Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM, alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline to 2nd grade elementary school (endline. Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry, BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025 compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years. RESULTS: Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to
Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T
The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.
Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga
In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia
Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL), and consumption was stratified into two levels (energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances). PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.
Full Text Available Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs by plain water (PW. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL, and consumption was stratified into two levels (<2 and ≥2 servings/day. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between PW and SSB consumption in relation to total energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances. PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p < 0.05. Promoting higher PW and lower SSB consumption provides a useful public health strategy for reducing total energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.
Dominguez, Graciela; And Others
Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…
Lopez-Perez, Ruben; Lopez-Morales, Patricia; Borges-Yanez, S. Aida; Maupome, Gerardo; Pares-Vidrio, Gustavo
This study sought to determine the prevalence of bruxism in a Mexican community of children with Down syndrome, and to evaluate bruxism's relationship with age, sex, intellectual disability level, and type of chromosomal abnormality of trisomy 21. Using a cross-sectional design, 57 boys and girls (3 to 14 years old) were examined. Three approaches…
Bausch, R S; Serpe, R T
This article identifies concerns about four possible negative outcomes of interethnic adoption involving Mexican American children and non-Mexican American parents. A sample of 861 Mexican Americans age 18 or older were asked whether they agreed or disagreed that four outcomes result from interethnic adoption: (1) The child may have an ethnic identity conflict, (2) the child may forget his or her Latino background, (3) the child's participation in Latino cultural events may be limited, and (4) the child may not acquire the skills to cope with racism. Respondents' agreement with the likelihood of these outcomes was associated with a belief in the importance of structural and cultural barriers preventing Latinos from adopting; with higher levels of participation in Mexican American cultural events; and with income, education, and acculturation. However, agreement that the outcomes were likely did not necessarily reflect approval or disapproval of interethnic adoption. Suggestions are made for future research on Mexican American children adopted by non-Mexican American parents.
Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra
Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.
Ismail, Amid L.; And Others
Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)
Landale, Nancy S; Oropesa, R S; Noah, Aggie J; Hillemeier, Marianne M
Although one-third of children of immigrants have undocumented parents, little is known about their early development. Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and decennial census, we assessed how children's cognitive skills at ages 3 to 5 vary by ethnicity, maternal nativity, and maternal legal status. Specifically, Mexican children of undocumented mothers were contrasted with Mexican children of documented mothers and Mexican, white, and black children with U.S.-born mothers. Mexican children of undocumented mothers had lower emergent reading skills than all other groups and lower emergent mathematics skills than all groups with U.S.-born mothers. Multilevel regression models showed that differences in reading skills are explained by aspects of the home environment, but the neighborhood context also matters. Cross-level interactions suggest that immigrant concentration boosts emergent reading and mathematics skills for children with undocumented parents, but does not similarly benefit children whose parents are native born.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un programa de actividad física sobre los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Escolares de dos escuelas públicas de Querétaro (n= 360, 8-14 años realizaron una rutina de actividad física durante 16 semanas (febrero a mayo de 2006. Se compararon mediciones antropométricas, de presión arterial y química sanguínea, antes y después de la intervención. RESULTADOS: La presión sistólica, los triacilglicéridos y el colesterol total disminuyeron de forma significativa en los escolares. La reducción de los lípidos fue mayor en los escolares con valores iniciales alterados. En niñas con riesgo cardiovascular inicial, el puntaje de conglomerado de riesgo disminuyó en grado considerable. No se observaron cambios en el IMC, circunferencia de cintura e insulina sé-rica. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación de una rutina de ejercicio sencilla tiene efectos notorios sobre los indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares. Estos resultados pueden considerarse un modelo de intervención para paliar los efectos de la obesidad infantil.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a physical activity intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican school-age children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children from two public schools in Queretaro (n=360, 8-14 years old performed a 20-minute physical activity routine every school day during 16 weeks (February-May 2006. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical assessment was done before and after implementation. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels decreased significantly. The decrease in lipid and lipoprotein levels was higher in children with high baseline levels. In high-risk girls, the cardiovascular risk cluster score decreased significantly. No change in BMI, waist circumference, or insulin was observed. CONCLUSION: A simple physical activity program modified several cardiovascular risk markers
Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos prescolares y escolares: encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309) and school (n=2 611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-i...
Objective. To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. Materials and methods. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer) was self-reported. Results. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Mexico, as in other developing countries, micronutrient deficiencies are common in infants between 6 and 24 months of age and are an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and of iron, folic acid, and zinc deficiencies in Mexican children under 2 years of age who use the health care services provided by the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted with a representative sample of children younger than 2 years of age, beneficiaries, and users of health care services provided by IMSS through its regular regimen (located in urban populations and its Oportunidades program (services offered in rural areas. A subsample of 4,955 clinically healthy children was studied to determine their micronutrient status. A venous blood sample was drawn to determine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, percent of transferrin saturation, zinc, and folic acid. Descriptive statistics include point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the sample and projections for the larger population from which the sample was drawn. Results Twenty percent of children younger than 2 years of age had anemia, and 27.8% (rural to 32.6% (urban had iron deficiency; more than 50% of anemia was not associated with low ferritin concentrations. Iron stores were more depleted as age increased. Low serum zinc and folic acid deficiencies were 28% and 10%, respectively, in the urban areas, and 13% and 8%, respectively, in rural areas. The prevalence of simultaneous iron and zinc deficiencies was 9.2% and 2.7% in urban and rural areas. Children with anemia have higher percentages of folic acid deficiency than children with normal iron status. Conclusion Iron and zinc deficiencies constitute the principal micronutrient deficiencies in Mexican children younger than 2 years old who use the health care services provided by IMSS. Anemia not associated with low ferritin values
Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose
Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…
Rivera Juan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a industrializados modernos (IM, b industrializados tradicionales (IT y c no industrializados (NI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070 se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La contribución de energía a partir de IM e IT, respectivamente, fue: energía, 17 y 31%; proteína total, 14 y 25%; proteína vegetal, 10 y 10%; proteína animal, 17 y 34%; carbohidratos, 18 y 26%; fibra, 4 y 5%; grasa total, 15 y 41%; grasa saturada, 16 y 52%; y colesterol, 7 y 7 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos industrializados aportan más de 39% de la energía, proteína animal, carbohidratos y grasas a la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos. Se recomienda la participación de la industria alimentaria para prevenir la mala nutrición infantil en México.OBJECTIVE: To classify the foods consumed by Mexican children 1-4 years in three food categories according to the preparation process and temporality: a Processed Modern Foods (PMF, b Processed Traditional Foods (PTF and c Non-Processed Foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 in children 1-4 years (n =1070. The contribution of each food category to the total energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes was analyzed. RESULTS: The contribution of PMF and PTF was as follows, respectively: Energy: 17%, 31%; total protein: 14%, 25%; non-animal protein: 10%, 10%; animal protein: 17%, 34%; carbohydrates: 18%, 26%; fiber: 4%, 5%; total fat 15%, 41%; saturated fat 16%, 52%; and cholesterol 7%, 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of PF to the diets of Mexican children accounts for >39% of energy, total protein, animal protein
Olga Patricia García; Dolores Ronquillo; María del Carmen Caamaño; Guadalupe Martínez; Mariela Camacho; Viridiana López; Jorge L. Rosado
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated ...
Ramírez-Anaya, Marisol; Macías, Mario Enrique Rendón; Velázquez-González, Edmundo
The Children's Dermatology Quality Index was developed as a tool to evaluate the quality-of-life in children with skin diseases. While a useful, self-administered scale, it has not been validated in Spanish for Mexican children. The aim of this study was to validate a Mexican version. Direct English-Spanish translation of the Children's Dermatology Quality Index was performed by two translators, and a single version was produced by a consensus of experts. Clarity was tested in a cohort of 60 healthy children. A reverse English-Spanish translation was performed. In a second stage, the quality-of-life was evaluated in a cohort of 64 pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis using the SCOring Atopic Dermatitis Index and COOP-Dartmouth questionnaires, and its severity evaluated with SCOring Atopic Dermatitis Index. Sixty-four patients (32 males), aged 11.8 +/- 2.9 years, with atopic dermatitis of 1 to 3 years of evolution were evaluated. The Mexican Spanish version of the Children's Dermatology Quality Index showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.83; (CI(95%) = 0.76-0.88) and a high test-retest reliability (gamma(s) = 0.97, p Quality Index and COOP-Dartmouth (gamma(s) = 0.97, p Quality Index questionnaire in its Mexican Spanish version is valid and reliable for evaluating quality-of-life in Mexican pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis.
Rosas, Lisa G.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...
Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.
García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; del Carmen Caamaño, María; Martínez, Guadalupe; Camacho, Mariela; López, Viridiana; Rosado, Jorge L
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.
The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…
Olga Patricia García
Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP, zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHR and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05. Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05. Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05. Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05. Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1, children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1 and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL concentrations (p < 0.05, and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05. In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui
This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…
Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999
Bernardo Hernández; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A. Monterrubio; Claudia Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Raquel García-Feregrino; Juan A Rivera; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administer...
Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Leroy, Jef L; Neufeld, Lynnette M
Mexico's Oportunidades program provides conditional cash transfers, nutrition education, health services, and fortified food supplements for the young children of poor families. We have documented the effects of the program on growth and reduction of anemia. To better understand the impact pathways and disentangle the relative effects on dietary intake of the food supplements compared with other program components, we analyzed data from a randomized effectiveness evaluation of the Oportunidades program in rural children aged 12-59 mo. All Oportunidades beneficiaries received the cash transfers and the health and education components, but some children did not consume the supplements. The children's diet was evaluated using a single 24-h recall. The impact was estimated using multiple linear regression models with community-level random effects. Comparisons were made among children who received all the benefits of Oportunidades, including the fortified food supplement (SG), beneficiaries of the program who did not consume the food supplement (NSG), and the control group (CG). Relative to the NSG and CG, respectively, the SG consumed greater amounts of [mean (95% CI)]: energy, 94 (28, 160) and 111 (43, 180) kcal/d; iron, 7.6 (6.3, 8.9) and 7.7 (6.5, 9.0) mg/d; zinc, 7.5 (6.4, 8.6) and 7.6 (6.5, 8.7) mg/d; and vitamin A, 0.109 (0.071, 0.147) and 0.120 (0.080, 0.159) mg retinol equivalents/d. No differences were found between the NSG and CG (P > 0.05). To conclude, the Oportunidades program had a positive impact on the diet of children. The effects of the program on dietary intake resulted from the food supplement and not from improvements in the home diet. Our findings are useful for identifying which program components contributed to the effects on the nutritional status of children.
Fernández, T; Tuset, A M
Normative data are presented for Bender test performance, following the system of Koppitz, of 695 Mexican students between 5.0 and 12.1 yr. old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.01) and belonging to different socioeconomic status. The data are compared with the normative group of U.S. students used by Koppitz and with a representative sample of children from Barcelona, Spain. The results indicate that the total number of Bender errors decreased with increasing age of the children and that significant differences existed with respect to socioeconomic status. The comparison of these data with U.S. and Spanish children shows significant differences in all age groups, with the Mexican children scoring lowest. Differences in quality of schooling and in other aspects of education could explain the variability in Bender test performance.
Vàzquez-Nava, Francisco; Morales Romero, Jaime; Crodova Fernandez, José A; Saldívar-González, Atenogenes H; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Carlos F; Barrientos Gomez, Maria del C; Lin-Ochoa, Dolorez; Vázquez Rodríguez, Eliza M
The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), overweight (> or =85th and obesity (> or =95th percentile). Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.58), obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68-1.30), and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.
Full Text Available The elevated prevalence of obesity as well as of asthma in preschool children has prompted investigators to speculate that obesity in childhood might be a causal factor in the development of asthma. The results obtained to date are debatable. We investigated the association between obesity and asthma in 1,160 preschool Mexican children. Diagnosis of asthma was performed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire. The body mass index (BMI in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria, such as normal weight (5th-85th percentile, overweight (ࣙ85th and <95th percentile, and obesity (ࣙ95th percentile. Power test for logistic regression model was calculated. We found no association between overweight (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66–1.58, obesity (adjusted OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.68–1.30, and wheezing during the last year as determined by logistic regression model adjusted. We did not find an association between overweight, obesity, and asthma-associated hospitalizations. Further longitudinal studies are required to provide a better understanding of the relationship between obesity and asthma in preschool children.
Energy and nutrient intake among Mexican school-aged children, Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos en edad escolar, Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age. RESULTS: Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Coexistence of over and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo y adecuación de energía y nutrimentos en niños escolares mexicanos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos en 8 716 niños de entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos. Se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana/rural, nivel socioeconómico (NSE y estado nutricio (índice de masa corporal y talla/edad. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue 1 501 kcal/día (% adecuación 88.0; 25.5% de los niños tuvieron sobrepeso u obesidad; 10%, retardo en talla. Los niños con menor NSE, los indígenas y los de comunidades rurales mostraron mayores inadecuaciones dietarias de vitamina A, folato, zinc y calcio. Los niños con sobrepeso y los de mayor NSE presentaron más riesgo de ingestiones excesivas. CONCLUSIONES: La coexistencia de malnutrición por exceso y por deficiencia
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99, and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1 and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002. In school-age children, age (OR=0.98, affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42 and living in the central region (OR=0.56 were protective factors for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.OBJETIVO: Comparar la distribución de la anemia en niños con base en la información de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 y la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN99. Asimismo, examinar la asociación de la anemia con variables potencialmente explicativas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon las prevalencias y las medias ajustadas, así como las asociaciones mediante modelos de regresión múltiple lineal y logística para muestras complejas. RESULTADOS: Entre 1999 y 2006 la anemia disminuyó 13.8 puntos porcentuales (pp en lactantes de 12-23 meses de edad y 7.8 pp en los de 24-35; 0.7 pp/año en prescolares
L. Quintanar Rojas
Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.
Sook Lee, Jin; Choi, Jane Y.; Marqués-Pascual, Laura
For children from immigrant families, opportunities to develop additive bilingualism exist, yet bilingual attainment has varied widely. Given the significance of language development opportunities in home settings, this study examines the home language use of 20 second-generation children (ages 6-8) of Mexican and Korean descent in the United…
Bollin, Gail G.
Presents information about the middle school educational system in Mexico. Considers the implications for better meeting the needs of Mexican children in U.S. schools. Describes experiences and knowledge gained while the author taught a graduate workshop to American teachers in Guanajuato, Mexico. Places the information gained in the context of…
Rates of obesity in the U.S. have shown a significant steady increase over the past two decades, especially among Mexican American adults and children. Adults tend to become heavier with increased length of residence in the U.S.; however, little is known about the influence of acculturation on child...
Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A
Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.
Martha Frías Armenta; Irma Rodríguez; José Concepción Gaxiola Romero
The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child m...
Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95
Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos prescolares y escolares: encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos y su adecuación en niños prescolares y escolares mexicanos, usando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de recordatorio de dieta de 24 horas de 1 309 niños prescolares y 2 611 escolares en una sub-muestra representativa de la ENN-1999. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos, y se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana y rural, estado socioeconómico e indigenismo. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue de 949 kcal en prescolares y de 1 377 kcal en escolares, con adecuaciones 150%. Las regiones norte y Ciudad de México tuvieron la
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…
de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara
Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…
Rocío Aguiar Sierra
Full Text Available This work described the design of an instrument able to measure social development for Mexican children and the process of the establishment of its psychometric properties. Theoretical aspects considered for its construction and the process of validating forms for parents and teachers are described in a three stage processes that resulted in a final version of the Social Development Scale that measures, disruptive behavior, social interaction, cooperation, acceptance and attachment as core dimensions associated with the concept of social competence. The importance of assessing social development and competence for education, children rearing and general well being are analyzed and discussed.
Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel
This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood…
Padilla, Yolanda C.; Radey, Melissa Dalton; Hummer, Robert A.; Kim, Eunjeong
Recent research has brought attention to the hardship faced by children of immigrants in the United States, particularly in the Mexican-origin population. In this study, the authors are concerned with the extent to which U.S.-born children of Mexican immigrants who live in unmarried families may face exceptional risks. Using data from the Fragile…
Today, many families find that they are unable to fulfill the goal of maintaining a household by living together under the same roof. Some members migrate internationally. This article addresses the consequences of a transnational lifestyle for children who are left behind by migrant parents. Using ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with a…
López-Gopar, Mario E.
The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…
Reyes, Iliana; Azuara, Patricia
This article explores the relationship between emergent biliteracy and growing up in a biliterate environment. The study focuses on two questions: (1) What knowledge of biliteracy do young bilingual preschool children develop in the early years? (2) How do context and specific language environments influence the development of biliteracy in young…
The effect of exercise on cardiovascular risk markers in Mexican school-aged children: comparison between two structured group routines Efecto del ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos: comparación entre dos rutinas grupales
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of two groups of exercise routines on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Material and Methods. An intervention study was conducted with 319 Mexican school-aged children in which routines were implemented Monday through Friday for 12 weeks. Routine A was the reference group, with 20 min of less intense activity and routine B was the new group with 40 min of aerobic exercises. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (FM%, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured before and after the intervention. Results. Routine A had an effect on diastolic pressure, while routine B had an effect on BMI, FM%, blood pressure and triglycerides. Routine B had a greater effect on blood pressure than routine A. The prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both groups. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise is an effective health promotion strategy to reduce some cardiovascular disease risk markers.Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dos rutinas grupales de ejercicio sobre marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Intervención en 319 escolares mexicanos. Las rutinas fueron implementadas por 12 semanas (rutina A (referencia: 20 min con ejercicios menos intensos vs rutina B (nueva: 40 min con ejercicios aeróbicos. Se midieron al inicio y al final el índice de masa corporal (IMC, masa grasa (%MG, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, lípidos, lipoproteínas, glucosa e insulina. Resultados. La rutina A tuvo efecto sobre la presión diastólica; la B tuvo efecto sobre el IMC, %MG, presión arterial y triglicéridos. La rutina B tuvo mayores efectos en la presión arterial que la rutina A. Las prevalencias de obesidad, hipertensión arterial e hipertrigliceridemia disminuyeron en ambos grupos. Conclusiones. El ejercicio aeróbico es una estrategia de promoción exitosa para reducir algunos marcadores de riesgo
Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Posadas-Romeros, Carlos; Canizalez-Román, Adrián; Río-Navarro, Blanca Del; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel
Background Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos. Methods 9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults. Results After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations. Conclusions Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. PMID:23950976
Kordas, Katarzyna; Lopez, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; García Vargas, Gonzalo; Alatorre Rico, Javier; Ronquillo, Dolores; Cebrián, Mariano E; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J
Lead exposure and nutritional factors are both associated with cognitive performance. Lead toxicity and nutritional status are also associated with each other. We examined whether nutritional status variables account for part or all of the association between cognitive performance and lead exposure. First-grade children (n = 724) ages 6-8 y, attending Mexican public schools located in the vicinity of a metal foundry were asked to participate and 602 enrolled in the study. Blood lead, iron status, anemia, anthropometry, and cognitive function were assessed. Results from 7 standardized tests are presented here. The mean blood lead concentration was 11.5 +/- 6.1 micro g/dL (0.56 +/- 0.30 micro mol/L) and 50% of the children had concentrations >10 micro g/dL (0.48 micro mol/L). The prevalence of mild anemia (lead was negatively associated with 4 cognitive tests and was also inversely correlated with iron status, height-for-age Z scores, and head circumference. In multivariate models, the association between lead and cognitive performance was not strongly affected by nutritional variables, suggesting that the relation of lead to cognition is not explained by lead's relation to iron deficiency anemia or growth retardation. In multivariate models, hemoglobin concentration was also positively associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Number Sequencing performance, whereas serum ferritin was negatively related to the Coding subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Revised Mexican Version (WISC-RM).
Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui
This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.
There is a health disparity for obesity among Mexican Americans compared with other racial/ethnic groups. In particular, Mexican American children who are obese are likely to become obese adults. The purpose of this study was to examine traditional and nontraditional risk factors in a subset of Mexi...
Cross-sectional studies show that sleep is related to childhood obesity. We aimed to examine the longitudinal impact of sleep on the risk of obesity in Mexican American children. We evaluated 229 Mexican American 8–10-year-olds and their mothers at base- line and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Slee...
The monograph on the counseling of Mexican-American parents of mentally retarded children begins with a discussion of Mexican-American culture, on the premise that a good knowledge of background, culture, customs, and mores is necessary to understand and counsel such parents. Treated are stereotyped images of each other held by Anglos and…
Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.
Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri
This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.
Martha Frías Armenta
Full Text Available The aim of this study was tome asure effects of domestic violence on children, both child abuse and exposure to marital violence. 300 families were randomly selected in Hermosillo, Sonora, a northwestern Mexican city. Two members of each family were interviewed: the mother anda minor randomly selected among all their children. The research instrument collected demographicinformation, and information regarding mother's and parent's alcohol consumption, marital violence,child abuse, and child misconduct. A structural model was tested which estimated the effects ofchild abuse and exposure to marital violence on child problems. Results showed that the two forms of violence had repercussions on delinquent and antisocial behavior, produced attention problems,depression, anxiety, sadness and the manifestation of somatic symptoms. In addition, mother's education a level had a significant and negative effect on children's behavioral and social problemsand father's educational level inhibited their aggression against their wives. Alcohol consumption was positively related to child abuse. These results seems to indicate that both child abuse andexposure to marital violence rcsult in harmful consequences on children's behavior and well-being.
Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G
Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.
Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana
The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…
Literature review provides social and cultural information needed by school psychologists serving Latino and Mexican migrant farmworking children and families, examples of school-based programs, and implications for public policy and practice. (Author/JDM)
Jin Sook Lee
Full Text Available For children from immigrant families, opportunities to develop additive bilingualism exist, yet bilingual attainment has varied widely. Given the significance of language development opportunities in home settings, this study examines the home language use of 20 second-generation children (ages 6-8 of Mexican and Korean descent in the United States. Using a language function framework, we provide a descriptive analysis of the communicative functions performed by these children and how their proficiency level, the interlocutors, and their home settings may influence their language use. Data include English and heritage language proficiency assessments, interviews with children and their mothers, and multiple video recordings of home interactions. Findings show little variation in the kinds of language functions performed by these children who mainly used language to convey or seek factual information, unless they were involved in imaginary play. Moreover, children found creative ways to communicate different linguistic functions as needed, even among those with limited proficiency. Interestingly, the Mexican American children had a greater tendency to use more heritage language in the home than the Korean American children, who used more English. The children rarely engaged in intersentential code-switching. Implications for educators, parents, and researchers are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a common feature of obesity and its cardio-metabolic complications. However, little is known about a possible causal role of inflammation in metabolic disorders. Mexico is among the countries with the highest obesity rates in the world and the admixed Mexican population is a relevant sample due to high levels of genetic diversity. Methods: Here, we studied 1,462 Mexican children recruited from Mexico City. Six genetic variants in five inflammation-related genes were genotyped: rs1137101 (leptin receptor (LEPR, rs7305618 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A, rs1800629 (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA, rs1800896, rs1800871 (interleukin-10 (IL-10, rs1862513 (resistin (RETN. Ten continuous and eight binary traits were assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were used adjusting for age, sex, and recruitment centre. Results: We found that one SNP displayed a nominal evidence of association with a continuous trait: rs1800871 (IL-10 with LDL (beta = −0.068 ± 1.006, P = 0.01. Subsequently, we found one nominal association with a binary trait: rs7305618 (HNF1A with family history of hypertension (odds-ratio = 1.389 [1.054–1.829], P = 0.02. However, no P-value passed the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Discussion: Our data in a Mexican children population are consistent with previous reports in European adults in failing to demonstrate an association between inflammation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and metabolic traits.
Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Bernardo Hernández-Prado; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A. Monterrubio; María del Carmen Morales-Ruan; Lidia B Moreno-Macías
Objective. To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Material and Methods. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human caliciviruses (HuCV are emerging enteric pathogens that are a common cause of diarrhea in humans worldwide. Due to the paucity of information on the molecular characterization of HuCV circulating in Mexico, the aim of this work was to investigate the diversity and molecular epidemiology of the HuCV infection associated with acute diarrheal disease in Mexican children aged up to 5 years. Results Of the 131/414 (32% HuCV positive-specimens analyzed, 128 were identified as Norovirus (NoV and three as Sapovirus (SaV. Of the NoV positive specimens, 118/128 (92% were NoV GII and 10/128(8% were untypeable by RT-PCR in both polymerase and capsid genes, whereas one SaV isolate was further confirmed by sequencing as GI.2. Phylogenetic analysis based on polymerase partial gene sequences from 89/131 (68% HuCV isolates showed that 86/89 (97% belong to NoV GII.4 with three main variant clusters of this genotype, 2/89 (2% to NoV GII.2, and 1/89 (1% to SaV GI.2. Furthermore, partial sequencing of the capsid gene VP1 of 63/131 (48% strains indicated that 61/63 (97% correlated with NoV GII.4, whereas only 2/63 (3% clustered to NoV GII.2. HuCV infections were detected throughout the year, and the highest number of cases positive for NoV was found in children between 7 and 18 months of age (60%. Conclusions This study highlights the usefulness of analyzing both polymerase and capsid genes for molecular characterization of HuCV and demonstrates the relatedness and predominance of NoV GII.4 with acute diarrheal disease in young Mexican children, thus contributing to better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of this disease.
The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented.
Long, Kurt Z; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Estrada Garcia, Teresa; Haas, Meredith; Firestone, Mathew; Bhagwat, Jui; Dupont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Rosado, Jorge L; Nanthakumar, Nanda N
The impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood diarrhea may be determined by the regulatory effect supplementation has on the mucosal immune response in the gut. Previous studies have not addressed the impact of vitamin A supplementation on the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), an essential chemokine involved in pathogen-specific mucosal immune response. Fecal MCP-1 concentrations, determined by an enzyme-linked immuno absorption assay, were compared among 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo of age randomized to receive a vitamin A supplement ( or =12 mo, 45,000 iu) every 2 mo or a placebo as part of a larger vitamin A supplementation trial. Stools collected during the summer months were screened for MCP-1 and gastrointestinal pathogens. Values of MCP-1 were categorized into 3 levels (nondetectable, or =median). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether vitamin A-supplemented children had different categorical values of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group. Differences in categorical values were also analyzed stratified by gastrointestinal pathogen infections and by diarrheal symptoms. Overall, children who received the vitamin A supplement had reduced fecal concentrations of MCP-1 compared with children in the placebo group (median pg/mg protein +/- interquartile range: 284.88 +/- 885.35 vs. 403.39 +/- 913.16; odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-97, P = 0.03). Vitamin A supplemented children infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) had reduced MCP-1 levels (odds ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.18-0.80) compared with children in the placebo group. Among children not infected with Ascaris lumbricoides vitamin A supplemented children had reduced MCP-1 levels (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94). These findings suggest that vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract by reducing MCP-1 concentrations.
Olson, D W; Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Tomasula, P M; Molina-Corral, F J; Gardea, A A
Queso Chihuahua, a semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and the desire for longer shelf life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from RM or PM were characterized to identify sources of variation and to determine if pasteurization of the cheese milk resulted in changes to the functional properties. Two brands of RM cheese and 2 brands of PM cheese obtained in 3 seasons of the year from 4 manufacturers in Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed after 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of storage at 4°C. A color measurement spectrophotometer was used to collect color data before and after heating at 232°C for 5 min or 130°C for 75 min. Meltability was measured using the Schreiber Melt Test on samples heated to 232°C for 5 min. Sliceability (the force required to cut through a sample) was measured using a texture analyzer fitted with a wire cutter attachment. Proteolysis was tracked using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Compared with PM cheeses, RM cheeses showed less browning upon heating, melted more at 232°C, and initially required a greater cutting force. With aging, cheeses increased in meltability, decreased in whiteness when measured before heating, and required less cutting force to slice. Seasonal variations in the cheesemilk had minimal or no effect on the functional properties. The differences in the functional properties can be attributed, in part, to the mixed microflora present in the RM cheeses compared with the more homogeneous microflora added during the manufacture of PM cheeses. The degree of proteolysis and subsequent integrity of the cheese matrix contribute to melt, slice, and color properties of the RM and PM cheeses. Understanding the functional properties of the authentic RM cheeses will help researchers and cheesemakers develop pasteurized versions that maintain the traditional traits desired in the
Rodríguez, Luis A; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Shamah-Levy, Teresa
Seventy percent of Mexican households experience some level of food insecurity (FI). Studies have shown positive associations between FI and poor dietary quality. As far as it is known, this is the first time the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) has been used to assess dietary quality of children and adolescents in Mexico, and to examine if FI is related to it. The objective of this research is to assess dietary quality and its association with FI among Mexican children and adolescents from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample. We analyzed data from 4635 2-19-year-old Mexican children and adolescents participating in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012). FI was measured using the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and dietary quality with the HEI-2010. We examined the association between FI and dietary quality using multivariate linear regressions. Dietary quality was worst as FI became more severe among children and adolescents compared with their counterparts living in households with food security. Specifically, FI had a negative association with fruits, vegetables, and protein foods, and a positive association with refined grains consumption. Dairy intake was negatively associated with FI among older children and adolescents. Added sugars were not associated with FI, but intake was excessive across the population at 15% of total daily energy intake. Decreasing FI may help improve dietary quality of Mexican children and adolescents.
Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel
This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children’s pathways through an educational system in the U.S. that often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K). The results suggest that mothers who pursued their own schooling over a four year period, regardless of degree attainm...
Guerrero, Alma D.; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Barreto, Patricia M.; Rosales, Norma F.; Kuo, Alice A.
To understand Latina mothers’ definitions of health and obesity in their children and perceptions of physician weight assessments. 24 low-income Spanish speaking Mexican mothers of children ages 2–5 years were recruited to participate in 4 focus groups. Half of the mothers had overweight or obese children and half had healthy weight children. Focus group comments were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Themes and supporting comments were identified independently by 3 reviewers fo...
Licona, Miguel M.
In this case study, I use an ethnographic-style approach to understand the funds of knowledge of immigrant families living in colonias on both sides of the US/Mexico border. I focus on how these "knowledges" and concomitant experiences impact the ways we perceive and treat immigrant students who have all too often been viewed through deficit lenses that relegate them to the lowest expectations and outcomes in the classroom. I find that Mexican and Mexican-American families hold unusually sophisticated and relevant "knowledges" to mitigate their everyday lives. In this paper, I will refer to citizens of Mexico, whether they reside in Mexico or have crossed to the United States legally or without documentation for purposes of work, as Mexican. People who have crossed the border and are living in the US as legal residents or have gained citizenship are referred to as Mexican-Americans. They live a hybrid identity that is varied and dynamic, an issue that adds to the complexity of the content and contexts of this study. These families know and use these "knowledges" on a daily basis, yet they are not recognized by teachers in the US as a starting point to affirm and support immigrant children. Instead, immigrant children are relegated to the non-gifted and lower track classes where science is taught from an abstract and non-contextual and therefore less engaged basis. The approach I outline here, based on insights from my case study, can greatly improve teachers' abilities to prepare their curricula for diversity in science education and science literacy as well as for broad expectations for student success.
Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel
Introduction Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. Material and methods We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Results Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and lower values of high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) compared to lean children. Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Conclusions Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011). PMID:27695486
Gallegos-Guajardo, Julia; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; Garza-Tamez, Martha; Villegas-Guinea, Diana
This study is the first social validity evaluation of the Spanish version of the "FRIENDS for Life" program with Mexican children. "FRIENDS for Life" is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at increasing social and emotional competence and decreasing anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. The program is designed to…
Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalences and trends of overweight and obesity/OW&OB in Mexican children from 1988 to 2006 at the national level and by relevant subpopulations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prevalences of OW&OB in children aged 2-18 years were estimated using body mass index data from three national surveys conducted in 1988, 1999 and 2006. RESULTS: Prevalences of OW&OB are high in children of all ages, particularly among school-age and adolescent groups disaggregated by regions, socioeconomic status, urban and rural areas, and ethnic groups. The overall prevalence of OW&OB in children 2 to 18 years old in 2006 was 26.3%. Prevalences by age groups were 16.7% in preschool-age, 26.2% in school-age, and 30.9% in adolescents, using the IOTF classification system. CONCLUSIONS: Upward trends were observed in school-age children and adolescents at the national level and in all subpopulations.OBJETIVO: Describir las prevalencias y tendencias de sobrepeso y obesidad (SPyO en niños mexicanos, de 1988 a 2006, en el ámbito nacional y por subgrupos relevantes de población. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las prevalencias de SPyO (peso no saludable se estimaron usando cifras de índice de masa corporal de tres encuestas nacionales realizadas en 1988, 1999 y 2006. RESULTADOS: Las prevalencias de SPyO son altas en niños de todas las edades, particularmente en niños de edad escolar y adolescentes, estratificados por regiones, estado socioeconómico, áreas urbanas, rurales y grupo étnico. La prevalencia de SPyO en 2006 fue de 26.3% en el grupo de entre 2 a 18 años de edad, 16.7% en preescolares, 26.2% en escolares y 30.9% en adolescentes, usando la clasificación de The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF. CONCLUSIONES: Se observa una tendencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en aumento en niños de edad escolar y adolescentes, para todos los subgrupos de población.
Van Hook, Jennifer; Baker, Elizabeth; Altman, Claire E; Frisco, Michelle L
The prevalence of overweight is higher for Hispanic children of immigrants than children of natives. This does not fit the pattern of the epidemiological paradox, the widely supported finding that immigrants tend to be healthier than their U.S.-born peers, and it suggests that exposure to the U.S. increases immigrant children's risk of overweight. This study's primary contribution is to better assess how exposure to the U.S. environment affects childhood overweight among a homogamous ethnic group, Mexican-Americans. We do so by using an innovative binational study design to compare the weight of Mexican-American children of immigrants, Mexican-American children of natives, and Mexican children in Mexico with different propensities of having immigrant parents. Cross-sectional data are derived from a pooled sample of 9982 6-19 year old children living in either Mexico or the United States in the early 2000s. Mexican-resident children with a very high propensity to have immigrant parents have significantly lower percentile BMIs and lower odds of overweight than Mexican children with lower propensities of emigration and U.S.-resident Mexican-American children. This suggests that selection into immigration streams does not account for the high prevalence of overweight among children of Mexican immigrants. Rather, U.S. exposure significantly raises children of Mexican immigrants' risk of being overweight. Moreover, second generation children have the highest percentile BMIs and greatest odds of overweight of all comparison groups, including children of natives. This suggests that they experience risks above and beyond the effects of exposure to American society.
Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario
Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238
McGuire, Sandra L.
Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.OBJETIVO: Documentar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar (5 a 11 años de edad obtenidas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición en 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El sobrepeso y la obesidad (definida como un exceso de tejido adiposo en el organismo se evaluaron a través del Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC en 10 901 niños, tomando como patrón de referencia el propuesto por el International Obesity Task Force. Las variables sociodemográficas se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario aplicado a la madre del niño. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 19
Kaiser, Lucia; Martinez, Judith; Horowitz, Marcel; Lamp, Catherine; Johns, Margaret; Espinoza, Dorina; Byrnes, Michele; Gomez, Mayra Muñoz; Aguilera, Alberto; de la Torre, Adela
Latino children experience higher rates of obesity than do non-Latino white children. Family-centered nutrition interventions can slow the rate of weight gain in this population. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a 5-year, community-based, participatory research study that targets rural Mexican-origin farmworker families with children aged 2 to 8 years in California's Central Valley. Adaptation of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program involved qualitative research to tailor key obesity prevention messages, pilot testing and implementation of key messages and activities at family nights, and continual modification to incorporate culturally innovative elements. Of the 238 families enrolled, 53% (125) attended the recommended minimum of 5 (of 10 possible) classes during the first year. A university and community partnership can guide development of a culturally tailored obesity prevention program that is suitable for reaching a high-risk Mexican-origin audience through cooperative extension and other public health programs.
Mejía-León, María Esther; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ajami, Nadim Jose; Domínguez-Bello, María Gloria; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón
Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota affecting the gut barrier could be triggering Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the second most frequent autoimmune disease in childhood. This study compared the structure of the fecal microbiota in 29 mestizo children aged 7-18 years, including 8 T1D at onset, 13 T1D after 2 years treatment, and 8 healthy controls. Clinical information was collected, predisposing haplotypes were determined; the fecal DNA was extracted, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified and 454-pyrosequenced. The newly diagnosed T1D cases had high levels of the genus Bacteroides (p microbiota dominated by Prevotella. Children with T1D treated for ≥2 years had levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella compared to those of the control group. The gut microbiota of newly diagnosed T1D cases is altered, but whether it is involved in disease causation or is a consequence of host selection remains unclear.
McElvain, Cheryl Marie
This study examines the academic and psychosocial effects of the Bridge Project after-school program on 25 prekindergarten through 6th-grade English language learner Mexican immigrant children and their families living in an affordable housing complex in the San Francisco Bay Area. The results of the study show that the program increased the…
Nearly 100 Mexican American children and adolescents in grades 2-12 were interviewed in central Texas to determine their understanding of ethnicity and their attitudes toward their own ethnicity. Their responses were interpreted in relation to a developmental model with five stages or "perspectives" in reasoning about ethnicity. The…
Children from Mexican immigrant families represent one of the fastest-growing populations in the American educational system, but their ability to use this system to improve their long-term prospects may be hampered by problems associated with their schools. The present study explored this issue in a national sample of American kindergarteners.…
Rendall, Michael S.; Torr, Berna M.
Second-generation immigrants are typically analyzed under the assumption that, having been born in the United States, they grew up in the United States. We challenge this assumption by investigating the prevalence and patterns of second-generation Mexican-American children's migration to and return from Mexico during childhood, and consider the…
Gutkin, Terry B.
Investigated the measurement properties and practical utility of Bannatyne's recategorized WISC-R scores. Analyses of the scores of Caucasian learning disabled children indicated that, as a group, these students were characterized by the predicted Spatial-Conceptual-Sequential pattern. This was not found to be true for Mexican-American learning…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is one of the key elements in the promotion of a thorough paradigm for active aging. The aim of this study is to analyze factors that contribute the empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community and, thus, promote active aging. Methods The study was conducted in a rural Mexican community (Valle del Mezquital, based on an action-research paradigm. One hundred and fifty-five elderly subjects with elementary school education participated in a formal training program promoting gerontological development and health education. Participants in turn became coordinators of mutual-help groups (gerontological nucleus in Mexico. In-depth interviews were carried out to assess the empowerment after training for active aging. Results It was found that there was an increasing feeling of empowerment, creativity and self-fulfillment among participants. Among the main factors that positively influenced training of the elderly toward active aging were the teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their motivation, the self-esteem, the increased undertaking of responsibility, the feeling of belonging to the group, and the sharing of information based on personal experience and on gerontological knowledge. Conclusion The main factors that contribute to empowerment of older adults in a rural Mexican community for participate in active aging programs are the training and teaching of gerontology topics themselves; besides, their interest, experience and involvement.
López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara; Gutiérrez, Kris
Children commonly observe and pitch in to ongoing activities in Indigenous communities of Mexico, according to ethnographic research. The present study examines the generality of this approach to learning by comparing its use among Mexican immigrants of two cultural backgrounds in the United States. Results showed more sustained attention to (and learning from) instruction directed to another person by 22 U.S. Mexican-heritage 6- to 11-year-old children whose families likely have experience with Indigenous practices (and limited involvement in Western schooling), compared with 16 U.S. Mexican-heritage children whose families have extensive involvement in Western schooling (and related practices).
Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn
The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers.
The objective of this article is to investigate parental understanding of tooth discoloration and decay and their related care seeking for young, Mexican-American children. The research design entailed semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish with a convenience sample of 37 Mexican immigrant mothers of young children in a low-income urban neighborhood. Five major color terms – white, off-white, yellow, brown, and black – were used to describe tooth discoloration, the caus...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoeal diseases constitute a major public health problem, particularly in the developing world, where the rate of mortality and morbidity is very high. The purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in Mexico City. Methods Faecal samples were obtained from 300 Mexican children diagnosed as positive for diarrhoea, aged > 2 to Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. In addition, the two protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Giardia intestinalis were detected by conventional methods. Results All diarrhoeal samples were positive for one or more enteropathogens. The most common enteropathogens in diarrhoeal samples were E. histolytica/E. dispar (70.3%, Salmonella (ohio 28.3%; typhimurium 16.3%; infantis 8%; anatum 0.6%; Newport 0.3%, G. intestinalis (33%, E. coli (ETEC 13.3%; EPEC 9.3%; VTEC 8.6%; EIEC 1% and Shigella spp. (flexneri 1.6%, sonnei 1%. Infections by two (24% three (16% and four (12% pathogens were observed. Conclusion This study revealed that 52% of the patients were infected by more than one enteropathogen, notably E. histolitica/E. dispar and Salmonella ohio. These results are useful for clinicians to improve the empiric treatment used in such cases.
Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S
Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.
Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; Arellano-Galindo, José; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortíz-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ortíz-Fernández, Antonio; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count 100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population. PMID:25922837
Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn
Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…
... your child's age, maturity and abilities in mind. Ages 2 to 5 Toddlers and preschoolers are beginning ... usually best. Try: Running Tumbling Throwing Catching Swimming Ages 6 to 9 As children get older, their ...
Sica, Morris G.
The political learning of 2,584 children enrolled in elementary and junior high schools of southern California is explored in this report. Growth patterns of Mexican-American and Anglo-American children are studied and comparisons are made in their political orientations. Data were obtained by questionnaires administered in grades 4-8 after the…
Conclusions: Parental text messaging plus education, implemented in a community based setting, was strongly associated with vaccine completion rates among vaccine-eligible Mexican American children. Although pilot in nature, the study achieved an 88% series completion rate in the children of those who received the text messages, significantly higher than current vaccination levels.
Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Wilkinson, Anna V; Sandoval, Juan-Miguel; Koehly, Laura M
An understanding of health beliefs is key to creating culturally appropriate health services for Hispanic populations in the US. In this study we explore age-based variations in causal beliefs for heart disease and diabetes among Mexican origin adults in Houston, TX. This cross-sectional study included 497 adults of Mexican origin. Participants were asked to indicate the importance of biomedically defined and folk illness-related risk factors as causes for heart disease and diabetes. Biomedical risk factors were ranked highest as causes of diabetes and heart disease among all participants. Folk illness-related factors were ranked below biomedical factors as causes of heart disease among all age groups. Susto was ranked above the median as a risk factor for diabetes among older participants. Age-related differences in causal beliefs may have implications for designing culturally appropriate health services, such as tailored diabetes interventions for older Mexican origin adults.
García-Solís, Pablo; Reyes-Bastidas, Marissa; Flores, Karla; García, Olga P; Rosado, Jorge L; Méndez-Villa, Lorena; Garcia-G, Carlota; García-Gutiérrez, David; Kuri-García, Aarón; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert L; Soriano-Leon, Ofelia; Villagrán-Herrera, Maria Elena; Solis-Sainz, Juan C
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8-13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 19·8 and 19·1 %, respectively. FTO, MC4R and TMEM18 risk allele frequency was 17, 9·8 and 89·5 %, respectively. A significant association between FTO homozygous and MC4R heterozygous risk alleles and obesity was found (OR 3·9; 95 % CI 1·46, 10·22, and OR 2·1; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·71; respectively). The FTO heterozygous subjects showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, compared with the homozygous for the ancestral allele subjects. These results remain significant after considering adiposity as a covariate. The FTO and MC4R genotypes were not significantly associated with total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentration. No association was found between TMEM18 risk allele and obesity and/or metabolic alterations. Our results show that, in addition to a higher BMI, there is also an association of the risk genotype with blood pressure in the presence of the FTO risk genotype. The possible presence of a risk genotype in obese children must be considered to offer a more comprehensive therapeutic approach in order to delay and/or prevent the development of chronic diseases.
This audience study explores how a group of children from Southeast Mexico, perceive the animated cartoon «Dexter’s Laboratory». The objective is to observe the ways in which a young local audience, still in the process of building its cultural identity, perceives an American television program. A qualitative approach was applied: 44 children between 8 and 11 years old participated in a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups, which took place in a provincial city in Mexico (Vil...
Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.
Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.
Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…
Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie
This study examined mother- and teacher-rated internalizing behaviors (i.e., anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms) among young children using longitudinal data from a community sample of 661 Mexican and Dominican families, and tested a conceptual model in which parenting (mother’s socialization messages and parenting practices) predicted child internalizing problems 12 months later. Children evidenced elevated levels of mother-rated anxiety at both time points. Findings also supported the validity of the proposed parenting model for both Mexican and Dominican families. Though there were different pathways to child anxiety, depression and somatization among Mexican and Dominican children, socialization messages and authoritarian parenting were positively associated with internalizing symptoms for both groups. PMID:26042610
Baer, R D; Bustillo, M
Information about the folk illness caida de mollera was collected from Mexican and Mexican American migrant mothers who had treated their children for the illness, and from physicians in a clinic that served this population. These physicians believed that the vast majority of the sets of symptoms were worthy of medical attention and could be life threatening if not treated. This research report concurs with other studies that suggest that although Mexican folk illnesses are conceptualized to have folk-social and psychological causes, they are also seen to have biological causes and physiological symptoms that can be treated by biomedical methods. This report outlines a model for understanding aspects of folk illnesses that includes folk vs. biomedical ideas about disease, causes vs. symptoms, and psychological vs. physiological aspects of sickness. It also suggests that the kinds of questions anthropologists ask about these illnesses may need to be modified--shifting away from questions about treatments of causes and refocusing on those about the treatment of physiological symptoms--if we are to more fully understand home approaches to the management of these illnesses.
Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel
Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446
Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Treviño, Roberto P; Echon, Roger M; Mobley, Connie; Block, Torin; Bizzari, Ansam; Michalek, Joel
The authors evaluated the validity and reliability of the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ) and the Block Kid Screener (BKScreener) in Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border who participated in the National Institutes of Health-funded Proyecto Bienestar Laredo. The Bienestar/NEEMA health program is a school-based diabetes and obesity control program, and the Proyecto Bienestar Laredo is the translation of the Bienestar/NEEMA health program to 38 elementary schools in Laredo, Texas. Par ticipants included 2,376 eight-year-old boys (48%) and girls (52%) from two school districts in Laredo. Two Food Frequency Questionnaire (BKFFQ and BKScreener) dietary intakes were collected, and an expert panel of nutritionist assigned a classification response quality of "Good," "Questionable," and "Poor," based on playfulness (systematic or nonrandom) patterns and completion rates. In addition, both instruments were assessed for reliability (test-retest) in 138 students from a San Antonio School District. Children's height, weight, percentage body fat, reported family history of diabetes, and Texas Assessments of Knowledge and Skills in reading and mathematics scores were collected. This study showed that for Mexican American children living along the Texas-Mexico border, within the time constraints of the classroom, BKScreener yielded better data than the BKFFQ.
Karla I Galavíz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent relation of physical activity (PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness with measures of obesity in Mexican children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (N=193 in 5th and 6th grade from Guadalajara participated. Body mass index (BMI, sum of skinfolds (SS and waist circumference (WC were measured. PA was measured over four days using pedometry and fitness was measured using the 20 meter shuttle-run test. RESULTS: Fitness and PA were negatively related to the obesity measures in boys and girls (r=-0.57 to -0.64 and r=-0.18 to -0.23 respectively. Age adjusted significant differences in WC, BMI, and SS were observed between the lowest and highest fitness tertiles for boys and girls (pOBJETIVO: Examinar la relación independiente entre actividad física (AF y acondicionamiento cardiorrespiratorio (fitness con obesidad en niños mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Participaron 193 niños de Guadalajara en 5to y 6to grado de primaria. Se midieron índice de masa corporal (IMC, suma de pliegues cutáneos (SP y circunferencia de cintura (CC. La AF se midió con podometría durante cuatro días y acondicionamiento usando la prueba de 20 metros shuttle-run. RESULTADOS: Acondicionamiento y AF estuvieron negativamente relacionados con obesidad en niños y niñas (r=-0.57 a -0.64 y r=-0.18 a -0.23 respectivamente. Ajustando por edad, se observaron diferencias significativas en CC, IMC y SP entre los terciles de acondicionamiento bajo y alto en niños y niñas (p<.01. Ajustando por edad, género y AF, el acondicionamiento explicó de 23 a 34% de la varianza en CC (r²=0.23, p<.01, IMC (r²=0.23, p<.01 y SP (r²=0.34, p<.01. CONCLUSIÓN: El acondicionamiento es un mejor predictor de obesidad que la AF en esta muestra.
The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation…
The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation of a…
Moreno-Torres, Luis Antonio; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo Gabriel; Arellano-Valdés, Carmen Araceli; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Rubio-Perez, Nadina; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris
The aim of this study was to validate the paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, Spine (pGALS) tool for Mexican Spanish to screen Mexican paediatric population for musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. A cross-sectional study was performed in the Paediatric Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The validation included children and adolescents aged 6-16 years, 87 patients with musculoskeletal disorders and 88 controls without musculoskeletal disorders. The cross-cultural validation followed the current published guidelines. The average pGALS administration time was 2.9 min (SD 0.54). The internal consistency score (Cronbach's α) was 0.90 (0.89 for inflammatory and 0.77 for non-inflammatory disorders) for MSK disorders, with a sensitivity of 97 % (95 % CI 92-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), a LR+ of 14.3, and a ROC curve of 0.95 (95 % CI 0.92-0.98 %). The inflammatory disorders group had a sensitivity of 97 % (95 % CI 86-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), a LR+ of 14.2, and a ROC curve of 0.95 % (95 % CI 0.91-0.99 %). The non-inflammatory disorders group had a sensitivity of 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %), a specificity of 93 % (95 % CI 86-97 %), and a LR+ of 14.37, with a ROC curve of 0.95 % (95 % CI 0.92-0.98 %). pGALS is a valid screening tool, fast, easy to administer, and useful for detecting musculoskeletal disorders in Mexican children and adolescents.
Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig
Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis.
Betancourt-Garcia, Monica M; Arguelles, Armando; Montes, Jorge; Hernandez, Ambrosio; Singh, Manish; Forse, R Armour
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma. Early detection and treatment of hepatic changes are needed. Given the success of gastric bypass in reducing body weight, modifying the gut microbiome, and improving NAFLD/NASH in adults, a trial of gastric bypass in predisposed pediatric candidates should be undertaken.
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and…
Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra
The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language.
Davies, Betty; Larson, Judith; Contro, Nancy; Cabrera, Ana P
This paper describes Mexican American family members' descriptions of perceived discrimination by pediatric health care providers (HCPs) and the families' reactions to the HCPs' discriminatory conduct. A retrospective, grounded theory design guided the overall study. Content analysis of interviews with 13 participants from 11 families who were recruited from two children's hospitals in Northern California resulted in numerous codes and revealed that participants perceived discrimination when they were treated differently from other, usually white, families. They believed they were treated differently because they were Mexican, because they were poor, because of language barriers, or because of their physical appearance. Participants reported feeling hurt, saddened, and confused regarding the differential treatment they received from HCPs who parents perceived "should care equally for all people." They struggled to understand and searched for explanations. Few spoke up about unfair treatment or complained about poor quality of care. Most assumed a quiet, passive position, according to their cultural norms of respecting authority figures by being submissive and not questioning them. Participants did not perceive all HCPs as discriminatory; their stories of discrimination derived from encounters with individual nurses or physicians. However, participants were greatly affected by the encounters, which continue to be painful memories. Despite increasing efforts to provide culturally competent palliative care, there is still need for improvement. Providing opportunities for changing HCPs' beliefs and behaviors is essential to developing cultural competence.
Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L
The purpose of this study was to examine relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure food acculturation in young Mexican-origin children. In 2006, Spanish-speaking staff interviewed mothers in a community-based sample of households from Ventura, California (US) (n = 95) and Guanajuato, Mexico (MX) (n = 200). Data included two 24-h dietary recalls (24-DR); a 30-item FFQ; and anthropometry of the children. To measure construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, data analyses included factor analysis, Spearman correlations, t-test, respectively. Factor analysis revealed two constructs: 1) a US food pattern including hamburgers, pizza, hot dogs, fried chicken, juice, cereal, pastries, lower fat milk, quesadillas, and American cheese and 2) a MX food pattern including tortillas, fried beans, rice/noodles, whole milk, and pan dulce (sweet bread). Out of 22 food items that could be compared across the FFQ and mean 24-DRs, 17 were significantly, though weakly, correlated (highest r = 0.62, for whole milk). The mean US food pattern score was significantly higher, and the MX food pattern score, lower in US children than in MX children (p obesity on both sides of the border.
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…
Full Text Available This paper analyses the risk factors for being overweight or obese among the children of Mexican migrants in the United States. It draws on a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and participant observation with 30 parents in New York State. Findings indicate risks related to nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity before migration, adaptation to US lifestyles, and the cultural tendency to value being overweight as a sign of greater health and higher socioeconomic status. Findings also show that mothers use various strategies to resist the excessive consumption of fast food, yet they simultaneously experience dilemmas around the family’s consumption due to the gender norm that women are responsible for children’s diet.
José Azoh Barry
affected the quality of life of the centenarian. This individual is atypical in his environment and the external validity of this study is analytical rather than statistical. However, it suggests that non-institutional barriers may challenge the promotion of an active aging paradigm.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS and previous positional linkage studies have identified more than 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with obesity, mostly in Europeans. We aimed to assess the contribution of some of these SNPs to obesity risk and to the variation of related metabolic traits, in Mexican children. Methods The association of six European obesity-related SNPs in or near FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes with risk of obesity was tested in 1,463 school-aged Mexican children (Ncases = 514; Ncontrols = 949. We also assessed effects of these SNPs on the variation of body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, in a subset of 1,171 nonobese Mexican children. Results We found a significant effect of GNPDA2 rs10938397 on risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; P = 1.34 × 10-3. Furthermore, we found nominal associations between obesity risk or BMI variation and the following SNPs: ENPP1 rs7754561, MC4R rs17782313 and NEGR1 rs2815752. Importantly, the at-risk alleles of both MC4R rs17782313 and NPC1 rs1805081 showed significant effect on increased fasting glucose levels (β = 0.36 mmol/L; P = 1.47 × 10-3 and decreased fasting serum insulin levels (β = −0.10 μU/mL; P = 1.21 × 10-3, respectively. Conclusion Our present results suggest that some obesity-associated SNPs previously reported in Europeans also associate with risk of obesity, or metabolic quantitative traits, in Mexican children. Importantly, we found new associations between MC4R and fasting glucose levels, and between NPC1 and fasting insulin levels.
Background Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and previous positional linkage studies have identified more than 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity, mostly in Europeans. We aimed to assess the contribution of some of these SNPs to obesity risk and to the variation of related metabolic traits, in Mexican children. Methods The association of six European obesity-related SNPs in or near FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes with risk of obesity was tested in 1,463 school-aged Mexican children (Ncases = 514; Ncontrols = 949). We also assessed effects of these SNPs on the variation of body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, in a subset of 1,171 nonobese Mexican children. Results We found a significant effect of GNPDA2 rs10938397 on risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; P = 1.34 × 10-3). Furthermore, we found nominal associations between obesity risk or BMI variation and the following SNPs: ENPP1 rs7754561, MC4R rs17782313 and NEGR1 rs2815752. Importantly, the at-risk alleles of both MC4R rs17782313 and NPC1 rs1805081 showed significant effect on increased fasting glucose levels (β = 0.36 mmol/L; P = 1.47 × 10-3) and decreased fasting serum insulin levels (β = −0.10 μU/mL; P = 1.21 × 10-3), respectively. Conclusion Our present results suggest that some obesity-associated SNPs previously reported in Europeans also associate with risk of obesity, or metabolic quantitative traits, in Mexican children. Importantly, we found new associations between MC4R and fasting glucose levels, and between NPC1 and fasting insulin levels. PMID:23375129
Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count 100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population.
This research explores some of the factors that influence the relations about empathy and/or rejection that children establish towards some animal species. The role that school has within the social context in these dynamics was considered. Attitudes of young children (aged 7 to 9) from Mexico and England towards specific animal species, examining…
... important role model in her life. For some children, however, school may cause frustration and stress. Learning disabilities can interfere with the joy of learning. Poor study habits and/or a lack of motivation can create academic difficulties. Sometimes youngsters may have ...
Rodríguez Castillo, A; Villa, A V; Ramírez González, J E; Mayén Pimentel, E; Melo Munguía, M; Díaz De Jesús, B; Olivera Díaz, H; García Lozano, H
Dual typing (VP4 and VP7) of rotavirus obtained from 257 Mexican children during three epidemiological seasons was performed by reverse transcription-PCR. The P1G1 genotype was the most prevalent (40%), followed by P1G3 (19%) and P2G2 (16%). Thirty-one specimens (12%) presented mixed infections, while some genotypes were not found. This is the first dual typing of isolates from diarrhea cases in Mexico.
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.
This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…
Abstract This research explores some of the factors that influence the relations about empathy and /or rejection that children establish towards some animal species. The role that school has within the social context in these dynamics was considered. Attitudes of young children (aged 7 to 9) from Mexico and England towards specific animal species, examining attitudinal differences not only between cultures, and educational systems, but between species have been compared. Ecologica...
Treating asthma in children ages 12 and older Treating asthma in children ages 12 and older requires different steps than in younger children. Get tips ... Common signs and symptoms of asthma in children ages 12 and older may include: Cough Wheezing, a ...
Labiadh, Lazhar; Ramanantsoa, Marie-Martine; Golomer, Eveline
Imitative behavior underlaid by perception and action links during children's development in complex locomotor skills has been the object of relatively few studies. In order to explore children's motor coordination modes, 130 children divided into five age groups from 3.5 to 7.5 years were instructed to imitate jumping tasks in spontaneous motor situation and in various imitative contexts by an adult providing verbal orders and gestural demonstrations. Their conformity to the model, stability and variability scores were coded from a video analysis when they performed jumps with obstacles. To evaluate their postural-motor control level, the durations of the preparatory phase and jumping flights were also timed. Results showed that all age groups generated the demonstrator's goal but not necessarily the same coordination modes of jumping. In imitation with temporal proximity, the model helped the youngest age groups to adopt his coordination modes and stabilized only the oldest age groups' performances starting from 5.5 years old, without effect on learning imitation. Differences between the youngest and oldest children in the jump duration suggested that the reproduction of a complex motor activity such as jumping with a one foot take-off would require resolution and adjustment of main postural stability.
Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…
Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob
While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…
Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina
This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…
Umstattd Meyer M Renée; Sharkey Joseph R; Patterson Megan S; Dean Wesley R
Abstract Background The increasing numbers of colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border are characterized by disproportionately poor families of Mexican-origin, limited access to resources and health services, and heightened risk for obesity and diabetes. Despite consistent evidence supporting physical activity (PA) in prevention of chronic diseases, many individuals of Mexican-origin, including children, fail to meet PA recommendations. Environmental influences on PA, founded in ecological and s...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions, were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years. Results In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors. The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors, and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas. Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50. The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively. The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8. Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. Conclusion The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas, it
Reynolds, Cecil R.; Gutkin, Terry B.
Predictive validity of the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), was investigated with 174 Chicanos and 94 Anglos, ages 10-11, who were referred for psychological services. Wide Range Achievement Test Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtest scores were each regressed on WISC-R Verbal, Performance and Full Scale Intelligence…
This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Results Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down’s syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB, especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down’s syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. Conclusions This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life.
Valderrama-Hinds, Luis M; Al Snih, Soham; Rodriguez, Martin A; Wong, Rebeca
Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency are prevalent in older adults and are risk factors for disability. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of co-occurring arthritis and vitamin D deficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations and disability in older adults. We examined 1533 participants aged ≥50 years from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbid conditions, falls, physical activity, physical function tests, functional limitations, activities of daily living (ADL), and vitamin D. Participants were categorized into four groups according to arthritis and vitamin D status: no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis (58.80%), vitamin D insufficiency only (27.49%), arthritis only (8.47%), and arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency (5.24%). Fourteen percent reported arthritis, and 31.2% had vitamin D insufficiency. The arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency group was associated with upper-lower extremity functional limitations [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.15, and OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.00-3.62, respectively] and ADL disability (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.63-5.51) when compared with the no vitamin D insufficiency and no arthritis group (reference group). The arthritis only group was three times more likely to report upper-lower extremity functional limitations and ADL disability. The vitamin D insufficiency only group was not significantly associated with functional limitations nor ADL disability. Arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency increased the risk of ADL disability in this population. However, the effect of arthritis and vitamin D insufficiency on upper-lower extremity functional limitations was not higher than the effect of arthritis only, but higher than the effect on vitamin D insufficiency alone.
Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen
This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…
Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Núñez-Tapia, Rosa María; Ramírez-Silva, Armando; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos
Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents' limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837), parents' limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722), parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents' emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.
Carmichael, Karla D.
Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…
Roberto Herrera-Goepfert; Suminori Akiba; Chihaya Koriyama; Shan Ding; Edgardo Reyes; Tetsuhiko Itoh; Yoshie Minakami; Yoshito Eizuru
AIM: To investigate features of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) among a Mexican population.METHODS: Cases of primary gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from the files of the Departments of anatomic site of the gastric neoplasia was identified, and carcinomas were histologically classified as intestinal and diffuse types and subclassified as proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. EBV-encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA-1 (EBER-1)in situ hybridization was conducted to determine the presence of EBV in neoplastic cells.RESULTS: We studied 330 consecutive, non-selected,primary gastric carcinomas. Among these, there were173 male and 157 female patients (male/female ratio1.1/1). EBER-1 was detected in 24 (7.3%) cases (male/female ratio: 1.2/1). The mean age for the entire group was 58.1 years (range: 20-88 years), whereas the mean age for patients harboring EBER-1-positive gastric carcinomas was 65.3 years (range: 50-84 years). Age and histological type showed statistically significant differences, when EBER-1-positive and -negative gastric carcinomas were compared. EBER-1 was detected in hyperplastic- and dysplastic-gastric mucosa surrounding two EBER-1-negative carcinomas, respectively.CONCLUSION: Among Latin-American countries, Mexico has the lowest frequency of EBVaGC. Indeed, the Mexican population ＞50 years of age was selectively affected. Ethnic variations are responsible for the epidemiologic behavior of EBVaGC among the worldwide population.
Madsen, Millard C.
In a two-person experimental task used in the study of age and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California, a higher level of cooperation was seen among Mexican than among Anglo children, as was also an increase in nonadaptive competition with age among the latter. (RJ)
De la Cruz-Mosso Ulises
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several association studies have shown that -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms are related with increase of PAI-1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms in PAI-1 gene and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of Mexican mestizo children. Methods This study included 100 children with an age range between 6-11 years divided in two groups: a 48 children diagnosed with metabolic syndrome and b 52 children metabolically healthy without any clinical and biochemical alteration. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: fasting glucose levels ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol th percentile, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance HOMA-IR ≥ 2.4. The -844 G/A and HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results For the -844 G/A polymorphism, the G/A genotype (OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.11-7.08; p = 0.015 and the A allele (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.10-4.43; p = 0.015 were associated with metabolic syndrome. The -844 G/A and A/A genotypes were associated with increase in plasma triglycerides levels (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.04; p = 0.02, decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.06 to 5.42; p = 0.03 and obesity (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.17-5.92; p = 0.01. The C/G and G/G genotypes of the HindIII C/G polymorphism contributed to a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol levels (179 vs. 165 mg/dL; p = 0.02 in comparison with C/C genotype. Conclusions The -844 G/A PAI-1 polymorphism is related with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the HindIII C/G PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with the
Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna
This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.
Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Correa-González, Cecilia; Altamirano-Alvarez, Eduardo; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocio; Escamilla-Asian, Gabriela; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Aguilar-Romo, Manuel
Prior to 2005, 51% of children in Mexico diagnosed with cancer received no standardized optimal multidisciplinary medical care. A government-subsidized national cancer treatment program was therefore created for these patients and a National Cooperative Childhood Cancer Treatment Group was consequently formed for these patients. Pediatric patients with a proven diagnosis of leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumor and who were registered in the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program from January 2007 to December 2010, are described in this report. These patients had been enrolled and registered in one of the 49 nationwide certified medical institutions in Mexico. The national incidence and frequency data for childhood cancers were analyzed for the whole program. At the end of a 4-year study, the analysis revealed that 8,936 children from across Mexico had been diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rate for the PMI patients was 150.3/million/year (2010) for children of 0-18 years. The highest age incidence rate was 51.9 between 0 and 4 years and boys were the predominant group for all types of cancer. The leukemia incidence was 75.3/million/year (2010), and an average frequency of 50.75% throughout the 4 years. The overall mortality rate was measured at 5.4/100,000/year (2010). This study demonstrates a high frequency and incidence of childhood cancer and a beneficial impact of the PMI program over the quality of life in these children.
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...
Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…
Leach, Mark A.
Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture
Baker, Claire E.
Research Findings: Home literacy involvement (e.g., shared book reading) has been linked to enhanced cognitive development and school readiness during early childhood. Furthermore, precursory reading and math skills are key predictors of high school achievement. This study examined prospective relations between Mexican mothers' English…
O'Connell, A C
We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.
Alain Raimundo Rodriguez-Orozco
Full Text Available Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents’ limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837, parents’ limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722, parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837, parents’ emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743 and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870.No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.
Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Calderón, Luz; Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Kassack, Juan; Ponce, Rosa María; Mena, Carlos; Stchigel, Alberto; Cano, Josep; Guarro, Josep
We present a single-centre, retrospective study (1985-2012) of 22 cases of mucormycosis in children. A total of 158 mucormycosis cases were identified, of which 22 (13.96%) were children. The mean age of the children was 10.3 years (range: 6 months-18 years), and 59% of the infections occurred in males. The rhinocerebral form was the main clinical presentation (77.27%), followed by the primary cutaneous and pulmonary patterns. The major underlying predisposing factors were diabetes mellitus in 68.18% of the patients and haematologic diseases in 27.7% of the patients. The cases were diagnosed by mycological tests, with positive cultures in 95.4% of the patients. Rhizopus arrhizus was the foremost aetiologic agent in 13/22 cases (59.1%). In 21 cultures, the aetiologic agents were identified morphologically and by molecular identification. In 10 cultures, the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced. Clinical cure and mycological cure were achieved in 27.3% cases, which were managed with amphotericin B deoxycholate and by treatment of the underlying conditions.
Albis-Donado, Oscar; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Romero-Quijada, Rafael; Thomas, Ravi
Purpose: To evaluate the results and extrusion rates of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel, without a tube-covering patch, in children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the charts of 106 Mexican children implanted with 128 AGVs operated between 1994 and 2002, with the needle track technique, at our institution, with at least six months follow up was done. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) control, tube extrusions or exposure and other complications. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 96.9% survival rate at six months, 82.4% at one year, 78.7% at two years, 70% at three years and 41.6% at four years. Total success at the last follow-up (IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg without medications) was achieved in 30 eyes (23.5%), 58 eyes (45.3%) had qualified success (only topical hypotensive drugs) and 40 eyes (31.3%) were failures. The mean pre- and post-operative IOP at the last follow up was 28.4 mmHg (SD 9.3) and 14.5 mmHg (SD 6.3), respectively. No tube extrusions or exposures were observed. Tube-related complications included five retractions, a lens touch and a transitory endothelial touch. The risk of failure increased if the eye had any complication or previous glaucoma surgeries. Conclusion: Medium-term IOP control in Mexican children with glaucoma can be achieved with AGV implantation using a needle-generated tunnel, without constructing a scleral flap or using a patch to cover the tube. There were no tube extrusions, nor any tube exposures with this technique. PMID:20689189
Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel
Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an
Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…
Taylor, Zoe E; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F
Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers' (N = 674) and fathers' (N = 430) perceived social support and parenting behaviors, and their relations with children's social competence during early adolescence in Mexican-origin single and two-parent families. Our constructs of interest (warm parenting, monitoring, perceived social support, and children's social competence) were significantly correlated at T1, and demonstrated significant stability across time for both parental models. Parental warmth (as reported by the child, and opposite parent) and parental monitoring (self-reported by mothers and fathers) were correlated and also showed bidirectional associations across time. Parental monitoring at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for mothers. Parental warmth at T2 positively predicted change in children's social competence at T3 (controlling for T1 social competence) for fathers. For mothers, the indirect effect of social support at T1 on children's social competence at T3 via parental monitoring at T2 (and controlling for prior levels) was significant. Findings suggest that maternal perceived social support contributes to children's social competence due to its positive relation to maternal monitoring. Results may also suggest that mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors differentially relate to children's social competence in Latino families, although additional work focused on comparing parenting behaviors in two-parent families is needed.
Zaruma-Torres, Fausto; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Lima, Aurea; Reyes-Espinoza, Aarón; Loera-Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Arias-Peláez, María C.; Reyes-López, Miguel A.; Quiñones, Luis A.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a frequent neoplasia occurring in children. The most commonly used drug for the treatment of ALL is methotrexate (MTX), an anti-folate agent. Previous studies suggest that folate transporters play a role in ALL prognosis and that genetic polymorphism of genes encoding folate transporters may increase the risk of ALL. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the associations among six genetic polymorphisms in four genes related with the folate transporter pathway to determine a relationship with the occurrence of ALL in Mexican children. A case-control study was performed in 73 ALL children and 133 healthy children from Northern and Northwestern Mexico. COL18A1 (rs2274808), SLC19A1 (rs2838956), ABCB1 (rs1045642 and rs1128503), and ABCC5 (rs9838667 and rs3792585). Polymorphisms were assayed through qPCR. Our results showed an increased ALL risk in children carrying CT genotype (OR = 2.55, CI 95% 1.11–5.83, p = 0.0001) and TT genotype (OR = 21.05, CI 95% 5.62–78.87, p < 0.0001) of COL18A1 rs2274808; in SLC19A1 rs2838956 AG carriers (OR = 44.69, CI 95% 10.42–191.63, p = 0.0001); in ABCB1 rs1045642 TT carriers (OR = 13.76, CI 95% 5.94–31.88, p = 0.0001); in ABCC5 rs9838667 AC carriers (OR = 2.61, CI 95% 1.05–6.48, p < 0.05); and in ABCC5 rs3792585 CC carriers (OR = 9.99, CI 95% 3.19–31.28, p = 0.004). Moreover, several combinations of genetic polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with a risk for ALL. Finally, two combinations of ABCC5 polymorphisms resulted in protection from this neoplasia. In conclusion, certain genetic polymorphisms related to the folate transport pathway, particularly COL18A1 rs2274808, SLC19A1 rs2838956, ABCB1 rs1045642, and ABCC5 rs3792585, were associated with an increased risk for ALL in Mexican children. PMID:27547186
Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a frequent neoplasia occurring in children. The most commonly used drug for the treatment of ALL is methotrexate (MTX, an anti-folate agent. Previous studies suggest that folate transporters play a role in ALL prognosis and that genetic polymorphism of genes encoding folate transporters may increase the risk of ALL. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the associations among six genetic polymorphisms in four genes related with the folate transporter pathway to determine a relationship with the occurrence of ALL in Mexican children.A case-control study was performed in 73 ALL children and 133 healthy children from Northern and Northwestern Mexico. COL18A1 (rs2274808, SLC19A1 (rs2838956, ABCB1 (rs1045642 and rs1128503 and ABCC5 (rs9838667 and rs3792585. polymorphisms were assayed through qPCR.Our results showed an increased ALL risk in children carrying CT genotype (OR=2.55, CI 95% 1.11-5.83, p=0.0001 and TT genotype (OR=21.05, CI 95% 5.62-78.87, p<0.0001 of COL18A1 rs2274808; in SLC19A1 rs2838956 AG carriers (OR=44.69, CI 95% 10.42-191.63, p=0.0001; in ABCB1 rs1045642 TT carriers (OR=13.76, CI 95% 5.94-31.88, p=0.0001; in ABCC5 rs9838667 AC carriers (OR=2.61, CI 95% 1.05-6.48, p<0.05; and in ABCC5 rs3792585 CC carriers (OR=9.99, CI 95% 3.19-31.28, p=0.004. Moreover, several combinations of genetic polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with a risk for ALL. Finally, two combinations of ABCC5 polymorphisms resulted in protection from this neoplasia.In conclusion, certain genetic polymorphisms related to the folate transport pathway, particularly COL18A1 rs2274808, SLC19A1 rs2838956, ABCB1 rs1045642 and ABCC5 rs3792585, were associated with an increased risk for ALL in Mexican children.
Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell
Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values.
Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando
Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.
Full Text Available The necessity of determining the biological age (BA in elementary school-age children as an important criterion for prenozological diagnostics is justified from the theoretical as well as practical prospective. The classification of prenozological states based on the BA is presented. The experiment features data of 159 children aged 7-10 years. Analyses of the obtained mean functional age (FA data shows deviation from the calendar age (CA in all age and gender groups which enables to diagnose prenozological state of elementary school-age children.
Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises
Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency.Methods. Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (Cognition/ Depression/ Functionality/ Nutrition/ Appetite to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%, aged <80y (61% and home residents (54%.Results. Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age, than home dwellers for Cognition, Depression and Nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of Depression with increasing age. In contrast, Functionality and Appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inhability of these two instruments to dicriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100, and better appetite than women at all ages.Conclusions. Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the Depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents.
Cárdenas, V M; Koopman, J S; Garrido, F J; Bazúa, L F; Ibarra, J M; Stetler, H C
A case-control study of mortality from acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children under five years of age was conducted in Naucalpan, an urban-suburban area of Mexico City, and in rural localities of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The study found that ARI deaths tended to occur in the poorest neighborhoods; 78% of the deceased study subjects were infants under six months old; and 68% of the deaths occurred at home. Comparison of the data for cases (fatalities) and control children who had severe ARI but recovered showed that failure to receive antibiotics was associated with death (odds ratio 28.5, 95% confidence interval 2.1-393.4). This antibiotic effect was controlled for numerous potentially confounding factors. It is evident that antibiotics had a much greater effect in the early days of the illness than later on. In general, the findings strongly support PAHO/WHO primary health care strategies--including such strategies as standardized management of severe ARI cases--that seek to reduce childhood ARI mortality.
Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To present an overview of micronutrient status of Mexican children in 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and low serum copper and magnesium were gathered and critically analyzed from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey. RESULTS: Iron deficiency is still the main nutritional deficiency in children (13%-26%. Zinc deficiency was high in all age groups (≈25% but reduced 5.6 PP in children OBJETIVO: Presentar un panorama del estado de micronutrimentos de niños mexicanos en 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre deficiencias de hierro, zinc, folatos, vitamina B12 y concentraciones bajas de cobre y magnesio se analizaron a partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. RESULTADOS: La deficiencia de hierro fue la más importante en niños (13-26%. La deficiencia de zinc fue alta en todos los grupos de edad (≈25% y disminuyó entre 1999 y 2006 5.6 pp en niños. La deficiencia de folatos fue de 3.2% y la de vitamina B12 de 7.7%. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio y cobre fueron altas (22.6 y 30.6%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La deficiencia de hierro pareció disminuir y la de zinc se redujo en niños mexicanos. La alta prevalencia de deficiencias de cobre y magnesio merecen más investigación para entender sus implicaciones en salud pública.
Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.
To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…
Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove
Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…
González-Ochoa, Guadalupe; Menchaca, Griselda E; Hernández, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Tamez, Reyes S; Contreras, Juan F
The NSP4 protein is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of the rotavirus. Although NSP4 is considered an enterotoxin, the relationship between gastroenteritis severity and amino acid variations in NSP4 of the human rotavirus remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequence diversity of NSP4 and the severity of gastroenteritis of children with moderate to severe gastroenteritis. The rotavirus-infected children were hospitalized before the rotavirus vaccine program in Mexico. All children had diarrhea within 1-4 days, 44 (88%) were vomiting and 35 (70%) had fevers. The severity analysis showed that 13 (26%) cases had mild gastroenteritis, 23 (46%) moderate gastroenteritis and 14 (28%) severe. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed three clusters within the genotype E1. Sequence analysis revealed similar mutations inside each cluster, and an uncommon variation in residue 144 was found in five of the Mexican NSP4 sequences. Most of the amino acid variations were located in the VP4 and VP6 binding site domains, with no relationship to different grades of gastroenteritis. This finding indicates that severe gastroenteritis caused by the rotavirus appears to be related to diverse viral or cellular factors instead of NSP4 activity as a unique pathogenic factor.
Juan F. Contreras
Full Text Available The NSP4 protein is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of the rotavirus. Although NSP4 is considered an enterotoxin, the relationship between gastroenteritis severity and amino acid variations in NSP4 of the human rotavirus remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequence diversity of NSP4 and the severity of gastroenteritis of children with moderate to severe gastroenteritis. The rotavirus-infected children were hospitalized before the rotavirus vaccine program in Mexico. All children had diarrhea within 1-4 days, 44 (88% were vomiting and 35 (70% had fevers. The severity analysis showed that 13 (26% cases had mild gastroenteritis, 23 (46% moderate gastroenteritis and 14 (28% severe. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed three clusters within the genotype E1. Sequence analysis revealed similar mutations inside each cluster, and an uncommon variation in residue 144 was found in five of the Mexican NSP4 sequences. Most of the amino acid variations were located in the VP4 and VP6 binding site domains, with no relationship to different grades of gastroenteritis. This finding indicates that severe gastroenteritis caused by the rotavirus appears to be related to diverse viral or cellular factors instead of NSP4 activity as a unique pathogenic factor.
Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.
The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…
From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…
Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.
Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…
Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…
Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.
AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean
Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…
Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…
Morales, María Isabel
While some children spend their summers in camps or other recreational activities, many children of immigrants in Washington state spend them picking cherries and learning with(in) orchards. Children's experiences consist of multiple narratives demonstrating that children's lives are complicated, yet full of possibilities for teaching and…
Phelan, Tom; Buschang, Peter H; Behrents, Rolf G; Wintergerst, Ana M; Ceen, Richard F; Hernandez, Angeles
This study compared the skeletal and dental characteristics of Class II Division 1 white Americans and Mexicans. It was designed specifically to the evaluate ethnic, age, and sex differences of 101 whites and 107 Mexican mestizos, with approximately equal numbers in each subgroup. Three-way analyses of variance were used to simultaneously evaluate the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and their interactions. Although Mexicans and whites in the United States had similar maxillomandibular relationships, Mexicans showed greater protrusion of the jaws and teeth. Mexican subjects with Class II malocclusions also showed less divergence of the cranial base (SN-FH angle) and greater vertical tendencies (MPA, Y-axis, and palatal plane angle) than their white counterparts. In comparison with children (mean age 9.0 years), young adults (mean age 20.1 years) had significantly larger craniofacial dimensions, jaws that were positioned more forward, and teeth that were more protruded. Sex differences pertained only to size (men were larger) and maxillary incisor angulation (men were more protrusive). The findings pertaining to the ethnic differences have important clinical implications regarding treatment decisions for Mexican and white patients. In addition, this study provides a foundation for future studies pertaining to Class II malocclusion in Mexicans.
Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.
The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).
Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J
To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.
Guerrero, Alma D; Slusser, Wendelin M; Barreto, Patricia M; Rosales, Norma F; Kuo, Alice A
To understand Latina mothers' definitions of health and obesity in their children and perceptions of physician weight assessments. 24 low-income Spanish speaking Mexican mothers of children ages 2-5 years were recruited to participate in 4 focus groups. Half of the mothers had overweight or obese children and half had healthy weight children. Focus group comments were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory. Themes and supporting comments were identified independently by 3 reviewers for triangulation. A fourth reader independently confirmed common themes. Mothers define health as a function of their child's ability to play and engage in all aspects of life. Obesity was defined with declining physical abilities. Mothers state health care provider assessments help determine a child's overweight status. Causative factors of obesity included family role-modeling and psycho-social stress, physical inactivity, and high-fat foods consumed outside the home. Controlling food intake was the primary approach to preventing and managing obesity but mothers described family conflict related to children's eating habits. These findings held constant with mothers regardless of whether their children were overweight, obese, or at a healthy weight. Mothers utilize physical limitations and health care professional's assessment of their child's weight as indicators of an overweight status. These results highlight the importance of calculating and communicating body mass indices (BMI) for Latino children. Eliminating non-nutritive foods from the home, increasing physical activity, and involving family members in the discussion of health and weight maintenance are important strategies for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.
Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction.
Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren
Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...
Abstract Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically train...
Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Beltran, O
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are at high risk for musculoskeletal and other occupational injuries. Although persons aged 40-80 years account for 40 % of all US farmworkers and as many as 50 % in certain regions, little is known about their occupational health issues. The current study examined work-related persistent musculoskeletal injuries (PMIs) and their association with clinical and functional indicators of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 177 middle-aged and elderly US-Mexico border farmworkers. At interview, 68 % reported current PMI pain; 51 % had pain at multiple sites. PMI pain was associated with increased shoulder, knee, and lower extremity dysfunction and reduced HRQOL scores. However, fewer than 25 % of injured participants received any conventional medical treatment. The study results indicated that work-related PMIs, especially multiple PMIs, caused significant functional impairment, disability, and poorer HRQOL, adversely affecting the ability of the aging farmworkers to perform work, self-care, and other daily activities.
The Law that led to the foundation of the Seguro Social was enacted on December 31st 1942, and later it was amended in 1945 to give rise to the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The first 10 years were characterized by the integration and acceptance of healthcare services from the social security point of view. In the 50s, with the construction of the Hospital La Raza, and in the 60s, with the construction of the Centro Medico Nacional, an expansion took place with the creation of several specialty units. The Hospital de Pediatría from the Centro Médico Nacional was one of them. A brief historical description of its origins is presented, and most importantly, of the impact it had on Mexican medicine.
Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups......-school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...
Krasina P. Valcheva
Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.
Tang, Sandra; Dearing, Eric; Weiss, Heather B
For a sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking Mexican-American families (n = 72), we investigated associations between family involvement in school-based activities and children's literacy in their preferred language (English or Spanish) during early elementary school. We gave special attention to the potential moderating role of teacher fluency in Spanish. Between kindergarten and third grade, family involvement in school-based activities increased for children who displayed early literacy problems. The rate of increase was greater for children who consistently had bilingual teachers than for children who did not. In turn, increased family involvement predicted better literacy skills at third grade, particularly for children who struggled early. We discuss these results in light of recent recommendations to increase the number of elementary school teachers who are fluent in Spanish and English.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be
Grimes, Carley A.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nicklas, Theresa A.
Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0–24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005–2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty–Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0–5.9 months and 6–11.9 months) infant formulas were the most commonly consumed beverage, 74.1% and 78.6% of children consuming, respectively. Comparatively fewer children, 41.6% and 24.3%, consumed breast milk. In toddlers (12–24 months), the most commonly consumed beverages were plain milk (83.6% of children consuming), water (68.6%), 100% fruit juice (51.8%) and sweetened beverages (31.2%). Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children were more likely to consume sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juice and infant formula than Non-Hispanic white children. Children from lower income households were more likely to consume sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juice and less likely to consume breast milk than children from higher income households. Total water intake increased with age and the contribution of water from food and beverage sources was ~20% and ~80% for all children, respectively. Disparities in beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and income level are apparent in early life. PMID:28335374
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional processes in children play a critical role in daily school demands and accomplishments. Studies on the association of attentional processes with school achievement and age in healthy school children are scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify correlations between dimensions of attentional performance, scholastic achievement and age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive testing battery was used to assess a wide range of attentional dimensions. A principal component analysis revealed three factors that are related to attentional performance (distractibility, lapses of attention, cognitive speed. Age was negatively associated with distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed, indicating that distractibility and lapses of attention decreased with age in healthy children and resulted in lower cognitive speed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attentional processes in healthy children should be measured in relation to distractibility, lapses of attention and cognitive speed.
The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.
McGovern, John P.
The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)
Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Thompson-Bonilla, Rocio; Abonce, Maricela; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Rosado, Jorge L.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.
Seventy-six children ≤2 years old were prospectively followed for 1 year in a peri-urban community of Mexico City to determine asymptomatic infection and acute diarrhea associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs). By use of a pathogen-specific multiplex PCR, DEPs were sought in 795 stool samples, of which 125 (16%) were positive for DEP; of these, 4 represented shedding episodes and 4 parasite coinfections. Most single-DEP infections (85/117) were asymptomatic (P < 0.001), and of the 32 DEP diarrhea episodes, 41% were associated with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), 37.5% with enterotoxigenic E. coli, 9% with typical EPEC, 9% with enteroinvasive E. coli, and 3% with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Among the 76 children, 54 had at least one stool positive for DEP, of which 23 experienced a DEP-associated diarrhea episode. In the last group of children, DEP infection was significantly associated with a diarrhea episode (relative risk [RR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79 to 3.57; P < 0.001), with ETEC (RR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.54; P = 0.003) and aEPEC (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.0; P = 0.019) being the pathotypes associated with diarrhea. aEPEC-associated diarrhea episodes were frequently in the <12-month age group (RR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.27; P = 0.04). aEPEC infections were distributed all year round, but associated diarrheal episodes were identified from April to October, with a May-June peak (rainy season). Most ETEC infections and diarrhea episodes characteristically occurred during the summer (rainy season), with a diarrhea peak in August. Of all DEPs, only aEPEC was associated with acute diarrhea episodes lasting 7 to 12 days (P = 0.019). DEPs are important causes of community-acquired enteric infection and diarrhea in Mexican children. PMID:19020055
van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.
Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. Cooperation of young children, by nature, differs over ti
Tulananda, Oracha; And Others
Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)
Umstattd Meyer M Renée
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing numbers of colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border are characterized by disproportionately poor families of Mexican-origin, limited access to resources and health services, and heightened risk for obesity and diabetes. Despite consistent evidence supporting physical activity (PA in prevention of chronic diseases, many individuals of Mexican-origin, including children, fail to meet PA recommendations. Environmental influences on PA, founded in ecological and social cognitive perspectives, have not been examined among children living in colonias. The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand (1 household and neighborhood environmental PA resources/supports, (2 perceived barriers to engaging in PA, and (3 PA offerings, locations, and transportation characteristics for Mexican-origin children living in colonias. Methods Data for this study were collected by promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers trained in research methods using face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish. The sample consists of 94 mother-child dyads from Texas border colonias in Hidalgo County. Interviews included questionnaire items addressing PA barriers, household and neighborhood environmental support assessments conducted with each dyad, and open-ended questions that were coded to identify availability and locations of PA opportunities and transportation options. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between genders, birth countries, and BMI categories of children were determined using chi-square tests. Results All children were of Mexican-origin. The most frequently reported barriers were unleashed dogs in the street, heat, bad weather, traffic, no streetlights, and no place like a park to exercise. Prominent locations for current PA included schools, home, and parks. Common PA options for children were exercise equipment, running, playing, and sports. Environmental assessments identified
Sneddon, Penny; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel; Crowley, Susan L
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ) when used with preschool and toddler age children. Mothers of 105 children ages 2-5 completed the CSHQ, the child behavior checklist (CBCL), and a sleep diary. Internal consistency for the original subscales on the CSHQ ranged from .55 to .82 and factor analysis resulted in four factors that tap into critical aspects of sleep. The concurrent validity of the revised scales of the CSHQ was adequate. Overall the results from this study suggest a revised factor structure may be more appropriate for use with preschool and toddler age children.
de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela
The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (Page estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.
Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C; McWhirter, Paula T
Exploring risk factors and profiles of intimate partner violence in other countries provides information about whether existing theories of this phenomenon hold consistent in different cultural settings. This study will present results of a regression analysis involving domestic violence among Mexican women (n = 83,159). Significant predictors of domestic violence among Mexican women included age, number of children in the household, income, education, self-esteem, family history of abuse, and controlling behavior of the husband. Women's employment status was not a significant predictor when all variables were included in the model; however, when controlling behavior of the husband was withdrawn from the model, women's employment status was a significant predictor of domestic violence toward women. Results from this research indicate that spousal controlling behavior may serve as a mediator of the predictive relationship between women's employment status and domestic violence among Mexican women. Findings provide support for continued exploration of the factors that mediate experiences of domestic violence among women worldwide.
Plourde, R G
In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.
Brian T Harel
Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.
Attiguppe, Prabhakar Ramasetty; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Mythri, P
Aim Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of a person, especially in children. Age estimation plays an important part in treatment planning, forensic dentistry, legal issues, and paleodemographic research. The present study was an attempt to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population by using Cameriere’s India specific formula. Materials and methods This was a retrospective observational study to estimate the chronological age in children of Davangere population. A total of 150 panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 6 and 15 years, including both sexes, were selected. Age was calculated by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth using Adobe Photoshop software. Results Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age, which showed that, of the variables X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, s, N0, the variables N0 and X4 were statistically noteworthy. Hence, these two variables were used to derive the linear regression formula: Age = 10.522 + 0.712(N0) - 5.040(X4). The model was found to be statistically significant, F(2, 147) = 207.96, p < 0.001, and accounted for approximately 74% of the variance of age (R2 = 0.739, adjusted R2 = 0.735). Conclusion Cameriere’s method can be used for age assessment in children for forensic as well as legal contexts and based on these variables a reliable age estimation equation could be proposed specifically for Davangere population. How to cite this article Attiguppe PR, Yavagal C, Maganti R, Mythri P. Age Assessment in Children: A Novel Cameriere’s Stratagem. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):330-334. PMID:28127165
Anosov I. P.
Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10
Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.
Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Grijalva-Haro, María Isabel; Chavarria, Elsa Yolanda; Artalejo, Elizabeth; Nieblas, Amparo; Ponce, José Antonio; Robles-Sardin, Alma E
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a national program of consumption of fortified milk "Liconsa" on the nutritional status of iron and zinc in pre-school children (3-5 y). The study was conducted in 77 healthy children of both genders. 54 of them consumed Liconsa fortified milk (GCLFL) and 23 consumed no fortified milk (GR). Iron status was determined by measuring hemoglobin and ferritin and zinc status by serum zinc. The consumption of milk was on free demand and it was estimated at baseline and 6 mo after. Through 24-h recall of measured consumption of iron and zinc in the total diet. Descriptive statistics, Student's t test for independent samples and chi-square test for differences in proportions. Children who consumed fortified milk showed an increase of hemoglobin and ferritin levels [1.13 g/dL (p p p p < 0.05). At the end of the study no child showed a micronutrient deficiency. Children who did not consume fortified milk Liconsa showed no significant change in their serum iron and zinc values. The average consumption of milk powder Liconsa was 22.7 ± 14.5 g, providing 2.5 mg of daily iron and zinc. Supplied diet 9.2 ± 3.4 mg of iron and 6.9 ± 3 mg of zinc. The consumption of fortified milk had a beneficial effect on the serum levels of iron and zinc in children's social welfare program Liconsa.
Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F. A.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Veldman, Karin; Bos, Arend F.; de Winter, Andrea F.
OBJECTIVE:To determine how growth of large for gestational age (LGA) preterm (PT) children was affected by their PT birth and their LGA status.METHODS:This is a community-based cohort study of 1302 PT and 489 full-term (FT) children, born 2002 and 2003.RESULTS:We found that growth in height, weight,
Acevedo, Mary Ann
This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…
Bryant, Benjamin P; Bryant, Judith B
The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students (56% girls; 88% car or bus riders) participated. Their school backpacks were weighed, and their age, gender, and mode of transportation to school were recorded. Only 40% of the sample carried backpacks that were less than 10% of their body weights. Five percent of the students' backpacks exceeded 20% of their body weights. Neither age group nor gender significantly predicted relative backpack weight or relative weight levels. Recommendations are made for ways to reduce the weight these young children carry.
Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew
of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...... characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA...
Reyes-León, Adriana; Juárez-Velázquez, Rocío; Medrano-Hernández, Alma; Cuenca-Roldán, Teresa; Salas-Labadía, Consuelo; del Pilar Navarrete-Meneses, María; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; López-Hernández, Gerardo; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Pérez-Vera, Patricia
Expression of the 6 and 8 dominant-negative Ikaros isoforms in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been associated with a high risk of relapse and death; due to these isoforms disrupting the differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid cells. The aim of this study was to know the frequency of Ik6 and Ik8 in 113 Mexican ALL-children treated within the National Popular Medical Insurance Program to determine whether there was an association with relapse-free survival, event-free survival and overall survival, and to assess its usefulness in the initial stratification of patients. The expression of these isoforms was analyzed using specific primer sets and nested RT-PCR. The detected transcripts were classified according to the isoforms’s sizes reported. A non-expected band of 300 bp from one patient was analyzed by sequencing. Twenty-six patients expressed Ik6 and/or Ik8 and one of them expressed a variant of Ik8 denominated Ik8-deleted. Although the presence of them was not statistically associated with lower relapse free survival (p = 0.432), event free survival (p = 0.667) or overall survival (p = 0.531), inferior overall survival was observed in patients that expressed these isoforms and showed high or standard risk by age and white blood-cell count at diagnosis. Of the 26 patients Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, 14 did not present adverse events; from them 6 were exclusively Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, and 8 were positive for the other Ikaros isoforms (Ik1, Ik2, Ik5, Ik3A, Ik4, Ik4A, Ik7). In the patients studied, the expression of Ik6 and Ik8 did not constitute an independent prognostic factor for relapse or death related to disease; therefore, they could not be used in the initial risk stratification. PMID:26131904
Full Text Available Expression of the 6 and 8 dominant-negative Ikaros isoforms in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been associated with a high risk of relapse and death; due to these isoforms disrupting the differentiation and proliferation of lymphoid cells. The aim of this study was to know the frequency of Ik6 and Ik8 in 113 Mexican ALL-children treated within the National Popular Medical Insurance Program to determine whether there was an association with relapse-free survival, event-free survival and overall survival, and to assess its usefulness in the initial stratification of patients. The expression of these isoforms was analyzed using specific primer sets and nested RT-PCR. The detected transcripts were classified according to the isoforms's sizes reported. A non-expected band of 300 bp from one patient was analyzed by sequencing. Twenty-six patients expressed Ik6 and/or Ik8 and one of them expressed a variant of Ik8 denominated Ik8-deleted. Although the presence of them was not statistically associated with lower relapse free survival (p = 0.432, event free survival (p = 0.667 or overall survival (p = 0.531, inferior overall survival was observed in patients that expressed these isoforms and showed high or standard risk by age and white blood-cell count at diagnosis. Of the 26 patients Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, 14 did not present adverse events; from them 6 were exclusively Ik6+ and/or Ik8+, and 8 were positive for the other Ikaros isoforms (Ik1, Ik2, Ik5, Ik3A, Ik4, Ik4A, Ik7. In the patients studied, the expression of Ik6 and Ik8 did not constitute an independent prognostic factor for relapse or death related to disease; therefore, they could not be used in the initial risk stratification.
Seefeldt, Carol; And Others
Briefly discusses the concept of ageism, the stereotyping of groups of people on the basis of age, and lists resources including books, articles and organizations which can be used to combat ageism. (BR)
Maldonado-Puga, Samantha; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando
Introduction. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), encoded by cdt genes, have DNase activity leading to cellular and nuclear distension, resulting in irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of target cells. cdt-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from children with diarrhoea. There is, however, scant information on the prevalence and clinical presentation of diarrhoeal disease caused by these strains. Furthermore, toxin production of cdt-positive strains is rarely confirmed. We report five young children with diarrhoea caused by CDT-producing E. coli in whom stools were negative for other bacterial or enteric pathogens. Case presentation. On admission to hospital, all children presented watery diarrhoea with high stool output (range 7–20 stools/24 h); five had fever of 38 °C or more and four presented vomiting. Dehydration was present in four patients, one of whom had hypovolaemic shock; one child also presented hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia. In two children, cdt-positive strains were classified as typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and the remaining three harboured cdt-positive strains that did not belong to any diarrhoeagenic pathogroup. One cdt-positive strain from each case was characterized by a CDT cytotoxic assay and a cdt type-specific PCR. All strains produced the characteristic cellular intoxication due to CDT. Two strains carried the cdt-I, one cdt-III, one cdt-IV, and one concurrently had cdt-I, cdt-II and cdt-III genes. Conclusion. Our results suggest that CDT-producing E. coli strains are an infrequent, albeit significant, cause of severe diarrhoeal illness in children. Future research should measure the true burden of cdt-positive E. coli diarrhoea among children.
Ana Lòpez-De Fede
Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.
Objective: To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods: Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and w...
Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F.
To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age 11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and…
Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4
Bazan-Ramirez, Aldo; Castellanos-Simons, Doris; Lopez-Valenzuela, Mercedes
This paper aims at analysing the structural relationships among some latent and observed variables related to the assessment of written language performance in 139 fourth grade students of Elementary School selected from nine public schools of the northwest of Mexico. Questionnaires were also applied to the children's parents and teachers. The…
Vu, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Alison L.; Howes, Carollee
Reasons for code-switching in young children range from the linguistic (single-word borrowings that appear to be translation equivalents or to fill gaps in lexical knowledge) to more complex sociolinguistic and sociocognitive factors, such as desiring affiliative interactions. We looked at patterns of code-switching in narratives derived from…
Souto-Gallardo, M C; Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of parents to estimate the weight status of preschool children attending the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) day-care centers using three different tools. A total of 100 parent-child pairs attending to all the existing IMSS day-care centers in Ensenada (n = 9) completed a questionnaire on the perception of children's weight status using verbal description, sketches, and pictures. Chi squared test and univariate logistic regression was applied to assess the difference in perception between the tools used, the factors associated with the weight status perception and to identify predictors of parental underestimation of their child's weight. The sample size was estimated for a significance level of 0.05 with statistical power of 80%. No significant differences were found in the perception of weight status using different tools. The parents' underestimation of the child's weight status ranged from 51 to 59%, this percentage jumps to 79 to 84% in overweight children and 82 to 91% in obese children. Being a young mother and having a daughter increased the risk of underestimation. Higher odds of underestimation were found in > 2BMI z-score. The high underestimation found in this study shows that the ability of parents in signaling an alert to prevent childhood obesity might be highly reduced and preventive health programs should include increasing the weight status perception.
Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; González-Rico, José Luis; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Sánchez-Talamantes, Eva; Navarro-Lozano, María Eugenia; Nápoles-Rodríguez, Francisco
Since the early 1990s we noted that family dysfunction was more common in children with severe primary malnutrition than in children admitted to the hospital without malnutrition. Defects on feeding habits during the first year of life, especially early weaning and inadequate complementary feeding were more common in dysfunctional families. We also observed that chronic malnutrition in preschool children, and overweight and obesity in schoolchildren were more common in children from dysfunctional families. Once the association between dysfunctional family dynamics and obesity in schoolchildren was demonstrated, it was observed that low education of fathers and mothers increased twofold the possibility of family dysfunction: OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.37-3.10 and OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.57-3.89, respectively. In addition, the low-income and the lower purchasing power of foods were associated to family dysfunction (pfamily dysfunction in composite, extended, single-parent families where there exist other persons vulnerable to the different entities of malnutrition syndrome and indeed depend on adults for their care, food and nutrition.
De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto
Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.
Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N
Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.
Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J
The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored.
Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; Ayllon-Vergara, Julio C.; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Hernández-Castellanos, Erika; Barrera-Hernández, Angel; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Del Razo, Luz M.
Background: Arsenic exposure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis in adults, but there is little information on arsenic and early risk biomarkers for atherosclerosis in children. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an indicator of subclinical atherosclerotic burden that has been associated with plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of arsenic exposure with cIMT, ADMA, and en...
Abstract Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the ...
Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J
The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.
Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi
PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...
To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.
Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar
"nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...
Iron, zinc and iodide status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years of age: a probabilistic national survey Estado de hierro, zinc y yodo en niños menores de 12 años y en mujeres de 12-49 años de edad en México: una encuesta probabilística nacional
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of iron, zinc and iodide deficiencies in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women and children and explore its association with some dietary and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out in 1999 an epidemiological description of iron (percent transferrin saturation, PTS, OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de las deficiencias de hierro, zinc y yodo en una muestra probabilística de mujeres y niños mexicanos y analizar algunas asociaciones con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Descripción epidemiológica de las deficiencias de hierro (Porcentaje de saturación de transferrina <16%, zinc (<65ug/dl y yodo (<50ug/l orina en una muestra probabilística de 1363 niños y 731 mujeres. Las concentraciones séricas de hierro, y la capacidad total de saturación de hierro y zinc se midieron por espectrometría de absorción atómica, y el yodo por un método colorimétrico. Los determinantes de tales deficiencias se estudiaron mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La deficiencia de hierro fue mayor (67% en niños <2 años de edad. La prevalencia disminuyó en los escolares (34-39%. La prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en mujeres fue de 40%. La deficiencia de zinc fue mayor en niños <2 años de edad (34% que en escolares (19-24%. La prevalencia en mujeres fue de 30%, sin diferencia rural/urbana. La probabilidad de tener deficiencia de hierro en mujeres disminuyó con el nivel socio-económico (p=0.04 y aumentó con la ingestión de cereales (p=0.01. La probabilidad de tener concentraciones bajas de zinc sérico fueron mayores en mujeres de nivel socioeconómico (SES bajo (p=0.02 y p=0.001. La prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo fue casi inexistente tanto en niños como en mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos demuestran una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, especialmente en niños de 12 a 24 meses de edad. Se sugiere que en niños mayores
Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya
Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.
Full Text Available A sample of 120 Spanish-speaking children, 60 with reading disabilities and 60 normal readers was studied. Individual and family history of handedness, language problems, and reading disabilities were analyzed in each case. The results suggest that reading disabilities are more common among boys, that associated language problems are frequent and that handedness is not a significant factor. Insofar as family history is concerned, there were more affected families and relatives in the reading disabled group than in the control group. Finally an association was established between the variables of handedness and language problems.
Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia
Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs.
Jacklin, Susan M.
This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
Feldman, Jay; Gray, Peter
Observation of 200 children ages 4 to 19 attending a Massachusetts nongraded alternative school disclosed substantial age mixing. Younger children used older children to develop skills and acquire knowledge. Age mixing encouraged opportunities for creativity, helped match abilities, and fostered older children's sense of responsibility for younger…
... is provided for children of participants who have not attained age 26. The plan limits children who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 147... MARKETS § 147.120 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group health...
Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P
The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.
Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index
DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly
This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…
Kearns, Devin M.
Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…
Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa
The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.
... participants who have not attained age 26. The plan limits children who are older than age 18 to the HMO option... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...
Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia
Vilma Carolina Bekker-Méndez
Full Text Available Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child’s diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7% patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4% patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1% patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8% patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4% patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.
Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia
Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130
Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.
de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519
Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.
In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…
Full Text Available Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%, n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%, n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%, n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02 and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007. In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001 and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001. In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005, lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005, ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001, and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02. While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.
Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S
Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.
Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV testing during pregnancy permits prevention of vertical (mother-to-child transmission and provides an opportunity for women living with HIV to access treatment for their own health. In 2001, Mexico's National HIV Action Plan committed to universal offer of HIV testing to pregnant women, but in 2011, only 45.6% of women who attended antenatal care (ANC were tested for HIV. The study objective was to document the consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during pregnancy and late HIV diagnosis for Mexican women living with HIV and their families. METHODS: Semi-structured-interviews with 55 women living with HIV who had had a pregnancy since 2001 were completed between 2009 and 2011. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a priori and inductive codes. RESULTS: Consistent with national statistics, less than half of the women living with HIV (42% were offered HIV testing and counseling during ANC. When not diagnosed during ANC, women had multiple contacts with the health-care system due to their own and other family members' AIDS-related complications before being diagnosed. Missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care and health-care providers failure to recognize AIDS-related complications resulted in pediatric HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths of children and male partners, and HIV disease progression among women and other family members. In contrast, HIV diagnosis permitted timely access to interventions to prevent vertical HIV transmission and long-term care and treatment for women living with HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Omissions of the offer of HIV testing and counseling in ANC and health-care providers' failure to recognize AIDS-related complications had negative health, economic and emotional consequences. Scaling-up provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling within and beyond antenatal care and pre-service and in-service trainings on HIV and AIDS for health
Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T
This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.
Long, Kurt Z; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Rosado, Jorge L; Ignacio Santos, Jose; Haas, Meredith; Firestone, Mathew; Bhagwat, Jui; Young, Cheryl; DuPont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Nanthakumar, Nanda N
Vitamin A supplementation has consistently reduced infant mortality and the severity of pathogen-induced diarrhea. The mechanism by which vitamin A modulates the mucosal immune response to produce these effects remains poorly defined. To address this issue, stools collected during the summer months from 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo old enrolled in a larger, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, vitamin A supplementation trial were screened for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and gastrointestinal pathogens. Fecal cytokine values were categorized into 3 levels (undetectable, or =median). Multinomial regression models were used to determine the probability that vitamin A-supplemented children had higher categorical values of a cytokine than children in the placebo group. Differences in categorical values were also analyzed after stratification by gastrointestinal pathogen infections and diarrheal symptoms. Overall, fecal cytokine categorical levels did not differ between children randomized to the 2 arms. Vitamin A-supplemented children infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) had reduced IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels [odds ratio (OR) = 0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.67 and OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.83, respectively] compared with children in the placebo group. Vitamin A-supplemented children had increased IL-4 levels when infected with A. lumbricoides (OR = 12.06, 95% CI 0.95-153.85). In contrast, IL-4 levels increased (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 0.94-4.87) and IFN-gamma levels decreased (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-0.99) among vitamin A-supplemented children with diarrhea compared with children in the placebo group. These findings suggest that the regulation of the mucosal immune response by vitamin A may depend on the type of enteric pathogen infecting the child and the presence of clinical symptoms.
Eating ready-to-eat cereal for breakfast is positively associated with daily nutrient intake, but not weight, in Mexican-American children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002
Ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status, but intake has not been studied in Mexican-American (MA) children. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and weight were associated with classificat...
Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent
in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. • All children aged ≤14 years...... was preferred in 22 patients (20.5%). The overall mean operative duration was 97.02 min; blood transfusion rate, fever and stone-free rates were 9%, 14% and 70.1%, respectively. • A comparison of the paediatric PCNL cases according to age groups showed no statistically significant differences between...... the subgroups for patient characteristics, co-morbidities, renal anomalies, or previous surgical history. • In the evaluation of the operative details, the mean sheath size and nephrostomy tube size were larger in school-age children than the preschool children (P= 0.01 and 0.002, respectively...
Eliane F. Maggi; Lívia C. Magalhães; Alexandre F. Campos; Bouzada,Maria Cândida F.
OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory...
Espino, Michelle M.
Guided by the framework of community cultural wealth, this study uncovered how 7 low-income, 1st-generation Mexican American PhDs interpreted their parents' and families' educational aspirations, messages imbued with aspects of normative parental/familial involvement as well as cultural forms of support. This study demonstrates the power of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have
Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake
We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood.
Leanne C. Findlay
Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.
Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy
A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…
Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne
The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in dea
Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…
Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya
Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…
Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans
Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.
Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process
Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W
24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.
Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p 12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126
Willyanti S Syarif
Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang
Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R
Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (p=0.02 for all). We conclude that PT subjects employ neural systems for auditory language function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna
The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…
Our aim was to examine the effects of food acculturation on Mexican Americans’ (MA) diets, taking the Mexican diet as reference. We used nationally representative samples of children (2–11 y) and female adolescents and adults (12–49 y) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and NHANES 1999–2006 to compare the diets of Mexicans (n = 5678), MA born in Mexico (MAMX) (n = 1488), MA born in the United States (MAUS) (n = 3654), and non-Hispanic white Americans (NH-White) (n = 5473). One 24...
Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja;
AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...
Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul
This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.
Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and walk
Plata-Potter, Sandra Ixa; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.
This phenomenological study examines Mexican immigrant parents' experiences of helping their children navigate and succeed in school and their perceptions regarding differences between the U.S. and Mexican educational systems. Findings highlight parents' challenges in helping their children succeed in a new and unfamiliar school system and the…
Susceptibility to advanced age-related macular degeneration and alleles of complement factor H, complement factor B, complement component 2, complement component 3, and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes in a Mexican population
Buentello-Volante, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Gabriela; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Pompa-Mera, Ericka N.; Graue-Wiechers, Federico; Bekker-Méndez, Carolina; Ayala-Ramirez, Raul; Quezada, Carlos; Rodríguez-Loaiza, Jose L.
Purpose To investigate the association of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)–high risk alleles of the complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), complement component 3 (C3), and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genes in a Mexican population for the first time. Methods Genotyping was performed for the Y402H variant of CFH, for the L9H, R32Q, and K565E variants of CFB, the E318D variant of C2, the A69S variant of ARMS2, and the R102G variant of C3 in 159 Mexican mestizo patients at advanced stages of AMD, i.e., CARMS (Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System) grade 4 or 5. The frequency of these variants was also investigated in a group of 152 control subjects without AMD. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes, and genotyping was performed using PCR followed by direct sequencing. Allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion was used to detect the R102G polymorphism in C3. Results There were significant differences in the allelic distribution between the two groups for CFH Y402H (p=1×10−5), ARMS A69S (p=4×10−7), and CFB R32Q (p=0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) obtained for the risk alleles of these three variants were 3.8 (2.4–5.9), 3.04 (2.2–4.3), and 2.5 (1.1–5.7), respectively. Haplotype analysis including the two most significantly associated alleles (CFH Y402H and ARMS A69S) indicated that the C-T combination conferred an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 6.9 (3.2–14.8). The exposed attributable risk for this particular haplotype was 85.5%. Conclusions This is the first case-control investigation of AMD–high risk alleles in a Latino population. Our results support that CFH, ARMS2, and CFB AMD-risk alleles are consistently associated with the disease, even in ethnic groups with a complex admixture of ancestral populations such as Mexican mestizos. PMID:23112567
Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy
The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information.
Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.
Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.
Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder
Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.
The melting-pot theory constitutes a major barrier for certain minority groups, such as Mexican-Americans, because it interferes with the adoption of an adaptive ethnic identity. The notion of all races blending and forming a new superior conglomeration is neither possible nor desirable. This article traces the history of multicultural education…
The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.
The adverse health effects of lead (Pb) exposure in young children are well known. Non-Hispanic black children historically have higher blood Pb levels (BLL) compared to Mexican-Americans and non- Hispanic white children (CDC-MMWR). In the past, BLL tests below 10 µg/dL m...
Full Text Available Background: Growth can be one of the most uncertain variations, but understanding the same is very important for diagnosis and treatment planning. Skeletal age and dental age have been used to determine a child′s developmental age. Several researchers have evaluated the association between dental and skeletal maturity with chronologic age on different population. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether dental age estimation can be replaced for skeletal age estimation in the Dakshina Kannada population. Methods: A total of 104 samples equally distributed among both genders in the age group of 9-14 years were selected. Skeletal age was estimated using hand-wrist radiographs and Fishman′s skeletal maturation index and dental age was measured using Demirjian′s method. Results: Spearman′s rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the skeletal maturity and dental maturity. The mean ages of male and female samples were determined as 11.89 ± 1.867 years and 12.21 ± 1.473 years, respectively. Chronological age was found to be positively correlated to dental age and skeletal age and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01. The correlation between dental age and skeletal age was also found to be statistically significant with P < 0.001 and correlation coefficient of 0.683 and 0.704 for males and females. Conclusion: The present study showed a strong relation between the developmental ages in mixed dentition population; hence, dental age can be considered as a replacement in the study population.
Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota
The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…
Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.
The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings in…
Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross
Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…
Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna
This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…
Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)
Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)
Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio
This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.
Georgina Toussaint-Martínez de Castro
Full Text Available Introduction: In 2012, the Mexican National Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012 showed a moderate prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency, around 16%, in a national representative sample of children. A decreasing prevalence of anemia during the last 15 years has been observed in Mexico. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of vitamin D in children 3-8 years old in four different locations within the metropolitan area of Mexico City and to compare them to levels of iron and zinc as references of nutritional status. Methods: One hundred and seventeen healthy children aged 3-8 years attending four hospitals in Mexico City were invited to participate. All children received medical and nutritional evaluation, and blood samples were obtained. Results: Children were selected in four hospitals between April and August 2008. More than half (51.3% were boys; their average age was 5.5 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of subjects with deficient levels of 25-OH-vitamin D (< 50 nmol/L was 24.77%. None of the children had haemoglobin levels below the anaemia threshold, and zinc determination revealed 8.26% of individuals with deficient levels (< 65 μg/dL. These data confirm the findings reported in ENSANUT about the sustained reduction of anaemia prevalence among preschool and schoolchildren and the rising rates of vitamin D deficiency in the same population. Similar to other studies, we found a link between socioeconomic status and micronutrient deficiency, these being markers of better nutrition, and vitamin D is remarkably related to the quality of the diet. This finding has not been considered in our population before. Conclusions: There is evidence of a sustained decrease of anaemia in Mexican children due to general enrichment of foods and focus on vulnerable populations, while vitamin D deficiency seems to have increased. More studies are needed to obtain more information on vitamin D levels at different ages and definition of susceptible groups in
Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de energía y nutrimentos de mujeres mexicanas de 12 a 49 años de edad. Material y métodos. La información dietética se obtuvo por recordatorio de 24 horas en 9 101 mujeres participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición de 1988 y se contrastó con características sociodemográficas y estado fisiológico. El consumo de nutrimentos se comparó con las recomendaciones de ingestión dietética (RID. Resultados. La mediana del consumo energético fue de 1 568 kcal/día. La dieta estuvo conformada por 15% de proteína, 60% de hidratos de carbono y 25% de grasa. La proporción de mujeres con una ingestión inferior a la mitad de las RID fue de 70% para vitamina A, 75% para B6, 56% para vitamina C, 33% para B12, 69% para folato, 33% para calcio y 22% para hierro. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos muestran deficiencias importantes en la dieta, las cuales son más acentuadas en mujeres embarazadas o nodrizas, en las de menor nivel socioeconómico, en las que habitan en áreas predominantemente rurales o indígenas y en las de la región sur.Objective. To analyze energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women from 12 to 49 years of age. Material and methods. Dietetic information was gathered by a 24 h recall from 9 101 women who participated in the National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1988. These data were compared with sociodemographic and physiologic characteristics. Nutrient consumption was compared with the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA. Variance analysis and t-test were used to evaluate group differences. Results. Mean energy consumption was 1 721 kcal per day. The diet consisted of 15% protein, 60% carbohydrates and 25% fat. The proportion of women with dietary intakes lower than 50% of the RDA was 70% for vitamin A, 75% for vitamin B6, 56% for vitamin C, 33% for vitamin B12, 69% for folate, 33% for calcium and 22% for iron. Conclusion. Results show important deficiencies in the diet, predominantly in
Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L
Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection
Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F
OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the Longitudina
Brady, Judith E.; And Others
First-, third-, and fifth-grade children played a board game with another same-age, same-sex child. Results demonstrated why young children are as likely to respond competitively as cooperatively under shared-reward conditions. (BJD)
Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...
Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD affects 5-6% of school aged children worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment and methylphenidate (MPH is considered the first-choice medication. There are two formulations: immediate release (IR MPH and long-acting (or extended release formulation (MPH-ER. In this work, we measure the efficacy of treatment for both presentations in one month with Conners’ scales and electroencephalography (EEG. Results. for IR group, in parents and teachers Conners test, all items showed significant differences, towards improvement, except for teachers in perfectionism and emotional instability. For ER group in parent’s Conners test, the items in which there were no significant differences are psychosomatic and emotional instability. For teachers, there were no significant differences in: hyperactivity and perfectionism. Comparing the Conners questionnaires (parents versus teachers we find significant differences before and after treatment in hyperactivity, perfectionism, psychosomatics, DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive, and DSM-IV total. In the EEG the Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference (P<0.0001. As we can see, both presentations are suitable for managing the ADHD and have the same effect on the symptomatology and in the EEG.
Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn
The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…
In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age chil
Greenberg, Joy Pastan
The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Martinez, Suzanna M; Greenspan, Louise C; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; De Groat, Cynthia L; Deardorff, Julianna; Penilla, Carlos; Pasch, Lauri A; Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M
We know of no studies comparing parent-reported sleep with accelerometer-estimated sleep in their relation to paediatric adiposity. We examined: (i) the reliability of mother-reported sleep compared with accelerometer-estimated sleep; and (ii) the relationship between both sleep measures and child adiposity. The current cross-sectional study included 303 Mexican American mother-child pairs recruited from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We measured sleep duration using maternal report and accelerometry and child anthropometrics. Concordance between sleep measures was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. We conducted zero-ordered correlations between mother-reported sleep, accelerometer-estimated sleep and child BMI z-scores (BMIz). Using linear regression, we examined three models to assess child BMIz with mother-reported sleep (model 1), accelerometer-estimated sleep (model 2) and both sleep measures (model 3). Children had an average age of 8.86 years (SD = 0.82). Mothers reported that their child slept 9.81 ± 0.74 h [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.72, 9.89], compared to 9.58 ± 0.71 h (95% CI: 9.50, 9.66) based on accelerometry. Mother-reported sleep and accelerometer-estimated sleep were correlated (r = 0.33, P estimated sleep duration (model 2: β = -0.17; P < 0.01). Accounting for both sleep measures, only accelerometer-measured sleep was related to BMIz (model 3: β = -0.14, P = 0.02). Each sleep measure was related significantly to adiposity, independent of covariates. Accelerometry appeared to be a more reliable measure of children's sleep than maternal report, yet maternal report may be sufficient to examine the sleep-adiposity relationship when resources are limited.
Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.
Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different
Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N
Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.
Hernández, Maciel M; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D
This study examined factors that relate to academic competence and expectations from elementary to middle school for 674 fifth grade students (50% boys; Mage = 10.86 years) of Mexican origin. Models predicting academic competence and expectations were estimated using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) framework, with longitudinal data from fifth to eighth grades. School belonging (i.e., social and emotional connectedness to school) predicted greater academic competence and expectations over time. Findings indicate that student feelings of belonging in school may act as a resource that promotes academic competence and expectations. Furthermore, family income, parent education, and generational status had direct effects on academic competence and expectations to some degree, suggesting the importance of contextual factors in this process.
Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken
This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…
Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García
The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...
González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda
The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM, conocido también por su nombre en inglés: Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hace una descripción del diseño del estudio, su trabajo de campo y contenido temático, sus alcances y potencial analítico. Se presentan resultados descriptivos acerca de temas selectos. Este es un estudio prospectivo de panel sobre personas de 50 años de edad o más en 2000. RESULTADOS: En la encuesta inicial, realizada en 2001 con representatividad nacional y en áreas urbanas y rurales, se entrevistó aproximadamente a 15 200 personas. La encuesta de seguimiento realizada en 2003 recontactó exitosamente a más de 90% de los individuos entrevistados en la encuesta inicial y se realizaron 546 entrevistas sobre personas fallecidas entre 2001 y 2003. Se presentan resultados descriptivos de características demográficas, de salud, estilo de vida, apoyo institucional, pensiones, empleo, ayudas familiares y cambios en la salud a dos años. CONCLUSIONES: Los adultos mayores en México presentan gran heterogeneidad, la cual se ilustra en forma concisa y breve en los resultados presentados. El estudio y las bases de datos derivadas tienen un gran potencial analítico para explorar múltiples dimensiones de la salud en adultos mayores.OBJECTIVES: Describe the Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM, also known by its name in English as the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article summarizes the study design, its fieldwork protocol, survey contents, scope and analytical potential. It also presents descriptive results on selected topics.This is a prospective panel study on persons aged 50 or older in the year 2000. RESULTS: In the baseline survey, completed in 2001 with a national and urban-rural representation, about 15 200 interviews were completed. In the follow-up survey of the same persons in 2003
Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang
Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.
Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie
This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.
Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin
This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine the age of urinary continance of primary school students who had no enuresis problem and had secondary enuresis. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on four primary schools of Meram district which were selected by using simple random sample method. Totally, 1399 students who had no enuresis and had secondary enuresis were included to the study. The age of urinary continance of the students and presence of diurnal, nocturnal and continual enuresis in the secondary enuresis group were investigated. Results: The mean urinary continance age of the students was 22.0 ± 7.1 months. Urinary continance age of the male students was 1.2 months bigger than the female students. The prevalance of secondary enuresis was found as 5.6 %. The frequency of secondary enuresis in male students was 2.1 fold higher than in female ones. Of the 87 students with secondary enuresis, 18.4% was diurnal, 60.9 % was nocturnal and 20.7 % was continual enuresis. Conclusion: Toilet education should be given to children by their parents starting before 22 months of age, which was obtained as urinary continance age of primary school students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 41-49
While overweight and obese children are more likely to have overweight or obese parents, less is known about the effect of parental weight status on children's success in weight management programmes. This study was a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial and investigated the impa...
Kimura, Tohru; Doi, Kunio
The depigmenting and anti-aging effects of kinetin (KN) solutions on the aged skin of hairless dogs were clinically and histologically investigated. Grossly, all KN-treated sites became mildly depigmented. At 50 days of topical treatment with KN solutions, apparent improvement was observed in the skin texture, wrinkling, and pigmentation. At 100 days of KN treatment, both the skin rejuvenation and depigmentation effects became more prominent. Throughout the experimental period of KN treatment, no adverse effects were found in any sites treated with KN solutions. In the colorimetric system, at 100 days of topical treatment with KN solutions, the L* and b* values in the sites treated with KN solutions significantly increased. Histologically, at 50 days of topical treatment with KN solutions, the KN-treated sites showed a decrease in the thickness of the corneal layers. Melanin granules decreased throughout all epidermal layers. In the dermis, the large number of fine collagen and elastic fibers were densely aligned. At the end of the treatment, this agent was equally effective against pigmented lesions irrespective of the concentration of KN solution. The distribution of melanin granules returned to normal in the skin of adult hairless dogs. Throughout the present study, there were no histologic abnormalities in the epidermis and the dermis. These results revealed that topical treatment with lower concentrations of KN solutions normalized hyperpigmentation and improved the aged skin structure of hairless dogs. In addition, it was clarified that KN solutions had no adverse effects on the skin of hairless dogs and that this agent was a safe chemical for long-term application.
Kumar, Vinod; Haridas, Harish; Hunsigi, Prahlad; Farooq, Umar; Erugula, Sridhar R.; Ealla, Kranti K. R.
Aims and Objectives: Dental and bone age is very essential for the dental practitioner in planning treatments and is an extra source of information for the pediatrician, orthopedician, and endocrinologist. There are few published data regarding collation between dental age, bone age, and chronological age in iron-deficiency anemic children. This study has been undertaken to evaluate and compare dental age, bone age, and chronological age in children with iron-deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: One hundred iron-deficiency anemic children were selected in the age group of 8–14 years. Chronological age of the child was recorded by asking birth date from parents or checking school records. Dental age was calculated by Demirjians method and bone age was evaluated using Bjork, Grave, and Brown's method. Unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the two statistical tests applied to compare dental, bone, and chronological age. Results: Dental and bone age was significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to chronological age. The correlation between the three ages was positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental and bone age retardation was a significant feature in our sample of 100 iron-deficient anemic children. Bone age and dental age are valuable parameters in assessing the overall growth of the child. Further studies are required to corroborate our findings. PMID:27891309
As we embrace the increasing numbers of young Mexican immigrant children and their families present in our schools, it is important for educators to better understand the many family educational practices present in these households. This article examines the strategies and resources utilized by two Mexican-born and two U.S.-born Mexican immigrant…
Full Text Available Abstract Concerning the genetic factors of obesity, no consistent association between populations has been reported, which may be due to the frequency of polymorphisms, the lifestyle of studied populations and its interaction with other factors. We studied a possible association of polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282, and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 with obesity phenotypes in 215 Mexican children. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured. In addition, weight, height, waist circumference and triceps skin thickness were recorded. High-energy diets and sedentary behavior were evaluated with a validated questionnaire. In contrast with other reports, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, including BMI (p = 0.03, waist circumference (p = 0.02, triceps skinfold (p = 0.03 and waist/height ratio (p = 0.01, and also with cholesterol levels (p = 0.02 and LDL (p = 0.009. Lower levels of triglycerides (p=0.04 were related with presence of PPARG rs1801282, while ADIPOQ rs4632532 showed an effect on HDL (p = 0.03 levels. On the other hand, diet, physical activity and screen time were not related with obesity. In summary, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, while PPARG2 rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 were involved in lipid metabolism.
Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…
Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)
Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman
This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…
Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna
Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…
Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others
Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)
Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.
OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth rest
van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.
Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool cu
Cserjesi, R.; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Butcher, P.R.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Bouma, A.; Geuze, R.H.; Bos, A.F.
OBJECTIVE: To compare neuropsychological functions in moderately preterm (32-35 weeks' gestation) and full-term children at the age of 7 years and identify gender differences. METHODS: Community-based prospective cohort study of 248 moderately preterm children (138 boys) and 130 full-term children (
Moncrieff, Deborah W.
Children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were tested with dichotic listening tests utilizing single syllable words and random presentations of digits. They produced a higher prevalence of left ear dominance than expected, especially among right-handed children when tested with words. Whether more children demonstrate the LEA because of right…
Hembacher, Diane; Cruise, Mary J.
As the number of elderly people in our society increases, it becomes especially important for children to develop positive attitudes towards elders and towards their own aging. The American Association for Health Education has recommended the infusion of positive aging concepts in the K-12 curriculum. This qualitative study investigated the…
This children's book describes how a Mexican-American family celebrates the traditional Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead (Dia de Muertos). The book centers on 10-year-old twins, Ximena and Azucena, who live in Sacramento, California, with their two brothers, older sister, and parents. The Day of the Dead takes place on the first and second day of…
Shamah Levy Teresa; Morales Ruán Carmen; Amaya Castellanos Claudia; Salazar Coronel Araceli; Jiménez Aguilar Alejandra; Méndez Gómez Humarán Ignacio
Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento") in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Me...
Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…
Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL
The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a neurologica
Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…
Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.
Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…
Piek, Jan P.; Bradbury, Greer S.; Elsley, Sharon C.; Tate, Lucinda
School-age children with movement problems such as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are known to have social and emotional difficulties. However, little research has investigated younger children to determine whether these problems emerge at school age or are present earlier. The aim of the current study was to investigate the…
Plant, K. M.; Sanders, M. R.
Background: This study examined the predictors, mediators and moderators of parent stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disability. Method: One hundred and five mothers of preschool-aged children with developmental disability completed assessment measures addressing the key variables. Results: Analyses demonstrated that…
Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli
Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses
Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.
This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…
Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane
In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…
Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah
The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…
Gabig, Cheryl Smith
Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…
Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David
Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)
Lucia Martínez Moctezuma
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es observar las representaciones y los discursos sobre el cuerpo infantil en la escuela primaria mexicana. Para este trabajo se tomaran como ejes principales el análisis de la imagen y del texto, de los libros que circularon dentro de la escuela primaria mexicana entre 1882 y 1940. Textos que circularon, en un primer momento, en todo el País, como producto de los acuerdos tomados en los tres congresos higiénicos y de instrucción pública (1882, 1889 y 1890 y que se renovaran paulatinamente con la imposición de otros proyectos educativos. Si en una primera etapa los escritores atendieron a un lector urbano, donde las historias del niño rural, indígena o pobre se convirtieron en ejemplos de los males de la sociedad que debían ser corregidos por el régimen de la modernidad y de la ciencia para transformarlos en ciudadanos productivos, este esquema se revertirá en la segunda década del siglo XX, con el fin de educar a la masa infantil que vivía en el campo.The aim of this study is to analyze the representations and speeches on the children's body in Mexican primary school, and to see how hygiene, morality and gender relations are conceived. Its main source is a set of books, from different disciplines, that circulated between 1882 and 1940. They were published as a result of agreements reached in three hygienic and educational congresses (1882, 1889 and 1890 and were updated in response to other educational projects such as the Rural School (1920 and the Socialist School (1940. In a first stage, the writer addresses the urban reader, where stories of rural children, indigenous or poor, became an example of the evils of society that could only be overcome by modernity and science, giving birth to productive citizens. During the second decade of the twentieth century, educational speech privileges the children living in the countryside, those who will shape the future working class. Books in general sought to
Eliane F. Maggi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. RESULTS: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. CONCLUSION: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.
Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.
We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…
Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois
We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…
Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman
The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children.
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.
Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena
Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.
Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward
How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.
Chabolla is a Mexican learning Chinese from me. His Chinese name is Xia Boyang, pronounced similarly with his Mexican surname. On one occasion,I told him that “Xia Boyang” is a translated name of the hero in a Russian novel, he felt quite surprised and said seriously to me, “I am not Russian. I am Mexican.”
Aguirre-Bielschowsky, Ikerne; Freeman, Claire; Vass, Eva
This paper investigates Mexican and New Zealand children's conception of the environment and their understandings of environmental issues, focusing on how personal experiences, culture and school-based environmental education (EE) programmes influence their perspectives. Sixty Year 5 children (age 9-11) from three schools in Dunedin (New Zealand)…
Atkin, S. Beth; And Others
This book contains interviews and poems in which the children of Mexican migrant farmworkers in California describe their daily lives and their dreams for the future. The nine interviews with children and adolescents aged 9-18 are presented as personal narratives that tell of long hard hours in the strawberry fields, constant moving from place to…
Didier N. Kramer
Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.
Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene
Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.
Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.
Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane
Background/Context: The educational fate of the children of low-wage immigrants is a salient issue in all the economically developed societies that have received major immigration flows since the 1950s. The article considers the way in which educational systems in the two countries structure the educational experiences and shape the opportunities…
Suliman H Al-Fifi
Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.
Children hear and use narratives in a variety of contexts including school, social situations, and at home. A narrative is a form of discourse that is used to tell the listener what happened in a temporally sequenced, agent-focused way, and these stories can be a production of a real or fictional account. Speech language pathologists take a particular interest in children's narrative abilities because children's story telling capabilities play a large role in language acquisition as well as f...
Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F
The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.
Discusses schools' relevance in developing environmental awareness in young children. Explains that the primary-level national curriculum and the Mexican educational system are working toward an environmental policy. (Author/MM)
Musselman, C R; Wilson, A K; Lindsay, P H
The placement in and movement among preschool programs of 131 children with severe and profound hearing losses was monitored over four years. Longitudinal data were obtained on the children's linguistic and social development. In the first year of the study, most of the children were enrolled in auditory/oral (A/O) programs. By the final year, most were enrolled instead in total communication (TC) programs; similar movement occurred from individual to classroom programs. Children in A/O individual programs had the most hearing, highest intelligence and most favorable family profile, followed by children in A/O classes, TC individual programs, and TC classes. Scores on measures of spoken language followed the same pattern. On measures of receptive language and mother-child communication, children in A/O individual programs and those in TC classes had similar scores. Children in TC individual programs came next, and last were children in A/O classes. These findings have implications for the choice of programs for preschool deaf children.
Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de
Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...
Hayward, Denyse; Schneider, Phyllis; Gillam, Ronald B.
In this study we examined age- and task-related effects in story schema knowledge across an independent narrative task (story formulations) and a supported narrative task (answering questions). We also examined age-related changes to questions about the story as a whole. Participants were typically developing English-speaking children aged 4, 5,…
Barkley, Russell A.; And Others
Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)
Al-Fifi, Suliman H.
Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital d...
Zelazo, Philip David; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Nichols, Shana
Three experiments explored 3- and 4-year olds' use of external representations. Results indicated that 4-year olds outperformed 3-year olds on self-recognition task; children performed better with photographs than drawings; a delay had no effect. Results suggested that assessments of self and other understanding may reflect children's ability to…
Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…
Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya
Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.
Zuhal Özen Tunay
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7% of them were male and 62 (41.3% of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36% followed by cortical visual impairment (18%. The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3% for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7% and telemicroscopic systems (26.0% for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation
Albores-Gallo, Lilia; Roldán-Ceballos, Ofelia; Villarreal-Valdes, Gabriela; Betanzos-Cruz, Blanca Xochitl; Santos-Sánchez, Claudia; Martínez-Jaime, Maria Magdalena; Lemus-Espinosa, Isaac; Hilton, Claudia List
The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) questionnaire is a brief measure available in Spanish which needs to be validated for the Mexican population. Parents of children from (1) community with typical development (TD) and (2) psychiatric outpatient unit completed the CBCL/1.5-5 and the Mexican/MM-CHAT-version. The study sample consisted of 456 children (age M = 4.46, SD = 1.12), 74.34% TD children and 26.65% with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The MM-CHAT mean score for failed key items was higher for the ASD group compared with the TD group. Internal consistency for the Mexican/M-CHAT version was .76 for total score and .70 for the 6 critical items. Correlations between the MM-CHAT and the CBCL/1.5: PDD and Withdrawn subscales and with ADI-R dimensions: B non verbal) and A were high, and were moderate with ADI-R dimensions B1 (verbal) and C The failure rate of the MM-CHAT between the groups did not reproduce all the critical items found in other studies. Although the instrument has good psychometric properties and can be used for screening purposes in primary settings or busy specialized psychiatric clinics, these results support evidence for cultural differences in item responses, making it difficult to compare M-CHAT results internationally.
Albores-Gallo, Lilia; Roldán-Ceballos, Ofelia; Villarreal-Valdes, Gabriela; Betanzos-Cruz, Blanca Xochitl; Santos-Sánchez, Claudia; Martínez-Jaime, Maria Magdalena; Lemus-Espinosa, Isaac; Hilton, Claudia List
The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) questionnaire is a brief measure available in Spanish which needs to be validated for the Mexican population. Parents of children from (1) community with typical development (TD) and (2) psychiatric outpatient unit completed the CBCL/1.5–5 and the Mexican/MM-CHAT-version. The study sample consisted of 456 children (age M = 4.46, SD = 1.12), 74.34% TD children and 26.65% with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The MM-CHAT mean score for failed key items was higher for the ASD group compared with the TD group. Internal consistency for the Mexican/M-CHAT version was .76 for total score and .70 for the 6 critical items. Correlations between the MM-CHAT and the CBCL/1.5: PDD and Withdrawn subscales and with ADI-R dimensions: B non verbal) and A were high, and were moderate with ADI-R dimensions B1 (verbal) and C The failure rate of the MM-CHAT between the groups did not reproduce all the critical items found in other studies. Although the instrument has good psychometric properties and can be used for screening purposes in primary settings or busy specialized psychiatric clinics, these results support evidence for cultural differences in item responses, making it difficult to compare M-CHAT results internationally. PMID:22811934
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the physical activity patterns of a cohort of Mexican children in kindergarten (K, first (1ES and second grade (2ES of elementary school. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The physical activity of 217 children (123 girls and 94 boys aged 5-6 years was measured (five full-day triaxial accelerometry annually.Weekday and weekend moderate/ vigorous physical activity (MVPA and school and off-school MVPA was calculated. Comparisons between surveys were made using longitudinal multilevel generalized linear models. RESULTS: Weekday MVPA was 22 and 37 min/d lower for 1ES (p=0.06 and 2ES (p0.5. CONCLUSION: MVPA was significantly reduced from K to ES,in part because of a decline in MVPA during school activities. Interventions targeted to school environment modifications should be promoted.OBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de actividad física (AF en una cohorte de niños mexicanos en el jardín de niños, primer y segundo grado de primaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se midió anualmente la AF (acelerometría triaxial de cinco días completos en 217 niños (123 niñas y 94 niños de 5 a 6 años de edad. Se calculó la AF moderada/vigorosa (AFMV entre semana y de fin de semana, dentro y fuera del horario escolar. Se realizaron comparaciones mediante modelos lineales generalizados multinivel longitudinales. RESULTADOS: La AFMV entre semana fue 22 (p=0.06 y 37 min/d (p0.05. CONCLUSIONES: La AFMV disminuyó de manera significativa del jardín de niños a 2º de primaria en parte debido a una reducción de AFMV durante las actividades escolares. Es necesaria la promoción de intervenciones enfocadas a la modificación del ambiente escolar.
Shamah Levy Teresa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento" in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG and 30 to the control group (CG. A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13. For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6. The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091. This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091. In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80. Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children.
Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applie...
Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten
Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... regional differences prevail in prescribing practices for children facing social adversity, indicating that local cultures shape the interpretation and handling of children with ADHD-like behaviors....
O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.
Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya
Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.
Full Text Available Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients, diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P=0.041. Overall survival for Group A (18, 90% was higher than that for Group B (60%. Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy.
Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Arellano-Galindo, José; Medrano-Ortíz-De-Zárate, María Elena; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Berges-García, Adolfina; Solís-Labastida, Karina; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Espinoza-Hernández, Laura; Núñez-Villegas, Nora Nancy; Franco-Ornelas, Sergio; Pérez-Casillas, Ruy Xavier; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Palomares, Teresa Marin; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Background. In Mexico and other developing countries, few reports of the survival of children with acute leukaemia exist. Objective. We aimed at comparing the disease-free survival of children with acute myeloid leukaemia who, in addition to being treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy and an autologous transplant, either underwent early intensified chemotherapy or did not undergo such treatment. Procedure. This was a cohort study with a historical control group, forty patients, less than 16 years old. Group A (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 2005–2007, was treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy: high doses of cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Group B (20 patients), diagnosed in the period 1999–2004, was treated as Group A, but without the early intensified chemotherapy. Results. Relapse-free survival for Group A was 90% whereas that for Group B it was 60% (P = 0.041). Overall survival for Group A (18, 90%) was higher than that for Group B (60%). Complete remission continued for two years of follow-up. Conclusions. Relapse-free survival for paediatric patients treated with the Latin American protocol of chemotherapy with an autologous transplant plus early intensified chemotherapy was higher than that for those who did not receive early intensified chemotherapy. PMID:25821830
Smith, Patrick H.; Martinez-Leon, Natalia
Describes the educational situation facing "retornado" families and children, Mexican transnational immigrants moving between New York City and Puebla, Mexico. Examines factors underlying the current lack of first language and second language instruction for the Spanish-English bilinguals returning to live in Mexico. Offers suggestions…
Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.
There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…
Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L
Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541
Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)
A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of spasticity with age in children with cerebral palsy (CP has, to our knowledge, not been studied before. In 1994, a register and a health care program for children with CP in southern Sweden were initiated. In the programme the child's muscle tone according to the modified Ashworth scale is measured twice a year until six years of age, then once a year. We have used this data to analyse the development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods All measurements of muscle tone in the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle in all children with CP from 0 to 15 years during the period 1995–2006 were analysed. The CP subtypes were classified according to the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe network system. Using these criteria, the study was based on 6218 examinations in 547 children. For the statistical analysis the Ashworth scale was dichotomized. The levels 0–1 were gathered in one category and levels 2–4 in the other. The pattern of development with age was evaluated using piecewise logistic regression in combination with Akaike's An Information Criterion. Results In the total sample the degree of muscle tone increased up to 4 years of age. After 4 years of age the muscle tone decreased each year up to 12 years of age. A similar development was seen when excluding the children operated with selective dorsal rhizotomy, intrathecal baclofen pump or tendo Achilles lengthening. At 4 years of age about 47% of the children had spasticity in their gastro-soleus muscle graded as Ashworth 2–4. After 12 years of age 23% of the children had that level of spasticity. The CP subtypes spastic bilateral and spastic unilateral CP showed the same pattern as the total sample. Children with dyskinetic type of CP showed an increasing muscle tone up to age 6, followed by a decreasing pattern up to age 15. Conclusion In children with CP, the muscle tone as measured with the Ashworth
Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A
To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.
Louise Amália de Moura; Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias; Lilian Varanda Pereira
Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the...
Larnert, Per; Risto, Olof; Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe
Purpose Hip dislocation in cerebral palsy (CP) is a serious complication. By radiographic screening and prophylactic surgery of children at risk most dislocations can be prevented. CPUP, the Swedish CP registry and follow-up program, includes annual radiographic examinations of children at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V. Data from CPUP were analysed to assess the risk of hip displacement in relation to GMFCS levels and age. Methods All children at GMFCS levels...
Background Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems in a sample of school-age children with a wide range of language and behaviour profiles. The following research questions were addressed: Does perform...
Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.
... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...
Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed.......19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach...
Slaughter, Charles H.
A study conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico assessed Mexican attitudes toward United States bilingual education. Subjects interviewed were 129 English-speaking Mexicans, aged from 12 to 66, most of them middle class. Forty percent were students. The interviews focused on the subjects' backgrounds, why and how they learned English, and how Mexican…
Lopez, Linda C.; Hamlin, Penelope A.
A survey of 208 female and 191 male students attending a public high school in southwestern New Mexico assessed the extent of student use of smokeless tobacco products. The sample included 179 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American females, as well as 152 Mexican-American and 26 Anglo-American males. The average age of both female and male…
Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H;
OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...
Amca, Dervise; Kivanç Öztug, Emine
The main aim of this research is to compare the social behavior of children according to the teacher interviews. Screening model method has been used at this research which is one of the descriptive research methods. The study group of this research was created totally 691 children, from the age group of 4, which were observed at least 8 weeks…
This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the…
Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann
The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…
This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...
Rivers, Charisse L.
Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…
Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.
Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…
Zablotsky, Benjamin; Colpe, Lisa J.; Pringle, Beverly A.; Kogan, Michael D.; Rice, Catherine; Blumberg, Stephen J.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require substantial support to address the core symptoms of ASD and co-occurring behavioral/developmental conditions. This study explores the early diagnostic experiences of school-aged children with ASD using survey data from a large probability-based national sample. Multivariate linear regressions…
He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart
Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…
This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence
Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.
The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…
Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen
This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…
Babalis, Thomas; Xanthakou, Yiota; Papa, Christina; Tsolou, Olympia
Introduction: The aim of this research, which was carried out in 2010, is the comparative study of the psychosocial adjustment of preschool children from divorced and nuclear families in the nursery school. Method: The sample of the study consisted of 60 students (mean age = 5.21), 30 preschool children of divorced parents and 30 preschool…
Olumakaiye, M. F.
Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.
This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…
Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
Many studies have found that children born to young mothers face handicaps in their educational career. Considerable debate exists as to whether these effects are real age effects, or whether they are due to measured and unmeasured family background effects that are correlated with having children a
Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.
To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children
Important reasons exist for differences among the various genres in children's literature, related to the emotional and intellectual development of the reader. The themes presented in good children's fiction are always the same ones, no matter what the age: the need for love, the importance of close attachments, the fear of abandonment and…
Kaderavek, Joan N.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Justice, Laura M.; Eisenberg, Sarita N.
This study examined aspects of self-assessment, a metacognitive ability, and oral narrative production in 401 children between 5 and 12 years of age. Oral narrative production was evaluated through the administration of the "Test of Narrative Language" (TNL). Self-assessment of narrative performance was determined by asking children to…
Kwong See, Sheree T.; Nicoladis, Elena
This study examined young children's (M = 38 months) beliefs about the aging of language competence using a modified mutual exclusivity paradigm (cf. Markman, 1990). Children were shown pairs of objects (familiar and unfamiliar) and were asked by a younger and older experimenter to point to the object in the pair to which a novel non-word…
Menkes, Susan M.
Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…
Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…
Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah
Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…
Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.
Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…
Verschuren, Olaf; Maltais, Desiree B.; Takken, Tim
Our primary purpose was to provide maximum heart rate (HR(max)) values for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to determine the effects of age, sex, ambulatory ability, height, and weight on HR(max). In 362 ambulatory children and adolescents with CP (213 males an
A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...
Warren, Zachary E.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Evon Batey; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Crittendon, Julie; Stone, Wendy L.
Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically…
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…
Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.
Abraham Binu, Raj Sunil, Stephenson Baburaj, Mohandas MK
Full Text Available Background: Speech and language is the most important skill for the child’s development and scholastic performance. Awareness of the delay is important in the programs for early identification. Purpose: to assess the prevalence of speech and language delay in children from age group 0 to six years of age. Methodology: The speech and language development of children coming in the well baby clinic and daily pediatric clinic of age group from birth to 6 years were evaluated using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum (LEST. The prevalence of speech and language delay in each age group was calculated and also analyzed in the sociodemograhic profile. Results: A total of 102 children were studied in which 13.7% had language delay. 18% had questionable language delay and 15.7% had suspect language delay. Though among language delay mixed type was more, children had more difficulty in doing expressive items. Language delay was also found to be more prevalent in males, single child, first born child and children of working mothers. Parental age, education or socioeconomic status was not found to be related to language delay. Conclusion: The 13.7% prevalence of language delay in the children indicates the need of early identification and for it a simple screening tool like LEST is a must during the routine evaluation of young children in pediatric clinics. Health care givers and parents should ensure that babies grow up in a language rich, nurturing and stimulating environment right from birth onwards.
Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali
Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was st...
Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;
of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p
Fletcher, T V; Kaufman de Lopez, C K
Given the worldwide trend toward the integration of children with special needs into the general school system, and the Program for Educational Modernization (1989-1994) in Mexico, Mexican educators have had to reassess the politics of special education, focusing on different service delivery models. One model, Integrated Groups, which has been functioning since the 1970s and is primarily for children with learning and language disabilities, is described. New legislation recently enacted recognizes and encourages the collaboration of general education and special education to meet the needs of all children. During the school year 1994-1995, the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP; the Mexican centralized public school system) is piloting, in Mexico City, a proposal for the integration of children into the general classroom. This new model of service delivery is designed to provide greater site-based approaches to the education of individuals with learning disabilities.
Evans Angela M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.
Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.
Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo
Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607
Dashniani, M G; Chkhikivishvili, N Ts; Naneĭshvili, T L; Burdzhanadze, M A; Maglakelidze, G A
In order to assess development of the egocentric system of the spatial short-term memory in children (n=66) of different ages (24-60 months) the Inverted Delayed Reaction test has been used. It was found that in the children aged 24-36 months regularities of performance of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test significantly differ in conditions of different loads onto the mechanisms of dead reckoning; the children aged 36-60 months do not show sensitivity to different loads. In children aged 42+/-4 months functional elimination of any of the sensory system (visual, kinesthetic, vestibular) during rotation significantly deteriorated results of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test performance, while in children aged 60+/-4 months number of correct responses decreased if two or three sensory systems were eliminated simultaneously. The data obtained permit to conclude that the Inverted Delayed Reaction test is sufficiently sensitive for evaluation development of the egocentric spatial memory system in children and that formation of the dead reckoning mechanisms starts in an age of 24 months and in the period of 24-60 months its further upgrading does occur.
Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.
Full Text Available We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12. The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3, 0.5(0.4-0.8, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, 0.4 (0.3-0.6, and 0.4 (0.3-0.6 respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7, 2 (1-3, 1 (0.6-2, and 3 (2-4 in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.
Aranda, Robert G.; Acosta, Phyllis B.
In East Los Angeles, 26 Mexican American families with children in Head Start responded to a questionnaire gathering data on birthplace, family income, occupation, individuals in the home, dietary intake and habits of the children, food buying and preparation practices, and pregnancy history of the mothers. In San Ysidro, 101 Mexican American…
Full Text Available Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG in 4-7 year old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA children with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA+; 6 boys, 7 girls; mean age 6.3 y (SD=0.9 and children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 7 boys, 3 girls; mean age 6.0 y (SD=1.2 participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used nonparametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed was significantly lower head circumference (HC and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth.
Glick, Jennifer E.; Yabiku, Scott T.
BACKGROUND The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children’s schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. OBJECTIVE This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children’s school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. METHODS The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. RESULTS The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. CONCLUSIONS The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:28077926
Shaun K Morris
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.
Full Text Available Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%, and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%, incontinence (93.49%, need for urgent voiding (68.13%, and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%. The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy.
Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.;
BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... an asthma exacerbation was a strong predictor of an exacerbation in children Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...
Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.
Ivette Álvarez Mora
Full Text Available Background: malocclusions are considered a major oral health problem and they are mostly associated with oral habits which are not corrected at an early age.Objective: to analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years.Methods: a before and after intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from October 2008 to April 2009. It included children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years who attend the Guerrillero Heroico Primary School of the Area II in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Parents and guardians signed the consent for their children participation in the research. Preventive and therapeutic educational measures were used. The results of the intervention were assessed through a before-and-after interview with children, parents or guardians and educators. Results: the level of awareness of children, parents and teachers increased significantly as well as the correction of oral habits in the majority of children, especially tongue thrusting, the use of feeding bottle and pacifier. Better results were found in females. Dentomaxillofacial deformities diminished after the intervention, primarily upper incisors deviated towards the oral vestibule and increased overjet. Conclusions: educational intervention in school-age children contributed to the correction of oral habits.
Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan
The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.
Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.
Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann
Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.
Debbie J. Pope
Full Text Available An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49 were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and an expressive vocabulary test. Results identified significant gender differences with girls providing more appropriate and higher quality expressions of emotional understanding than boys. Children were more able to link color to positive rather than negative emotions and significant gender differences in specific color preferences were observed. The implications of adult misinterpretations of color-emotion associations in young children are discussed.
Tschann Jeanne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and
van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.
Full Text Available This study examined two components of understanding TV advertising: the recognition of the difference between programmes and commercials and the comprehension of advertising intent. ANOVA analyses were performed to assess the effect on age, gender, parent-child interaction and parental control over children of TV programme watching. Research found that majority of children aged between five and eight have some understanding of TV advertising, they are capable in differentiate programme and commercials especially if this understanding is measured by non-verbal rather than verbal measure. However, the results based on verbal measures are not as conclusive. The findings also indicated that children age has substantial positive effect on the children understanding of TV advertising. This effect pronounced for verbal measure of comprehension intent for advertisements. Results also showed a small but significant negative effect of parental control of TV viewing, in which a high control of TV viewing result in a relatively low understanding of TV advertising.
Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda
The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.
Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.
Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…
Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine
Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…
Yurtsever Kilicgun, Muge
Problem Statement: When children watch television, they are exposed to commercial advertisements whose general purpose is to make a positive impression on viewers about a commodity or service in order to drive the sales of that commodity or service. Due to their voiced and moving images, their setup and characters, and their being short and…
Pace, Ann Jaffe
Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…
Marushko, Yu V; Iovitsa, T V
Thus, we have discovered that the children of the first half-year of life have different degrees of severity of transient lactase insufficiency basing on the results of hydrogen respiratory test. It was set that the starting dose of enzyme lactase must depend on the degree of severity of displays of transient lactase insufficiency, taking into account the indexes of hydrogen respiratory test.
Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika
Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…
Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca
Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…
Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty
Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…
Opree, S.J.; Rozendaal, E.
Cohort studies have revealed that today’s children are watching more television than ever before (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). An average child will spend two hours per day in front of the television screen (SKO, 2012). Most of this time is spend watching shows on commercial channels like Disne
Flores, David V; Torres, Luis R; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Bordnick, Patrick S; Ren, Yi; Torres, Melissa I M; Deleon, Freddie; Pericot-Valverde, Irene; Lopez, Tenee
Drug use among older adults is a growing concern, particularly for the burgeoning Hispanic population. Older adults seeking drug treatment will double over the next decade to almost 6 million. Cultural factors influence drug use, and more specifically, Hispanic cultural values influence heroin use. This study explored Mexican-American injection drug users' adherence to traditional Hispanic cultural values and their impact on cessation. Ethnographic interviews endorsed contextualized influences of values on heroin use. Cultural values functioned dichotomously, influencing both initiation and cessation. Understanding the impact of cultural values on substance abuse is critical given the changing demographics in American society.
Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Hole, P
To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age......-specific morphine requirements between 2 comparable groups of children aged 4-8 years and 9-15 years were compared. We used the Pharmacia-Deltec pump in all children and the same settings: a bolus dose of 25 microgram/kg, an 8 minutes lockout interval and no background infusion. In addition, all children received...... paracetamol as a supplemently to the morphine. In this study children aged 4-8 years had significantly higher total postoperative morphine requirements compared to children aged 9-15 years, i.e. 11.6 microgram/kg/hour and 7.5 microgram/kg/hour respectively (p = 0.037). Hence, we conclude that children...
Exposición a Estreptococo del grupo B en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Serologic evidence of high exposure to Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae in Mexican women of reproductive age
Sera Bank; serum samples were collected during a national seroepidemiologic survey conducted in 1987-1988. The assays for standardization and for evaluation of seroprevalence were carried out at the Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Children's Hospital Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security from January to November 1995. IgG antibodies against group B antigen were studied with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA developed in our lab. Group B antigen was produced and purified from the reference strain GBS 110. Results. A total of 2669 serum samples were studied; 2405 were positive to anti-group B antigen IgG antibodies, for a seroprevalence of 90.2%. No differences in prevalence were found among the different age groups or among the different states of the country. Conclusions. The high seroprevalence of antibodies against GBS suggests that young women in Mexico are commonly exposed to GBS infection.
McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen
The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…
Nancy J. Roizen
Full Text Available We report three cases of asymptomatic celiac disease identified in children with Down syndrome after being screened at around twenty-four months of age. These cases raise the question as to what age is screening for celiac disease indicated in a child with Down syndrome and no symptoms.
Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate
This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…
Cidav, Zuleyha; Lawer, Lindsay; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.
This study examined differences by age in service use and associated expenditures during 2005 for Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Aging was associated with significantly higher use and costs for restrictive, institution-based care and lower use and costs for community-based therapeutic services. Total expenditures…
The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)
Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco
There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with l
Candy-Gibbs, Sandra E.; And Others
Examined concepts of death in 114 children. Significant cultural/religious background differences were found for concepts of irreversibility, universality, and inevitability. Age effects were found for universality and inevitability. Understanding of causation of death was significantly influenced by the child's age and background. (NRB)
Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.
It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development
Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…
Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…
Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid
Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants.