemann-Pick diseases type A and B, which are fatal inherited lipid lysosomal storage diseases, characterized with visceral organ abnormalities and neurodegeneration. However, the effects of suppressing retinal ASMase expression are not understood. The goal of this study was to determine if the disruption of ASMase expression impacts the retinal structure and function in the mouse, and begin to investigate the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities.Acid sphingomyelinase knockout (ASMase KO mice were utilized to study the roles of this sphingolipid metabolizing enzyme in the retina. Electroretinogram and morphometric analysis were used to assess the retinal function and structure at various ages. Sphingolipid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Western blots evaluated the level of the autophagy marker LC3-II.When compared to control animals, ASMase KO mice exhibited significant age-dependent reduction in ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. Associated with these functional deficits, morphometric analysis revealed progressive thinning of retinal layers; however, the most prominent degeneration was observed in the photoreceptor and outer nuclear layer. Additional analyses of ASMase KO mice revealed early reduction in ERG c-wave amplitudes and increased lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Sphingolipid analyses showed abnormal accumulation of sphingomyelin and sphingosine in ASMase KO retinas. Western blot analyses showed a higher level of the autophagosome marker LC3-II.These studies demonstrate that ASMase is necessary for the maintenance of normal retinal structure and function. The early outer retinal dysfunction, outer segment degeneration, accumulation of lipofuscin and autophagosome markers provide evidence that disruption of lysosomal function contributes to the age-dependent retinal degeneration exhibited by ASMase KO mice.

  12. Professor age and research assistant ratings of passive-avoidant and proactive leadership : The role of age-related work concerns and age stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as poss

  13. Professor Age and Research Assistant Ratings of Passive-Avoidant and Proactive Leadership: The Role of Age-Related Work Concerns and Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in general, older professors are rated to have more passive-avoidant leadership styles than younger professors by their research assistants. The current study investigated professors' age-related work concerns and research assistants' favorable age stereotypes as possible explanations for this finding. Data came…

  14. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we...... (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p..., global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p

  15. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups ...

  16. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  17. AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: CURRENT ASPECTS OF PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H; P; Heidenkummer

    1991-01-01

    About 1.1 million people are estimated to have age-related macular degeneration in West Germany. Anatomical aspects of the normal macula and physiological ageing processes in the retina will be discribed including alterations in the choroid, in Bruch's membrane, the pigment epithelium and the sensory retina. Risk factors for the development of age-related macular degeneration are age per se, perhaps ethnologic characteristics, ocular characteristics, and perhaps environmental factors. The histopathology...

  18. Association of age at onset in Huntington disease with functional promoter variations in NPY and NPY2R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloster, Eugen; Saft, Carsten; Akkad, Denis A; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

    2014-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat within exon 1 of the HTT gene. Although the variation in age at onset (AO) is partly explained by the lengths of the expanded repeats, the unexplained variation is highly heritable, emphasizing the role of the so-called genetic background on disease expression. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in the modulation of neuroprotection, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in order to test the possibility that genetic variation in NPY or three of its receptor genes (NPY1R, NPY2R, and NPY5R) may explain some of the variation in AO of HD motor manifestations, in a comprehensive cohort of 487 German HD patients. We found modest association of the AO with two NPY promoter variations and a highly significant association with a NPY2R promoter SNP (rs2234759; p = 0.0004). Investigating the functional impact of rs2234759 by luciferase assays revealed that the high-expression NPY2R genotypes were associated with later AO in HD. Additionally, treatment of PC12 cells expressing mutant huntingtin (htt) exon 1 with NPY and the NPY2R agonist NPY(3-36) has a protective effect against mutant htt-induced cell death. Thus, NPY might act through Y2 receptors to slow down the course of HD, and hence, this peptide could be of interest as a possible therapeutic agent.

  19. Age preferences for mates as related to gender, own age, and involvement level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P; Kenrick, DT; Warntjes, A

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined desired minimum and maximum ages for mates across five different levels of relationship involvement (marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies) comparing individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years old. Consistent with previous findi

  20. Developmental origin of age-related coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ke; Díaz-Trelles, Ramon; Liu, Qiaozhen; Diez-Cuñado, Marta; Scimia, Maria-Cecilia; Cai, Wenqing; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Boyle, Joseph J.; Zhou, Bin; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aim Age and injury cause structural and functional changes in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) that influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Although paracrine signalling is widely believed to drive phenotypic changes in caSMCs, here we show that developmental origin within the fetal epicardium can have a profound effect as well. Methods and results Fluorescent dye and transgene pulse-labelling techniques in mice revealed that the majority of caSMCs are derived from Wt1+, Gata5-Cre+ cells that migrate before E12.5, whereas a minority of cells are derived from a later-emigrating, Wt1+, Gata5-Cre− population. We functionally evaluated the influence of early emigrating cells on coronary artery development and disease by Gata5-Cre excision of Rbpj, which prevents their contribution to coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Ablation of the Gata5-Cre+ population resulted in coronary arteries consisting solely of Gata5-Cre− caSMCs. These coronary arteries appeared normal into early adulthood; however, by 5–8 months of age, they became progressively fibrotic, lost the adventitial outer elastin layer, were dysfunctional and leaky, and animals showed early mortality. Conclusion Taken together, these data reveal heterogeneity in the fetal epicardium that is linked to coronary artery integrity, and that distortion of the coronaries epicardial origin predisposes to adult onset disease. PMID:26054850

  1. Pupillary behaviour in relation to wavelength and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Lucio Lobato Rincón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupil light reflex can be used as a non-invasive ocular predictor of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. Spectral sensitivity of the pupil´s response to light has, for some time, been an interesting issue. It has generally, however, only been investigated with the use of white light and studies with monochromatic wavelengths are scarce. This study investigates the effects of wavelength and age within three parameters of the pupil light reflex (amplitude of response, latency, and velocity of constriction in a large sample of younger and older adults (N=97, in mesopic conditions. Subjects were exposed to a single light stimulus at four different wavelengths: white (5600 ºK, blue (450 nm, green (510 nm and red (600 nm. Data was analysed appropriately, and, when applicable, using the General Linear Model (GLM, Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD, Student´s t test and/or ANCOVA. Across all subjects, pupillary response to light had the greatest amplitude and shortest latency in white and green light conditions. In regards to age, older subjects (46-78 years showed an increased latency in white light and decreased velocity of constriction in green light compared to younger subjects (18-45 years old. This study provides data patterns on parameters of wavelength-dependent pupil reflexes to light in adults and it contributes to the large body of pupillometric research. It is hoped that this study will add to the overall evaluation of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity.

  2. Related activities on management of ageing of Dalat Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Lam [Reactor Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a pool type research reactor which was reconstructed in 1982 from the previous 250 kW TRIGA-MARK II reactor. The reactor core, the control and instrumentation system, the primary and secondary cooling systems as well as other associated systems were newly designed and installed. The renovated reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983 and attained its nominal power of 500 kW in February 1984. Since then DNRR has been operated safely. Retained structures of the former reactor such as the reactor aluminum tank, the graphite reflector, the thermal column, the horizontal beam tubes and the radiation concrete shielding are 35 years old. During the recent years, in-service inspection has been carried out, the reactor control and instrumentation system were renovated due to ageing and obsolescence of its components, reactor general inspection and refurbishment were performed. Efforts are being made to cope with ageing of old reactor components to maintain safe operation of the DNRR. (author)

  3. Coefficient of variation as a measure of relative wetness of different stations in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, K. K.

    1991-12-01

    Assessment of relative wetness in different months is a prerequisite for proper planning and utilization of available water resources of an area. Using monthly rainfall data of four different stations in India, the present paper shows that C v, the coefficient of variation, can be used as a measure of relative wetness/dryness. It was further observed that the amount of rainfall for a given probability level can be quickly computed in terms of percentile values. C v is exponentially related to P60, the sixtieth percentile of the amount of rainfall.

  4. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  5. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  6. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  7. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  8. Cognitive aging explains age-related differences in face-based recognition of basic emotions except for anger and disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at a detailed understanding of the possible dissociable influences of cognitive aging on the recognition of facial expressions of basic emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, and sadness). The participants were 36 older and 36 young adults. They viewed 96 pictures of facial expressions and were asked to choose one emotion that best described each. Four cognitive tasks measuring the speed of processing and fluid intelligence were also administered, the scores of which were used to compute a composite measure of general cognitive ability. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that age-related deficits in identifying happiness, surprise, fear, and sadness were statistically explained by general cognitive ability, while the differences in anger and disgust were not. This provides clear evidence that age-related cognitive impairment remarkably and differentially affects the recognition of basic emotions, contrary to the common view that cognitive aging has a uniformly minor effect.

  9. Interpreting variation in growth of Eurasian Spoonbill chicks: disentangling the effects of age, sex and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chick body condition can be a sensitive indicator of local environmental conditions and has been shown to be correlated with chick survival. Designing a reliable index of chick body condition for a given species from a single measurement point requires knowledge about the extent of variation in body

  10. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    (exudative cases); the remainder has only geographic atrophy. In cross-sectional population-based studies about 45% of eyes with AMD have visual acuity reduced to 20/200 or worse. This is true both for exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy. Age and genetic predisposition are known risk factors for AMD...... a fluorescein angiographic study and a physician capable of interpreting it. For CNV not involving the foveal centre, the only evidence-based treatment is laser photocoagulation. For AMD cases with subfoveal CNV, good visual acuity, and predominantly classic fluorescence pattern on fluorescein angiography....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  11. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: age-related tissue-remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untergasser, Gerold; Madersbacher, Stephan; Berger, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Aging and androgens are the two established risk factors for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE), which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men. BPH, consisting of a nodular overgrowth of the epithelium and fibromuscular tissue within transition zone and periurethral areas, is first detectable around the fourth decade of life and affects nearly all men by the ninth decade. The pathogenesis of BPH is still largely unresolved, but multiple partially overlapping and complementary theories have been proposed, all of which seem to be operative at least to some extent. In addition to nerve-, endocrine- and immune system, local para- and luminocrine pleiotrope mechanisms/factors are implicated in the prostatic tissue-remodeling process. Prostate tissue-remodeling in the transition zone is characterized by: (i) hypertrophic basal cells, (ii) altered secretions of luminal cells leading to calcification, clogged ducts and inflammation, (iii) lymphocytic infiltration with production of proinflammatory cytokines, (iv) increased radical oxygen species (ROS) production that damages epithelial and stromal cells, (v) increased basic fibroblast (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta 1) production leading to stromal proliferation, transdifferentiation and extracellular matrix production, (vi) altered autonomous innervation that decreases relaxation and leads to a high adrenergic tonus, (vii) and altered neuroendocine cell function and release of neuroendocrine peptides (NEP). This review summarizes the multifactorial nature of prostate tissue remodeling in elderly men with symptomatic BPH with a particular focus on changes of cell-cell interactions and cell functions in the human aging prostate.

  12. Age and work-related motives : Results of a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Kanfer, Ruth; Dikkers, Josje S. E.

    2011-01-01

    An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we propos

  13. Variation of Blunt Traumatic Injury with Age in Older Adults: Statewide Analysis 2011-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Earl-Royal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death and disability in adults ≥ 65 years old, but there are few epidemiological studies addressing this issue. The aim of this study was to assess how characteristics of blunt traumatic injuries in adults ≥ 65 vary by age. Methods: Using data from the a single-state trauma registry, this retrospective cohort study examined injured patients ≥ 65 admitted to all Level I and Level II trauma centers in Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2014 (n=38,562. Patients were stratified by age into three subgroups (age 65-74; 75-84; ≥85. We compared demographics, injury, and system-level across groups. Results: We found significant increases in the proportion of female gender, (48.6% vs. 58.7% vs. 67.7%, white race (89.1% vs. 92.6% vs. 94.6%, and non-Hispanic ethnicity (97.5% vs. 98.6% vs. 99.4% across advancing age across age groups, respectively. As age increased, the proportion of falls (69.9% vs. 82.1% vs. 90.3%, in-hospital mortality (4.6% vs. 6.2% vs. 6.8%, and proportion of patients arriving to the hospital via ambulance also increased (73.6% vs. 75.8% vs. 81.1%, while median injury severity plateaued (9.0% all groups and the proportion of Level I trauma alerts (10.6% vs. 8.2% vs. 6.7% decreased. We found no trend between age and patient transfer status. The five most common diagnoses were vertebral fracture, rib fracture, head contusion, open head wound, and intracranial hemorrhage, with vertebral fracture and head contusion increasing with age, and rib fracture decreasing with age. Conclusion: In a large cohort of older adults with trauma (n= 38,000, we found, with advancing age, a decrease in trauma alert level, despite an increase in mortality and a decrease in demographic diversity. This descriptive study provides a framework for future research on the relationship between age and blunt traumatic injury in older adults.

  14. Resveratrol in mammals: effects on aging biomarkers, age-related diseases, and life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Pifferi, Fabien; Aujard, Fabienne

    2013-07-01

    Through its antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, resveratrol has become a candidate for drug development in the context of aging studies. Scientific evidence has highlighted its potential as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases and some cancers but also as an antiaging molecule. Resveratrol is thought to mimic the beneficial effects of chronic and moderate calorie restriction. Nevertheless, no study has demonstrated the prolongation of life span in healthy nonobese mammal models. This review summarizes recent findings on the effects of resveratrol on aging and life span in mammals. In our opinion, more studies should be performed to assess the effects of a chronic dietary intake of resveratrol in long-lived species close to humans, such as nonhuman primates. This will certainly generate more evidence about the ability of resveratrol to achieve the physiological benefits that have been observed in small mammal laboratory models and feature the eventual unwanted secondary effects that may occur under high levels of resveratrol.

  15. Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle...

  16. TAA repeat variation in the GRIK2 gene does not influence age at onset in Huntington's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S.; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Hadzi, Tiffany; Hendricks, Audrey E.; Hayden, Michael R.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russell L.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Gellera, Cinzia; Gomez-Tortosa, Estrella; Ayuso, Carmen; Suchowersky, Oksana; Trent, Ronald J.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Jones, Randi; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Frank, Samuel; Saint-Hilaire, Marie-Helene; Hersch, Steven M.; Rosas, Herminia D.; Lucente, Diane; Harrison, Madaline B.; Zanko, Andrea; Abramson, Ruth K.; Marder, Karen; Sequeiros, Jorge; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Network, Ira Shoulson; Myers, Richard H.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat whose length is the major determinant of age at onset but remaining variation appears to be due in part to the effect of genetic modifiers. GRIK2, which encodes GluR6, a mediator of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, has been suggested in several studies to be a modifier gene based upon a 3′ untranslated region TAA trinucleotide repeat polymorphism. Prior to investing in detailed studies of the functional impact of this polymorphism, we sought to confirm its effect on age at onset in a much larger dataset than in previous investigations. We genotyped the HD CAG repeat and the GRIK2 TAA repeat in DNA samples from 2,911 Huntington's disease subjects with known age at onset, and tested for a potential modifier effect of GRIK2 using a variety of statistical approaches. Unlike previous reports, we detected no evidence of an influence of the GRIK2 TAA repeat polymorphism on age at motor onset. Similarly, the GRIK2 polymorphism did not show significant modifier effect on psychiatric and cognitive age at onset in HD. Comprehensive analytical methods applied to a much larger sample than in previous studies do not support a role for GRIK2 as a genetic modifier of age at onset of clinical symptoms in Huntington's disease. PMID:22771793

  17. Aging has the opposite effect on cAMP and cGMP circadian variations in rat Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Andric, Silvana A; Kostic, Tatjana S

    2016-12-03

    The Leydig cell physiology displays a circadian rhythm driven by a complex interaction of the reproductive axis hormones and circadian system. The final output of this regulatory process is circadian pattern of steroidogenic genes expression and testosterone production. Aging gradually decreases robustness of rhythmic testosterone secretion without change in pattern of LH secretion. Here, we analyzed effect of aging on circadian variation of cAMP and cGMP signaling in Leydig cells. Results showed opposite effect of aging on cAMP and cGMP daily variation. Reduced amplitude of cAMP circadian oscillation was probably associated with changed expression of genes involved in cAMP production (increased circadian pattern of Adcy7, Adcy9, Adcy10 and decreased Adcy3); cAMP degradation (increased Pde4a, decreased Pde8b, canceled rhythm of Pde4d, completely reversed circadian pattern of Pde7b and Pde8a); and circadian expression of protein kinase A subunits (Prkac/PRKAC and Prkar2a). Aging stimulates expression of genes responsible for cGMP production (Nos2, Gucy1a3 and Gucy1b3/GUCYB3) and degradation (Pde5a, Pde6a and Pde6h) but the overall net effect is elevation of cGMP circadian oscillations in Leydig cells. In addition, the expression of cGMP-dependent kinase, Prkg1/PRKG1 is up-regulated. It seems that aging potentiate cGMP- and reduce cAMP-signaling in Leydig cells. Since both signaling pathways affect testosterone production and clockwork in the cells, further insights into these signaling pathways will help to unravel disorders linked to the circadian timing system, aging and reproduction.

  18. Theorising Age and Generation in Development: A Relational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, R.; George, S.; Gigengack, R.A.; Evers, S.J.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction outlines the analytical approach informing the articles presented in this special issue. The project of ‘generationing’ development involves re-thinking development as distinctly generational in its dynamics. For this, we adopt a relational approach to the study of young people in

  19. Plumb line variation at Tangshan during 1987―1998 and its relation with the earthquakes around

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plumb line variations(PLV) at Tangshan during the years of 1987―1998 are determined by using the 46 batch repeated gravity observations of the Beijing-Tangshan network.It has been found that PLV at Tangshan are related with the 38 earthquakes in this period.It appears that the time of an earthquake around Tangshan is usually quite the same when PLV at Tangshan begins moving in opposite direction.

  20. EPHA2 polymorphisms and age-related cataract in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periasamy Sundaresan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of EPHA2 in European studies are associated with cataract in India. METHODS: We carried out a population-based genetic association study. We enumerated randomly sampled villages in two areas of north and south India to identify people aged 40 and over. Participants attended a clinical examination including lens photography and provided a blood sample for genotyping. Lens images were graded by the Lens Opacification Classification System (LOCS III. Cataract was defined as a LOCS III grade of nuclear ≥4, cortical ≥3, posterior sub-capsular (PSC ≥2, or dense opacities or aphakia/pseudophakia in either eye. We genotyped SNPs rs3754334, rs7543472 and rs11260867 on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using TaqMan assays in an ABI 7900 real-time PCR. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to examine the association between cataract and the EPHA2 SNPs, adjusting for age, sex and location. RESULTS: 7418 participants had data on at least one of the SNPs investigated. Genotype frequencies of controls were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p>0.05. There was no association of rs3754334 with cataract or type of cataract. Minor allele homozygous genotypes of rs7543472 and rs11260867 compared to the major homozygote genotype were associated with cortical cataract, Odds ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.1, 3.1 p = 0.03 and 2.9 (1.2, 7.1 p = 0.01 respectively, and with PSC cataract, OR = 1.5 (1.1, 2.2 p = 0.02 and 1.8 (0.9, 3.6 p = 0.07 respectively. There was no consistent association of SNPs with nuclear cataract or a combined variable of any type of cataract including operated cataract. CONCLUSIONS: Our results in the Indian population agree with previous studies of the association of EPHA2 variants with cortical cataracts. We report new findings for the association with PSC which is

  1. EPHA2 Polymorphisms and Age-Related Cataract in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Periasamy; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Vashist, Praveen; Shanker, Ashwini; Nitsch, Dorothea; Talwar, Badrinath; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Nonyane, Bareng Aletta S.; Smeeth, Liam; Chakravarthy, Usha; Hejtmancik, James F.; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of EPHA2 in European studies are associated with cataract in India. Methods We carried out a population-based genetic association study. We enumerated randomly sampled villages in two areas of north and south India to identify people aged 40 and over. Participants attended a clinical examination including lens photography and provided a blood sample for genotyping. Lens images were graded by the Lens Opacification Classification System (LOCS III). Cataract was defined as a LOCS III grade of nuclear ≥4, cortical ≥3, posterior sub-capsular (PSC) ≥2, or dense opacities or aphakia/pseudophakia in either eye. We genotyped SNPs rs3754334, rs7543472 and rs11260867 on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using TaqMan assays in an ABI 7900 real-time PCR. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to examine the association between cataract and the EPHA2 SNPs, adjusting for age, sex and location. Results 7418 participants had data on at least one of the SNPs investigated. Genotype frequencies of controls were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p>0.05). There was no association of rs3754334 with cataract or type of cataract. Minor allele homozygous genotypes of rs7543472 and rs11260867 compared to the major homozygote genotype were associated with cortical cataract, Odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.1, 3.1) p = 0.03 and 2.9 (1.2, 7.1) p = 0.01 respectively, and with PSC cataract, OR = 1.5 (1.1, 2.2) p = 0.02 and 1.8 (0.9, 3.6) p = 0.07 respectively. There was no consistent association of SNPs with nuclear cataract or a combined variable of any type of cataract including operated cataract. Conclusions Our results in the Indian population agree with previous studies of the association of EPHA2 variants with cortical cataracts. We report new findings for the association with PSC which is particularly prevalent

  2. Age-related synaptic loss of the medial olivocochlear efferent innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Angela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related functional decline of the nervous system is consistently observed, though cellular and molecular events responsible for this decline remain largely unknown. One of the most prevalent age-related functional declines is age-related hearing loss (presbycusis, a major cause of which is the loss of outer hair cells (OHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. Previous studies have also identified an age-related functional decline in the medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent system prior to age-related loss of OHCs. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that this functional decline of the MOC efferent system is due to age-related synaptic loss of the efferent innervation of the OHCs. To this end, we used a recently-identified transgenic mouse line in which the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP, under the control of neuron-specific elements from the thy1 gene, permits the visualization of the synaptic connections between MOC efferent fibers and OHCs. In this model, there was a dramatic synaptic loss between the MOC efferent fibers and the OHCs in older mice. However, age-related loss of efferent synapses was independent of OHC status. These data demonstrate for the first time that age-related loss of efferent synapses may contribute to the functional decline of the MOC efferent system and that this synaptic loss is not necessary for age-related loss of OHCs.

  3. A review of the equine age-related changes in the immune system: comparisons between human and equine aging, with focus on lung-specific immune-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S; Baptiste, K E; Fjeldborg, J; Horohov, D W

    2015-03-01

    The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans and horses share many of these age-related changes, with only a few differences. Thus, inflamm-aging and immunosenescence are well-described phenomena in both human and equine research, particularly in relation to the peripheral blood and especially the T-cell compartment. However, the lung is faced with unique challenges because of its constant interaction with the external environment and thus may not share similarities to peripheral blood when considering age-related changes in immune function. Indeed, recent studies have shown discrepancies in cytokine mRNA and protein expression between the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage immune cells. These results provide important evidence that age-related immune changes or 'dys-functions' are organ-specific.

  4. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amund Høymork

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumference between the different age and sex groups. Total tines and number of tine split-offs are use¬ful for the field biologist when discriminating among adult females, yearling males and 2.5 year-old males. For example, when using the tine split-offs with the suggested classification, 79% of the observed adult females and 76% of the yearling males were classified correctly. The antler height, width and circumference provide other biological dif¬ferences between groups, but are not easy to use to identify free ranging reindeer. This is due to the great overlap in antler size between the groups and measuring difficulties in a field study situation. Male and female calves have very similar antlers, and only the antler width is possible for sex discrimination, giving 67% accuracy of discriminating between these two groups.

  5. Early detection of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Galbinur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify factors associated with early detection of choroidal neovascularization CNV in clinical practice.Methods: Seventy six AMD patients who had history of CNV in one eye and presented with CNV in the second eye and evaluated for association with visual acuity (VA at time of presentation. Demographics, clinical data and lesion characteristics were retrospectively collected.Results: Better VA was associated with history of CNV in the fellow eye (p<0.0001, adherence to follow-up every four-months (p=0.015, younger age (p=0.03, smaller lesion (p<0.0001, and non-subfoveal localization (p=0.048. VA of the fellow eye did not correlate with VA at presentation with CNV.Conclusion: these data suggest that experience of CNV, regardless of VA, facilitates early diagnosis in the fellow eye. Adherence to follow-up in the routine clinic setting also facilitates early detection of CNV.

  6. Gelotophobia and age: Do disposition towards ridicule and being laughed at predict coping with age-related vulnerabilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald Ruch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines how dispositions to ridicule and being laughed at (gelotophobic, gelotophilic or katagelasticistic assist, or hinder, coping with age-related problems or vulnerabilities. A sample of 131 adult participants completed the PhoPhiKat-30, the PPK-Vulnerability Statement Comparison (PPK-VSC, and the Third Age Vulnerabilities Anxiety Survey (TAVAS. Results showed that the PhoPhiKat-30 is a reliable self-report instrument in its English language form. The dispositions to ridicule and being laughed at (as measured by the PhoPhiKat-30 together with education level and amount of worry about actual or potential problems predicted the nature of the response to the age-related vulnerabilities. People of low education, who generally fear being laughed at but who also ridicule others, and have not experienced many age-related vulnerabilities but worry about them, indicate that they would act gelotophobicly when facing such problems. Gelotophilia, higher education and not experiencing worrying vulnerabilities are predictive of a tendency to make others laugh at ones problems. Katagelasticistism, increased age, no education above compulsory schooling, and a higher number of problems encountered but not worried about relates to laughing at the misfortunes of others. The implications of the results for those interacting with older people are discussed.

  7. SIRT1 ameliorates age-related senescence of mesenchymal stem cells via modulating telomere shelterin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang eChen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs senescence, which impairs its tissue repair capacity in vivo and hence compromises the effects of MSCs-based therapy in clinical applications, is closely related to aging and aging-related diseases. Here, we demonstrated the effect of SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, on age-related MSCs senescence. Knockdown of SIRT1 in young MSCs induces cellular senescence and inhibits cellular proliferation ability whereas overexpression of SIRT1 in aged MSCs reversed the cellular senescence and regained its proliferation capacity, suggesting that SIRT1 could modulate age-induced MSCs senescence. Aging-related proteins, P16 and P21, might be involved in SIRT1-mediated anti-aging effect on MSCs. SIRT1 could positively modulate age-related DNA damage in MSCs. In addition, SIRT1 could induce telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT expression and consequently enhance telomerase activity, however, no significant change was observed in telomere length. Moreover, SIRT1 could positively regulate TPP1, an important member of telomere shelterin, expression. Together, these results demonstrate that SIRT1 dampens age-related MSCs senescence, which was correlated with the up-regulation of TPP1 expression, telomerase activity and down-regulation of DNA damage.

  8. Fluctuation dissipation relation in an ageing spin glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herisson, D. E-mail: didier.herisson@angstrom.uu.se; Ocio, M

    2004-05-01

    The time autocorrelation of magnetic fluctuations C(t',t) has been measured in a spin glass, and compared with the magnetic response {chi}(t',t). Clearly, we observe a non-linear fluctuation dissipation relation between C and {chi}. A scaling procedure allows us to extrapolate to the limit of long waiting times t', where the {chi}(C) relationship should become independent of t'.

  9. Family and population-based studies of variation within the ghrelin receptor locus in relation to measures of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette P Gjesing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR is mediating hunger sensation when stimulated by its natural ligand ghrelin. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that common and rare variation in the GHSR locus are related to increased prevalence of obesity and overweight among Whites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population-based study sample of 15,854 unrelated, middle-aged Danes, seven variants were genotyped to capture common variation in an 11 kbp region including GHSR. These were investigated for their individual and haplotypic association with obesity. None of these analyses revealed consistent association with measures of obesity. A -151C/T promoter mutation in the GHSR was found in two unrelated obese patients. One family presented with complete co-segregation, but the other with incomplete co-segregation. The mutation resulted in an increased transcriptional activity (p0.05 could be shown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a population-based study sample of 15,854 Danes no association between GHSR genotypes and measures of obesity and overweight was found. Also, analyses of GHSR haplotypes lack consistent associations with obesity related traits. A rare functional GHSR promoter mutation variant was identified, yet there was no consistent relationship with obesity in neither family- nor population-based studies.

  10. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-08

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes.

  11. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m3) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m3). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass...

  13. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  14. Variational solution about over-determined geodetic boundary value problem and its related theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new solving method for Laplace equation with over-determined geodetic boundary conditions is pro- posed in the paper, with the help of minimizing some kinds of quadratic functional in calculus of variation. At first, the so-called variational solution for over-determined geodetic boundary value problem is defined in terms of principles in calculus of variation. Then theoretical properties related with the solution are derived, especially for its existence, uniqueness and optimal approximation. And then the computational method of the solution is discussed, and its expression is exhibited under the case that all boundaries are spheres. Finally an arithmetic example about EGM96 gravity field model is given, and the computational results show that the proposed method can efficiently raise accuracy to deal with gravity data. In all, the variational solution of over-determined geodetic boundary value problem can not only fit to deal with many kinds of gravity data in a united form, but also has strict mathematical basements.

  15. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  16. Life-History Related Differences in Possible Selves in Very Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane; Smith, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    The impact of early life events that take place under specific historical and societal circumstances on adult development have rarely been investigated in old age. We examined whether having started a family in young adulthood was related to the contents of possible selves generated by women aged 85 to 100+ in the Berlin Aging Study (N = 129; M…

  17. Healthy aging attenuates task-related specialization in the human medial temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on aging has established important links between the neurobiology of normal aging and age-related decline in episodic memory, yet the exact nature of this relationship is still unknown. Functional neuroimaging of regions such as the medial temporal lobe (MTL) have produced conflic...

  18. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Groot, J. de; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R.A.; Thorpe, S.R.; Baynes, J.W.; Bayliss, M.T.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  19. Recent patents relating to diagnostic advances in age related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantsilieris, Stuart; Schache, Maria; Ashdown, M Luisa; Baird, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder accounting for 50% of blind registrations in the western world. Its substantial impact on quality of life has been a main driver in research to understand its etiology, which up until recently was mostly unknown. In the last three years our understanding of the molecular pathology of AMD has increased dramatically with the identification of two major AMD loci comprising of, Complement Factor H (CFH) and a chromosome 10q26 locus consisting of the Heat Shock Serine Protease (HTRA1) and LOC387715 genes. These two loci have been described as associated with over 50% of disease in certain ethnicities. The rapid pace in our understanding of the complex biology of this disease has placed a large emphasis on gene patenting, especially with the licensing of the CFH and chromosome 10 patents to a private life science company called Optherion Inc. The patents discussed in this review highlight the important discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of AMD and provide valuable information as to where research in this area will be heading in the future.

  20. Complement factor H and hemicentin-1 in age-related macular degeneration and renal phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl L; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Xu, Zhiying; Capriotti, Jennifer; Joshi, Tripti; Leontiev, Dmitry; Lee, Kristine E; Elston, Robert C; Iyengar, Sudha K

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the associations of complement factor H (CFH) and hemicentin-1 (HMCN1) with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and renal function. Three scales, measuring the course of AMD and drusen development, were examined in two samples: the Family Age-Related Macular degeneration Study (FARMS), consisting of families ascertained through a single individual with severe AMD, and an unascertained population-based family cohort, the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), which was also used to assess longitudinal changes in AMD and associations with renal function. Associations were performed by a regression accounting for known risk factors as well as familial and sibling effects. Strong evidence of the association of rs1061170 (Y402H) variation with AMD was confirmed (P = 9.15 x 10(-5) in BDES, P = 0.016 in FARMS). This association was observed in multiple AMD scales, suggesting that its role is not phenotype-specific. Polymorphisms in both CFH and HMCN1 appeared to influence the longitudinal rate of change of AMD. The rs1061170 polymorphism was also associated with a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P = 0.046). Another CFH polymorphism, rs800292, was similarly associated with eGFR [beta = -0.90 (P = 0.022)]. Associations between rs743137 (P = 0.05) and rs680638 (P = 0.022) in HMCN1 with calculated creatinine clearance progression were also observed. Both genes appear to play a role in both AMD and renal pathophysiology. These findings support evidence for common pathways influencing ocular and renal function and suggest that further work is required on their common determinants.