WorldWideScience

Sample records for age menopausal status

  1. Assessing menopausal status in women aged 40 - 49 using depot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Determining symptoms of menopause in older users of hormonal injectable contraceptives may be challenging, owing to method-induced amenorrhoea, suppression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and vasomotor symptoms. Objective. To investigate menopausal symptoms in women aged 40 - 49 using ...

  2. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  3. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-10-13

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07-1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14-1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association.

  4. Menopause accelerates biological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Morgan E.; Lu, Ake T.; Chen, Brian H.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E.; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R.; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Horvath, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the “epigenetic clock”), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  5. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Results: Average age of menopause of an Indian woman is 46.2 years much less than their Western counter parts (51 years. A definite rural and urban division was also seen. There was a correlation between the age of menopause and social and economic status, married status, and parity status.

  6. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  7. Oestrogen receptors in breast tumours: associations with age, menopausal status and epidemiological and clinical features in 735 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, J M; Godolphin, W

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between oestrogen-receptor (RE)-positive or negative patients were made on a continuous series of 735 patients with primary breast tumours seen at the major treatment centre in British Columbia between 1975 and 1978. RE positivity was commoner in older patients, and was not associated with menopausal status independently of age. The concentration of receptor protein also increased with increasing age, but was not affected by menopausal status. Neither RE status nor quantity was associated with any of the epidemiological risk factors studied, which included parity, age at first birth, weight, family history and exposure to oestrogenic drugs and oral contraceptives. Patients with RE- tumours were more likely to present with symptoms other than a breast lump, pain or nipple inversion, and had less-differentiated tumours; they did not differ from RE+ patients in terms of stage, size of tumour, or interval from first symptom. These findings are discussed in terms of the biological origin and determinants of oestrogen receptors.

  8. Age and Menopausal Status Affect Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Levels in Women Differently, Irrespective of Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Shinkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG and osteocalcin (OC are essential bone proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are not secreted solely by bone cells; they play roles in the vascular function and energy metabolism, and they are influenced by multiple factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of menopause and age on OPG and OC in women with different thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Material and Methods We studied 49 women with elevated TSH, 26 with suppressed TSH, and 67 age-matched euthyroid controls. Of them 64 were menstruating and 78 postmenopausal. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, serum TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, OPG, and OC were measured. Results Generally, both OPG and OC were higher in the postmenopausal women than in the menstruating subjects (OPG 3.85 ± 1.49 pmol/L vs. 5.84 ± 2.42 pmol/L, P < 0.001; OC 8.84 ± 3.70 ng/dL vs. 12.87 ± 6.45 ng/dL, P < 0.001, and within the two thyroid dysfunction subgroups and the controls (all P < 0.05. OPG correlated with age (postmenopausal rho = 0.57, P < 0.001; premenopausal rho = 0.31, P = 0.015. Among the premenopausal subjects, OPG was higher in those with low TSH than in the controls ( P = 0.048. OC correlated negatively with BMI and WC in the postmenopausal group (Spearman rho = –-0.25, P = 0.03 and rho = –-0.42, P < 0.001 respectively. OC was higher in the postmenopausal subjects with low TSH than in those with elevated TSH ( P = 0.024, and correlated positively with FT4 (rho = 0.40, P = 0.002 and negatively with TSH (rho = -0.29, P = 0.013. CONCLUSIONS In women, OPG and OC depended differently on age and menopause and, to a lesser extent, on the thyroid function and body composition.

  9. Menopause versus aging: The predictor of obesity and metabolic aberrations among menopausal women of Karnataka, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Menopausal transition brings about anomalies in total body composition characterized by an increased body fat mass and central adiposity. This creates a compatible atmosphere for abnormal metabolism and aggravated cardio metabolic risk factors. Thus, menopausal status and associated obesity is the major predictor of metabolic aberrations over age in menopausal women.

  10. Factors affecting age of onset of menopause and determination of quality of life in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ceylan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a process in the climacteric period, characterized by a reduction in ovarian activity, a fall in the fertility rate, and a range of symptoms including irregular menstruation intervals. Most women enter menopause in their 40s, but this can vary from one individual to another. Although there are many factors affecting the age of menopause onset, there is no general agreement on them. Studies have shown many factors to affect the age of menopause, such as the mother’s age at menopause, the age at menarche, gestational age, use of oral contraceptives, irregular menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies, body mass index, use of tobacco and alcohol, physical activity, unilateral oophorectomy, serum lead levels, consumption of polyunsaturated fat, socioeconomic status and educational level. During this period, hormonal and biochemical changes give rise to various symptoms in the woman’s body. In menopause period, physical, psychological, social and sexual changes have a negative effect on quality of life in women. Recently, different measures have been used to assess women’s quality of life in this period of change. The purpose of this review was to examine the factors affecting the onset age of menopause and the measures of quality of life related to menopause.

  11. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Participants aged 40-60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. History of hysterectomy, age at menopause. Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  13. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV-infected Thai women was 47.3 years, which is significantly earlier than the findings of a previous AM report on non-HIV-infected women. Postmenopausal HIV-infected women had more vasomotor and sexual symptoms. More studies are needed to investigate the cause and appropriate interventions for

  14. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Menopausal Status, Depression, and Life-Satisfaction among some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined menopausal status, timing of menopause and their influence on experience of depression and life satisfaction among 188 working women. The participants were drawn from organizations in Lagos and Ibadan. Results of the study revealed that (I) currently menopausal women experienced a ...

  16. Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Younger age at menopause is associated with overall mortality, and cigarette smoking is the only lifestyle factor influencing this association. However, the combined effects of age at menopause and smoking have never been quantified in terms of survival time. Our aim was to evaluate, in a large cohort of Swedish women, differences in age at death according to age at menopause and smoking status. Age at menopause and smoking were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, in a population-based cohort of 25,474 women aged 48 to 83 years. Laplace regression was used to calculate differences in median age at death (50th percentile difference [PD]) according to smoking and age at menopause. Across 16 years of follow-up, 5,942 participants died. The difference in median age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years was 1.3 years (50th PD, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). Compared with current smokers, former smokers and never smokers had older median age at death-2.5 years (50th PD, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.6 years (50th PD, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.1-4.1), respectively. When analysis was restricted to current smokers, the difference in age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years increased to 2.6 years (50th PD, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.8-4.5). No association among never smokers was observed. Younger age at menopause is linearly associated with shorter survival. This association tends to be stronger among current smokers.

  17. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  18. Endocrine identification of menopausal status of Sudanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, M. M. M.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the menopausal statues of Sudanese women which is critically important in determining the treatment strategy for infertile patients. In this study samples were collected from two hundred Sudanese women, aged between 35 and 62. They were from different social classes and are not suffering any systemic or endocrine disease. They were not exposed to any surgical intervention by complete hysterectomy or partial removal of ovaries or thyroidectomy. Reproductive hormones were determined for these women. Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) was adopted for the measurement of serum prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of estradiol and esterone, whereas, enzyme immunoassay (tube format) was used for the determination of serum testosterone. Average menopausal age for Sudanese women was determined in this study and found to be 43.0±4.2 which is lower than that of the neighboring countries. A new classification system was developed during this study which uses a combination of symptoms together with hormonal profile in order to identify the menopausal status of women. The three key tools of this system are FSH and LH level together with the absence of menstrual cycle during the last three months. The new classification scheme had successfully differentiated the early peri-menopausal women from pre-menopausal ones. The early peri-menopausal women according to the new classification scheme are suffering cycle irregularities and amenorrhea but with normal hormonal levels. The new classification scheme is now, clearly indicating that amenorrhea with normal hormonal levels may be an indication to the beginning of the peri-menopausal life. The big challenge faced during this study had been the sub-classification of the peri-menopausal stage as it is not a single homogeneous stage but a wide heterogenous and transitional stage extending from

  19. Age at menopause and measuring symptoms at midlife in a community in Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine age at menopause and the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among women in a community in Babol, Iran, and then identify the factors associated with these symptoms and age. A retrospective, descriptive, epidemiological study was conducted on the characteristics of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. A total of 1,397 individuals aged 45 to 63 years were selected using a standard cluster sampling technique. The questionnaire used included menopausal symptoms, menopause status, causes of menopause, use of hormones, reproductive history, and sociodemographic factors. A standard questionnaire named Symptom ScoreCard was used to assess the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms. The data were analyzed by χ2 analysis, t test, analysis of variance, and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% CIs. Recalled mean ± SD age at natural menopause was 47.7 ± 4.9 years. No significant difference by age at menopause was observed in sociodemographic data, smoking status, reproductive history, and oral contraceptive use. The most prevalent symptoms were irritability (72.1%), joint pain (70.6%), and depression (59.7%) during the previous 2 weeks. An increase in the percentage of occurrence and severity of some symptoms with transition to menopause was observed. The total score for menopausal symptoms was 13.0 ± 7.7. High economic situation (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.58) was a factor significantly associated with a total menopausal score of higher than 15. This study shows a high prevalence of menopausal symptoms and an earlier mean age at menopause (47.7 y) for women in a community in Babol, Iran. It would be beneficial to establish a menopausal clinic in primary healthcare centers for the clinical staff to monitor postmenopausal women.

  20. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Brown, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Study design Participants aged 40–60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly-generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. Main outcome measures History of hysterectomy, Age at menopause Results Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Conclusions Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. PMID:24054435

  1. The influence of unilateral oophorectomy on the age of menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M; Simonsen, M K; Kjer, J J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of menopause after premenopausal unilateral oophorectomy (UO) and to establish whether UO at a young age leads to menopause at a younger age than if UO occurs at an older age. METHODS: A cohort of 28 731 women, of whom 17 781 (62%) were menopausal, was investigated....... Information on menopause was obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Surgical data were obtained from the National Patient Register to avoid recollection bias. Age of menopause after UO/not UO was determined using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to identify factors of importance for early...... menopause. RESULTS: UO was performed in 1148 women. Women with UO after the age of 45 years, premenopausal hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and cancer were excluded, leaving 236 in the analysis. Menopause occurred 1.8 years earlier after UO compared to women with two intact ovaries (mean 49.5 vs. 51...

  2. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  3. Calcium status in premenopausal and post menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.J.; Hussain, G.; Bashir, M.U.; Latif, N.; Riaz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In postmenopausal women, the two major causes of bone loss are oestrogen deficiency after menopause and age related processes. Bone turnover increases to high levels and oestrogen deficiency may induce calcium loss by indirect effects on extra skeletal calcium homeostasis. Objective of this study was to evaluate calcium status in pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in 34 premenopausal women and 33 postmenopausal women, in Department of Physiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore. Height and weight of each woman were taken to find out the body mass index (BMI). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels of each subject were determined. Results: Premenopausal women were obese (BMI>30 Kg/m/sup 2/) while postmenopausal women were overweight (BMI>25 Kg/m/sup 2/). Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal women, while serum parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal woman. Serum calcitonin level was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women are calcium deficient and have increased bone turnover as indicated by increased serum parathyroid hormone levels. (author)

  4. Parity and age at menopause in a Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B

    1986-01-01

    A random sample of 151 Danish women who had undergone natural menopause reported the age at which this occurred and answered a questionnaire. A significant association was found between parity and age at menopause after correction for the effects of age at the first and last births, weight, smoking...... and occupation. However, there is no evidence that the age at menopause has fallen in recent decades, even though the average parity in developed populations has dropped dramatically over this period. It is therefore possible that potential fertility is a confounding variable in the relationship between parity...... and age at menopause....

  5. Age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Colditz, Graham A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Age at menopause, a major marker in the reproductive life, may bias results for evaluation of breast cancer risk after menopause. Methods We follow 38,948 premenopausal women in 1980 and identify 2,586 who reported hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy, and 31,626 who reported natural menopause during 22 years of follow-up. We evaluate risk factors for natural menopause, impute age at natural menopause for women reporting hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy and estimate the hazard of reaching natural menopause in the next 2 years. We apply this imputed age at menopause to both increase sample size and to evaluate the relation between postmenopausal exposures and risk of breast cancer. Results Age, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, pregnancy history, body mass index, history of benign breast disease, and history of breast cancer were each significantly related to age at natural menopause; duration of oral contraceptive use and family history of breast cancer were not. The imputation increased sample size substantially and although some risk factors after menopause were weaker in the expanded model (height, and alcohol use), use of hormone therapy is less biased. Conclusions Imputing age at menopause increases sample size, broadens generalizability making it applicable to women with hysterectomy, and reduces bias. PMID:21441037

  6. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    Can the diagnosis of common diseases before menopause influence age at natural menopause (ANM) onset? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression were observed to delay menopause. It has been observed that women who undergo early menopause experience a higher burden of health problems related to metabolic syndromes, heart disease and depression, but whether ANM can be influenced by common adult diseases has not been studied extensively. All women attending mammography screening or clinical mammography at four hospitals in Sweden were invited to participate in the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) study. Between January 2011 and March 2013, 70 877 women were recruited. Information from the baseline questionnaire filled out upon enrollment was used in this cross-sectional analysis on predictors of ANM onset. We limited our analyses to 61 936 women with complete data on ANM and covariates and a follow-up time (from birth to menopause or censoring) of at least 35 years. Premenopausal diagnoses of depression, anorexia, bulimia, PCOS, ovarian cyst, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, preeclampsia, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia were examined as time-dependent variables in multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusting for reproductive factors (age at menarche, menstrual cycle regularity in adult life, number of children and premenopausal oral contraceptive use) and risk factors of common diseases (education, physical activity at 18 years and information at the time of questionnaire including BMI, ever smoking and alcohol consumption). Women with PCOS and depression were independently associated with later menopause (hazard ratio (95% CI): 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.95 (0.91-1.00), respectively), compared to women with no such histories. The associations remained significant in a subset of women who had never received gynecological surgery or hormone treatment (n = 32313, 0.21 (0

  7. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  8. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Alam, Md Zahidul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2014-05-02

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women's reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. We compared menopausal age in two groups of women--with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies--participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups' age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure.

  9. Relationship between age at natural menopause and risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Iffat; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether younger age at natural menopause confers a risk of heart failure. We also examined a possible modifying effect of tobacco smoking. This study used the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort; 22,256 postmenopausal women with information on age at natural menopause were followed from 1997 through 2011. First event of heart failure was ascertained through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. During a mean follow-up of 13 years, we ascertained 2,532 first events of heart failure hospitalizations and deaths. The mean age at menopause was 51 years. Early natural menopause (40-45 y), compared with menopause at ages 50 to 54 years, was significantly associated with heart failure (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.64). In analyses stratified by smoking status, similar HRs were observed for this age group among never smokers (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66) and ever smokers (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.78). Among ever smokers, increased incidence (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.47) of heart failure could be detected even among those who entered menopause at ages 46 to 49 years. We found a significant interaction between age at natural menopause and smoking (P = 0.019). This study indicates that women who experience early natural menopause are at increased risk for developing heart failure and that smoking can modify the association by increasing the risk even among women who enter menopause around ages 46 to 49 years.

  10. Anti-Mullerian hormone is a more accurate predictor of individual time to menopause than mother's age at menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolleman, M.; Depmann, M.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Heimensem, J.; Broer, S.L.; Stroom, E.M. van der; Laven, J.S.E.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Scheffer, G.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Lambalk, C.B.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In the prediction of time to menopause (TTM), what is the added value of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) when mother's age at natural menopause (ANM) is also known? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH is a more accurate predictor of individual TTM than mother's age at menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:

  11. Serum lipids coupled with menopausal status may be used as biomarkers in female gallstone patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.Y.; Channa, N.A.; Solangi, D.A.; Tabassum, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Females with different menopausal status are compared for serum lipids to explore the role of menopausal status in developing gallstones. Methodology: This study was conducted at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 135 female gallstone patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and other hospitals of Hyderabad, Pakistan and 170 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of patients of different menopausal status and control group were analyzed for the lipid contents. Gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the composition by FTIR. Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly varied among all age groups while serum triglycerides (TG), serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum total lipids (TL) were found to be significantly differed among four different types of gallstone formers. Consumers of non-branded oil and non-branded ghee were found with significant lipid alterations in comparison to control group. Major lipid alterations were found in female gallstone patients with pre and peri-menopause. Conclusion: Raised serum TC, serum TG and decreased serum HDL-C in addition to pre- and peri-menopausal status may be considered as biomarkers for female gallstone patients.

  12. Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions La menopausia y las hormonas: Preguntas más frecuentes Menopause: Medicines ... PDF - 1.3MB) Menopause and Hormones Card La menopausia y las hormonas tarjeta (PDF - 1.6MB) Order ...

  13. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Valencia; Gu, Yajia; Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  14. Impact of menopausal status on background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Valencia [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gu, Yajia [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Kaplan, Jennifer B.; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Section, New York, NY (United States); Brooks, Jennifer D.; Pike, Malcolm C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) on breast MRI. Retrospective review identified 1,130 women who underwent screening breast MRI between July and November 2010. In 28 of these women, breast MRI was performed both at one time point while pre- and one time point while post-menopausal (median interval 49 months). Two independent readers blinded to menopausal status used categorical scales to rate BPE (minimal/mild/moderate/marked) and FGT (fatty/scattered/heterogeneously dense/dense). Consensus was reached when there was disagreement. The sign test was used to assess changes in rating categories, and the Spearman rank and Fisher's exact tests were used to measure correlations and associations between variables. Significant proportions of women demonstrated decreases in BPE and FGT on post-menopausal breast MRI (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0009). BPE category was unchanged in 39 % (11/28) and decreased in 61 % (17/28) of women. FGT category was unchanged in 61 % (17/28) and decreased in 39 % (11/28) of women. Age, reason for menopause, or interval between MRIs had no significant impact on changes in BPE and FGT. On MRI, BPE, and FGT decrease after menopause in significant proportions of women; BPE decreases more than FGT. (orig.)

  15. Distribution of age at menopause in two Danish samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, J L; Jeune, B

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of reported age at natural menopause in two random samples of Danish women (n = 176 and n = 150) to determine the shape of the distribution and to disclose any possible trends in the distribution parameters. It was necessary to correct the frequencies of the reported...... ages for the effect of differing ages at reporting. The corrected distribution of age at menopause differs from the normal distribution in the same way in both samples. Both distributions could be described by a mixture of two normal distributions. It appears that most of the parameters of the normal...... distribution mixtures remain unchanged over a 50-year time lag. The position of the distribution, that is, the mean age at menopause, however, increases slightly but significantly....

  16. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman’s health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman

  17. Correlation of bone mineral density with biochemical markers in different menopausal statuses of Pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, A.; Nadia, N.; Farzana, A.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The present study is aimed to use bone mineral density (BMD) and various biochemical markers to predict the fracture risk at different menopausal statuses in Pakistani women. Method: Seventy women aged between 28-80 years at various menopausal statuses participated in this study. BMD (T score) of right calcaneus was determined using SAHARA ultrasound bone densitometer that measures the transmission of high frequency from heel. Various biochemical markers such as alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured from the serum of venous blood using standard kits of Randox. Results: Alkaline phosphates was raised in per menopausal, postmenopausal and postmenopausal with hysterectomy and ligation groups of women as compared to premenopausal women but did not achieve significance (P>0.05). Serum calcium level was significantly lower in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women and inorganic phosphorus decrease significantly when compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal with ligation and hysterectomy. BMD (T score) values of postmenopausal osteopenic and postmenopausal osteoprotic women were significantly lower than those of premenopausal women. BMD values of women under study have negative correlation with age, alkaline phosphates and calcium. Conclusion: Our study conclude that in addition to BMD, serum levels of alkaline phosphate, calcium and inorganic phosphorus can be valuable biochemical markers in predicting bone fracture risk at different menopausal states. (author)

  18. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  19. Can we predict age at natural menopause using ovarian reserve tests or mother's age at menopause? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depmann, Martine; Broer, Simone L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Tehrani, Fahimeh R; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Mol, Ben W; Broekmans, Frank J

    2016-02-01

    This review aimed to appraise data on prediction of age at natural menopause (ANM) based on antimüllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and mother's ANM to evaluate clinical usefulness and to identify directions for further research. We conducted three systematic reviews of the literature to identify studies of menopause prediction based on AMH, AFC, or mother's ANM, corrected for baseline age. Six studies selected in the search for AMH all consistently demonstrated AMH as being capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 5.6-9.2). The sole study reporting on mother's ANM indicated that AMH was capable of predicting ANM (hazard ratio, 9.1-9.3). Two studies provided analyses of AFC and yielded conflicting results, making this marker less strong. AMH is currently the most promising marker for ANM prediction. The predictive capacity of mother's ANM demonstrated in a single study makes this marker a promising contributor to AMH for menopause prediction. Models, however, do not predict the extremes of menopause age very well and have wide prediction interval. These markers clearly need improvement before they can be used for individual prediction of menopause in the clinical setting. Moreover, potential limitations for such use include variations in AMH assays used and a lack of correction for factors or diseases affecting AMH levels or ANM. Future studies should include women of a broad age range (irrespective of cycle regularity) and should base predictions on repeated AMH measurements. Furthermore, currently unknown candidate predictors need to be identified.

  20. Correlation of Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life with Physical Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rívea Trindade da; Câmara, Saionara Maria Aires da; Moreira, Mayle Andrade; Nascimento, Rafaela Andrade do; Vieira, Mariana Carmem Apolinário; Morais, Maria Socorro Medeiros de; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Some studies have investigated the influence of hormonal deficits and menopausal status in muscle disorders of women. However, it has not been investigated the relationship of both climacteric symptoms and the perception of quality of life with physical performance. Objective To evaluate the correlation of menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance in middle-aged women. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from April to November 2013 in the municipality of Parnamirim, in the Brazilian state, Rio Grande do Norte. The sample was composed of 497 women aged 40-65 years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Utian Quality of Life (UQOL) questionnaire were used to evaluate menopausal symptoms and quality of life respectively. Measures of physical performance included handgrip strength, knee extensor and flexor strengths (using an isometric dynamometer), gait speed, and chair stand test. The correlation between menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient with significance set at p correlation between handgrip strength and somatic MRS score (p = 0.002) and total MRS score (p = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between knee flexor strength and sit-to-stand time and all menopausal symptom areas (p correlation between physical performance of the knee flexors and quality of life items including occupational (p = 0.001), emotional (p = 0.005), and total UQOL (p = 0.01), but a negative correlation with sit-to-stand time and all quality of life domains (p < 0.05). Conclusion A greater intensity of menopausal symptoms and worse quality of life were related with worse physical performance. Thus, preventive measures should be implemented to avoid adverse effects on physical performance at more advanced ages. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  2. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  3. Menopause and work--the experience of middle-aged female teaching staff in an Egyptian governmental faculty of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, Rehab A M; Abbas, Reem A; Hunter, Myra S

    2012-03-01

    There is a global trend of increasing numbers of older women in the workforce. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship between the menopause transition and work, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between experience of the menopause transition and work and to examine the factors affecting how women cope, including the extent to which women disclosed their menopausal status. Using a cross-sectional single group design, 131 middle-aged female medical teaching staff working in Zagazig Faculty of Medicine completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Participants, particularly those who were postmenopausal, reported high average scores on depressed mood, memory/concentration, sleep problems, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual behavior subscales of the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Women reported that poor working environment and work policies and conditions, functioning as sources of work stress, aggravated their menopausal symptoms. Disclosure of their menopausal status was uncommon; limited time and socio-cultural barriers were the most commonly reported reasons for non-disclosure. It could be concluded that the menopause transition is an important occupational health issue especially for women in developing countries. Implementing health promotion programs, improving working environment and work policies, and raising awareness of menopause are recommended to help women to cope with the menopause transition and to maintain well-being and productivity at work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics of ovarian ageing : genetic association studies on natural menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhuis, M.

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is the endpoint of a process referred to as ovarian ageing. The mean age at menopause is approximately 51 years, but varies widely between 40 to 60 years of age. Approximately 1% of all women experience menopause before the age of 40, which is a condition known as primary ovarian

  5. Perceptions of menopause and aging in rural villages of Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... cultures, because of cultural beliefs and the manner in which symptoms are .... Focus group interviews promoted self-disclosure and were able to discern what ... Participants were protected from all forms of harm resulting ..... symptoms among healthy middle aged women with the Menopause Rating Scale',.

  6. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  7. Menopause status and attitudes in a Turkish midlife female population: an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Gul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a well accepted status that socio-cultural characteristics may affect the onset of menopause and its characteristics. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence rates of menopausal symptoms and these symptoms related factors, and to assess the women's attitudes towards some climacteric issues. Methods This survey was conducted between Jan., 1st 2008 and March, 31st 2008 to research the menopause status of the female population in a city of western Turkey. The study group consisted of 1551 women selected with a multistage area sampling method: a random sample of individuals aged 40-65 years. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to women's sociodemographic characteristics, women's menopausal status, some statements about the climacteric, use of hormones at menopause or before menopause, and some climacteric myths. The data was analyzed by Chi-square (x2 analysis and percent (% ratios with a significant value of P Results The mean age of the women was 49.1 years. Over 90% of the women were of the negative opinion that the climacteric is "the end of youth", "the end of fecundity", and "the end of unclean days". Most women said that cessation of menstrual periods was the most positive thing because they do not have to wait for monthly bleedings, use sanitary equipment, or take birth control methods. There were significant connections between age groups and nearly all the items, with the exception of the items "the end of life" and "the end of fecundity". Among the women, hot flushes were the most common complaint occurring in 96.5% of women: being severe in 32.9%, moderate in 43.1% and mild in 20.4%. This was followed by low backache or muscle pain 95.0% (25.9% severe, 46.0% moderate and mild 23.1%, headache 91.7% (21.9% severe, 34.9% moderate and 34.9% mild and feeling tired 91.0% (15.3% severe, 38.6% moderate and 37.1% mild. Conclusions Most of the women in this study had mixed ideas of opinions

  8. Influence Of Feminine Hormones On Some Biochemical Parameters In Early And Late Menopausal Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAMAL, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Forty two healthy Egyptian women were participated in this study to evaluate the effect of early and late menopause on some biochemical and hormonal parameters. The women were divided into three equal groups. The first was the pre-menopausal group with regular menstrual cycle, the second was the late menopausal group comprised the menopausal female less than 5 years and the third group consisted of women that became menopause since 5-9 years. The second and third groups had almost the same age and body weight. After clinical examination, fasting blood samples were collected from all volunteers. Regarding the pre-menopausal women, blood was withdrawn between the 3 rd and the 5 th day post-menstruation (follicular phase). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, prolactin (PRL), testosterone, leptin and thyroxine (T4) in addition to hemoglobin (Hb), blood glucose, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (P), magnesium (Mg) and uric acid were determined. Both menopausal groups showed significant increase in FSH and LH and significant decrease in PRL and late menopausal group experienced also multiple significant correlations between FSH, LH and other tested parameters. Prolongation of menopause exhibited decrease in leptin being significant as compared to pre-menopausal women than that experienced menopause at younger age. Due to the relation between leptin hormone and osteoporosis, the results of this investigation denoted that early cessation of annulations (menopause) in Egyptian women may lead to disturbance in bone metabolism causing inhibiting osteoblastogenesis and decreasing bone mass.

  9. Is there an independent effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and menopause on the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle aged women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne; Rager, Judy; Stragand, Juley R

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common reproductive endocrine condition manifests at puberty, and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and obesity. PCOS cases exhibit an adverse coronary heart disease (CHD) profile at an early age, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased central adiposity. It can be hypothesized that the menopausal transition, whether natural or surgical, may provide an additional "insult", resulting in greater cumulative risk to their vasculature. Coronary artery calcification (CAC), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA), was measured by electron beam tomography in 149 PCOS cases and 166 controls (mean age 47.3 and 49.4 respectively). Cases had a higher prevalence of CAC (63.1%) compared to controls (41.0%), (p = 0.037) after adjustment for age and BMI. A total of 22 cases and 39 controls had undergone natural menopause, 12 cases and 26 controls underwent surgical menopause (with biochemical confirmation) and 115 cases and 101 controls reported being currently premenopausal. There was a significant difference in CAC values between cases and controls in all three-menopause categories including pre-menopausal, surgically induced and natural menopause (p 10) as the dependent variable, and independent variables: PCOS status, current age, BMI, and menopausal status, (pre-menopause, surgical and natural menopause) and selected CHD risk factors. The data indicate that women with PCOS exhibit significantly increased CAC compared to controls after adjustment for age and BMI and menopausal status. PCOS status and fasting glucose were significant risk factors for CAC (p PCOS status continues to affect cardiovascular risk as they undergo the menopausal transition.

  10. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  11. Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    Existing estimates of the heritability of menopause age have a wide range. Furthermore, few studies have analyzed to what extent familial similarities might reflect shared environment, rather than shared genes. We therefore analyzed familial concordance for age at natural menopause and the effects of shared genetic and environmental factors on this concordance. Participants were 2,060 individuals comprising first-degree relatives, aged 31 to 90 years, and participating in the UK Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression and variance-components models. Women were at an increased risk of early menopause (≤45 y) if their mother (odds ratio, 6.2; P menopause. Likewise, women had an increased risk of late menopause (≥54 y) if their relative had had a late menopause (mother: odds ratio, 6.1; P menopause age attributed to environmental factors shared by sisters. We confirm that early menopause aggregates within families and show, for the first time, that there is also strong familial concordance for late menopause. Both genes and shared environment were the source of variation in menopause age. Past heritability estimates have not accounted for shared environment, and thus, the effect of genetic variants on menopause age may previously have been overestimated.

  12. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Syed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years. The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%; physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%; and sleeping problems (52.2%. Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%; irritability (37.9%; dryness of vagina (37.9%; anxiety (36.5%; depressive mood (32.6%. Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%; bladder problem (13.8% and heart discomfort (18.3%. Perimenopausal women (n = 141 experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82 and postmenopausal (n = 133 women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.

  13. Is there an independent effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and menopause on the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle aged women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn O Talbott

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Evelyn O Talbott, Jeanne Zborowski, Judy Rager, Juley R StragandDepartment of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a common reproductive endocrine condition manifests at puberty, and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and obesity. PCOS cases exhibit an adverse coronary heart disease (CHD profile at an early age, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased central adiposity. It can be hypothesized that the menopausal transition, whether natural or surgical, may provide an additional “insult”, resulting in greater cumulative risk to their vasculature. Coronary artery calcification (CAC, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA, was measured by electron beam tomography in 149 PCOS cases and 166 controls (mean age 47.3 and 49.4 respectively. Cases had a higher prevalence of CAC (63.1% compared to controls (41.0%, (p = 0.037 after adjustment for age and BMI. A total of 22 cases and 39 controls had undergone natural menopause, 12 cases and 26 controls underwent surgical menopause (with biochemical confirmation and 115 cases and 101 controls reported being currently premenopausal. There was a significant difference in CAC values between cases and controls in all three-menopause categories including pre-menopausal, surgically induced and natural menopause (p < 0.001. Duration since menopause (years and use of hormone replacement therapy were not different between cases and controls for the two menopause groups. Logistic regression was carried out with CAC (≤10 vs >10 as the dependent variable, and independent variables: PCOS status, current age, BMI, and menopausal status, (pre-menopause, surgical and natural menopause and selected CHD risk factors. The data indicate that women with PCOS exhibit significantly increased CAC compared to controls after adjustment for age and BMI and menopausal status. PCOS

  14. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  15. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik

    2000-01-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R 2 ) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4. In

  16. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G

    2002-07-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  17. Mammography dose in relation to body mass index, race, and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Frey, G.D.; Baron, L.; Hoel, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mammography dose increases with compressed breast thickness (CBT), but few studies have examined other correlates of dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between factors such as race, age, body mass index (BMI), CBT, and menopausal status and mammography screening dose, measured for 509 women in a US population. A multiple linear regression model was developed for dose, based on consideration of these factors as well as examination characteristics. BMI and number of films during examination were positively related to dose. After adjusting for these factors, high CBT also leads to higher dose. Whites receive lower doses than black women, but differences are slight after controlling for the effects of CBT and BMI, which were significantly higher among black women. Pre-menopausal women receive higher doses, after adjusting for all other factors, than post-menopausal women. Jointly, these factors account for approximately 75% to 80% of the variability in dose among this study population. Because rates of overweight are increasing in the US, average doses from mammography may be increasing as well. (author)

  18. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  19. Age at menopause in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus : the OVADIA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; de Valk, H. W.; Franx, A.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Spierings, W.; Fauser, Bart; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    STUDY QUESTION: Is type 1 diabetes a determinant of advanced ovarian ageing, resulting in an early age at natural menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: No clear evidence was provided that type 1 diabetes is a determinant of accelerated ovarian ageing resulting in an early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The

  20. Early or Premature Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Early or premature menopause Menopause that happens before age 40 is called ... What is the difference between early and premature menopause? Early or premature menopause happens when ovaries stop ...

  1. Hypertension and age at onset of natural menopause in Korean postmenopausal women: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a natural phenomenon of aging, although the timing and management of menopause can significantly affect a woman's quality of life. It is therefore important to identify measures to ensure a healthy menopause. We set out to investigate the association between hypertension and early menopause in Korean women. This cross-sectional study was based on 2008-2013 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Of the 53,829 participants surveyed, 13,584 women were selected. We analyzed the contents of the health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. The main outcome was defined based on hazard ratios (HR) to identify the effects of hypertension on age at onset of menopause. Among postmenopausal women (n=6650), the mean age at onset of menopause was 50.4 years. Premenopausal hypertension was statistically significantly associated with age at menopause, oral contraceptive usage, household income, education level, occupation, marital status and smoking and drinking habits. With lower age at diagnosis of hypertension, HRs for menopause tended to be higher, and hypertension diagnosed before age 40 years conferred a statistically significantly higher HR (Model 1, HR=2.32, 95% CI=1.87-2.88; Model 2, HR=2.31, 95% CI=1.86-2.86; Model 3, HR=2.23, 95% CI=1.80-2.77; Model 4, HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.52-2.63). Premature menopause is strongly associated with lifestyle factors, in combination with incomplete management of chronic diseases. Our findings support the hypothesis that younger age at diagnosis of hypertension is associated with younger age at onset of menopause in Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Hajdyla-Banas, Iwona; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Niewegłowska, Dorota; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Ludwin, Artur; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Inga

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation. We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA. Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P menopause (P = 0.008). The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.

  3. Age at natural menopause in refugee and domicile women who lived in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina during and after the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balić, Devleta; Rizvanović, Mirzeta; Cizek-Sajko, Mojca; Balić, Adem

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to estimate age at onset of natural menopause in domicile and refugee women who lived in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992-1995) and in the postwar period until the interview. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 331 postmenopausal women-264 (80%) domicile women and 67 (20%) refugee women-between June 2009 and February 2011. The study encompassed 331 women with a mean age of 57.0 years (range, 39-75 y). The overall mean age at menopause was 49.1 years. The mean age at menopause was higher in domicile women (49.3 y) than in refugee women (48.0 y; unpaired t test, P = 0.023). After adjustment for age at menarche, education, marital status, living place, body mass index, number of abortions, use of contraceptives, and current smoking, only refugee status and parity remained as significant independent predictors of age at menopause (score test, P = 0.025). Refugee women had an increased probability of earlier onset of menopause compared with nonrefugee women (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.75; P = 0.039), whereas there was a decreased probability of experiencing menopause with increasing number of births (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-0.996; P = 0.04). The age at onset of menopause in refugee women is lower than that in domicile women, indicating that war, independently of other factors, could influence the age when menopause occurs. On average, women who lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war and postwar period entered menopause earlier than did women from Europe.

  4. Life course effects on age at menopause among Bangladeshi sedentees and migrants to the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna; Sievert, Lynnette; Begum, Khurshida; Sharmeen, Taniya; Puleo, Elaine; Chowdhury, Osul; Muttukrishna, Shanthi; Bentley, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    To assess how different variables experienced across the life course, but particularly during early life, might affect age at menopause among 174 Bangladeshi migrants to London by comparing them to 157 nonmigrant sedentees and 154 women of European descent in London. Participants were aged 35-59 years, with no exogenous hormone use in the past three months, not pregnant or lactating, with no history of hysterectomy or oophorectomy. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measures were carried out. In addition to mean recalled age at natural menopause, median age was computed by probit analysis. Ages at menopause were examined by bivariate and Cox regression analyses in relation to demographic, reproductive, and lifestyle variables, and in relation to potential exposure to cyclones in early childhood. Ages at menopause were significantly earlier among Bangladeshi sedentees and immigrants compared to Londoners of European origin. Ages at menopause were earlier among sedentees compared to immigrants. Urban birthplace, more infectious diseases during childhood, and lower levels of education increased the risk of an earlier menopause. Changes in environmental conditions during adulthood appeared to modify age at menopause among Bangladeshi immigrants in London compared to women living in Bangladesh; however, Bangladeshi immigrants still experienced an earlier age at menopause compared with their London neighbors of European descent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Menopause and age-driven changes in blood level of fat- and water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiacek, M; Zubrzycki, I Z; Bojke, O; Kim, H-J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of the menopausal transition with changes in vitamins. The study group comprised women aged 17-85 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which was conducted between 1988 and 1994, and from the NHANES surveys conducted between 1999 and 2006. Menopausal status was defined using the time since the last period, 12 months, for the pre-, peri-, and postmenopause, respectively. The data-cleaning technique employing serum follicle stimulating hormone activity resulted in pre-, peri- and postmenopausal samples encompassing the following age brackets: 17-50, 42-51, and 46-85 years. Statistical inferences were analyzed using non-parametric techniques. Significant increases in vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations across all phases of the menopausal transition were observed. There was a gradual decrease in the vitamin C concentration across all stages of the menopause but a fairly stable concentration of vitamin B12. There was a statistically significant increase in vitamin D between the pre- and postmenopause. Body mass index correlated negatively with serum vitamin concentration in the pre- and postmenopause. Vitamin A should be supplemented in postmenopausal women to decrease the risk of bone fracture. The daily diet should be supplemented with vitamin B12, to avoid possible neurological symptoms due to vitamin B12 deficiency, and with vitamin D to decrease the risk of developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Due to an adverse influence on serum vitamin concentration, body mass index should be monitored in pre- and postmenopausal women.

  6. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  7. Age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility as risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioka, C; Fotopoulos, A; Georgiou, A; Xourgia, X; Papadopoulos, A; Kalef-Ezra, J A

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship of osteopenia and osteoporosis in apparently healthy postmenopausal patients with age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility. One hundred and twenty-four apparently healthy Greek postmenopausal women underwent spinal and hip X-ray absorptiometry scans. Among them, 47 were classified as normal (control group), 52 as osteopenic, and 25 as having osteoporosis. These groups were compared according to their age at menarche (three subgroups of 10-12, 13 and 14-16 years old), at menopause (three subgroups of 40-45, 46-50 and > or = 51 years old) and duration of fertility (four subgroups of 40 and 41-45 years). The groups were not found to differ statistically according to age and age at menarche. However, decreased bone mineral density was found in patients with duration of fertility not exceeding 30 years (p = 0.034) and age at menopause less than 45 years (p = 0.034). No association was found between bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women and either number of live births or lactation. In postmenopausal females, the cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogens, measured as years of menstruation, seems to be a significant protective factor against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age at menopause between 40 and 45 years, but not age at menarche, correlated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

  8. Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status. Methods We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese. Results BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men obese men Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation. PMID:27834082

  9. Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status. We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men obese men Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation.

  10. Beliefs about menopause of general practitioners and mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K; Hunter, M S; White, P

    1994-12-01

    Recent general population studies suggest that experience of the normal menopause transition is relatively unremarkable for the majority of women, but negative stereotyped beliefs about menopause remain pervasive. This study explored GPs' beliefs and opinions about menopause in general, and compared the GPs' beliefs with those of their mid-aged female patients. All GPs at five general practices (n = 24) and 101 45-year-old women registered at the same practices took part. Large proportions of both groups believed that most women experience somatic and psychological difficulties during menopause. GPs expressed more negative beliefs than patients but were also more likely to express positive/neutral beliefs. Some causal attributions of menopausal problems were shared by the two groups, but they differed on others. When both GPs and patients hold negative social stereotypes about menopause, problems of mid-aged women may be misattributed to menopause. Health information on menopause may be biased towards negative images of menopause and of aging women.

  11. The association between recent abuse and menopausal symptom bother: results from the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality (DREAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegunta, Suneela; Kuhle, Carol; Kling, Juliana M; Files, Julia A; Kapoor, Ekta; David, Paru S; Rullo, Jordan; Sood, Richa; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Jatoi, Aminah; Schroeder, Darrell R; Faubion, Stephanie S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there is an association between current menopausal symptom bother and a history of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional/verbal) in the last year. A cross-sectional survey was completed using the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality and the Menopause Health Questionnaire. Data from the Menopause Health Questionnaire were collected from 4,956 women seen consecutively for menopause consultation in the Women's Health Clinic at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from January 1, 2006 through October 7, 2014. Data from 3,740 women were included in the analysis. Menopausal symptom ratings were compared between women reporting a history of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional/verbal) in the last year and those not using a two-sample t test. Analysis of covariance was used to assess whether abuse was associated with menopausal symptom bother after adjusting for baseline participant characteristics. Of the 3,740 women, 253 (6.8%) reported experiencing one or more forms of abuse in the last year, the majority (96%) of which was verbal/emotional abuse. Those reporting abuse in the last year had higher (P menopausal symptom bother scores. Consistent findings were obtained from multivariable analyses adjusting for all demographic and substance use characteristics. In the present study from the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality, menopausal symptom bother scores were directly associated with recent self-reported abuse.

  12. Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk results from the EPIC-interAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Onland-Moret, N.; Sharp, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEAge at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk.RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  13. The relationship between variation in size of the primordial follicle pool and age at natural menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depmann, M.; Faddy, M. J.; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.; Peeters, P. H M; Broer, S. L.; Kelsey, T. W.; Nelson, S. M.; Broekmans, F. J M

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause has been hypothesized to occur when the nongrowing follicle (NGF) number falls below a critical threshold. Age at natural menopause can be predicted using NGF numbers and this threshold. These predictions support the use of ovarian reserve tests, reflective of the ovarian follicle

  14. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Minkoff, Howard L.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Holman, Susan; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62–64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40–57 declined by 18–22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions. PMID:25245474

  15. Effects of early age at natural menopause on coronary heart disease and stroke in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2017-08-15

    Menopause is identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease because of the change of estrogen. The objective of the study was to explore the associations between early age at natural menopause (menopause at an age≤45years) and the presence of CHD and stroke. The study subjects were from the first follow-up survey of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study. A total of 16,515 postmenopausal women were included for the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between age at natural menopause (≤45, 45-52, >52years) and the presence of CHD and stroke adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive history and metabolic factors. In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-year delay in menopausal age, the prevalence of CHD and stroke was reduced by 3% (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and 5% (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), respectively. Women with early menopause (≤45years) had a higher prevalence of CHD (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Similarly, women with early menopause (≤45years) was associated with higher prevalence of stroke (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30) compared with those with menopause at ages 45-52years. Early age at natural menopause is significantly associated with the presence of CHD and stroke among Chinese women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  17. Predicting age at menopause from serum antimüllerian hormone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Shakeri, Nezhat; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to estimate age at menopause using serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentration. We randomly selected 266 study participants from a pool of 1,265 eligible women in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort. We measured AMH levels three times at about 3-year intervals. There were 63 occurrences of menopause in our participants over an average of 6-year follow-up. We built an accelerated failure time model using serum AMH level at the start of follow-up to estimate age at menopause. The goodness of fit for the model was tested using Cox-Snell residuals and the Bland-Altman plot. We estimated ages at menopause for different levels of serum AMH concentration among women aged 20 to 49 years. For those who reached menopause, serum AMH concentrations about 6 years before the event provided fairly accurate estimates of the age at menopause. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable agreement between predicted and observed values. Serum AMH concentrations can reasonably forecast the age at menopause for individual women.

  18. Age of Menopause and Fracture Risk in Post-Menopausal Women Randomized to Calcium + Vitamin D, Hormone Therapy, or the combination: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D.; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D are protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy post-menopausal women receiving HT, Ca/Vit D, or the combination. METHODS Hazard ratios (HR) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI-CT), who were treated with HT, Ca/Vit D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of non-surgical menopause of menopause menopause 40-49 or ≥50, regardless of treatment intervention [HR (95% CI): menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT+Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk. PMID:27801706

  19. Is early natural menopause a biologic marker of health and aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Kane, R L; Beeson, W L; Burke, G L; Sprafka, J M; Potter, J; Iso, H; Jacobs, D R; Phillips, R L

    1989-01-01

    The relation between age at natural menopause and all-cause mortality was investigated in a sample of 5,287 White women, ages 55 to 100 years, naturally-postmenopausal, Seventh-day Adventists who had completed mailed questionnaires in 1976. The age-adjusted odds ratio of death during 1976-82 in women with natural menopause before age 40 was 1.95 (95% confidence interval = 1.24, 3.07), compared to the reference group of women reporting natural menopause at ages 50 to 54. Corresponding odds ratios of death were 1.39 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.81) for natural menopause at ages 40 to 44, and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.84, 1.25) for natural menopause at ages 45 to 49. Among 3,166 White, 55- to 100-year-old, surgically-postmenopausal, Adventist women, there was no relation between age at surgical menopause and mortality. Logistic regression analyses indicated that findings from this study were apparently not due to confounding by smoking, over- or underweight, reproductive history, or replacement estrogen use. PMID:2729468

  20. Is the age at menopause a cause of sexual dysfunction? A Brazilian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Caio; Valadares, Ana L R; Baccaro, Luiz F; Pedro, Adriana O; Filho, Jeffrey L; Lima, Marcelo; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and the components of sexual function in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional population-based study, data of 540 women aged 45 to 60 years regarding the age they were when they achieved menopause and its association with sexual dysfunction (evaluated using the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire) were obtained through interviews. We assessed the data for associations between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Age at menopause was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Arousal (dysfunction) was the only component of sexual function that was associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (P = 0.01). It was reported by 64.2% of women with POI (women 45 years, respectively (P = 0.04). In women with POI or early menopause, Poisson regression analysis showed that having a partner with sexual problems (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.3-13,2; P POI. The major factors affecting this association were having a partner with sexual problems, dyspareunia, and no satisfaction with the partner as a lover. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating partner problems and improving lubrication in these groups of women.

  1. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  2. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  3. Perceptions of menopause and aging in rural villages of Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The term 'menopause' is derived from the Greek words men (month) and pausis (a cessation, a pause). It is a direct description of the psychological and physical events in women where menstruation ceases to occur. It is the time in a woman's life when she has experienced her last menstrual bleed.

  4. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  5. Whole body retention of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) in monitoring skeletal calcium status in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Rangarajan, V.; Samuel, A.M.; Joshi, D.P.; Ray, S.; Raste, A.S.; Gadhre

    2003-01-01

    The detection and estimation of skeletal calcium loss has become an important consideration in the management of post-menopausal women. The need to supplement large amounts of calcium of 1000-1500 mg per day is recommended to forestall the risk of skeletal fractures. The added supplementation of estrogens and progesterone for several years is also recommended to prevent bone calcium loss. The need to record the calcium status in post-menopausal women is becoming necessary in the present scenario. A total of 159 women in the peri-menopausal, menopausal and post-menopausal groups were selected. None of them had other systemic diseases. They were healthy and not on any medication. They were randomly grouped into 3 groups. One was considered as control and no medication was advised. The second group was advised 1000-1500 mg of calcium carbonate daily. The third group was given the same dose of calcium, but also received additionally another 2 mg of estradiol daily. Whole Body Retention (WBR) studies of Tc-99m MDP were carried out before starting treatment and at 6 monthly intervals for a period of 5 years. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were estimated on fasting samples at the start of the study and at every 6 monthly intervals. WBR studies were done using a shadow shield whole body counter attached with a 5 inch diameter sodium iodide crystal detector and a 5 mm wide slit collimator. The WBR of Tc-99m MDP at 24 hours was found to be 27.55 ± 6.76% in women in the peri-menopausal age range of 25-45 years. It was also observed that at the time of menopause 13.3% of the women had WBR values above 2 SD of the normal values. This suggests that calcium loss from the skeleton is present only in a small number of women at menopause. However in women who were not supplemented with calcium or subjected to hormonal and calcium treatment, the number of women who showed loss of bone calcium increased within a period of 1-2 years after menopause. This simple method of WBR

  6. [Survey on menopausal age and menstruation span in women in Pudong district of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao

    2010-06-01

    To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact

  7. Estimation of natural age of menopause in Iranian women: A meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Rajaeefard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mean age of menopause have been reported at the age of 51 in the world and regarding the increase in life expectancy in many countries more than a third of the life time of women i s in menopause period. The importance of menopause is due to its relationship with various diseases and quality of life. The present study was conducted to estimate the average natural age of menopause in women based on a meta-analysis study. Material and Methods: In a meta-analysis study on all the existing articles in the natural age o f menopause in Iran, 21 articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. Begg and Egger tests fo r publication bias and Cochrane test were used to determine the heterogeneity among samples. ???? estimate of mean calculated based on Random effect model in Stata11 software. Results: The publication bias assumption was rejected by Begg and Egger tests with significant value s equal to 0.174 and 0.446 respectively. There was a heterogeneity among samples (Q=4626.3, df=20 , P<0.001. So based on random effect model the mean age of menopause was calculated as 48.183 with 95 % CI=47.457-48.91. Conclusion: The average age of natural menopause in Iranian women is favorable to some places of Middle East, but is less compared with developed countries and the world mean. Because of the importance of this period in women, educational programs seem to be necessary.

  8. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    smokers). Age at natural menopause is a complex trait; the determinants of age at natural menopause, including physical activity, may differ by smoking status.

  9. Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality (DREAMS): A cohort profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Kapoor, Ekta; Kling, Juliana M; Kuhle, Carol L; Sood, Richa; Rullo, Jordan E; Thielen, Jacqueline M; Shuster, Lynne T; Rocca, Walter A; Hilsaca, Karla S Frohmader; Mara, Kristin C; Schroeder, Darrell R; Miller, Virginia M

    2018-01-01

    The Women's Health Clinic (WHC) at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, has provided consultative care to women with menopausal and sexual health concerns since 2005. Clinical information on the 8688 women seen in the WHC through May 2017 who gave consent for the use of their medical records in research is contained in the Data Registry on Experiences of Aging, Menopause, and Sexuality (DREAMS). Initially, DREAMS was created to improve the clinical care of women, but it has become a valuable research tool. About 25% of the DREAMS women have been seen in the WHC 2 or more times, allowing for passive longitudinal follow-up. Additionally, about 25% of the DREAMS women live in the 27-county region included in the expanded Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system, providing additional information on those women. The cohort has been used to investigate associations between: caffeine intake and vasomotor symptom bother; recent abuse (physical, sexual, verbal, and emotional) and menopausal symptoms; specific menopausal symptoms and self-reported view of menopause; and obstructive sleep apnea risk and vasomotor symptom severity and the experience of vasomotor symptoms in women older than 60 years. A study nearing completion describes a clinical series of over 3500 women presenting for sexual health consultation by sexual function domain and by decade of life. Other studies under way are determining correlates with sexual health and dysfunction. Planned studies will investigate associations between the experience with menopause and the risk of disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Premature menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Ub; Ezenyeaku, Cc

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk.

  11. Sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women is associated with severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Fica, Juan; Chedraui, Peter; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Zuñiga, María C; Witis, Silvina; Vallejo, María S; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Sánchez, Hugo; Onatra, William; Ojeda, Eliana; Mostajo, Desireé; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Lima, Selva; Martino, Mabel; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Gómez, Gustavo; Espinoza, María T; Flores, Daniel; Calle, Andrés; Bravo, Luz M; Benítez, Zully; Bencosme, Ascanio; Barón, Germán; Aedo, Sócrates

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sedentary lifestyle and the severity of menopausal symptoms and obesity in middle-aged women. The Menopause Rating Scale, the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Athens Insomnia Scale were administered to 6,079 Latin American women aged 40 to 59 years. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as fewer than three weekly, 30-minute periods of physical activity. Sedentary women had more severe menopausal symptoms (total Menopause Rating Scale score: 9.57 ± 6.71 vs 8.01 ± 6.27 points, P sedentary lifestyle. Having a stable partner (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), using hormone therapy (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) and having a higher educational level (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74) were negatively related to sedentary lifestyle. There was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in this middle-aged Latin American female sample which was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

  12. Prenatal famine, birthweight, reproductive performance and age at menopause: the Dutch hunger winter families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarde, F; Broekmans, F J M; van der Pal-de Bruin, K M; Schönbeck, Y; te Velde, E R; Stein, A D; Lumey, L H

    2013-12-01

    Is there an association between acute prenatal famine exposure or birthweight and subsequent reproductive performance and age at menopause? No association was found between intrauterine famine exposure and reproductive performance, but survival analysis showed that women exposed in utero were 24% more likely to experience menopause at any age. Associations between prenatal famine and subsequent reproductive performance have been examined previously with inconsistent results. Evidence for the effects of famine exposure on age at natural menopause is limited to one study of post-natal exposure. This cohort study included men and women born around the time of the Dutch famine of 1944-1945. The study participants (n = 1070) underwent standardized interviews on reproductive parameters at a mean age of 59 years. The participants were grouped as men and women with prenatal famine exposure (n = 407), their same-sex siblings (family controls, n = 319) or other men and women born before or after the famine period (time controls, n = 344). Associations of famine exposure with reproductive performance and menopause were analysed using logistic regression and survival analysis with competing risk, after controlling for family clustering. Gestational famine exposure was not associated with nulliparity, age at birth of first child, difficulties conceiving or pregnancy outcome (all P> 0.05) in men or women. At any given age, women were more likely to experience menopause after gestational exposure to famine (hazard ratio 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.51). The association was not attenuated with an additional control for a woman's birthweight. In this study, there was no association between birthweight and age at menopause after adjustment for gestational famine exposure. Age at menopause was self-reported and assessed retrospectively. The study power to examine associations with specific gestational periods of famine exposure and reproductive function was limited. Our findings support

  13. Relationship between alcohol consumption and age at menopause: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Lee, Dae Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Yeon Joo; Lee, Hae Nam

    2017-08-01

    We used data from the 2011-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) to investigate whether the age at menopause is related to alcohol consumption in South Korean women. This was a cross-sectional study of the data for 940 women who became menopausal within the 3 years preceding the KNHANES. The numbers of nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers in this group were 345 (34.7%), 573 (62.2%), and 22 (3%). Body mass index (BMI), smoking, and exercise were adjusted in model 1 and age was additionally adjusted in model 2. The mean ages at menopause were 51.6 ± 0.2, 50.8 ± 0.1, and 50.4 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0025) in model 1 and 51.7 ± 0.2, 51.1 ± 0.1, and 50.1 ± 0.5 years (p = 0.0018) in model 2 for nondrinkers, mild to moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers, respectively. BMI, smoking, exercise, educational level, income, duration of menopause, age at menarche, age at first delivery, and gravidity were adjusted in model 3, and the respective mean ages at menopause were 51.3 ± 0.2, 50.7 ± 0.2, and 50.1 ± 0.8 years (p = 0.0402). The population was classified into groups using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of menopause according to AUDIT score were 51.3 ± 0.1, 50.5 ± 0.3, and 50.4 ± 0.4 years (p = 0.0222, model 1), 51.4 ± 0.1, 50.8 ± 0.3, and 50.8 ± 0.3 years (p = 0.0261, model 2), and 51.1 ± 0.1, 50.6 ± 0.4, and 49.5 ± 0.6 years (p = 0.0241, model 3) respectively. In Korean women, alcohol consumption was associated with younger age at menopause. A higher AUDIT score was also related to younger age at menopause. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  15. Body mass index and age at natural menopause: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingyong; Jiang, Anran; Yin, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hu, Huaqing

    2015-04-01

    There is no universal consensus on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and age at natural menopause (ANM). The primary bias was confounding by cigarette smoking because smoking was a strong confounding factor related to lower BMI and earlier menopause. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the effect of BMI on ANM. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. Studies were selected for analysis based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI were extracted to assess the association between BMI and early ANM. Nine studies were selected for this meta-analysis. The HR of early ANM was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P < 0.01) in underweight women compared with women of normal BMI. Compared with women of normal BMI, overweight women (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96; P < 0.001) and obese women (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.79-1.15; P = 0.59) were associated with late ANM. In addition, the HRs of early ANM in overweight and obese women were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94; P < 0.001) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95; P < 0.001), respectively, compared with underweight women. A separate meta-analysis indicated that the results (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90; P < 0.001) changed markedly in the comparison of obese versus normal-weight women in studies that controlled for smoking. The results of our study indicate that increased BMI modestly associates with later ANM. The relationship between BMI and ANM needs further clarification in well-designed studies, especially studies well-controlled for smoking status.

  16. Age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); E. Asllanaj (Eralda); N. Avazverdi (Naim); L. Jaspers (Loes); N. Stringa (Najada); J. Milic (Jelena); S. Ligthart (Symen); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); M. Kavousi (Maryam); A. Dehghan (Abbas); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Aims/hypothesis__ In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at natural menopause and risk of type 2 diabetes, and to assess whether this association is independent of potential mediators. __Methods__ We included 3639 postmenopausal women from the

  17. Age, pattern of menopause, climacteric symptoms and associated problems among urban population of Hyderabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the physiology of menopause in the context of the age at menopause, its pattern, climacteric symptoms and associated problems of an urban cohort. In total, 800 women of age 45-59 years, who had reached a natural menopause were interviewed. The data were collected by simple random sampling method. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Physical examination including height, weight and blood pressure check was also carried out at the same time. Data were statistically analyzed through software program SPSS 10.0. The mean age at menopause of subjects was 47.16 years. Duration of climacteric ranged from 2 - 36 months in majority of cases. The marked climacteric symptoms were low backache (75%), headache (70.25%), tiredness (67.75%), limb pain (59.25%), sleep disturbance (53.75%), lack of concentration (49.5%), hot flushes (55.5%) and night sweats (45%). Other associated problems were hypertension (31.5%), ischaemic heart disease (22.25%), diabetes mellitus (15.75%), postmenopausal bleeding (10.5%) and vaginitis (4.2%), respectively. (author)

  18. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Quantitative Comparison of Un-Stimulated Whole Saliva Flow Rate Among Menopausal Women and Same Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadian H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Menopause can be associated with psycho-somatic changes in oro-facial areas like xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome, although these findings are controversial. The present study sought to compare the Un-stimulated Whole Saliva (UWS flow rate of a group including menopausal & postmenopausal women and same-aged men.Methods: In this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study 40 menopausal & post-menopausal women (as experimental-group and 40 same-aged men (as control group without any systemic diseases and any drug consumption were divided into 2 groups, xerostomia was evaluated by a questionnaire, and their psychological conditions were assessed with HAD scale. UWS flow rate was measured by the spitting method. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Krusscal Walis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Mean of UWS flow rates in experimental group was significantly less than that in control group (P=0.006; no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding psychological condition. Also, menopausal women had significantly greater xerostomia than men (45% vs 15% (P=0.003.Conclusion: Based on this study, xerostomia and reduction in UWS flow rate are sequences of menopause, these findings necessitate the increasing awareness of menopausal & postmenopausal women for controlling the methods of these problems.Keywords: Menopause; Xerostomia; Saliva.

  20. Age of menopause and fracture risk in postmenopausal women randomized to calcium + vitamin D, hormone therapy, or the combination: results from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Nathan, Nisha K; Thomson, Cynthia A; Howard, Barbara V

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported that in the absence of hormone therapy (HT) or calcium/vitamin D (Ca/D) supplementation, earlier menopause age was associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Treatment with HT and Ca/D is protective against fractures after menopause. In this analysis, we asked if the age of menopause onset alters fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women receiving HT, Ca/D, or a combination. Hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture among 21,711 healthy postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial, who were treated with HT, Ca/D, or HT + Ca/D, and who reported age of nonsurgical menopause of menopause menopause 40 to 49 or ≥50 years, regardless of treatment intervention (HR [95% CI]: menopause menopause menopause age (menopause ages. The effect of menopause age on fracture risk was not altered by any of the treatment interventions (HT, Ca/D, HT + Ca/D), suggesting that early age of menopause is an independent contributor to postmenopausal fracture risk.

  1. Flexible parametric survival models built on age-specific antimüllerian hormone percentiles are better predictors of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Steyerberg, Ewout; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to improve existing prediction models for age at menopause. We identified all reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles who met our eligibility criteria (n = 1,015) in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study-an ongoing population-based cohort study initiated in 1998. Participants were examined every 3 years and their reproductive histories were recorded. Blood levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) were measured at the time of recruitment. Age at menopause was estimated based on serum concentrations of AMH using flexible parametric survival models. The optimum model was selected according to Akaike Information Criteria and the realness of the range of predicted median menopause age. We followed study participants for a median of 9.8 years during which 277 women reached menopause and found that a spline-based proportional odds model including age-specific AMH percentiles as the covariate performed well in terms of statistical criteria and provided the most clinically relevant and realistic predictions. The range of predicted median age at menopause for this model was 47.1 to 55.9 years. For those who reached menopause, the median of the absolute mean difference between actual and predicted age at menopause was 1.9 years (interquartile range 2.9). The model including the age-specific AMH percentiles as the covariate and using proportional odds as its covariate metrics meets all the statistical criteria for the best model and provides the most clinically relevant and realistic predictions for age at menopause for reproductive-aged women.

  2. Serum dioxin levels and age at menopause in women of Seveso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Warner, M.; Marks, A. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Samuels, S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Bicocca, Desio-Milano (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In the present investigation, we examine the relationship of TCDD and age of onset of menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. These women, who participated in the Seveso Women's Health Study, were exposed to the highest levels of TCDD known in residential populations. Serum specimens collected near the time of the explosion allowed for individual estimates of exposure.

  3. Menopausal status dependence of the timing of breast cancer recurrence after surgical removal of the primary tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Romano; Bonadonna, Gianni; Hrushesky, William JM; Retsky, Michael W; Valagussa, Pinuccia

    2004-01-01

    Information on the metastasis process in breast cancer patients undergoing primary tumour removal may be extracted from an analysis of the timing of clinical recurrence. The hazard rate for local-regional and/or distant recurrence as the first event during the first 4 years after surgery was studied in 1173 patients undergoing mastectomy alone as primary treatment for operable breast cancer. Subset analyses were performed according to tumour size, axillary nodal status and menopausal status. A sharp two-peaked hazard function was observed for node-positive pre-menopausal patients, whereas results from node-positive post-menopausal women always displayed a single broad peak. The first narrow peak among pre-menopausal women showed a very steep rise to a maximum about 8–10 months after mastectomy. The second peak was considerably broader, reaching its maximum at 28–30 months. Post-menopausal patients displayed a wide, nearly symmetrical peak with maximum risk at about 18–20 months. Peaks displayed increasing height with increasing axillary lymph node involvement. No multi-peaked pattern was evident for either pre-menopausal or post-menopausal node-negative patients; however, this finding should be considered cautiously because of the limited number of events. Tumour size influenced recurrence risk but not its timing. Findings resulting from the different subsets of patients were remarkably coherent and each observed peak maintained the same position on the time axis in all analysed subsets. The risk of early recurrence for node positive patients is dependent on menopausal status. The amount of axillary nodal involvement and the tumour size modulate the risk value at any given time. For pre-menopausal node-positive patients, the abrupt increase of the first narrow peak of the recurrence risk suggests a triggering event that synchronises early risk. We suggest that this event is the surgical removal of the primary tumour. The later, broader, more symmetrical risk

  4. Investigation on the average serum E2 level and menopausal age in healthy women in Wuhan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huilin; Lan Jian; Zhang Yangyang; Li Fei; Zhang Yuanji

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the average serum E 2 level and menopausal age of healthy women in Wuhan area and assess the appropriateness of hormone replacement therapy in these women. Methods: Serum E 2 levels were measured with RIA in 2020 healthy women (26-75 yr old) in Wuhan area. Results: (1) Serum E 2 levels reached peak in 31-35yr group, significantly dropped in 46-50yr group and reached menopausal level in 51-55 yr group. (2) The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was rather early-48.08yr. Conclusion: The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was 2.3yr earlier than the nationwide 1989 screening result, which should be a concern for the maternity health workers. (authors)

  5. Sexual Health and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pass through menopause and discover its effects on sexuality. And that’s something we can all be grateful for, since our understanding of how menopause and aging affect sexual health has grown a lot in ...

  6. Menopausal age and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Farholt, S

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate age at menopause and serum sex hormone profiles in postmenopausal women with stable chronic liver disease, six non-cirrhotic alcoholics, 13 with alcoholic cirrhosis, eight with non-alcoholic cirrhosis, and 46 healthy controls were studied. In all three groups, patients were...... and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) (p less than 0.05). The observed changes may be a consequence of liver disease since similar changes were observed in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, but an additional effect of alcohol cannot be excluded....... significantly (p less than 0.05) younger at the time of natural menopause than controls. Compared to controls, non-cirrhotic alcoholic women had significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced levels of DHAS, significantly (p less than 0.05) more alcoholic cirrhotic women had detectable oestradiol concentrations...

  7. Quantitative Comparison of Un-Stimulated Whole Saliva Flow Rate Among Menopausal Women and Same Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ahadian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Menopause can be associated with psycho-somatic changes in oro-facial areas like xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome, although these findings are controversial. The present study sought to compare the Un-stimulated Whole Saliva (UWS flow rate of a group including menopausal & postmenopausal women and same-aged men.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study 40 menopausal & post-menopausal women (as experimental-group and 40 same-aged men (as control group without any systemic diseases and any drug consumption were divided into 2 groups, xerostomia was evaluated by a questionnaire, and their psychological conditions were assessed with HAD scale. UWS flow rate was measured by the spitting method. Data were analyzed by chi-square, Krusscal Walis and Mann-Whitney tests.

    Results: Mean of UWS flow rates in experimental group was significantly less than that in control group (P=0.006; no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding psychological condition. Also, menopausal women had significantly greater xerostomia than men (45% vs 15% (P=0.003.

    Conclusion: Based on this study, xerostomia and reduction in UWS flow rate are sequences of menopause, these findings necessitate the increasing awareness of menopausal & postmenopausal women for controlling the methods of these problems

  8. Induced abortion ratio in modern Sweden falls with age, but rises again before menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullberg, B S.; Lummaa, V

    2001-01-01

    A woman's reproductive value decreases over her reproductive life span and it is therefore predicted that the likelihood of termination of investment in a child decreases with increasing age. An eventual increase in termination ratio in the oldest age groups, as is often found in abortion statistics, could depend on older women on average having larger families rather than on age per se. We used data on abortions and births in Sweden during 1994 to investigate how abortion ratio is related to age and parity of women. We found that age-specific abortion ratio is U-shaped (i.e. that it is highest for the youngest and for the oldest age groups) in each parity class from zero to four children but that age-dependence breaks down in higher parity classes (5, >/=6). Thus, for each of the parity classes 0-4, the incidence of abortion decreases with age up to a point, but increases again as women approach menopause. This late increase in induced abortion ratio seems to depend on age per se. The data indicate that abortion ratio is an inverse function of fertility, and that investment in new reproduction gradually decreases as a woman approaches menopause. Assuming grandmothering as an important driving force in human life history evolution, such a pattern might indicate that the transition from behavioural investment in one's own children to one's grandchildren is a gradual process similar to the decline in ovarian function.

  9. Age at menarche and age at natural menopause in East Asian women: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajun; Zhang, Ben; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Wei; Long, Jirong; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wen, Wanqing; Park, Sue K; Ye, Xingwang; Noh, Dong-Young; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Yiqin; Chung, Seokang; Lin, Xu; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-12-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) are complex traits with a high heritability. Abnormal timing of menarche or menopause is associated with a reduced span of fertility and risk for several age-related diseases including breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. To identify novel genetic loci for AM or ANM in East Asian women and to replicate previously identified loci primarily in women of European ancestry by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we conducted a two-stage GWAS. Stage I aimed to discover promising novel AM and ANM loci using GWAS data of 8073 women from Shanghai, China. The Stage II replication study used the data from another Chinese GWAS (n = 1230 for AM and n = 1458 for ANM), a Korean GWAS (n = 4215 for AM and n = 1739 for ANM), and de novo genotyping of 2877 additional Chinese women. Previous GWAS-identified loci for AM and ANM were also evaluated. We identified two suggestive menarcheal age loci tagged by rs79195475 at 10q21.3 (beta = -0.118 years, P = 3.4 × 10 -6 ) and rs1023935 at 4p15.1 (beta = -0.145 years, P = 4.9 × 10 -6 ) and one menopausal age locus tagged by rs3818134 at 22q12.2 (beta = -0.276 years, P = 8.8 × 10 -6 ). These suggestive loci warrant a further validation in independent populations. Although limited by low statistical power, we replicated 19 of the 98 menarche loci and 5 of the 20 menopause loci previously identified in women of European ancestry in East Asian women, suggesting a shared genetic architecture for these two traits across populations.

  10. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  11. Effects of self-reported age at nonsurgical menopause on time to first fracture and bone mineral density in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Johnson, Karen C; Jackson, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ko, Marcia; Chen, Zhao; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V

    2015-10-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for fracture; thus, menopause age may affect bone mass and fracture rates. We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates among healthy postmenopausal women with varying ages at self-reported nonsurgical menopause. We compared hazard ratios for fractures and differences in BMD among 21,711 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort who had no prior hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or hormone therapy and had varying self-reported ages at menopause (menopause age groups. After multivariable adjustments for known risk factors for fracture, women who underwent menopause before age 40 years had a higher fracture risk at any site compared with women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.44; P = 0.03). In a subset with BMD measurements (n = 1,351), whole-body BMD was lower in women who reported menopause before age 40 years than in women who reported menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.034 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.004; P = 0.03) and women who reported menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; P menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.01; P = 0.01), and total spine BMD was lower in women who underwent menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.11 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; P menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.09 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.04; P menopause may be a risk factor contributing to decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Our data suggest that menopause age should be taken into consideration, along with other osteoporotic risk factors, when estimating fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

  12. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...

  13. Menopause and Rheumatic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsania, Mitali; Scofield, Robert Hal

    2017-05-01

    Menopause occurs naturally in women at about 50 years of age. There is a wealth of data concerning the relationship of menopause to systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis; there are limited data concerning other rheumatic diseases. Age at menopause may affect the risk and course of rheumatic diseases. Osteoporosis, an integral part of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, is made worse by menopause. Hormone replacement therapy has been studied; its effects vary depending on the disease and even different manifestations within the same disease. Cyclophosphamide can induce early menopause, but there is underlying decreased ovarian reserve in rheumatic diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Genes Involved in Initial Follicle Recruitment May Be Associated with Age at Menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhuis, Marlies; Broekmans, Frank J.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    Context: Timing of menopause is largely influenced by genetic factors. Because menopause occurs when the follicle pool in the ovaries has become exhausted, genes involved in primordial follicle recruitment can be considered as candidate genes for timing of menopause. Objective: The aim was to study

  15. The demography of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K

    1996-03-01

    Menopause marks a time of dramatic hormonal and often social change for women. Both risk factors and health needs are likely to change as women pass through menopause. This paper examines the demographic characteristics of the world population of menopausal and post-menopausal women, and also examines the implication of menopause for mortality risks. The numbers of women involved are large. Using age 50 as a proxy for menopause, about 25 million women pass through menopause each year, and we estimate that in 1990 there were 467 million post-menopausal women in the world, with an average age of about 60 years. By 2030, the world population of menopausal and postmenopausal women is projected to increase to 1.2 billion, with 47 million new entrants each year. The mortality implications of menopause are also substantial. Ratios of female to male mortality risks from all causes and from all major cause groups except neoplasms decline to low levels around menopause or shortly thereafter, and then rise again to near unity. This pattern is taken as evidence that the female reproductive period is broadly protective of health, but that this protection disappears after menopause. The main protective effect is through reduced risk of cardiovascular disease mortality, partially offset by increased risks of cancer mortality, particularly of the breast and endometrium.

  16. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C

    2013-01-01

    this prospective cohort whose mothers' age at natural menopause was known. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS: Participants were recruited from female health care workers aged 20-40 years employed at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, and were enrolled in the study between September 2008 and February...... an internet-based questionnaire. We used an analysis of covariance model with serum-AMH and AFC as outcomes, age as the quantitative predictor and onset of maternal menopause as the categorical predictor, with further adjustments for BMI, use of oral contraceptives, participants' smoking habits and prenatal...

  17. Validity and reliability of menopause attitude assessment scale: a study in women aged 40-64 in Eskisehir-Mahmudiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Koyuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to studies, related to symptoms of menopause, women's attitudes about menopause is an effective variable on the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms. The most common method to assess attitudes about menopause is the attitude scale. The main purpose of the study is to expose reliability and validity of and ldquo;menopause attitudes assessment scale and rdquo; developed for assessing attitudes of menopause on middle age women. Methods: This is a methodological study conducted 8-15 November 2013 on middle age women living in the district center of Mahmudiye. In the first of the two stage s of the study, items pool was generated and items were assessed by experts for content validity. In the second stages, exploratory factor analysis was performed for construct validity and Cronbach alpha (Cra was calculated for reliability analysis. Result: According to the factor analysis, items, whose factor loadings were less than 0.40, were removed from the scale. The remaining 13 items were classified into four factors. Four factors explain 61.82% of variance. Factors were named as positive emotional, negative emotional, family relationships, behavioral. For this scale, which is consists of 13 items, Cra is 0.744. Factors' Cra are between 0.682 to 0.828. Conclusion: According to the results of validity and reliability study, Menopause Attitude Assessment Scale, which is consists of 13 items and four subscales, was found to be suitable to measure middle-aged women's attitudes about menopau se. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 448-452

  18. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  19. Life course exposure to smoke and early menopause and menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hebatullah; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at the menopausal transition. Using data from two US birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal exposure, childhood exposure to parental smoking, and adult smoke exposure) and menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 to 49 years at follow-up. We used logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age at follow-up) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and the menopausal transition. The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders among (i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke on adult follow-up (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.8-9.4) and (ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.9-9.0). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing earlier natural menopause (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3) compared with women without smoke exposure in either period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 y) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging.

  20. Anthropometric and gynaecological history according to the socioeconomic status of postmenopausal women: poverty and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Manuel Carmen; Sosa, Manuel; Saavedra, Pedro; Gil-Antullano, Santiago Palacios; Castro, Rosa; Bonet, Mario; Travesí, Isabel; de Miguel, Emilio

    2010-03-01

    Less advantaged social classes usually have unhealthier lifestyles and have more difficult access to health resources. In this work we study the possible association between poverty and the prevalence of obesity and oophorectomy in a population of postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional observational study. To study in a population of postmenopausal women in poverty the possible differences in the prevalence of obesity and oophorectomy, and to compare some other gynaecological data: age at menarche, age at menopause, fertile years, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding and the use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). All patients were interviewed personally. A questionnaire was used to find out about their lifestyles and the medication they were taking. Their medical records were reviewed to confirm the existence of some diseases. A complete physical examination was performed with every patient. Weight and height were measured with the patient dressed in light clothes. Blood was obtained in a fasting state in order to carry out some analyses. Poverty was defined according to the Spanish National Institute of Statistics criteria. We enrolled 1225 postmenopausal women; 449 (36.6%) were under the threshold of poverty, defined by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. Postmenopausal women in poverty had higher body mass index (29.2 +/- 4.8 versus 27.0 +/- 4.7 kg/m(2) P poverty (44.2% versus 24.3%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of oophorectomy was also higher in women in poverty (32.7% versus 27.2%, P poverty had had a greater number of pregnancies (3 versus 2, P = 0.001). They also showed a higher rate of breastfeeding than women in medium and high social classes (65% versus 59%, P = 0.037). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in either the age of menopause or fertile years, nor in the use of HRT. Postmenopausal women in poverty have higher levels of obesity, and also a greater prevalence of oophorectomy than women of medium and

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  2. Variations in steroid hormone receptor content throughout age and menopausal periods, and menstrual cycle in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, D.; Vasiljevic, N.; Brankovic-Magic, M.; Polic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods define three breast carcinoma groups: younger pre-menopausal carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal aged 45-59) and older postmenopausal carcinomas (aged over 59). Age-related steroid hormone receptor contents within pre-menopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma groups are characterized by the important increase of both receptor contents, while menopausal-related steroid hormone receptor contents within middle-aged carcinoma group (aged 45-59) are characterized by the important decrease of progesterone receptor content and estrogen receptor functionality. No variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout menstrual cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important decrease of estrogen receptor content in the mid-cycle phase versus the peri-menstrual phase was found. Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods, as well as throughout menstrual cycle could nod be associated with variations in the blood steroid hormone concentrations. However, important association between steroid hormone receptor contents and the blood steroid hormone concentrations was found within the luteal phase carcinoma group and within older postmenopausal carcinoma group. It is interesting that within carcinoma group with the highest concentration of progesterone, progesterone receptor content increases with an increase of the ration of estradiol and progesterone blood concentrations, while within carcinoma group with the lowest steroid hormone concentration and the highest content of estrogen receptor content, estrogen receptor content decreases with an increase of either the blood estradiol concentration or the ratio of the blood estradiol and progesterone blood

  3. Association between the vaginal microbiota, menopause status, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Rebecca M; Shardell, Michelle D; Gajer, Pawel; Fadrosh, Doug; Chang, Kathryn; Silver, Michelle I; Viscidi, Raphael P; Burke, Anne E; Ravel, Jacques; Gravitt, Patti E

    2014-05-01

    The vaginal microbiota helps protect the female genital tract from disease. We sought to describe the composition of the vaginal microbiota in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women and to explore the association between the microbiota and vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). Eighty-seven women (aged 35-60 y) were classified as premenopausal (n = 30), perimenopausal (n = 29), or postmenopausal (n = 28) according to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop guidelines. Midvaginal bacterial community composition was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. Bacterial communities clustered into six community state types (CSTs), of which four were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus iners, or Lactobacillus jensenii, and two (CST IV-A and CST IV-B) had low relative abundance of Lactobacillus. CST IV-A was characterized by Streptococcus and Prevotella, whereas CST IV-B was characterized by Atopobium. There were significant associations between menopause stage and CST (P = 0.004) and between VVA and CST (P = 0.002). Perimenopausal women were more likely to be classified as CST IV-A or L. gasseri CST, whereas postmenopausal women were often classified as CST IV-A. CSTs dominated by L. crispatus and L. iners were more prevalent in premenopausal women. Nineteen participants had signs of mild or moderate VVA. Compared with women with no VVA, the vaginal microbiota of women with mild or moderate atrophy had 25-fold greater odds of being classified as CST IV-A versus L. crispatus CST (adjusted odds ratio, 25.89; 95% credible interval, 2.98-406.79). A distinct bacterial community state (CST IV-A) with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus is associated with VVA. Future studies recruiting a larger number of women are needed to replicate the findings. This study provides an impetus for future longitudinal studies designed to manage, modulate, and restore vaginal microbiota homeostasis, which would provide stronger evidence for

  4. Knowledge and attitude of older women towards menopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, S.B.; Gul-e-Erum

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude towards menopause among postmenopausal women seeking gynecological treatment. Results: The mean age of respondents was 54.4 years. Fifty-two (74.3%) women knew about menopause, 39 (55.7%) were aware of symptomatology while only 7(10%) knew sequelae of menopause. Fifty-three (75.5%) women were satisfied with cessation of menstruation and only 17 (24.3%) desired to continue menstruation. Twenty-four (34.3%) respondents were unhappy with their menopausal status. Thirty-two (45.7%) women were content with their present sexual relations, 18 (25.7%) were dissatisfied and 20 (28.6%) had no sexual activity. Fifty-two (74.3%) women felt a need for health education on menopause in educational institutions. Thirty-three (47.1%) considered treatment of menopause necessary. Four (5.7%) were aware of any treatment of menopause and 55 (78.6%) desired to learn more about menopause. Conclusion: Women have different views about menopause, few see it as a medical condition requiring treatment, whereas majority consider it is a natural transition. There was breath of knowledge regarding significance of menopause. (author)

  5. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen

    2006-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women

  6. Menopause: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish What is Menopause? (National Institute on Aging) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Menopause updates by ... test Menopause Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menstruation Premature Ovarian Failure National ...

  7. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Lindström, Sara; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Gaasterland, Douglas; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Havens, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L

    2017-02-01

    Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

  8. Contrast enhancement kinetics of normal breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography: effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegenscheid, Katrin; Seipel, Rebecca; Laqua, Rene; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Ohlinger, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To investigate effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives (OC), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on normal breast parenchymal contrast enhancement (CE) and non-mass-like enhancing areas in magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). A total of 459 female volunteers (mean age 49.1 ± 12.5 years) underwent T1-weighted 3D MRM 1-5 min after bolus injection of gadobutrol. Quantitative analysis was performed in normal breast parenchyma by manually tracing regions of interest and calculating percentage CE. Semiquantitative analysis was performed in non-mass-like enhancing areas, and signal intensity changes were characterised by five predefined kinetic curve types. The influence of OC (n = 69) and HT (n = 24) on CE was studied using random effects models. Breast parenchymal enhancement was significantly higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). CE decreased significantly with the use of OC (P = 0.01), while HT had negligible effects (P = 0.52). Prevalence of kinetic curve types of non-mass-like enhancement differed strongly between pre- and postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001), but was similar in OC users and non-OC users (P = 0.61) as well as HT users and non-HT users (P = 0.77). Normal breast parenchymal enhancement and non-mass-like enhancing areas were strongly affected by menopausal status, while they were not affected by HT use and only moderately by OC use. (orig.)

  9. Contrast enhancement kinetics of normal breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography: effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegenscheid, Katrin; Seipel, Rebecca; Laqua, Rene; Hosten, Norbert; Puls, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Schmidt, Carsten O. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); Ohlinger, Ralf [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Medical Center Greifswald, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To investigate effects of menopausal status, oral contraceptives (OC), and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on normal breast parenchymal contrast enhancement (CE) and non-mass-like enhancing areas in magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). A total of 459 female volunteers (mean age 49.1 {+-} 12.5 years) underwent T1-weighted 3D MRM 1-5 min after bolus injection of gadobutrol. Quantitative analysis was performed in normal breast parenchyma by manually tracing regions of interest and calculating percentage CE. Semiquantitative analysis was performed in non-mass-like enhancing areas, and signal intensity changes were characterised by five predefined kinetic curve types. The influence of OC (n = 69) and HT (n = 24) on CE was studied using random effects models. Breast parenchymal enhancement was significantly higher in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women (P < 0.001). CE decreased significantly with the use of OC (P = 0.01), while HT had negligible effects (P = 0.52). Prevalence of kinetic curve types of non-mass-like enhancement differed strongly between pre- and postmenopausal women (P < 0.0001), but was similar in OC users and non-OC users (P = 0.61) as well as HT users and non-HT users (P = 0.77). Normal breast parenchymal enhancement and non-mass-like enhancing areas were strongly affected by menopausal status, while they were not affected by HT use and only moderately by OC use. (orig.)

  10. Menopause Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alone. Learn more about your personal journey with menopause. The Menopause Map™ will help you: Understand the stages of ... About It! Start your Journey Your journey through menopause is unique and we understand that. Answer a ...

  11. Myeloperoxidase polymorphism, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk: an update meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Qin

    Full Text Available Myeloperoxidase (MPO is a metabolic/oxidative lysosomal enzyme secreted by reactive neutrophils at the sites of inflamed organs and tissues during phagocytosis. MPO has been either directly or indirectly linked to neoplasia, which is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancer. A large number of studies have reported the role of MPO G-463A polymorphism regarding breast-cancer risk. However, the published findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine more precise estimations for the relationship. Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before June 2012. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, a total of five eligible studies were included in the pooled analyses. When the five eligible studies concerning MPO G-463A polymorphism were pooled into this meta-analysis, there was no evidence found for a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. We also categorized by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian for subgroup analysis; according to this subgroup analysis, we found no significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk in any genetic model. However, in the stratified analysis for the premenopausal group, women carrying the AA genotype were found to have a significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.94, p = 0.027. Under the recessive model, there was a significant association between MPO G-463A polymorphism and breast-cancer risk (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.93, p = 0.025. We conclude that MPO-G463A polymorphism might not be a good predictor of breast-cancer risk, though menopausal status modified women's risk of developing breast cancer.

  12. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  13. A model of care for healthy menopause and ageing : EMAS position statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stute, Petra; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Rees, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the number of menopausal women is increasing. They present with complex medical issues that lie beyond the traditional scope of gynaecologists and general practitioners (GPs). The European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) therefore provides a holistic model of care for healthy

  14. Estrogen Interactions With Lipid Rafts Related to Neuroprotection. Impact of Brain Ageing and Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens (E2 exert a plethora of neuroprotective actions against aged-associated brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Part of these actions takes place through binding to estrogen receptors (ER embedded in signalosomes, where numerous signaling proteins are clustered. Signalosomes are preferentially located in lipid rafts which are dynamic membrane microstructures characterized by a peculiar lipid composition enriched in gangliosides, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Rapid E2 interactions with ER-related signalosomes appear to trigger intracellular signaling ultimately leading to the activation of molecular mechanisms against AD. We have previously observed that the reduction of E2 blood levels occurring during menopause induced disruption of ER-signalosomes at frontal cortical brain areas. These molecular changes may reduce neuronal protection activities, as similar ER signalosome derangements were observed in AD brains. The molecular impairments may be associated with changes in the lipid composition of lipid rafts observed in neurons during menopause and AD. These evidences indicate that the changes in lipid raft structure during aging may be at the basis of alterations in the activity of ER and other neuroprotective proteins integrated in these membrane microstructures. Moreover, E2 is a homeostatic modulator of lipid rafts. Recent work has pointed to this relevant aspect of E2 activity to preserve brain integrity, through mechanisms affecting lipid uptake and local biosynthesis in the brain. Some evidences have demonstrated that estrogens and the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA exert synergistic effects to stabilize brain lipid matrix. DHA is essential to enhance molecular fluidity at the plasma membrane, promoting functional macromolecular interactions in signaling platforms. In support of this, DHA detriment in neuronal lipid rafts has been associated with the most common age-associated neuropathologies

  15. [Effects of Aromatherapy on Menopausal Symptoms, Perceived Stress and Depression in Middle-aged Women: A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinmi; Song, Ji Ah; Kim, Mi Eun; Hur, Myung Haeng

    2016-10-01

    This study was a systematic review to evaluate the effects of aromatherapy on menopausal symptoms, perceived stress and depression in middle aged-women. Eight databases were searched from their inception September 8, 2015. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies, data abstraction and validations. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. For analysis of the data, a meta-analysis of the studies was performed. From the electronic databases, 73 articles were selected, and 19 removed due to duplication. After two reviewers read the abstracts of 54 studies, 34 studies were selected. Complete papers for 34 original articles were read and, 12 studies which met selection criteria were reviewed and the effects of aromatherapy on menopausal symptoms, stress and depression analyzed using meta-analysis with RevMan. In the 2 studies which included Randomized Controlled Trials testing of aromatherapy on menopausal symptoms and comparison of control and placebo groups were done. Aromatherapy massage was favorably effective in reducing the menopausal symptoms compared to the control group (n=118, MD=-6.33; 95% CI -11.51 to -1.15), and compared to the placebo group (n=117, MD=-4.14; 95% CI -7.63 to -0.64). Also aromatherapy was effective in reducing stress (n=72, SMD=-0.64; 95% CI -1.12 to -0.17) and depression (n=158, MD=-5.63; 95% CI -10.04 to -1.22). There is limited evidence suggesting that aromatherapy for middle-aged women may be effective in controlling menopausal symptoms, perceived stress and depression.

  16. Severe menopausal symptoms in mid-aged Latin American women can be related to their indigenous ethnic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, E; Monterrosa, A; Blümel, J E; Escobar-López, J; Chedraui, P

    2011-02-01

    Latin American women present more severe menopausal symptoms when compared to those from other regions of the world. Since this population is an ethnic blend of Caucasian and indigenous people, we sought to test the hypothesis that severe menopausal symptoms in Latin American women are associated with an indigenous origin. To assess menopausal symptoms among two specific indigenous Latin American populations. A total of 573 natural postmenopausal indigenous women aged 45-59 years (288 Quechua (Peru) and 285 Zenú (Colombia)) living in isolated communities were surveyed with a general questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The total MRS score was significantly higher among Quechua women as compared to Zenú ones (22.7 ± 5.7 vs. 14.7 ± 2.5, p Quechua women presented more intense somatic and psychological symptoms as compared to Zenú (8.8 ± 2.3 vs. 5.3 ± 1.8; and 7.8 ± 2.4 vs. 3.2 ± 1.7, p Quechua. This was not the case for Zenú women. More than 90% of indigenous women (Quechua and Zenú) at all age intervals presented severe urogenital scores, a percentage that is much higher than that described in the world literature. Severe menopausal symptoms found among Latin American women could be the result of their indigenous ethnic origin; the urogenital domain is the most affected.

  17. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk,

  18. The Average Age of Menopause and Its Associated Factors Among Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: With regard to life expectancy, women spend approximately one third of their life after menopause. Identification of factors associated with these issue particularly aspects of quality of life is important.

  19. Menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Sharon G; Eliassen, A Heather; Eavey, Roland D; Wang, Molin; Lin, Brian M; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Menopause may be a risk factor for hearing loss, and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been proposed to slow hearing decline; however, there are no large prospective studies. We prospectively examined the independent relations between menopause and postmenopausal HT and risk of self-reported hearing loss. Prospective cohort study among 80,972 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, baseline age 27 to 44 years, followed from 1991 to 2013. Baseline and updated information was obtained from detailed validated biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine independent associations between menopausal status and postmenopausal HT and risk of hearing loss. After 1,410,928 person-years of follow-up, 18,558 cases of hearing loss were reported. There was no significant overall association between menopausal status, natural or surgical, and risk of hearing loss. Older age at natural menopause was associated with higher risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss among women who underwent natural menopause at age 50+ years compared with those aged less than 50 years was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.17). Among postmenopausal women, oral HT (estrogen therapy or estrogen plus progestogen therapy) was associated with higher risk of hearing loss, and longer duration of use was associated with higher risk (P trend menopause and longer duration of postmenopausal HT are associated with higher risk of hearing loss.

  20. The association of socio-economic position across the life course and age at menopause: the British Women's Heart and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Ebrahim, Shah; Smith, George Davey

    2003-12-01

    To assess the association of indicators of adverse socio-economic position from across the life course with age at menopause. Cross sectional study as part of the British Women's Heart and Health Study. 23 British towns. Three thousand and five hundred and thirteen women aged 60-79 years from a total cohort of 4286. Women who underwent a hysterectomy or oophorectomy prior to their 'natural' menopause or who were taking hormone replacement therapy around the perimenopausal period and for whom a biological age at menopause could not be calculated were excluded from this study. Age at menopause. Most of the 10 indicators of adverse socio-economic position from childhood through to adulthood were linearly associated with a younger age at menopause. In age adjusted analyses, women from manual social classes in childhood began their menopause on average 0.68 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11, 1.3) earlier than those from non-manual social classes. Those who lived in a house as a child without a bathroom began their menopause 0.47 years (95% CI 0.12, 0.82) earlier than those with a bathroom. Those who shared a bedroom began 0.36 years (95% CI 0.03, 0.70) earlier than those who had their own bedroom and finally those who lived in a household with no access to a car as a child began their menopause 0.47 years (95% CI 0.02, 0.95) earlier than those with access to a car. Adult indicators of adverse socio-economic position were similarly associated with earlier age at menopause. Age at completing full time education was not substantively associated with age at menopause. The inverse associations between each of the indicators of both childhood and adult socio-economic position and age at menopause were not importantly affected by adjustment for other reproductive factors but they attenuated by between 6% and 21% with adjustment for adult smoking and body mass index. The inverse associations between each of the childhood indicators of socio-economic position only and age

  1. Distinguishing benign from malignant pelvic mass utilizing an algorithm with HE4, menopausal status, and ultrasound findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Karen KL; Chen, Chi-An; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Ochiai, Kazunori; Aw, Tar-Choon; Sabaratnam, Subathra; Hebbar, Sudarshan; Sickan, Jaganathan; Schodin, Beth A; Charakorn, Chuenkamon; Sumpaico, Walfrido W

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a risk prediction score for distinguishing benign ovarian mass from malignant tumors using CA-125, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), ultrasound findings, and menopausal status. The risk prediction score was compared to the risk of malignancy index and risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA). Methods This was a prospective, multicenter (n=6) study with patients from six Asian countries. Patients had a pelvic mass upon imaging and were scheduled to undergo surgery. Serum CA-125 and HE4 were measured on preoperative samples, and ultrasound findings were recorded. Regression analysis was performed and a risk prediction model was developed based on the significant factors. A bootstrap technique was applied to assess the validity of the HE4 model. Results A total of 414 women with a pelvic mass were enrolled in the study, of which 328 had documented ultrasound findings. The risk prediction model that contained HE4, menopausal status, and ultrasound findings exhibited the best performance compared to models with CA-125 alone, or a combination of CA-125 and HE4. This model classified 77.2% of women with ovarian cancer as medium or high risk, and 86% of women with benign disease as very-low, low, or medium-low risk. This model exhibited better sensitivity than ROMA, but ROMA exhibited better specificity. Both models performed better than CA-125 alone. Conclusion Combining ultrasound with HE4 can improve the sensitivity for detecting ovarian cancer compared to other algorithms. PMID:25310857

  2. Genetic variants of age at menopause are not related to timing of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Michael V; Charo, Lindsey M; Natarajan, Loki; Haunschild, Carolyn; Chung, Karine; Mao, Jun J; DeMichele, Angela M; Su, H Irene

    2017-06-01

    To determine if interindividual genetic variation in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to age at natural menopause is associated with risk of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors. A prospective cohort of 169 premenopausal breast cancer survivors recruited at diagnosis with stages 0 to III disease were followed longitudinally for menstrual pattern via self-reported daily menstrual diaries. Participants were genotyped for 13 SNPs previously found to be associated with age at natural menopause: EXO1, TLK1, HELQ, UIMC1, PRIM1, POLG, TMEM224, BRSK1, and MCM8. A risk variable summed the total number of risk alleles in each participant. The association between individual genotypes, and also the risk variable, and time to ovarian failure (>12 months of amenorrhea) was tested using time-to-event methods. Median age at enrollment was 40.5 years (range 20.6-46.1). The majority of participants were white (69%) and underwent chemotherapy (76%). Thirty-eight participants (22%) experienced ovarian failure. None of the candidate SNPs or the summary risk variable was significantly associated with time to ovarian failure. Sensitivity analysis restricted to whites or only to participants receiving chemotherapy yielded similar findings. Older age, chemotherapy exposure, and lower body mass index were related to shorter time to ovarian failure. Thirteen previously identified genetic variants associated with time to natural menopause were not related to timing of ovarian failure in breast cancer survivors.

  3. Modeling the relationship between physical activity and quality of life in menopausal-aged women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadivala, Zeinab; Kousha, Ahmad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Tallebian, Hossein

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of the present study was (a) to assess the relationship between physical activity and the intensity and duration of menopausal symptoms, (b) to investigate the relationship between physical activity and the four domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and (c) to assess the relationship between physical activity and chronic diseases. This descriptive-analytical study that was conducted in Tabriz City, Iran. Data were collected in 2012 by personal home-based interviews, using structured questionnaires. All participants (n= 273), who were middle-aged (age range of 40-60 yr) were recruited from two of the 25 urban health service centers' clients, by clustered random sampling allocation. There was a positive significant relationship between Psychological, Social, and Environmental domains of HRQOL with physical activity (Pphysical activity. Diabetic (Pphysical activity would be effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms as well as improving healthy aging and also physical activity promotion as a part of healthy life style promotion programs needs to be improved in communities where women are physically inactive. In addition, women need to be informed about importance of physical activity on their life which it leads to feel healthy aging and pre and post- menopausal stages.

  4. Effect of Age of Self-Reported, Non-Surgical Menopause on Time to First Fracture and Bone Mineral Density in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Amy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Johnson, Karen C.; Jackson, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ko, Marcia; Chen, Zhao; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Menopause is a risk factor for fracture, thus menopause age may affect bone mass and fracture rates. We compared Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and fracture rates among healthy postmenopausal women with varying ages of self-reported non-surgical menopause. Methods Hazard ratios for fracture and differences in BMD among 21,711 postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational cohort without prior hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or hormone therapy, who reported age of menopause of menopausal age groups. After multivariable adjustments for known risk factors for fracture, women undergoing menopause menopause ≥50 years (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.44; p=0.03). In a subset with BMD measurements (n=1,351), whole body BMD was lower in women who reported menopause menopause menopause menopause age may be a risk factor contributing to decreased BMD and increased fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Our data suggest that menopause age should be taken into consideration, along with other osteoporotic risk factors, when estimating fracture risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:25803670

  5. Evaluation of sexual attitude and sexual function in menopausal age; a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause and its physical, hormonal and psychosocial changes could affect women’s sexual function. There are controversial results regarding relationship between sexual attitudes and function. Objective: We aimed to evaluate sexual attitudes and sexual function among Iranian menopausal age women. Materials and Methods: This population based cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 menopausal women, aged 45-65 years. Based on a self-made questionnaire data were collected about women’s socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. Data were analyzed using SPSS and sexual function was compared between three groups of women who had positive, medium and negative attitudes regarding sexuality. Results: The mean age of women was 53.11±4.56 years. Seventy percent of them had at least one sexual problem. Feeling of dyspareunia was significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality (p=0.03. Comparing data obtained on their attitudes, sexual desire, orgasm and dyspareunia demonstrated significant differences (p=0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 respectively. Conclusion: Attitude regarding sexual function has a great impact on sexual activity of postmenopausal women that need to be considered in their health care programming.

  6. Exploring Black-White Differences in the Relationship Between Inflammation and Timing of Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; Graves, Katelyn Y

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the biosocial context of menopausal timing offers insight into social and health inequalities. Prior research on inflammatory chronic conditions suggests that inflammation may predict how early women experience menopause. We explore the ability of black race to moderate the overall relationship between chronic inflammation and timing of menopause. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project on inflammation, age of last menstruation, and race as well as relevant social and medical covariates. We conduct event history modeling to predict age at menopause by inflammatory biomarker levels. Using interaction analysis, we investigate whether being black may shape the overall relationship between inflammation status and menopause timing. Our analyses find no significant statistical interactions between black race and inflammation in predicting menopausal onset. However, we do identify independent correlational relationships between inflammation and black race (r = 0.136) and between menopausal timing and black race (r = -0.129) as well as inflammation (r = -0.138) that emerge as significant in corresponding regression models. We conclude that race probably does not moderate associations between inflammation and menopause. Yet, we also note that the original parameter estimate for black race's impact on menopausal onset (HR = 1.29, p menopause relationship and recommend future research using mediation modeling.

  7. SELUK BELUK MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannywati Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause, especially the symptoms and complications, is always an interesting topic to be discussed. It is actually a normal part of woman's life entering ages of 50. The symptoms of menopause are highly individual to each woman. Some may experience multiple physical and psychological symptoms that may continue to social impacts. Misinterpretation as other disease symptoms could happen and lead to incorrect treatment. Many studies have been done to learn more about the menopause physiological process, symptoms, complication, and treatment. So many preventive and treatment options are offered, including hormone therapy and practicing healthy life style. By understanding the menopause, it is expected that symptoms could be controlled and complications could be avoided.   Key words : Woman, Menstrual Period, Menopause, Healthy

  8. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes. PMID:20853216

  9. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  10. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  11. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  12. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  13. Menopause characteristics and subjective symptoms in women with and without spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Quint, Elisabeth H; Bushnik, Tamara; Rodriguez, Gianna M; Terrill, Melissa Sendroy

    2010-04-01

    To examine menopause transition characteristics and symptom bother in women with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective cohort (4 data collection periods across 4 years). Community. Women (n=62) with SCI (injury levels C6-T12, nonambulatory, >36mo postinjury; 86.1% retention) and women without SCI (n=66; 92.9% retention) with intact ovaries, not using hormone therapy, and between the ages of 45 and 60 years volunteered. A total of 505 observations were collected and analyzed. None. Age at final menstrual period (FMP), transitions through menopause status classifications, and menopause symptom bother (vasomotor, somatic, psychologic symptoms). The number of women transitioning through a menopause status classification over the course of the study did not significantly vary by group (P=.263), nor did age at FMP (P=.643). Women with SCI experienced greater bother of somatic symptoms (a subscale, P<.001), bladder infections (P<.001), and diminished sexual arousal (P=.012). Women without SCI had significantly greater bother of vasomotor symptoms (P=.020). There were no significant group by menopause status interactions; main effects for menopause status were significant only for vasomotor symptoms and vaginal dryness. Results suggested that women with SCI experience greater symptom bother in certain areas, but that patterns of symptom bother across menopause, transition through menopause, and age at FMP are similar to those of their peers. Larger studies are needed to examine menopause outcomes with respect to level of injury and completeness of injury. These findings provide a framework that women with SCI and their health care providers can use to address the menopause transition and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary involvement to maximize health and well being during this transition. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Hickey, Martha; Giles, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This article aims to review currently available evidence for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and menopause and to propose clinical management algorithms. Key studies addressing HIV and menopause have been reviewed, specifically age of menopause onset in HIV-infected women, frequency of menopausal symptoms, comorbidities associated with HIV and aging (including cardiovascular disease and bone disease), treatment of menopausal symptoms, and prevention of comorbidities in HIV-infected women. Studies suggest an earlier onset of menopause in HIV-infected women, with increased frequency of symptoms. Cardiovascular disease risk may be increased in this population, with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and chronic inflammation associated with HIV, contributing to increased risk. Chronic inflammation and cART have been independently implicated in bone disease. No published data have assessed the safety and efficacy of hormone therapy in relation to symptoms of menopause, cardiovascular risk, and bone disease among HIV-infected women. Few studies on menopause have been conducted in HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women. Many questions regarding age of menopause onset, frequency of menopausal symptoms and associated complications such as bone disease and cardiovascular disease, and efficacy of treatment among HIV-infected women remain. The incidence and severity of some of these factors may be increased in the setting of HIV and cART.

  15. What Are the Treatments for Other Symptoms of Menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the treatments for other symptoms of menopause? Menopause is a normal part of aging and ... Treatment for Osteoporosis and Bone Loss Related to Menopause Because bone loss increases in the first two ...

  16. Sex Difference in the Clinical Presentation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Influence of Menopausal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Elena; Attanasio, Roberto; Boriano, Alberto; Pellegrino, Micaela; Garino, Francesca; Gianotti, Laura; Borretta, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    Female-to-male ratio in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is 3:1, but data on sex impact on the clinical presentation are limited. We evaluated, retrospectively, sex difference in biochemistry and clinical presentation at diagnosis in a monocentric series of 417 patients with PHPT: 93 men (58.6 ± 14.5 years), and 324 women (61.7 ± 12.8 years), of whom 54 were premenopausal (pre-F) and 270 postmenopausal (post-F). Men were significantly younger (P = 0.046) and more frequently symptomatic than women (62.3% vs 47%, P = 0.016). No sex difference was found in serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary calcium levels, whereas serum phosphate was higher in women. Nephrolithiasis (detected by imaging or history of passing stones) was more frequent in men (50.5% vs 33% in women, P = 0.003) and osteoporosis (T-score clinical presentation is different, mostly due to menopausal state. However, surgical referral was indicated equally in men and women. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Premature Menopause among Indian Women: Issues and Challenges Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Chauhan, Bal Govind

    2017-05-01

    Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause in women less than 40 years of age. This heterogeneous disorder affects 1 percent and 0.1 percent of women less than 40 and 30 years of age, respectively. The study reported in this article attempts to understand the prevalence and determinants of premature menopause among Indian women by studying the effects of various socioeconomic indicators, such as age, education, wealth index, rural-urban settlement, work status, religion, and caste, on women. The study analyzed the National Family Health Survey-3, which is equivalent to the Demographic Health Survey in India. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to tease out the determinants of premature menopause. Results indicate that the percentage of premature menopause is very high (5.5 percent) among Indian women. Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh women have the highest percentage of premature menopause (14.6 percent). Smoking and the nutritional status of women are strongly associated with early menopause. Furthermore, women living in rural areas and using tobacco are at a greater risk of premature menopause. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  19. Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hartel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana Hartel1, Yungtai Lo1, Carolyn Bauer2, Nancy Budner1, Andrea A Howard1, Michelle Floris-Moore1, Julia H Arnsten1,2, Nanette Santoro3, Ellie E Schoenbaum1,2,31Departments of Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Medicine, and 3Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAObjective: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA.Design: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal.Results: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.57 than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of >3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events—being a witness to a murder, and the death of a child—were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93, respectively. Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes.Conclusions: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.Keywords: menopause, attitudes, HIV, street drug users

  20. Psychosocial burden differences between women of reproductive age and menopausal age due to abnormal Pap smear: A pilot study of the East Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Psychosocial burden due to abnormal Pap smear results in terms of mental stress, overwhelming beliefs, and feelings of guilt and worry of HPV infection and possibility of cervical cancer were noted more in reproductive age groups as compared to the menopausal age group. Health-care providers should be aware of these psychosocial effects whereby they can refer such patients to a gynecologic oncologist for proper counseling at the proper time so that the negative impact due to this psychosocial burden can be prevented.

  1. Circulating and PBMC Lp-PLA2 associate differently with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation in nonobese women (menopausal status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kyung Paik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2 (Lp-PLA(2 activity in circulation and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in nonobese women and according to menopausal status. Lp-PLA(2 activity, a marker for cardiovascular risk is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighty postmenopausal women (53.0±4.05 yr and 96 premenopausal women (39.7±9.25 yr participated in this study. Lp-PLA(2 activities, interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IL-1β in plasma as well as in PBMCs were measured. Plasma ox-LDL was also measured. Postmenopausal women demonstrated higher circulating levels of ox-LDL and IL-6, as well as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in PBMCs, than premenopausal women. In both groups, plasma Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs and plasma ox-LDL. In premenopausal women, Lp-PLA(2 activities in plasma and PBMCs positively correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in PBMCs. In postmenopausal women, plasma ox-LDL positively correlated with PBMC cytokine production. In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women according to plasma ox-LDL level (median level: 48.715 U/L, a significant increase in Lp-PLA(2 activity in the plasma but not the PBMCs was found in the high ox-LDL subgroup. Plasma Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with unstimulated PBMC Lp-PLA(2 activity in the low ox-LDL subgroup (r = 0.627, P<0.001, whereas in the high ox-LDL circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with plasma ox-LDL (r = 0.390, P = 0.014 but not with Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of relation between circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity and Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs was found in postmenopausal women with high ox-LDL. This may indicate other sources of circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity except PBMC in postmenopausal women

  2. Treating schizophrenia during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Brzezinski-Sinai, Noa A; Seeman, Mary V

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this review is to examine three questions: What are the risks and benefits of treating women with schizophrenia with hormone therapy (HT) at menopause? Should the antipsychotic regimen be changed at menopause? Do early- and late-onset women with schizophrenia respond differently to HT at menopause? MEDLINE databases for the years 1990 to 2016 were searched using the following interactive terms: schizophrenia, gender, menopause, estrogen, and hormones. The selected articles (62 out of 800 abstracts) were chosen on the basis of their applicability to the objectives of this targeted narrative review. HT during the perimenopause in women with schizophrenia ameliorates psychotic and cognitive symptoms, and may also help affective symptoms. Vasomotor, genitourinary, and sleep symptoms are also reduced. Depending on the woman's age and personal risk factors and antipsychotic side effects, the risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease may be increased. Antipsychotic types and doses may need to be adjusted at menopause, as may be the mode of administration. Both HT and changes in antipsychotic management should be considered for women with schizophrenia at menopause. The question about differences in response between early- and late-onset women cannot yet be answered.

  3. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF MARGINAL SUPERFICIAL PERIODONTIUM AT MENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Premises: Sexual hormones may affect the general health condition of women, as early as puberty, continuing during pregnancy and also after menopause. Variations of the hormonal levels may cause different – either local or general – pathological modifications. Sexual hormones may also affect periodontal status, favourizing gingival inflammations and reducing periodontal resistance to the action of the bacterial plaque. Scope: Establishment of the correlations between the debut or the manifestation of menopause and the modifications produced in the superficial periodontium. Materials and method: Clinical and paraclinical investigations were performed on female patients with ages between 45 and 66 years, involving macroscopic, microscopic and radiological recording of the aspect of the superificial periodontium (gingiva. Results: Analysis of the histological sections evidenced atrophic and involutive modifications in the marginal superficial periodontium of female patients at menopause. Conclusions: Sexual hormones intervene in the histological equilibrium of the marginal superficial periodontium, influencing the periodontal health status, which explains the correlation between the subjective symptomatology specific to menopause and the histopatological aspect at epithelial level.

  4. Risk of long-term hot flashes after natural menopause: evidence from the Penn Ovarian Aging Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Sanders, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the risk of hot flashes relative to natural menopause and to evaluate the associations of hormone levels, behavioral variables, and demographic variables with the risk of hot flashes after menopause. We performed annual assessment of 255 women who were premenopausal at baseline and reached natural menopause within 16 years of follow-up. The prevalence of moderate/severe hot flashes increased in each premenopausal year, reaching a peak of 46% in the first 2 years after the final menstrual period (FMP). Hot flashes decreased slowly after menopause and did not return to premenopausal levels until 9 years after the FMP. The mean (SD) duration of moderate/severe hot flashes after the FMP was 4.6 (2.9) years (for any hot flashes, 4.9 [3.1] y). One third of women at 10 years or more after menopause continued to experience moderate/severe hot flashes. African-American women (obese and nonobese) and obese white women had significantly greater risks of hot flashes compared with nonobese white women (interaction, P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, increasing follicle-stimulating hormone levels before the FMP (P menopause; more than one third of women observed for 10 years or more after menopause have moderate/severe hot flashes. Continuation of hot flashes for more than 5 years after menopause underscores the importance of determining individual risks/benefits when selecting hormone or nonhormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.

  5. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  6. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

  7. Equol status and changes in faecal microbiota in menopausal women receiving long-term treatment for menopause symptoms with a soy-isoflavone concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar eMayo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge regarding the intestinal microbial types involved in isoflavone bioavailabililty and metabolism is still limited. The present work reports the influence of a treatment with isoflavones for six months on the faecal bacterial communities of 16 menopausal women, as determined by culturing and culture-independent microbial techniques. Changes in faecal communities were analysed with respect to the womenʼs equol-producing phenotype. Compared to baseline, at 1 and 3 months the counts for all microbial populations in the faeces of equol-producing women had increased strongly. In contrast, among the non-producers, the counts for all microbial populations at 1 month were similar to those at baseline, and decreased significantly by 3 and 6 months. Following isoflavone intake, major bands in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles appeared and disappeared, suggesting important changes in majority populations. In some women, increases were seen in the intensity of specific DGGE bands corresponding to microorganisms known to be involved in the metabolism of dietary phytoestrogens (Lactonifactor longoviformis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., Ruminococcus spp.. Real-Time quantitative PCR revealed that the Clostridium leptum and Clostridium coccoides populations increased in equol producers, while those of bifidobacteria and enterobacteria decreased, and vice versa in the non-producers. Finally, the Atopobium population increased in both groups, but especially in the non-producers at three months. As the main findings of this study, (i variations in the microbial communities over the six-month period of isoflavone supplementation were large; (ii no changes in the faecal microbial populations that were convincingly treatment-specific were seen; and (iii the production of equol did not appear to be associated with the presence of, or increase in the population of, any of the majority bacterial types analysed.

  8. Structural aging program status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure

  9. Comparison of age at natural menopause in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with a non-clinic-based sample of women in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wayne T; Beattie, Mary; Chen, Lee-May; Oktay, Kutluk; Crawford, Sybil L; Gold, Ellen B; Cedars, Marcelle; Rosen, Mitchell

    2013-05-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are related to an increased lifetime risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Although risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy reduces the risk of both cancers, loss of fertility is a major concern. A recent study suggested an association between BRCA1 mutation and occult primary ovarian insufficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine whether BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause compared with unaffected women. White carriers of the BRCA1/2 gene (n = 382) were identified within the Breast Cancer Risk Program Registry at the University of California at San Francisco and compared with non-clinic-based white women in northern California (n = 765). The 2 groups were compared with regard to median age at the time of natural menopause before and after adjustment for known risk factors, and the role of smoking within each group was examined using the Kaplan-Meier approach for unadjusted analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for adjusted analyses. The median age at the time of natural menopause in the BRCA1/2 carriers was significantly younger than among the unaffected sample (50 years vs 53 years; P < .001). The unadjusted hazard ratio for natural menopause when comparing BRCA1/2 carriers with unaffected women was 4.06 (95% confidence interval, 3.03-5.45) and was 3.98 (95% confidence interval, 2.87-5.53) after adjusting for smoking, parity, and oral contraceptive use. For BRCA1/2 carriers who were current heavy smokers (smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes/day), the median age at natural menopause was 46 years versus 49 years for nonsmokers (P = .027). The BRCA1/2 mutation was associated with a significantly earlier age at natural menopause, and heavy smoking compounded this risk. Because the relationship between menopause and the end of natural fertility is considered to be fixed, these findings suggest the risk of earlier infertility among BRCA1/2 carriers

  10. Sleep disturbance associated factors in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.

  11. Energy homeostasis genes and breast cancer risk: The influence of ancestry, body size, and menopausal status, the breast cancer health disparities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Baumgartner, Kathy N; John, Esther M

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and breast cancer risk is multifaceted and genes associated with energy homeostasis may modify this relationship. We evaluated 10 genes that have been associated with obesity and energy homeostasis to determine their association with breast cancer risk in Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. Cholecystokinin (CCK) rs747455 and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) rs6713532 and rs7565877 (for low Indigenous American (IA) ancestry); CCK rs8192472 and neuropeptide Y (NYP) rs16141 and rs14129 (intermediate IA ancestry); and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs11585329 (high IA ancestry) were strongly associated with multiple indicators of body size. There were no significant associations with breast cancer risk between genes and SNPs overall. However, LEPR was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with low IA ancestry (PARTP=0.024); POMC was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with intermediate (PARTP=0.015) and high (PARTP=0.012) IA ancestry. The overall pathway was statistically significant for pre-menopausal women with low IA ancestry (PARTP=0.05), as was cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript protein (CARTPT) (PARTP=0.014) and ghrelin (GHRL) (PARTP=0.007). POMC was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women with higher IA ancestry (PARTP=0.005). Three SNPs in LEPR (rs6704167, rs17412175, and rs7626141), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ); rs822391) showed significant 4-way interactions (GxExMenopausexAncestry) for multiple indicators of body size among pre-menopausal women. Energy homeostasis genes were associated with breast cancer risk; menopausal status, body size, and genetic ancestry influenced this relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Methods: Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, ‘scheduled caste’ status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Interpretation & conclusions: Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function. PMID:28139535

  13. Yoga and menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Nirmala; Joshi, Sulabha

    2010-07-01

    With increased life expectancy, today, women spend one-third of their life after menopause. Thus more attention is needed towards peri- and post-menopausal symptoms. Estrogen replacement therapy is the most effective treatment, however, it has its own limitations. The present need is to explore new options for the management of menopausal symptoms. Yogic life style is a way of living which aims to improve the body, mind and day to day life of individuals. The most commonly performed Yoga practices are postures (asana), controlled breathing (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). Yoga has been utilized as a therapeutic tool to achieve positive health and control and cure diseases. The exact mechanism as to how Yoga helps in various disease states is not known. There could be neuro-hormonal pathways with a selective effect in each pathological situation. There have been multiple studies that have combined the many aspects of Yoga into a general Yoga session in order to investigate its effects on menopausal symptoms. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy can improve hot flushes and night sweats. There is increasing evidence suggesting that even the short-term practice of Yoga can decrease both psychological and physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conclude that our age old therapy, Yoga, is fairly effective in managing menopausal symptoms.

  14. Large Prospective Study of Ovarian Cancer Screening in High-risk Women: CA125 Cut-point Defined by Menopausal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J.; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K.; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W.; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Buys, Saundra S.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Horowitz, Ira R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B.; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E.; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O.; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A.; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D.; Fabian, Carol J.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Nayfield, Susan G.; Kasten, Carol H.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Greene, Mark H.; Lu, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, while the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Methods Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the NCI-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this pre-planned analysis. Due to the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points based on the 98th percentile. Results The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. Conclusions To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (~ 50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, 35 for postmenopausal women). PMID:21893500

  15. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  16. Depressive disorders and the menopause transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Plácido; García-Portilla, María P; Llaneza-Suárez, David; Armott, Begoña; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2012-02-01

    Depressive disorders and symptoms are common among middle-aged women. The effects of hormones on depression remain unclear. This review aims to clarify the nature of depressive disorders during the menopause transition as well as their links with climacteric syndrome, sexuality, cardiovascular risk and cognitive function. The recent literature on depressive disorders and menopause is reviewed. Women are more vulnerable than men to depressive disorders. Endocrine influences have been postulated but differences in, for example, coping style and response to stress may also contribute to the gender difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders. Gender differences in socialization may lead to higher rates of depression in women. There are data top suggest that menopause and depression are associated, although there is not a common clear causative factor. Women with climacteric symptoms (hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia) are more likely to report anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Bothersome vasomotor symptoms could be associated with sleep disturbances, which in turn can increase reports of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Biopsychosocial and partner factors have a significant influence on middle-aged women's sexuality and depressive disorders, and most antidepressants can have a negative effect on sexual response. Lastly, studies have consistently shown that women with high levels of depressive symptoms are at greater cardiovascular risk and have poorer cognitive function than non-depressed women. At present, a direct relationship between psychiatric symptoms and hormonal changes such as estrogen decrease has not been clearly found. Stress, educational level, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors and partner status may influence the prevalence and clinical course of both menopause symptoms and depressive disorders. Since in many cases depression is a lifelong condition, and is associated with severe comorbid conditions, further studies are

  17. Success of uterus-preserving treatments for abnormal uterine bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, and symptomatic fibroids: age and bridges to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learman, Lee A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E; Jackson, Rebecca A; Jacoby, Alison; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age at first uterus-preserving treatment (UPT) predicts symptom resolution among women with common pelvic problems. We conducted an analysis of 557 participants in the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives cohort who reported having undergone a UPT. We performed multivariable regression modeling age at first UPT, hysterectomy, menopause, and other covariates to predict symptom resolution. Mean ± SD age at enrollment was 42.7 ± 4.7 years; mean follow-up time was 4.4 ± 2.7 years. Sixteen percent of the women underwent hysterectomy; 37% of the women entered menopause. Hysterectomy was a strong predictor of symptom resolution (P 40 years old. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Menopausal symptoms and associated factors in HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui-Filho, Jeffrey F; Valadares, Ana Lúcia R; Gomes, Debora de C; Amaral, Eliana; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate menopausal symptoms and their associated factors in HIV-positive women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 537 women of 40-60 years of age, 273 of whom were HIV-positive and 264 HIV-negative. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their sociodemographic characteristics and menopausal symptoms. The mean age of the seropositive women was 47.7±5.8 years compared to 49.8±5.3 for the seronegative women (psymptoms in the seropositive group (p=0.009), specifically hot flashes (pHIV serological status and any of the menopausal symptoms. In this study, after controlling for confounding variables, HIV infection was not found to be associated with vasomotor, genitourinary or psychological symptoms or with insomnia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. A comparative survey in Tunisia and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Daniel; Hajri, Selma; Bachelot, Annie; Mahfoudh Draoui, Dorra; Hassoun, Danielle; Marsicano, Elise; Ringa, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    The experience of menopause can vary strongly from one society to another: frequency of hot flushes, other somatic and psychological symptoms, and changes in family and social relations. Several studies have shown that country of residence, country of birth, ethnicity, and social class all play roles in these variations. But few comparative anthropological studies have analysed the social processes that construct the experience of menopause or considered menopausal women's social and financial autonomy. To study the impact of the social status accorded to menopausal women and their social resources, during 2007 and 2008 we conducted a series of 75 in-depth interviews with women in different sociocultural settings: Tunisian women in Tunisia, Tunisian women in France, and French women in France, all aged from 45 to 70 years. Our methodological approach to the data included content analysis, typology development and socio-demographic analysis. Quite substantial differences appeared, as a function of social class and cultural environment. We identified three principal experiences of menopause. Tunisian working class women, in Tunisia and France, experience menopause with intense symptoms and strong feelings of social degradation. Among Tunisian middle-class women in both countries, menopause was most often accompanied by a severe decline in aesthetic and social value but few symptoms. For most of the French women, menopause involved few symptoms and little change in their social value. The distribution of types of experiences according to social but not geographic or national factors indicates that, in the populations studied here, the differences in symptoms are not biologically determined. Different experiences of menopause are linked to social class and to the degree of male domination. A given level of independence and emancipation allows women an identity beyond their reproductive function and a status unimpaired by menopause. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstrua...

  1. Effect of soy lecithin on fatigue and menopausal symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Asuka; Terauchi, Masakazu; Osaka, Yurika; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Miyasaka, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Background Lecithin is a complex mixture of phospholipids which compose lipid bilayer cell membranes. Lipid replacement therapy, or administration of phospholipids for the purpose of repairing the dmaged cell membranes, had been shown to alleviate fatigue. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on fatigue in middle-aged women, as well as other menopausal symptoms and various health parameters. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included ...

  2. Premature menopause or early menopause and risk of ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The general consensus has been that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). We reviewed new observational studies that challenge this simple conclusion. Methods This was a review of observational studies of the association of premature or early menopause with stroke or IS published in English from 2006 through 2010. Results Three cohort studies showed an increased risk of all stroke in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy compared with women who conserved their ovaries before age 50 years. The increased risk of stroke was reduced by hormonal therapy (HT) in one of the studies, suggesting that estrogen deprivation is involved in the association. Four additional observational studies showed an association of all stroke or IS with the early onset of menopause or with a shorter lifespan of ovarian activity. In three of the seven studies, the association was restricted to IS. Age at menopause was more important than type of menopause (natural vs induced). Conclusions The findings from seven recent observational studies challenge the consensus that estrogen is invariably a risk factor for IS and can be reconciled by a unifying timing hypothesis. We hypothesize that estrogen is protective for IS before age 50 years and may become a risk factor for IS after age 50 years or, possibly, after age 60 years. These findings are relevant to women who experienced premature or early menopause, or to women considering prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of natural menopause. PMID:21993082

  3. Interaction of mammographic breast density with menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to the risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Tamimi, Rulla M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Scott, Christopher G; Jensen, Matthew R; Pankratz, V Shane; Brandt, Kathy; Visscher, Daniel; Norman, Aaron; Couch, Fergus; Shepherd, John; Fan, Bo; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Ma, Lin; Beck, Andrew H; Cummings, Steven R; Kerlikowske, Karla; Vachon, Celine M

    2017-09-01

    We examined the associations of mammographic breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and by menopausal status and current postmenopausal hormone therapy. This study included 2596 invasive breast cancer cases and 4059 controls selected from participants of four nested case-control studies within four established cohorts: the Mayo Mammography Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and San Francisco Mammography Registry. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense (DA), and non-dense areas (NDA) were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms using a computer-assisted threshold technique and standardized across studies. We used polytomous logistic regression to quantify the associations of breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness (defined as presence of at least two of the following tumor characteristics: size ≥2 cm, grade 2/3, ER-negative status, or positive nodes), stratified by menopausal status and current hormone therapy. Overall, the positive association of PD and borderline inverse association of NDA with breast cancer risk was stronger in aggressive vs. non-aggressive tumors (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.94-3.22 vs. OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70-2.43, p-heterogeneity = 0.03; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85, p-heterogeneity = 0.07). However, there were no differences in the association of DA with breast cancer by aggressive status. In the stratified analysis, there was also evidence of a stronger association of PD and NDA with aggressive tumors among postmenopausal women and, in particular, current estrogen+progesterone users (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.75-6.00 vs. OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.25-2.98, p-heterogeneity = 0.01; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.85 vs. OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89, p-heterogeneity = 0.01), even though the interaction was not significant. Our findings suggest that associations of mammographic

  4. Assessment of Questionnaire Measuring Quality of Life in Menopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensiyeh Jenabi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women and is defined as occurring 12 months after the last menstrual period marking the end of menstrual cycles. Menopause has a negative impact on the quality of life (QoL. Various generic and specific questionnaires have been used for assessing different dimensions of QoL in menopausal women. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify those general and specific instruments, and to determine the factors that affect QoL in menopausal women. We assessed eight specific and three general tools and found that some general and specific instruments, such as the 36-item short form (SF-36 and the Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL, were mostly used for assessment. The specific tools available were diverse. Employment status and a high educational level in menopausal women were considered to be protective factors in improving QoL. Identification of predicting factors of QoL, such as body mass index, race, age, duration of menopause, and social and occupational variables can help to improve the QoL of these women allowing planning of psychological consultations and practical interventions.

  5. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  6. Black women in menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik

    2010-01-01

    To describe the experience of menopausal symptoms of midlife Black women in the United States. Qualitative online forum using a feminist perspective. Internet communities for midlife women and Blacks. Twenty midlife Black women recruited using a quota sampling method. A 6-month online forum was conducted with seven discussion topics on menopausal symptoms. The discussion topics were posted sequentially on the forum site, and the women posted messages at their convenience over 6 months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified themes were raised to be strong, accepting a natural aging process, silent and without knowledge, and our own experience. The women tried to be strong during their menopausal transitions while dealing with other important family matters. The women did not report their menopausal symptoms and were silent about or downplayed their symptoms, but many emphasized the importance of education about menopausal symptoms and highlighted their own lack of knowledge. These women generally did not talk about their symptoms because they believed that nobody except other Black midlife women could understand their menopausal experience. Health care providers need to develop a mechanism to deliver the necessary knowledge about menopausal symptoms and management strategies to Black midlife women in their health care practices.

  7. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-09-01

    The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, 'scheduled caste' status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function.

  8. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  9. North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Meetings Publications Clinical Care Recommendations Chapter 1: Menopause Chapter 2: Midlife Body Changes Chapter 3: Clinical ... Nonprescription Options Chapter 8: Prescription Therapies Professional Publications Menopause Journal Contents Position Statements & Other Reports Menopause Practice ...

  10. Menopause and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 23,2017 Heart ... can become more evident after the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain ...

  11. Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaba, Patricia A; Meloni, Seema T; Sule, Halima M; Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women.

  12. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis.

  13. Post-menopausal breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G. C.; Naraynsingh, V.; Jankey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty post-menopausal women with breast abscess were treated at Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad, between 1976 and 1980. In this age group, breast abscess can be confused with cancer due to a lack of inflammatory features. History and physical examination are often not helpful in differentiating an abscess from carcinoma. Although the usual treatment of an abscess is incision and drainage, in post-menopausal women, excision of the lesion is helpful for accurate histological diagnosis. PMID:3628144

  14. Hubungan Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Pil dengan Usia Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyani Fitriyani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Menopause merupakan menstruasi yang berhenti secara permanen yang disebabkan kehilangan fungsi folikel sel-sel telur. Wanita yang memasuki menopause mengalami penurunan hormon estrogen yang mengganggu aktivitas sehari-hari, bahkan menurunkan kualitas hidup. Penggunaan kontrasepsi pil berhubungan dengan penundaan usia dan keluhan menopause. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan antara penggunaan kontrasepsi pil terhadap usia menopause. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang. Populasi adalah wanita menopause di Pos Pembinaan Terpadu (Posbindu Kota Depok. Sampel pada penelitian adalah wanita menopause yang berusia 45 - 60 tahun. Teknik pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling subjek dengan besar sampel 407 orang. Analisis multivariat pada penelitian ini menggunakan cox proportional hazard model. Hasil analisis multivariat menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan antara lama penggunaan kontrasepsi pil terhadap usia menopause baik sebelum maupun sesudah dikontrol variabel kovariat, yaitu tingkat pendidikan. Namun demikian, masih diperlukan penelitian lain dengan menggunakan desain penelitian kohort prospektif untuk dapat melihat hubungan temporal antara lama penggunaan kontrasepsi pil terhadap usia menopause. Menopause is marked with the permanent cessation of menstruation due to the loss of follicles. Earlier menopause will be likely to increase the risk factors relating to declined estrogen level, such as osteoporosis that can lead to early death. Awoman entering menopause period often experiences declined estrogen hormone that causes her to have complaints or disturbances that hinder her daily activities and even reduce her quality of life. However, the use of oral contraceptive poses a correlation with the postponing of menopause age and complaints. The primary aim of this study was to examine the relation of oral contraceptive use and age at menopause. This was an observational study with cross-sectional study design. Population in

  15. No sweat: managing menopausal symptoms at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Martha; Riach, Kathleen; Kachouie, Reza; Jack, Gavin

    2017-09-01

    Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, a time when women are likely to be in the paid workforce. Most women have menopausal symptoms and these may impact on daytime function and work performance. This study examines the relationship between reproductive stage, menopausal symptoms and work, and advises how employers can best support menopausal women. An online and paper-based survey was completed in 2015-16 by 1092 women (22% response rate) aged 40 years plus employed in three hospitals in metropolitan Australia. Survey questions examined demographics, health and lifestyle variables, menopausal symptom reporting, and work-related variables. Reproductive stage was determined using modified STRAW +10 principal and descriptive criteria. Reproductive stage was not significantly associated with work engagement, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, work limitations and perceived supervisor support. Postmenopausal women had lower intention to leave their organizations than pre- and peri-menopausal women. While sleep problems were the most commonly reported menopausal symptom by peri-menopausal women, for postmenopausal women it was joint and muscular discomfort. Only hot flushes and vaginal dryness were significantly more frequent in peri- and post, compared to pre-menopausal women. In general, women rated their work performance as high and did not feel that menopausal symptoms impaired their work ability. Most women would appreciate greater organizational support, specifically temperature control, flexible work hours and information about menopause for employees and managers. Most women did not believe that menopausal symptoms negatively impacted on their work. Organizational changes may reduce the burden of menopausal symptoms in the workplace.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouyandeh Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3 criteria to classify subjects as having metabolic syndrome. Results Total prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our subjects was 30.1%. Waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, diastolic blood pressure ,Systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were significantly higher among women with metabolic syndrome (P-value Conclusions Our study shows that postmenopausal status is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need to evaluate metabolic syndrome and its components from the time of the menopause.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue in diffusion-weighted imaging: the effects of menstrual cycle and menopausal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin You; Suh, Hie Bum; Kang, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jong Ki; Choo, Ki Seok; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Seok Won; Jung, Young Lae; Bae, Young Tae

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospectively whether the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of both breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue vary with the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each participant. Fifty-seven women (29 premenopausal, 28 postmenopausal) with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent diffusion-weighted imaging twice (interval 12-20 days) before surgery. Two radiologists independently measured ADC of breast cancer and normal contralateral breast tissue, and we quantified the differences according to the phases of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. With normal fibroglandular tissue, ADC was significantly lower in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women (P = 0.035). In premenopausal women, ADC did not differ significantly between proliferative and secretory phases in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.969 and P = 0.519, respectively). In postmenopausal women, no significant differences were found between ADCs measured at different time intervals in either breast cancer or normal fibroglandular tissue (P = 0.948 and P = 0.961, respectively). The within-subject variability of the ADC measurements was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and was small: the mean CVs of tumor ADC were 2.90 % (premenopausal) and 3.43 % (postmenopausal), and those of fibroglandular tissue ADC were 4.37 % (premenopausal) and 2.55 % (postmenopausal). Both intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for ADC measurements, with intraclass correlation coefficients in the range of 0.834-0.974. In conclusion, the measured ADCs of breast cancer and normal fibroglandular tissue were not affected significantly by menstrual cycle, and the measurements were highly reproducible both within and between observers.

  18. Quality of the relationship and menopausal symptoms of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jarecka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and intensity of menopausal symptoms, taking into account the length of one’s relationship, its nature and one’s assessment of it. Participants and procedure The study included 200 women between the ages of 45 and 68, with secondary or higher education, married or in cohabiting relationships. Women were divided into three groups depending on the experience related to menopause: premenopause (46 respondents, perimenopause (75 respondents, and postmenopause (79 respondents. The study used a survey of self-design, the “Women’s Health” Questionnaire (WHQ by M. Hunter, and the “Partner Relations Questionnaire” (PFB by K. Hahlweg. Results Most menopausal symptoms – including those of the greatest severity – are experienced by women in perimenopausal and postmenopausal phases, but one’s own relationship’s assessment is the lowest in postmenopausal women. In this group of women, relevant and significant relations between the dimensions of the quality of the relationship and the menopausal symptoms are the most numerous. The most essential assessment was the one relating to intimacy – its poor evaluation is accompanied by higher intensity of experienced depression symptoms, somatic symptoms, and disorders of memory and concentration, sex and sleep, and also the sum of menopausal symptoms is higher. In all three groups, no significant differences in the severity of menopausal symptoms were observed between women in marital and cohabiting relationships. In women in the perimenopausal phase, the shorter the length of the relationship (its seniority, the greater is the severity of sexual dysfunction symptoms, whereas in women in the postmenopausal stage, along with the length of the relationship, the severity of psychological and somatic symptoms increases. Conclusions One should find that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal phases are particularly difficult for women

  19. Associations of physical activity and diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies on physical activity and diet and the onset of natural menopause are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity and dietary factors potentially related to endogenous estrogen levels such as fats, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with the onset of menopause in a cohort of premenopausal women. Study participants were 3,115 premenopausal Japanese women aged 35 to 56 years derived from the participants in the Takayama Study. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire at baseline, and the metabolic equivalent score was calculated. The dietary intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and adjusted for total energy. Menopause status was defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the occurrence of menopause after controlling for age, parity, body mass index, smoking status, years of education, and lifelong irregular menstrual cycle. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,790 women experienced natural menopause. A high physical activity level and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat were moderately but significantly associated with the earlier onset of menopause; the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02-1.34) for physical activity and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.31) for polyunsaturated fat intake. Total fat, other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not associated with the onset of menopause. These data suggest that high levels of physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake are associated with earlier onset of menopause.

  20. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  1. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  2. Evolution of Serum 25OHD in Response to Vitamin D3-Fortified Yogurts Consumed by Healthy Menopausal Women: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Interactions between Doses, Baseline Vitamin D Status, and Seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Dontot-Payen, Flore; Rouy, Emilien; Walrand, Stephane; Rousseau, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Adequate vitamin D status contributes to bone fragility risk reduction and possibly other pathological conditions that occur with aging. In response to pharmaceutical vitamin D 3 supplements, several studies have documented the influence of doses, baseline status, and seasonality on serum 25-hydroyvitamin D (s25OHD). Using fortified yogurt, we investigated in one randomized controlled trial how both baseline status, as assessed by measuring s25OHD prior the onset of the trial, and the season of enrollment quantitatively influenced the response to the supplemented (Suppl.) of vitamin D 3 (VitD 3 ) in healthy community-dwelling women. A 24-week controlled trial was conducted in menopausal women (mean age: 61.5). Participants were randomized into 3 groups (Gr): Gr.Suppl.0, time controls maintaining dietary habits; Gr.Suppl.5 and Gr.Suppl.10 consuming one and two 125-g servings of VitD 3 -fortified yogurts with 5- and 10-µg daily doses, respectively. The 16 intervention weeks lasted from early January to mid-August, the 8 follow-up weeks, without product, from late August to mid-October. Before enrollment, subjects were randomized into 2 s25OHD strata: low stratum (LoStr): 25-50 nmol/L; high stratum (HiStr): >50-75 nmol/L. All enrolled participants adhered to the protocol throughout the 24-week study: Gr.Suppl.0 (n = 45), Gr.Suppl.5 (n = 44), and Gr.Suppl.10 (n = 44). Over the 16 intervention and 8 follow-up weeks, s25OHD increased in both supplemented groups, more in Gr.Suppl.10 than in Gr.Suppl.5. At the end of the intervention, the subject proportion with s25OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L was 37.8, 54.5, and 63.6% in Gr.Suppl.0, Gr.Suppl.5, and Gr.Suppl.10, respectively. The constant rate of s25OHD per supplemental VitD 3 microgram was greater in LoStr than HiStr. The s25OHD increase was greater with late (mid-March) than early (mid-January) inclusion. This randomized trial demonstrates (1) a dose-dependent s25OHD improvement related to fortified yogurt consumption; (2) an

  3. Evolution of Serum 25OHD in Response to Vitamin D3–Fortified Yogurts Consumed by Healthy Menopausal Women: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Interactions between Doses, Baseline Vitamin D Status, and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Dontot-Payen, Flore; Rouy, Emilien; Walrand, Stephane; Rousseau, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adequate vitamin D status contributes to bone fragility risk reduction and possibly other pathological conditions that occur with aging. In response to pharmaceutical vitamin D3 supplements, several studies have documented the influence of doses, baseline status, and seasonality on serum 25-hydroyvitamin D (s25OHD). Objective: Using fortified yogurt, we investigated in one randomized controlled trial how both baseline status, as assessed by measuring s25OHD prior the onset of the trial, and the season of enrollment quantitatively influenced the response to the supplemented (Suppl.) of vitamin D3 (VitD3) in healthy community-dwelling women. Methods: A 24-week controlled trial was conducted in menopausal women (mean age: 61.5). Participants were randomized into 3 groups (Gr): Gr.Suppl.0, time controls maintaining dietary habits; Gr.Suppl.5 and Gr.Suppl.10 consuming one and two 125-g servings of VitD3-fortified yogurts with 5- and 10-µg daily doses, respectively. The 16 intervention weeks lasted from early January to mid-August, the 8 follow-up weeks, without product, from late August to mid-October. Before enrollment, subjects were randomized into 2 s25OHD strata: low stratum (LoStr): 25–50 nmol/L; high stratum (HiStr): >50–75 nmol/L. Results: All enrolled participants adhered to the protocol throughout the 24-week study: Gr.Suppl.0 (n = 45), Gr.Suppl.5 (n = 44), and Gr.Suppl.10 (n = 44). Over the 16 intervention and 8 follow-up weeks, s25OHD increased in both supplemented groups, more in Gr.Suppl.10 than in Gr.Suppl.5. At the end of the intervention, the subject proportion with s25OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L was 37.8, 54.5, and 63.6% in Gr.Suppl.0, Gr.Suppl.5, and Gr.Suppl.10, respectively. The constant rate of s25OHD per supplemental VitD3 microgram was greater in LoStr than HiStr. The s25OHD increase was greater with late (mid-March) than early (mid-January) inclusion. Conclusion: This randomized trial demonstrates (1) a dose-dependent s25OHD

  4. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  5. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Physical activity, symptoms, esteem, and life satisfaction during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships among physical activity (PA), symptom reporting, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life (SWL) in 133 women (M age=51.12, S.D.=4.10) of varying menopausal status. Multivariate analyses of co-variance (MANCOVA) revealed that independent of menopausal status, women who were more physically active reported significantly less severe vaso-somatic and general somatic symptoms, and higher levels of physical self-worth (PSW). Subsequent hierarchical regression analyses indicated that expended MET-h/week, reported symptoms (frequency and severity, respectively), and PSW accounted for significant variance in SWL (R2 model=0.32, for symptom frequency, and 0.33, for symptom severity). Physical activity was significantly related to SWL through the mediation of PSW. However, both reported symptom frequency and severity retained significant association with SWL after controlling for PSW, although the original associations were significantly reduced. Finally, both symptoms and MET-h/week were independent contributors to the variance in PSW (R2 model=0.33 and 0.34). The results suggest that being physically active may reduce perceived severity of menopausal symptoms and enhance psychological well-being, and that the relationship between physical activity and QOL in mid-life women may be mediated by factors such as physical self-perceptions and menopausal symptoms.

  7. [Effect of variation of lemon intake and walking in daily life on various indicators of muscle mass and blood biochemistry in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Kato, Yoji; Miyake, Yukiko; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsushi; Harada, Toshihide; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factors considered to change body composition and blood biochemistry indicators in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women. These changes result from exercise by walking as part of their daily activities and lemon consumption by women who live on the small islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan's largest citrus fruit (lemon)-producing region. Between September 2011 and March 2012, we recorded the daily lemon consumption and the number of steps taken by 101 middle-aged and elderly female lemon farmers. We also measured their body dimensions, body compositions, and blood pressure pulse wave velocity and conducted blood tests before and after the survey period. The results before and after the survey period were compared by the t-test and associations were determined on the basis of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Covariance structural analysis was carried out to determine causal associations. From the results of covariance structure analysis, lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item examined. The third item, i.e., "the factors related to arteriosclerosis," was affected indirectly via citric acid and fatigue, and anticoagulation was shown. The fourth item, i.e., "the factors related to maintenance of muscle mass," which is affected by menopausal years and the change in walking speed, was shown to be associated with the second item, i.e., "the factors related to lipid metabolism." Menopausal years affected the first, third and fourth items. Lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item. Lemon has been shown to indirectly affect the third item through citric acid. Walking affected the second item, the level of total cholesterol, such as HDL cholesterol, through the fourth item. The importance of providing services that lead to sustained physical activity and a well-balanced metabolism between lipids and carbohydrates has been shown.

  8. Menopause and work: an electronic survey of employees' attitudes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; MacLennan, Sara Jane; Hassard, Juliet

    2013-10-01

    This study explored women's experiences of working through menopausal transition in the UK. It aimed to identify the perceived effects of menopausal symptoms on working life, to outline the perceived effects of work on menopausal symptoms, and to provide recommendations for women, healthcare practitioners and employers. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to women aged 45-55 in professional, managerial and administrative (non-manual) occupations in 10 organisations. Items included: age, age and gender of line manager, educational level, job satisfaction; menopausal status; symptoms that were problematic for work; hot flushes; working conditions; work performance, disclosure to line managers; individual coping strategies; and, effective workplace adjustments and employer support. The final sample comprised 896 women. Menopausal transition caused difficulties for some women at work. The most problematic symptoms were: poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory, feeling low/depressed and lowered confidence. Hot flushes were particularly difficult. Some women felt work performance had been negatively affected. The majority of women were unwilling to disclose menopause-related health problems to line managers, most of whom were men or younger than them. Individual coping strategies were described. Four major areas for organisational-level support emerged: (i) greater awareness among managers about menopause as a possible occupational health issue, (ii) flexible working hours, (iii) access to information and sources of support at work, and (iv) attention to workplace temperature and ventilation. Employers and healthcare practitioners should be aware that menopausal transition causes difficulty for some women at work, and that much can be done to support them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Marshall, Lynn M; Nelson, Heidi D; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hochberg, Marc C; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy before natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a cohort study of community-dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were 65 years or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. χ(2) and t tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Baseline characteristics differed significantly among the 6,616 women within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ± 7.4 vs 48.9 ± 4.9 y, P menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.21; wrist fracture: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.78-1.57; any nonvertebral fracture: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93-1.32). These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared with postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy.

  11. The Menopausal Transition: Guidelines for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Research guidelines are presented to encourage sound research on the menopausal transition. Included is a review of current literature covering three aspects of menopausal transition: age span, changes in menstrual bleeding during the transition, and other psychological and somatic changes during premenopausal stages. (IAH)

  12. The menopausal transition-A possible window of vulnerability for eating pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Kemmler, Georg; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: No published studies, to our knowledge, have examined the association of menopausal status with eating disorders and body image in women. We assessed these associations in a large sample of middle-aged women. Method: We administered an anonymous questionnaire to a randomly selected

  13. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature.

  14. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pfailed to show statistically significant association between circulating adiponectin levels and indices of bone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  15. Astragalin, a Flavonoid from Morus alba (Mulberry Increases Endogenous Estrogen and Progesterone by Inhibiting Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays. Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats. Treatment of aged rats with AST (all three doses; p < 0.01 or Progynova (p < 0.01 significantly reduced GC apoptosis as compared with the aged controls. The proportions of total apoptotic GCs was 25.70%, 86.65%, 47.04%, 27.02%, 42.09% and 56.42% in the normal, aged, 17β-estradiol (E2, high dose AST, medium dose AST, and low dose AST-treated groups, respectively. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels. In cultured rat GCs, AST stimulated GC proliferation, E2 and progesterone (P4 secretion, reduced apoptosis, reduced the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (p < 0.01, but had no effect on BAX. Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms.

  16. Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of incident gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Hak (Liesbeth); G.C. Curhan (Gary); F. Grodstein (Francine); H.K. Choi (Hyon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To prospectively study the relation between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of gout, since female sex hormones have been postulated to decrease gout risk among women. Methods: In the Nurses' Health Study, the association between menopause, age at menopause,

  17. Use of menopausal hormone therapy and risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer among women 55–74 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christopher I.; Daling, Janet R.; Haugen, Kara L.; Tang, Mei Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trials found that use of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (CHT) increases breast cancer risk, but use of unopposed estrogen hormone therapy (EHT) does not. However, several questions regarding the impact of hormone use on risk of different types of breast cancer and what thresholds of use confer elevations in risk remain. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study among women 55–74 years of age to assess the association between menopausal hormone use and risk of invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast carcinomas. Associations were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression and analyses included 880 ductal cases, 1,027 lobular cases, and 856 controls. Results Current EHT and CHT use were associated with 1.6-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–2.2] and 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.7–3.2) increased risks of lobular breast cancer, respectively, but neither was associated with risk of ductal cancer. Lobular cancer risk was increased after nine years of EHT use, but after only three years of CHT use. Discussion Evidence across more than a dozen studies indicates that lobular carcinoma is the type of breast cancer most strongly influenced by menopausal hormones. Here we characterize what thresholds of duration of use of both EHT and CHT that confer elevations in risk. Impact Despite the rapid decline in hormone therapy use the WHI results were published, study of the hazards associated with these medications remains relevant given the estimated 38 million hormone therapy prescriptions that are still filled in the United States annually. PMID:24748570

  18. Menopausal symptoms: do life events predict severity of symptoms in peri- and post-menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina

    2012-08-01

    Hormonal changes during menopausal transition are linked to physical and psychological symptoms' emergence. This study aims to explore if life events predict menopausal symptoms. This cross-sectional research encompasses a community sample of 992 women who answered to socio-demographic, health, menopause-related and lifestyle questionnaires; menopausal symptoms and life events were assessed with validated instruments. Structural equation modeling was used to build a causal model. Menopausal status predicted only three symptoms: skin/facial hair changes (β=.136; p=.020), sexual (β=.157; p=.004) and, marginally, vasomotor symptoms (β=.094; p=.054). Life events predicted depressive mood (β=-.391; p=.002), anxiety (β=-.271; p=.003), perceived cognitive impairment (β=-.295; p=.003), body shape changes (β=-.136; p=.031), aches/pain (β=-.212; p=.007), skin/facial hair changes (β=-.171; p=.021), numbness (β=-.169; p=.015), perceived loss of control (β=-.234; p=.008), mouth, nails and hair changes (β=-.290; p=.004), vasomotor (β=-.113; p=.044) and sexual symptoms (β=-.208; p=.009). Although women in peri- and post-menopausal manifested higher symptoms' severity than their pre-menopausal counterparts, only three of the menopausal symptoms assessed were predicted by menopausal status. Since the vast majority of menopausal symptoms' severity was significantly influenced by the way women perceived their recent life events, it is concluded that the symptomatology exacerbation, in peri- and post-menopausal women, might be due to life conditions and events, rather than hormonal changes (nonetheless, the inverse influence should be investigated in future studies). Therefore, these should be accounted for in menopause-related clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  20. Quality of life and related factors in Menopausal women in Kashan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Abedzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a physiological event that occurs in women's life and result in physical, emotional and social changes which affects their quality of life. Because of controversial finding in previous researches and lack of such study in kashan city, this study investigated the quality of life in menopausal women and its related factors. Methods: A cross - sectional study was performed on 700 menopausal women aged 40-60 in Kashan city with cluster sampling. Menopausal Specific Quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL was used for estimation of QOL and related factor such as age, job, educational level, marital status, duration of menopause, child at home, income satisfaction, marital satisfaction, exercise, smoking and family smoking were examined with statistical tests. Results: The quality of life was high in 17.9%, intermediate in 68.9% and low in 13.3% of women. Most of women had intermediate quality of life at vasomotor domain (67.3 %, psychosomatic domain (67.4%, physical domain(46.3% and sexual domain (51.6%.Also there was a significant difference between quality of life and educational level (P=0.004, income satisfaction (P=0.01 and exercise (P=0.0001. Conclusions: Educational level, exercise and income satisfaction are related with quality of life in menopausal women. Based on our findings, we emphasis on teaching about menopause, its symptom and adverse effects. Also emphasizes the necessity use of non pharmacological methods such as exercise and change in life style and diet to improve quality of life in menopausal women.

  1. Menstrual change during the menopause transition: do women find it problematic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra

    2009-10-20

    To describe changes in the characteristics of women's menstrual cycles during the menopause transition and to identify whether such changes are perceived by women as being problematic. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a community-based convenience sample of 119 women aged 37-70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire to obtain data on demographic characteristics, menopausal status and changes to menstrual flow, duration, frequency and regularity. There was a common pattern of menstrual change which was of heavier, less frequent, irregular menstruation. Forty one percent of post-menopausal and 40% of women still in the menopause transition stated that, in terms of overall perception, the changes to menstruation experienced during the menopause transition were not problematic or disruptive. When specific change characteristics were examined, significant differences were found in duration of menses (p=0.014) and cycle irregularity (p=0.005) but no significant differences were found on the amount of flow (p=0.125) or frequency of cycles (p=0.142). Increased duration and increased irregularity of occurrence of each period are problematic for women going through the menopause transition, however, increased amount of menstrual flow at each period and increased frequency of cycles are not problematic changes.

  2. Determination of bone mineral content (BMC) by dual photon absorptiometry: Age-, sex-, and menopause-related changes in Bavaria and effect of estrogen replacement in early postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.; Eiber, J.; Henning, J.; Utz, G.; Scheffel, H.; Pabst, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Cortical (neck of femur) and trabecular bone mass (L2-4) have been determined repeatedly with DPA using GD 153 (NOVO Lab 22 a) in 545 female and 112 male pts with no evidence of bone diseases. Measured 'normal', (age- and sex-related average) BMC values differed significantly from those of US people determined by same equipment, i.e., were in average about 30% lower, but matched well with corresponding results from Belgium. BMC-area was found the most suitable parameter both for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, since BMC-area is independent from height and weight. But there is still need to reduce the overlap and improve accuracy and reproducibility for making decisions after shorter intervals. Assessment of the individual mineral loss and fracture risk by comparing to average values, however, remains problematic due to the wide range of 'normal' BMC and in women additionally due to the variable onset of menopause. For estimations of the individual fracture risk of elderly pts BMC should not be normalized on age, because at the age of 65 half of the women had 'pathologic' values, i.e. were below the so called 'osteoporosis threshold'. Comparison of the individually measured postmenopausal BMC to average values of premenopausal women and to BMC values normalized to their menopausal age may be helpful approaches for overcoming these difficulties. Because of the lack of earlier individual data in most cases repeated BMC measurements are still required for assessment of demineralization speed. Preliminary results of estrogen replacement therapy with low doses of natural conjugated estrogen show good prevention of bone loss in healthy but not in ovarectomized women. (orig./MG)

  3. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  4. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  5. [Hypertension in women after menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, Michel

    2006-06-01

    Menopause coincides with an increase in the incidence of hypertension in women. A direct role of estrogen deprivation in this increased blood pressure remains a topic of debate. Menopause probably accelerates the arterial changes related to aging. Hormone replacement therapy does not influence blood pressure significantly and is not contraindicated in hypertensive women. The effect of hormone replacement treatment on cardiovascular risk was recently the object of controversy. It does not increase risk except in cases of late treatment in older women who already have atherosclerosis. Hypertension management in women is otherwise similar to management in men.

  6. Menopause and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sayakhot, Padaphet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although 27% of women will be premenopausal at diagnosis; treatment for BC may cause menopause/menopausal symptoms in up to 80% of these women. Both short term symptoms and long term health problems such as osteoporosis and heart disease are associated with early menopause (EM). Menopausal symptoms have a major negative impact on quality of life, sexual dysfunction and changes in body image and self-esteem in BC women. Overseas studies indicate that 2/3 of postmenopausal w...

  7. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  8. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  10. Osteoporosis and years since menopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Saburo; Hirota, Yoshio; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Takasugi, Shin-ichiro; Sugioka, Yoichi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi

    1999-01-01

    In Fukuoka Prefecture, in south-western Japan, a regional screening program for osteoporosis was conducted from 1994 to 1995. The screening level in the bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal non-dominant radius was equal to or less than two standard deviations below age-specific mean (≤ -2.0 SD). In 1177 examinees with natural menopause (mean age: 61.4, range: 42-88), 56 of those who were screened were subsequently radiologically confirmed by orthopedic specialists to have osteoporosis (case group). They were then compared with 802 normal BMD (≥ -1.0 SD) women (reference group) with their lifestyle and reproductive characteristics. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a logistic regression model. A significant increase in the ORs for osteoporosis based on the number of years since menopause was observed for 7-13 years since menopause (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.4) compared with <7 years, however, no increasing trend in risk was evident in 14+ years since menopause (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.4-5.1). Thus, the elevated risk continued up to around 10 years since menopause. These findings are consistent with previous studies that reported an alternation in the calcium metabolism and bone loss related to the length of time after menopause. Both the childhood and current milk consumption were also associated with a decreased risk: ORs were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.0), respectively

  11. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by women transitioning through menopause in Germany: results of a survey of women aged 45-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhling, K J; Daniels, B V; Studnitz, F S G V; Eulenburg, C; Mueck, A O

    2014-02-01

    To describe prevalence rates of complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM) for the relief of menopausal complaints among German women. Furthermore, to investigate the perceived effectiveness of these therapies. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 9785 randomly selected women in Germany aged between 45 and 60 years. A total of 1893 (19.3%) questionnaires have been sent back. The mean age of all participants was 52.6±4.3 years. 81% (n=1517) of the responding women stated that they had experienced menopausal complaints at least once. Symptoms ranged from vasomotor symptoms, including hot flushes and night sweats, in 71.2% of cases, to bladder problems in 42.7%. The average symptom score (MRS II total score, range 1-44) among the respondents was 12.76±9.6. More than half (56%; n=1049/1872) of the responding women had used some form of therapy to alleviate their symptoms at least once. The majority of women undertaking a therapy (64.8%; n=679/1049) had used only CAM interventions (either one or more type of CAM), 14.2% (n=149) had used hormone replacement therapy (HRT) only, while 21.1% (n=221/1049) had tried both CAM and HRT. Popular CAM interventions by the respondents were an alteration of lifestyle (28.7%), St. John's wort (18.3%) and homoeopathy (14.9%). An alteration in lifestyle was rated as the most effective CAM treatment with 84.9% (n=457). Other treatments like hormone yoga (79.2%; n=42), homoeopathy (73.7%; n=205) and TCM (59.1%; n=94) were also perceived to be effective. Phytoestrogens were rated as the most ineffective (45.5%; n=50). CAM interventions to alleviate menopausal complaints are popular among German women, with 48.2% (n=900/1872) of respondents reporting having used CAM either alone or in combination with HRT. However, the users rated the effects of CAM differently, with some reporting CAM to be highly effective, while others indicate lower effectiveness. Nevertheless, women with a significantly higher symptom scoring

  12. Early Menopause Predicts Future Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if a self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank p=menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:22692332

  13. Current smoking at menopause rather than duration determines the onset of natural menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; te Velde, Egbert R.; Pearson, Peter L.; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Smoking has frequently been associated with early menopause. However, studies of this association have been inconclusive with regard to duration and intensity of smoking. A major problem in analyzing the effect of smoking duration on menopausal age is that both exposure and outcome are

  14. Variation in Subjective Aging by Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne; Barbee, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The past few decades have seen increased scholarly attention to gay and lesbian individuals' aging experiences; however, few studies examine differences in subjective aging by sexual minority status. We identify four perspectives on the association between sexual minority status and subjective aging-double jeopardy, crisis competence, gender interactive, and limited salience perspectives. We examine each perspective's predictions using data from the first wave of Midlife in the United States (1995-1996; MIDUS). Ordinary least square regression models reveal strongest support for the limited salience perspective, suggesting that sexual minority status has weaker effects on subjective aging than do other social factors, such as age, health, and gender. However, some results provide support for the gender interactive perspective, positing that the effect of sexual minority status on subjective aging varies by gender. Our study provides an organizational framework of theoretical perspectives that can guide further examinations of variation in aging experiences by sexual minority status.

  15. The emergence of the menopause in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A

    2003-06-01

    A total of 130 million Indian women are expected to live beyond the menopause into old age by 2015. The menopause is emerging as an issue owing to rapid globalization, urbanization, awareness and increased longevity in urban middle-aged Indian women, who are evolving as a homogeneous group. Improved economic conditions and education may cause the attitude of rural working women to be more positive towards the menopause. However, most remain oblivious of the short- and long-term implications of the morbid conditions associated with middle and old age, simply because of lack of awareness, and the unavailability or ever-increasing cost of the medical and social support systems. Evidence-based medicine is accessible to still only a few Indian women. Most menopausal women go untreated or use unproven alternative therapies.

  16. The Menopause Time of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet examines menopause and the changes associated with it. Menopause is briefly described, surgical menopause is explained, and the relationship between menopause and the reproductive cycle is discussed. Signs of menopause are described, including hot flashes and vaginal and urinary tract changes. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is explained…

  17. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L.; de Souza, Nandita M.

    2012-01-01

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC total and a perfusion-insensitive ADC high (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC total and ADC high showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC high showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC total 1.46 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.33 ± 0.3 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC total 1.84 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC high 1.77 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s; both P total P = 0.2, ADC high P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC total P = 0.6, ADC high P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion weighted imaging of the normal breast: reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and variation with menstrual cycle and menopausal status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; Morgan, Veronica A.; Giles, Sharon L. [Cancer Research UK and ESPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); deSouza, Nandita M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Magnetic Resonance Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    To establish the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in normal fibroglandular breast tissue and to assess variation in ADC values with phase of the menstrual cycle and menopausal status. Thirty-one volunteers (13 premenopausal, 18 postmenopausal) underwent magnetic resonance twice (interval 11-22 days) using diffusion-weighted MRI. ADC{sub total} and a perfusion-insensitive ADC{sub high} (omitting b = 0) were calculated. Reproducibility and inter-observer variability of mean ADC values were assessed. The difference in mean ADC values between the two phases of the menstrual cycle and the postmenopausal breast were evaluated. ADC{sub total} and ADC{sub high} showed good reproducibility (r% = 17.6, 22.4). ADC{sub high} showed very good inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.83). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.93 and 0.91. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in the postmenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.46 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.33 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) compared with the premenopausal breast (ADC{sub total} 1.84 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, ADC{sub high} 1.77 {+-} 0.26 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s; both P < 0.001). No significant difference was seen in ADC values in relation to menstrual cycle (ADC{sub total} P = 0.2, ADC{sub high} P = 0.24) or between postmenopausal women taking or not taking oestrogen supplements (ADC{sub total} P = 0.6, ADC{sub high} P = 0.46). ADC values in fibroglandular breast tissue are reproducible. Lower ADC values within the postmenopausal breast may reduce diffusion-weighted contrast and have implications for accurately detecting tumours. (orig.)

  19. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  20. Environment, human reproduction, menopause, and andropause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, A

    1993-07-01

    As the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator is an integrator of hormonal, metabolic, and neural signals, it is not surprising that the function of the hypothalamogonadal axis is subject to the influence of a large array of environmental factors. Before puberty, the central nervous system (CNS) restrains the GnRH pulse generator. Undernutrition, low socioeconomic status, stress, and emotional deprivation, all delay puberty. During reproductive life, among peripheral factors that effect the reproductive system, stress plays an important role. Stress, via the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), eventually triggered by interleukin 1, inhibits GnRH release, resulting in hypogonadism. Effects of CRF are probably mediated by the opioid system. Food restriction and underweight (anorexia nervosa), obesity, smoking, and alcohol all have negative effects on the GnRH pulse generator and gonadal function. Age and diet are important determinants of fertility in both men and women. The age-associated decrease in fertility in women has as a major determinant chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte, with uterine factors playing a subsidiary role. Age at menopause, determined by ovarian oocyte depletion, is influenced by occupation, age at menarche, parity, age at last pregnancy, altitude, smoking, and use of oral contraceptives. Smoking, however, appears to be the major determinant. Premature menopause is most frequently attributable to mosaicism for Turner Syndrome, mumps ovaritis, and, above all, total hysterectomy, which has a prevalence of about 12-15% in women 50 years old. Premature ovarian failure with presence of immature follicles is most frequently caused by autoimmune diseases or is the consequence of irradiation or chemotherapy with alkylating cytostatics. Plasma estrogens have a physiological role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Obese women have osteoporosis less frequently than women who are not overweight. Early menopause

  1. Premature Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] Sex chromosome anomalies predominate as a cause. ... 10‑20% of cases involving X sex chromosomes.[3]. Genetic .... to symptoms of dysuria, urethral discomfort and stress ... Currently, oocyte donation is widely used and it is a successful option in ... of cancer in children, adolescents and reproductive‑age women.

  2. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  3. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  4. Menopause and illness course in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Meade, Tanya

    2017-09-01

    Menopause may be a time of increased mood symptoms for some women. This systematic review aimed to examine the severity of symptoms and prevalence of mood changes in women with bipolar disorder during peri-menopause and post-menopause. A systematic review was undertaken in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The two primary outcomes assessed were relapse rates and symptom severity during menopause. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 1980 until December 2016. Nine studies, including a total of 273 participants diagnosed with bipolar disorder and who reported menopause, were included in the narrative synthesis. Menopause was reported to be associated with increased symptoms overall, and with depression in particular (range of 46%-91%). The collection of self-reported retrospective data was the most commonly used method to record menopause status. The impact of menopause on illness course for women with bipolar disorder is largely under-explored. Preliminary evidence suggests that it may be associated with increased bipolar symptoms. Further work is needed to explore how menopause may interact with bipolar disorder over time and the nature of these symptom changes, and if and how menopause may differ from other reproductive stages. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Breast cancer and menopause: perceptions of diagnosis, menopausal therapies and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, P; Vincent, A; Teede, H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception and experience of menopause diagnosis and therapies, the information provided and health behaviors in younger women with breast cancer. The questionnaire study was completed by 114 women, aged 40-51 years, with non-metastatic breast cancer. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics were completed. Most women were satisfied with the manner in which they were informed of the breast cancer (69%) and the menopause (59%) diagnoses. Although 80% of women were given breast cancer information, only 54% were given menopause information at diagnosis. Women were least satisfied (26%) with information regarding the long-term complications of menopause. Women perceived exercise (68%) and improving lifestyle (61%) as most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. The majority of women reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of 'bioidentical' hormones (79%) and herbal therapies (78%), while 58% perceived hormone replacement therapies as associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Most women reported weight gain (68%) and osteoporosis (67%) as the most common problems/fears regarding menopause. However, regarding health behaviors, only 56% reported having relevant tests including a blood sugar test or a bone density test. While information needs regarding breast cancer appear well met in younger women, unmet information needs regarding menopause after breast cancer persist. Further education and support are required for these women to optimize health screening and prevention behaviors and to ensure informed decision-making regarding menopause treatment options.

  6. The Association between Stress Level in Daily Life and Age at Natural Menopause in Korean Women: Outcomes of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-O; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ho; Cho, Se-Wook; Im, Hyun-Jung; An, Jee-Eun

    2015-11-01

    Although several risk factors associated with reduced age at natural menopause (ANM) have been investigated, the results are inconsistent. Excessive stress, which leads to elevation of stress hormones, can also negatively affect reproductive ability, including by accelerating menopause. However, a direct association between stress level and ANM has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, the object of this study was to investigate the association between stress level and ANM in Korean women. Study participants were Korean women between 40 and 70 years old who were in natural menopause during the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=3,176). The level of stress in daily life was estimated based on data from the mental health topics of the survey. We used the t-test and one-way analysis of variance to analyze the correlation between stress level and ANM. Regression (β) coefficients calculated by multiple regression analysis were used to estimate various factors affecting ANM. Women who experienced a high level of stress in daily life had a lower mean ANM than women with a low stress level (50.17±3.7 and 50.58±3.5 years, respectively), with a statistically significant correlation (Page, body mass index, menstrual regularity, and personal income (Page who are in natural menopause, there is a statistically significant correlation between stress level and ANM. In particular, women who experience a high level of stress in daily life have reduced ANM.

  7. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  8. Menopause and myocardial infarction risk among employed women in relation to work and family psychosocial factors in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2010-05-01

    To assess the relationship between menopause and age at menopause and the risk of the first non-fatal myocardial infarction taking into account the possible influence of psychosocial job characteristics, marital stress, level of social support, educational level, occupation, age and traditional ischemic heart disease risk factors. Population-based case-control study among 35-61 years old employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Totally 122 myocardial infarction cases and 371 controls were interviewed in 2001-2004. The logistic regression analysis was performed. Younger age at menopause (women was 1.15; 95% CI 0.48-2.75. The association between low job control and myocardial infarction showed step increase, women in the lowest quartile of job control had the highest myocardial infarction risk (OR=4.51; 95% CI 1.90-10.75), while those in the second and third quartiles showed modest risk. Marital stress was an independent myocardial infarction risk factor for employed women (adjusted OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.07-5.19). Menopausal status and younger age at menopause showed only a tendency for increase in myocardial infarction risk among the employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Adverse psychosocial job characteristics as low job control, as well as marital stress play more important role in the development of the first myocardial infarction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by women transitioning through menopause in Germany : Results of a survey of women aged 45-60 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhling, K. J.; v Daniels, B.; v Studnitz, F. S. G.; Eulenburg, C.; Mueck, A. O.

    Objectives: To describe prevalence rates of complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM) for the relief of menopausal complaints among German women. Furthermore, to investigate the perceived effectiveness of these therapies. Design: A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 9785

  10. Does menopause influence nocturnal awakening with headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, L M; Hachul, H; Yagihara, F; Santos-Silva, R; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether menopausal status influences the occurrence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the female population of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of this complaint to sociodemographic determinants, hot flushes, sleep quality and parameters, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue according to menopausal status. The female population of the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 576) was divided according to menopausal status (pre-, peri-, early and late menopause) based on questionnaires and hormonal blood measures. The complaint of waking up because of a headache at least once a week was assessed by the UNIFESP Sleep questionnaire. Additionally, hot flushes, sleep complaints, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue were assessed by specific questionnaires. A full-night polysomnography assessed sleep parameters. The prevalence of NAH in women in the Sao Paulo population was 13.3%. Perimenopause was associated with a higher risk of having NAH (odds ratio 13.9; 95% confidence interval 4.3-45.2). More complaints of NAH were observed in obese women. All the groups with NAH showed more hot flushes, worse subjective sleep quality, more complaints of insomnia, anxiety symptoms and fatigue. We observed a constellation of symptoms in women according to menopausal status and NAH that included hot flushes, sleep complaints, more anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Moreover, some of these symptoms were more frequent in perimenopausal women with NAH. Therefore, we concluded that menopausal status influences NAH and the women in perimenopause presented a high risk of having this complaint.

  11. Assessment of sleep quality and correlates in a large cohort of Colombian women around menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Marrugo-Flórez, Martha; Romero-Pérez, Ivette; Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality, menopausal symptom intensity, and correlates (including ethnicity) among middle-aged women. The present cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Colombian women aged 40 to 59 years who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a general questionnaire exploring sociodemographic data. The median [interquartile range] age of the whole sample was 49.0 [9.0] years. Among the participants, 45.4% were postmenopausal, 57.2% had increased body mass index values, 13.9% were black, 20.7% had hypertension, 74.1% had a stable partner, and 3.8% used hormone therapy. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 57.1% (PSQI global score ≥5). Significant correlations between PSQI global scores and MRS total and subscale scores were found. Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher PSQI scores (poorer quality of sleep) correlated with higher MRS psychological and somatic subscale scores (more severe symptoms), smoking habit, and hypertension. Menopause status and black ethnicity were excluded from the final regression model. Despite study limitations, poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in this large middle-aged Colombian female sample and is related to menopausal symptom severity, tobacco use, and presence of hypertension.

  12. studies on the reproductive status, catch and age compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    reproductive status of samples of Glossina pallidipes, trapped in NGU-2G traps. The objective was to assess ... male flies. Key words/phrases: Abortion, age reproductive status, Glossina pallidipes, NGU-2G traps, pregnancy. INTRODUCTION. From an ... ecology and behaviour of G. pallidipies. The present study was, ...

  13. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  14. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  15. Recent Status RSG-GAS Ageing Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Setianto; Tarigan, Alim [Puspiptek Area, Serpong (Indonesia); Wisnubroto, D. S. [Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2013-07-01

    RSG GAS Research Reactor.30 MW, which is the biggest scientific investment made by the Indonesian Government, is operating safely for about 27 years. This research reactor has been built and developed since year 1983. Critical attainment reached first on July 1987 and ceremonial opened by president of RI on August 20{sup th} 1987. Operated with full energy of 30 MW reached first time on March 1992. It started becoming commercially operated since 1995. RSG-GAS has a maximum thermal energy of 30 MW and has neutron flux of averaged 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}.sec coming from fissile reaction. RSG-GAS is a reactor with pool type with fuel of 19.75% enriched U{sub 3}O{sub 8}Al/U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}Al and burned up ratio up to 56%. RSG GAS has been built for scientific purpose by utilizing neutron beam instruments and isotope productions. Facilities allowing Neutron Activation Analysis for research and industry are both on-line. For affording the utilization or the reactor operation approaching the designed life, the progressive ageing management is being applied. This paper will address the ageing management based on the importance to safety and SSC replacement ease consideration, which is implemented on RSG GAS. It consist of minimization of expected ageing prevention which is divided into prevention actions and followed by periodic review of this effectiveness, detection, monitoring and trending of ageing degradation through periodically inspections, and testing. Some activities such as NDT-ultrasonic to mitigating the ageing degradation of secondary water pipe lines, underwater camera for tank liners, infrared thermograph for understanding the cable insulation age, Eddy Current for inspecting the Heat Exchangers, surveillance corrosion for understanding the corrosion mechanism and structure material lifetime by immersing cupons into primary, secondary and raw water basin for many years and some ended by refurbishment-for secondary pump, are being applied. Based on the results

  16. Status of ageing management program for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Jung, Hoan-Sung

    2012-01-01

    HANARO is a 30 MW open pool type research reactor which has been operated for 16 years since its initial criticality in February 1995. It has been used for nuclear material testing, radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, nuclear activation analysis, and neutron scattering experiments. Recently, new facilities such as FTL (Fuel Transfer Loop) and CNS (Cold Neutron Source) were installed in the reactor. HANARO was originally designed to operate for at least 20 years under full power operating condition, but the actual life time is expected to be much more than the design lifetime by supporting with a safety reassessment based on realistic data and maintenance activities for an ageing management. The conducted inspections, maintenance activities, and the future plan of the ageing management for HANARO are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  18. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki

    2005-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress

  19. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  20. Diabetes and onset of natural menopause : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. S.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Eijkemans, M. J C; Tjønneland, A.; Roswall, N.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Dossus, L.; Lukanova, A.; Grote, V.; Bergmann, M. M.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Tzivoglou, M.; Trichopoulos, D.; Grioni, S.; Mattiello, A.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Weiderpass, E.; Redondo, M. L.; Sánchez, M. J.; Castaño, J. M Huerta; Arriola, L.; Ardanaz, E.; Duell, E. J.; Rolandsson, O.; Franks, P. W.; Butt, S.; Nilsson, P.; Khaw, K. T.; Wareham, N.; Travis, R.; Romieu, I.; Gunter, M. J.; Riboli, E.; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do women who have diabetes before menopause have their menopause at an earlier age compared with women without diabetes? SUMMARY ANSWER Although there was no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, our study suggests that early-onset diabetes may accelerate

  1. Age related association of her-2/neu with prognostic markers in female breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.A.; Mamoon, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Khadim, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    To determine age-related association of Her-2/neu expression with histological and immunohistochemical prognostic markers in female breast carcinoma. Study Design: Cross sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2004 to December 2007. Methodology: Patients of primary operable female breast carcinoma were categorised as 50 years (post-menopausal) age groups. Histological type, tumour size, tumour grade and lymph node status were determined while estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu expression were evaluated immunohistochemically. Association of Her-2/neu with histological and immunohistochemical prognostic markers was determined in pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal and post- menopausal age groups using the x2 test for uni- and multivariate analysis. Results: Out of the 722 patients, 230 (31.9%) were in pre-menopuasal, 221 (30.6%) in peri-menopausal and 271 (37.5%) in post-menopausal age group. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the pre-dominant subtype in all the age groups. Mean tumour size was 4.3 +- 2.3 cm (range 0.4-17 cm) and lymph node metastasis was seen in 310 (70.8%) cases. Her-2/neu showed association with ER in the all the age groups while PR only showed association in the peri-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Her-2/neu showed no association with tumour size, tumor grade and lymph node metastases in pre-menopausal and peri-menopausal women while it showed positive association with tumour size and lymph node metastasis in the post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Majority (62%) patients were under 50 years as against the Western epidemiology. Association of Her-2/neu with ER, PR, tumour size and lymph node metastasis was age related as pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal and postmenopausal had variable expression of these prognostic markers with therapeutic and prognostic implications. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Dietary Intake of Various Vitamins in Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Menopausal hot flashes affect the majority of women. Hormone replacement therapy to reduce the severity of hot flashes is the most effective method. Today, however, due to a number of side effects of hormone therapy more women are seeking alternative treatments such as vitamin pills and herbal products. Previously, various vitamins, minerals and trace elements were studied for this purpose. In this study, our aim was to determine the level of dietary intake of various vitamins in women with hot flashes and to compare them with women who had no complaints. Material and Method: One hundred and seven consecutive women who attended the menopause clinic of our hospital for routine follow up were included in this study. All of the participants were asked about the occurrence of specific menopausal symptoms and completed 92-itm antioxidant nutrient questionnaire developed by Satia. The main parameters recorded for each woman were; age, obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (surgical or natural, duration of menopause, menopausal symptoms, and number and duration of hot flashes. According to the computerized analysis of questionnaire, dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins; B complex and vitamin C, and fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin, A D, E, K were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups with regard to presence of hot flashes, those with hot flashes constituted the study groups (n:75, and others without hot flashes constituted the control group (n:32. The mean age of patients was statistically significantly lower in the study group (p<0,001. The mean duration of menopause was also lower in this group (p<0,001. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (p>0,05. Night sweats and sleep disorders were more common in women with hot flashes

  3. Evaluation of Dietary Intake of Various Vitamins in Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Menopausal hot flashes affect the majority of women. Hormone replacement therapy to reduce the severity of hot flashes is the most effective method. Today, however, due to a number of side effects of hormone therapy more women are seeking alternative treatments such as vitamin pills and herbal products. Previously, various vitamins, minerals and trace elements were studied for this purpose. In this study, our aim was to determine the level of dietary intake of various vitamins in women with hot flashes and to compare them with women who had no complaints. Material and Method: One hundred and seven consecutive women who attended the menopause clinic of our hospital for routine follow up were included in this study. All of the participants were asked about the occurrence of specific menopausal symptoms and completed 92-itm antioxidant nutrient questionnaire developed by Satia. The main parameters recorded for each woman were; age, obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (surgical or natural, duration of menopause, menopausal symptoms, and number and duration of hot flashes. According to the computerized analysis of questionnaire, dietary intake of water-soluble vitamins; B complex and vitamin C, and fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin, A D, E, K were calculated. Results: Patients were divided into two groups with regard to presence of hot flashes, those with hot flashes constituted the study groups (n:75, and others without hot flashes constituted the control group (n:32. The mean age of patients was statistically significantly lower in the study group (p<0,001. The mean duration of menopause was also lower in this group (p<0,001. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of obstetrical characteristics, body mass index, smoking status, educational level, type of menopause (p>0,05. Night sweats and sleep disorders were more common in women with hot flashes

  4. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  5. The effects of menopausal health training for spouses on women's quality of life during menopause transitional period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa

    2016-02-01

    Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P women in the intervention group was higher 3 months after intervention (P training of menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.

  6. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: talking story about menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multiethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i, describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared with peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause.

  7. Socio-economic status and menarcheal age in urban African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...

  8. Socioeconomic position, lifestyle factors and age at natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies across six continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, Danielle AJM; Jackson, Caroline A; Rowlands, Jemma V; Mishra, Gita D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age at natural menopause (ANM) is considered a marker of biological ageing and is increasingly recognized as a sentinel for chronic disease risk in later life. Socioeconomic position (SEP) and lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with ANM. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the overall mean ANM, and the effect of SEP and lifestyle factors on ANM by calculating the weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooling adjusted hazard ratios. We explored heterogeneity using meta-regression and also included unpublished findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Results: We identified 46 studies across 24 countries. Mean ANM was 48.8 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.3, 49.2], with between-study heterogeneity partly explained by geographical region. ANM was lowest among African, Latin American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries and highest in Europe and Australia, followed by the USA. Education was associated with later ANM (WMD middle vs low education 0.30, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.51; high vs low education 0.64, 95% CI 0.26, 1.02). A similar dose-response relationship was also observed for occupation. Smoking was associated with a 1-year reduction of ANM (WMD: -0.91, 95% CI: –1.34, –0.48). Being overweight and moderate/high physical activity were modestly associated with later ANM, but findings were less conclusive. Conclusions: ANM varies across populations, partly due to differences across geographical regions. SEP and some lifestyle factors are associated with ANM, but further research is needed to examine the impact of the associations between risk factors and ANM on future health outcomes. PMID:24771324

  9. Discourses on menopause--Part I: Menopause described in texts addressed to Danish women 1996-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2008-01-01

    To understand Danish women's very different ways of interpreting menopausal experiences and the way they construct meaning relating to menopause, it is necessary to include the context in which meaning is constructed as well as the background of cultural attitudes to menopause existing...... in the Danish society. Using documentary material, the aim of this article was to describe different discourses on menopause in Denmark that present themselves to menopausal women, and to discuss how these discourses may affect women's identity and constitute their scope of action. One hundred and thirty......-two pieces of text under the heading or subject of 'menopause' or 'becoming a middle-aged woman', published from 1996 to 2004, were included. All material was addressed to Danish women, and consisted of booklets and informational material, articles from newspapers and magazines and popular science books...

  10. The evolutionary origin and significance of Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollycove, Ricki; Naftolin, Frederick; Simon, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary human females have long life expectancy (81y US), especially relative to age at menopause (51y US). Menopause is a consequence of reproductive aging and follicular depletion (ovarian failure), yielding very low circulating estrogen* serum concentrations and biologically disadvantageous metabolic alterations. Stated in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy, the ongoing hypoestrogenic endocrine environment, beneficial during lactation, results in acceleration of several age-related health conditions following menopause (i.e. late postmenopausal osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline). In contrast, the complex hypoestrogenic hormonal milieu present during postpartum lactation provides biologic advantages to both mother and newborn. The lactational hormonal milieu causes symptoms similar to those of the late perimenopause and early postmenopause, prompting theories for their biologic selective advantage. The precepts of evolutionary medicine encourage a reassessment of hormone therapy. Based on data presented, the authors propose additional opportunities for disease prevention and morbidity reduction in postmenopausal women. PMID:21252729

  11. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rajshri P; Dravid, N V; Suryawanshi, Kishor H; Gadre, Arundhati S; Bagale, Priya S; Ahire, Neelam

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management.

  12. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  13. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andany N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisha Andany,1 V Logan Kennedy,2 Muna Aden,2 Mona Loutfy1,2 1Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population

  14. Metabolic syndrome and menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Jouyandeh, Zahra; Nayebzadeh, Farnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Asadi, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is defined as an assemblage of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and menopause is associated with an increase in metabolic syndrome prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among postmenopausal women in Tehran, Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study in menopause clinic in Tehran, 118 postmenopausal women were investigated. We used the adult treatment panel 3 (ATP3) criteria t...

  15. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  16. Notes on nervios: a disorder of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E A

    1989-01-01

    The condition of nerves among women in the small Peruvian town of Puente Piedre is described. Both nervios (a symptom) and Nervios (a disorder) describe a woman's difficulty with nerves. In Puente Piedre, the identification of an anxiety condition among women depends only on the women's age. Younger women with anxiety symptoms are diagnosed as nervios, a temporary condition ascribed to a single episode of high blood pressure. Menopausal women with similar symptoms, on the other hand, are thought to have a specific disorder, Nervios. In Puente Piedre, Nervios clearly is a folk illness limited to women of menopausal age.

  17. Herbal formula menoprogen alters insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels in the serum and ovaries of an aged female rat model of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Zheng, Sheng Z; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ma, Hong; Mahady, Gail B

    2015-10-01

    Menoprogen (MPG), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for menopause, improves menopausal symptoms; however, its mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that MPG is not directly estrogenic; thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of MPG on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) levels in an aged female rat model of menopause. In a six-arm study, 14-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per arm) were randomly divided into the following groups: untreated aged, 17β-estradiol-treated aged (estradiol [E2]), and three arms with increasing doses of MPG (162, 324, or 648 mg/kg/d). The sixth arm contained 4-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats as a normal comparison group. Four weeks after MPG or E2 administration, animals were killed after blood draws, and ovarian tissues were excised. Levels of E2 and progesterone (P4) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGF-1 receptor were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the normal group, aged rats had significantly reduced serum levels of E2, P4, and IGF-1, and increased serum and ovarian tissue levels of IGFBP-1. MPG restored serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels and down-regulated ovarian levels of IGFBP-1, which were closely related to increases in E2 and P4 levels in aged rats. No significant differences in either IGF-1 or IGFBP-1 were observed between the three doses of MPG. MPG exerts a direct in vivo effect on aged female rats by positively regulating serum and ovarian IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 levels.

  18. Benefits of Walking on Menopausal Symptoms and Mental Health Outcomes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Hu; Li Zhu; Jiaying Lyu; Wenjun Zhu; Yaping Xu; Lin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Menopausal transition is often associated with impaired satisfaction with life (SL). Exercise is promising in both managing menopausal symptoms and improving subjective well-being of women after menopause. Purpose: This study examined the effects of a 4-month randomized controlled walking trial on menopausal symptoms and SL in 80 community-dwelling postmenopausal Chinese women (M age = 53.38, SD = 3.41), and identified predictors of changes in SL across the intervention. Met...

  19. Menopause and big data: Word Adjacency Graph modeling of menopause-related ChaCha data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Janet S; Groves, Doyle; Chen, Chen X; Otte, Julie L; Miller, Wendy R

    2017-07-01

    To detect and visualize salient queries about menopause using Big Data from ChaCha. We used Word Adjacency Graph (WAG) modeling to detect clusters and visualize the range of menopause-related topics and their mutual proximity. The subset of relevant queries was fully modeled. We split each query into token words (ie, meaningful words and phrases) and removed stopwords (ie, not meaningful functional words). The remaining words were considered in sequence to build summary tables of words and two and three-word phrases. Phrases occurring at least 10 times were used to build a network graph model that was iteratively refined by observing and removing clusters of unrelated content. We identified two menopause-related subsets of queries by searching for questions containing menopause and menopause-related terms (eg, climacteric, hot flashes, night sweats, hormone replacement). The first contained 263,363 queries from individuals aged 13 and older and the second contained 5,892 queries from women aged 40 to 62 years. In the first set, we identified 12 topic clusters: 6 relevant to menopause and 6 less relevant. In the second set, we identified 15 topic clusters: 11 relevant to menopause and 4 less relevant. Queries about hormones were pervasive within both WAG models. Many of the queries reflected low literacy levels and/or feelings of embarrassment. We modeled menopause-related queries posed by ChaCha users between 2009 and 2012. ChaCha data may be used on its own or in combination with other Big Data sources to identify patient-driven educational needs and create patient-centered interventions.

  20. Menopause perception and care of menopausal women in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involved both Quantitative and Qualitative method. For quantitative method the researchers designed a cross-sectional study, using ... after menopause, social support networks for menopausal women, and types of care and ...

  1. Nutritional Status and Cognitive Performance among Children Aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop to their full physical and mental potentials. The nutritional status and the cognitive performance of 500 school children aged 5-12 years from urban and rural areas of Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements of heights and weights were ...

  2. Vocational interest, counselling, socioeconomic status and age as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between vocational interest, counselling, socio-economic status and age on re-entry of girls into school in Edo State. One research hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The design was correlational. Five research instruments were used: they are the Modified ...

  3. Influence of age, sex and pregnancy status on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were obtained from 80 rabbits of mixed breeds comprising adults, growers and weaners between June and August 2005 to determine the mean variations in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Total Protein (TP) as affected by sex, age and pregnancy status. The mean variation in PCV, Hb and ...

  4. Social Determinants and Reproductive Factors of the Menopausal Symptoms among Women in Tabriz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Menopause is a natural event in which different degrees of psychosomatic changes occur. The social, demographic and behavioral factors in different nations have a significant effect on symptoms of menopause. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the personal, demographic, social and reproductive factors with symptoms of menopause and the frequency of the mental and physical symptoms of menopause among women in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinics and health centers of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan and Iran. A total of 300 women aged 40-60 years filled a questionnaire on the socio demographic variables, reproductive history and symptoms checklist.  Results: Among the symptoms, muscle and joint pain (68.7%, and increased facial hair (20.5% were the most and the least common ones respectively. According to participants, as age increases, the symptoms worsen (p=0.003.The frequency of the symptoms of the employed women was less than those of retired ones and housewives (p=0.001. The physical and mental symptoms had negative relation with educational status (p<0.05. An increase in the number of the children, the history of the oral contraceptive use and dysmenorrhea had positive relation with the frequency of the symptoms.  Conclusion: The quality of life of the women during menopause worsens with an increase in age and number of children, whereas it improves with higher educational levels and employment.

  5. Social Determinants and Reproductive Factors of the Menopausal Symptoms among Women in Tabriz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a natural event in which different degrees of psychosomatic changes occur. The social, demographic and behavioral factors in different nations have a significant effect on symptoms of menopause. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the personal, demographic, social and reproductive factors with symptoms of menopause and the frequency of the mental and physical symptoms of menopause among women in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinics and health centers of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan and Iran. A total of 300 women aged 40-60 years filled a questionnaire on the socio demographic variables, reproductive history and symptoms checklist.  Results: Among the symptoms, muscle and joint pain (68.7%, and increased facial hair (20.5% were the most and the least common ones respectively. According to participants, as age increases, the symptoms worsen (p=0.003. The frequency of the symptoms of the employed women was less than those of retired ones and housewives (p=0.001. The physical and mental symptoms had negative relation with educational status (p<0.05. An increase in the number of the children, the history of the oral contraceptive use and dysmenorrhea had positive relation with the frequency of the symptoms.  Conclusion: The quality of life of the women during menopause worsens with an increase in age and number of children, whereas it improves with higher educational levels and employment.

  6. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter ( 10 months) intervals. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J

    2016-01-01

    Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N = 962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 years). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting 'other' gender. Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs.

  8. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  9. Status of ageing for reactor components in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Garp; Wu, Jong Sup; Lee, Jung Hee; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Choung, Yun Hang; Jun, Byung Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ageing status, the history of the performance and maintenance, and the ageing management program for the reactor structure, shutoff units and control absorber units of HANARO which has been operated for 10 years. From the ageing point of view, the results of the visual inspections of the core components, a deformation measurement of the core inner shell, and wear measurements of the fuel channels are described. The histories of the maintenance, performance and drop cycles were evaluated for the shutoff units and control absorber units. Also there is a summary for the lifetime extension program for the shutoff and control absorber units

  10. Menopause: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Email Print Print and Share (PDF 375 KB) Menopause (sometimes called “the change of life”) is a ...

  11. The impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Robroek, Suzan J W; Laven, Joop S E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2016-08-01

    To measure the impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms. This cross-sectional study compared the work ability of a sample of otherwise healthy employed Dutch women (n=205) with that of a sample of first-time attendees of a menopause clinic (n=60); both groups were aged 44-60 years. Self-reported questionnaire data assessing work ability (Work Ability Index; WAI) and menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale; GCS) were used. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether women with severe menopausal symptoms were more likely to have low work ability (defined as a score work ability than their healthy counterparts: 76.7% versus 30.2% (OR 8.4, 95% CI 4.1-17.2). Over three-quarters of symptomatic menopausal women report serious problems in dealing with the physical and mental demands of their work (recorded here as low work ability); hence these women might be at risk of prolonged sickness absence from work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hypertension in women (contraception and menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, M

    2000-11-01

    There are three circumstances where hypertension develops specifically in women: oral contraception, pregnancy, and menopause. Oral contraception usually shifts the blood pressure moderately upwards, but hypertension appears in less than 5% of women. Still it may (rarely) be very severe. Hypertension is poorly related to the dosage of the estrogenic compound, but rather to the nature and dosage of the progestive part. This hypertension does not significantly increase the cardiovascular risk of these women. The role of menopause itself in the trigging of hypertension remains uncertain. It seems however that confounding factors such as age, body weight, sodium balance and so on explain the increased incidence of hypertension after menopause. The latter is also associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk, which requires adequate treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is not contra-indicated, even in hypertensive patients.

  13. Sexual Functioning During Menopause: Schemas, Hormones, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Spitznagel, E. L., Schootman, M., Bucholz, K. K., Peipert, J. F., . . . Bierut, L. J. (2009). Age of sexual debut among US adolescents . Contraception , 80(2...use different, non-comparable methods to calculate the average age that menopause ‘begins.’ Finally, it is unclear how oral contraceptives and... contraception use are related to a later age of menopause (Gold et al., 2001; Gold et al., 2006; Hardy, Kuh, & Wadsworth, 2000; Kato et al., 1998; Palmer

  14. Nutritional status of children under the age five in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rjimati, Arbi; El Menchawy, Imane; Baddou, Issâd; El Kari, Khalid; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Rabi, Baha

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In Morocco we live nutritional, demographic and epidemiological transition. These transitions affect the nutritional status of the population, especially that of children under five years of age. They also play a guiding role in the development of strategies to be implemented to improve the situation. Aim: To describe the evolution of the nutritional status of children under five years in Morocco over the past ten years. Methods: Two national surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2011. One of the objectives of these surveys is to assess the nutritional status of children aged less than five years compared to WHO standards. Results: The surveys that included 5737 children under 5 years in 2004 and 7271 in 2011 showed according to WHO standards, at the national level , a prevalence of underweight of 3.1 % ( weight / age 2 SD) 2.6 % of which are obese (BMI for age > 3 SD), whereas the proportion of children with overweight and obesity was 10.4 % in 2004. Discussion/conclusions: These studies show that acute malnutrition almost disappeared in Morocco, however prevalence of stunting remains high, overweight and obesity among children less than five years increased in the country. (author)

  15. A Comparative study on sexual dysfunctions before and after menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Marjan; Fahami, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexual instinct which is the cause of numerous changes in an individual’s life could be influenced by different factors such as menopause and ageing. This study was designed to compare sexual dysfunction before and after menopause. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 174 menopausal women who referred to medical health centers of Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected through self constructed sexual dysfunctions questionnaire in relation to their sexual activities before and after menopause. The reliability and validity of this questionnaire was determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Findings: Findings showed that the relative frequency of sexual dysfunctions was 38% in the productive period and 72.4% in the menopause period. There was a significant association between sexual dysfunctions before and after the menopause period (p vaginismus, respectively. Conclusions: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in productive and menopause periods, and menopause could be a factor to maintain or intensify sexual dysfunctions. PMID:23833604

  16. Menopause affects pain depending on pain type and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Nanni, Michela; Bachiocco, Valeria; Vodo, Stellina; Aloisi, Anna M

    2012-05-01

    Women are more affected than men by many chronic pain conditions, suggesting the effect of sex-related mechanisms in their occurrence. The role of gonadal hormones has been studied but with contrasting results depending on the pain syndrome, reproductive status, and hormone considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pain changes related to the menopausal transition period. In this observational study, postmenopausal women were asked to evaluate the presence of pain in their life during the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods and its modification with menopause. One hundred one women were enrolled and completed questionnaires on their sociodemographic status, pain characteristics, and evolution. The most common pain syndromes were headache (38%), osteoarticular pain (31%), and cervical/lumbar pain (21%). Pain was present before menopause in 66 women, ceased with menopause in 17, and started after menopause in 18. Data were used for cluster analysis, which allowed the division of participants into four groups. In the first, all women experienced headaches that disappeared or improved with menopause. The second group included osteoarticular pain; the pain improved in half of these women and remained stable in the other half. The third group had cervical/lumbar pain, which disappeared or improved with menopause in all. The fourth group presented different kinds of moderate pain, which worsened in all. The present study provides preliminary data suggesting that menopause can affect pain depending on the painful condition experienced by the woman. This underlines the different interactions of menopause-related events with body structures involved in pain.

  17. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    OpenAIRE

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual health care for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender.Method: An online survey was administered to a national sample ...

  18. Menopause-related brain activation patterns during visual sexual arousal in menopausal women: An fMRI pilot study using time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-02-20

    The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (psexual arousal. These findings might help elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with sexual dysfunction in menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships between happiness and gender, age and marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alarcón

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the relationships between happiness and variables of gender, age and marital status as well as the degrees of happiness most frequently experienced by people. The sample was constituted by 163 males and females, between the ages of 20 and 60 years, single and married, and from middle class strata. They were administered the Scale of Satisfaction with Life, developed by Diener, with and added item to measure the degrees of happiness. There is no significan! statistically difference between genders; according to age the only significan contras! was between 30 and 50 years, with the notation that the highest means corresponded to ages 50 and 60 years old; married people were found to be happier than single ones. In general, the majority reported feeling happy, the other degrees contained very few frecuencies.

  20. Features and perceptions of menopausal women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    Research priorities include the influence of socio-cultural beliefs on sexuality at menopause and evaluation of HRT benefits. ... physiological manifestation of the aging process and do not seek ..... and oestrogen replacement in older women.

  1. Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Germán D; Berglund, Anita; Gigante, Bruna; Landgren, Britt-Marie; de Faire, Ulf; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk. This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression. Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48). Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.

  2. Age dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Holbert, William H.; Churn, Severn B.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 to 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death. PMID:19429042

  3. Vascular dysfunction across the stages of the menopausal transition is associated with menopausal symptoms and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Kerry L; Ozemek, Cemal; Kohrt, Wendy M; Blatchford, Patrick J; Moreau, Kerrie L

    2018-04-09

    The menopausal transition is associated with somatic symptoms and increased rates of depression, which can impair quality of life (QOL) and increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This period is also associated with accelerated vascular aging (arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction), an antecedent to CVD. This secondary analysis sought to explore associations between depression, menopausal symptoms and QOL, and vascular aging across menopause stages. Arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance), endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), menopausal symptoms (Menopausal Symptom List [MSL]), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), and QOL (Utian QOL Scale [UQOL]) were measured in 138 women (19-70 years) classified as premenopausal (n = 41, 34 ± 8 years; mean ± SD), early (n = 25, 49 ± 3 years), or late perimenopausal (n = 26, 50 ± 4 years), or early (n = 22, 55 ± 4 years) or late postmenopausal (n = 24, 61 ± 5 years). Differences across menopause stages were determined using one-way analysis of variance; associations between vascular measures and MSL, CES-D, and UQOL were tested using Pearson's correlation analyses. Menopausal symptoms, depression, and QOL worsened across menopause stages, particularly in late perimenopausal women. Vasosomatic symptom frequency, and general somatic symptom frequency and severity were inversely correlated with carotid artery compliance and FMD (r = -0.27 to -0.18, all P stages of menopause was associated with greater frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms, and lower QOL, but not depression. Mechanisms underlying these associations (eg, inflammation, oxidative stress) should be explored.

  4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling Ye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate nutritional status and body composition in different ages of maintaining hemodialysis (HD patients. 129 patients (male 62, female 67 with the mean age 56.33±14.14 years on HD were divided into four groups with age under 40, 40-69, 60-69 and over 70 years. Body composition was evaluated with Multi-frequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA and 83 healthy subjects, matched for age and sex, were as the control. In all patients, about 6.2% were underweight with body mass index (BMI less than 18.5 Kg/m2. The incidence of underweight were 0%, 6.2%, 4.8% and 11.1% in groups under 40, 40-59, 60-69 and over 70 years respectively. Serum Creatinine, ALB, pre-ALB and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR were significantly decreased in patients over 70 years. The young patients under 40 years also displayed lower nPCR and CHO value compared with that of group 40-59 years. Body cell mass, lean tissue mass, lean tissue index and relative lean tissue mass in HD patients were significantly lower than that in age and sex matched control group. Meanwhile, fat mass, fat tissue index and relative fat were increase 20% than the control. They were less different between HD patients and controls in age of 40-59 years, however, difference significantly increased in other three groups and changes were most obvious in patients over 70 years. In conclusion, our study showed that nutritional status was significantly associated with the age in HD patients. Patients under 40 years and over 70 years old displayed much severer protein wasting and more fat tissue storage.

  5. Equipment aging: an overview of status and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carfagno, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of equipment aging in nuclear power generating stations is viewed from the standpoint of the qualification of safety-related equipment. A brief summary of developments related to equipment aging and qualification (in industry, the regulatory arena, and in the research area) is presented to focus on the current status of the problem. Several research topics are suggested for consideration as components of any general plan of research on plant aging. Among these is a topic concerned with an effort to establish the relative merit of different approaches to account for the functional degradation of equipment in terms of their cost and their contribution to assurance of public safety and a topic to investigate ways to improve the monitoring of functional degradation of equipment in service. Some factors to be considered in choosing among research topics and in establishing funding levels are mentioned

  6. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  7. Predictors of the quality of life of women in peri-menopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kanadys

    2016-09-01

    The quality of life of the peri-menopausal women examined was the highest with respect to depressive mood (DEP and anxiety/depressed mood (ANX, while it was the lowest with respect to the sense of attractiveness (ATT, and somatic symptoms (SOM. In addition, in the group of women in peri-menopausal period the quality of life was conditioned: level of depression, self-reported state of health, occurrence of menopausal symptoms, education level, and marital status.

  8. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  9. Women's health in menopause with a focus on hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A H E M; Franke, H R

    2009-02-01

    In menopause transition many women have vasomotor symptoms which may affect their normal daily activities. With the decline in oestrogen levels, risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) become more apparent, especially hypertension. The onset of hypertension can cause a variety of complaints that are often attributed to the menopause. Risk factor identification is poorly managed in middle-aged women and should be the first step in the evaluation and treatment of women with perimenopausal symptoms. In women at low risk for CHD, there is still a window of opportunity for safe hormone prescription in the first years proximal to menopause. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:68-72.).

  10. Longitudinal changes in sexual functioning as women transition through menopause: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    Sexual functioning is an important component of women's lives. The extent to which the menopausal transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopausal transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N = 3,302) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort-eligible women had an intact uterus, had at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study's designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; and degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. With adjustment for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause but declined during postmenopause. The menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. With adjustment for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional

  11. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy and menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broseta Rico, Enrique; Jiménez Cruz, Juan Fernando

    2002-11-01

    To review the topic of urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy and menopause. UTI during pregnancy and menopause have great relevance in the field of urologic infections; during pregnancy because of the particularities involved in its diagnosis and treatment and potential consequences to the fetus and mother; menopausal UTI because this group of women is numerous and represents a growing section of the general population pyramid, due to the aging of population in developed countries associated with longer life expectancies and grater demand for quality of life. We performed a bibliographic review combined with our personal experience. During pregnancy there are several functional and anatomical changes that condition not only a higher risk of UTI, but also an additional treatment difficulty due to antimicrobial pharmacokinetics alterations and potential damage to the fetus. Despite efforts to find an easy, fast and reliable test for bacteriuria detection, urine culture continues to be the first diagnostic test for its detection and follow up during pregnancy. Penicillin derivates and cephalosporins continue to be the first choice because their lack of adverse effects on either fetus or mother. Alternative options like phosphomicin and aztreonam although they show low toxicity there is need for more studies supporting their suitability for the treatment of pregnancy UTIs. Menopausal female UTI have their different features from those in younger women. Hormonal alterations derived from gonadal atrophy associate functional changes in the vaginal ecosystem, making it prone to enterobacteriaceae colonization as a first step up to the urinary tract. This associated with genitourinary tract anatomical alterations inherent t aging make UTI extraordinary prevalent in this growing segment of population. Treatment lines focus on hormonal alteration correction and proper antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccines in a close future. UTIs during pregnancy and menopause have

  13. Influência dos sintomas climatéricos sobre a função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade Influence of menopausal symptoms on sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência dos sintomas climatéricos na função sexual de mulheres de meia-idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo populacional de corte transversal, com amostra de 370 mulheres entre 40 e 65 anos, atendidas nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde da cidade de Natal, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Aplicou-se um questionário referente s características sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentais das mulheres. A função sexual foi avaliada pelo Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, enquanto os sintomas do climatério pelo Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTADOS: No grupo estudado, 67% das mulheres apresentaram risco de disfunção sexual (FSFI≤26,5. Todos os domínios do FSFI (desejo, excitação, lubrificação, orgasmo, satisfação e dor apresentaram escores mais baixos nas mulheres com risco de disfunção sexual (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of climacteric symptoms on the sexual function in middle-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study was conducted on a sample of 370 middle-aged women, aged 40 to 65 years-old, cared for at the Basic Health Units in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. We used a questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, while the menopause symptoms by the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. RESULTS: In the studied group, 67% of the women reported risk for sexual dysfunction (FSFI≤26.5. All FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were lower in women with risk for sexual dysfunction (p<0.001. The arousal, orgasm, and pain domains were most likely to contribute to lower FSFI scores. All somatovegetative, urogenital, and psychological MRS symptoms were more elevated in women with risk for sexual dysfunction, being significant for all comparisons (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of

  14. Is open-angle glaucoma associated with early menopause? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, C. A.; Westendorp, I. C.; Ramrattan, R. S.; Wolfs, R. C.; Witteman, J. C.; Vingerling, J. R.; Hofman, A.; de Jong, P. T.

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the association between age at menopause and open-angle glaucoma among women aged > or = 55 years in the population-based Rotterdam Study (1990--1993). Information on age and type of menopause was obtained by interview. Subjects (n = 3,078) were stratified into three categories

  15. Vaginal microbiota in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinus Tarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human vagina together with its resident, microbiota, comprise a dynamic ecosystem. Normal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus species, and pathogen microbiota such as Gardnerella species and Bacteroides species can occur due to decrease in Lactobacillus domination. Lactobacillus plays an essential role in keeping normal vaginal microbiota in balance. Vaginal microbiota adapts to pH change and hormonal value. Changes in the vaginal microbiota over a woman’s lifespan will influence the colonization of pathogenic microbes. They include changes in child, puberty, reproductive state, menopause, and postmenopause. Estrogen levels change will affect the colonization of pathogenic microbium, leading to genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Vulvovaginal atrophy is often found in postmenopausal women, and dominated by L. iners, Anaerococcus sp, Peptoniphilus sp, Prevotella sp, and Streptococcus sp. The normal vaginal microbiota’s imbalance in menopause will cause diseases such as bacterial vaginosis, and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis due to hormonal therapies. Changes in the vaginal microbiota due to bacterial vaginosis are characterized by decrease in H2O2-producing Lactobacillus. They are also caused by the increase in numbers and concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and other anaerob species such as Peptostreptococci, Prevotella spp, and Mobiluncus spp.

  16. Anthropology and the study of menopause: evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy

    2014-10-01

    This work aims to consider how the discipline of anthropology contributes to the study of menopause through evolutionary, developmental, and comparative perspectives. This study was a review of skeletal and ethnographic evidence for menopause and postreproductive life in humans' distant past, hypotheses for the evolution of menopause and long postreproductive life, variation in age at menopause with focus on childhood environments, and the study of variation in symptom experience across populations. Longevity, rather than capacity for menopause, sets humans apart from other primates. Skeletal evidence demonstrates that some Neanderthals and archaic Homo sapiens lived to the age at menopause and that at least one third of women in traditional foraging populations live beyond menopause. The evolutionary reasons for why women experience a long postreproductive life continue to be debated. A developmental perspective suggests that early childhood may be a critical time for the environment to irreversibly influence the number of oocytes or rate of follicular atresia and, ultimately, age at menopause. A comparative perspective examines symptom experience at midlife through participant observation, qualitative interviews, and quantitative instruments to gain a holistic understanding of the meaning, experience, and sociocultural context of menopause. An evolutionary perspective suggests that menopause is not a recent phenomenon among humans. A developmental perspective focuses on the influence of early childhood on ovarian function. A comparative perspective expands clinical norms and provides knowledge about the range of human variations.

  17. Menopause management: a cardiovascular risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C J; Farrell, E

    2010-08-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the gold standard for the management of menopausal symptoms; however, HRT use has declined due to concerns over possible adverse side-effects. Approaches to menopause management are continually being revised and these extend beyond the control of recognized menopausal symptoms to encompass wider aspects of menopausal women's health. Hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk are particularly important unmet needs in postmenopausal women, especially in the Asia-Pacific region which has a rapidly aging population and bears around half of the global burden of cardiovascular disease, two-thirds of which has been attributed to elevated blood pressure. As first point of contact for women with menopausal symptoms, gynecologists play a gatekeeper role in assessing women's health, providing appropriate lifestyle counseling, and, where appropriate, implementing treatment or referral to relevant specialists. This paper, with contributions by gynecologists and cardiologists from Asia Pacific and beyond, summarizes available evidence and provides a treatment algorithm that employs a flexible blood pressure classification strategy to assist physicians in their decision-making for the individualized management of menopausal symptoms in women with low, moderate and high cardiovascular risk, and also for women with diabetes. Individualized HRT according to cardiovascular risk may yield improvements in cardiovascular health, as well as managing menopausal symptoms.

  18. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in fatty acid oxidation, alterations of the lipid profile in the menopausal women will also influence mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fluxes in several organs. In this paper, we propose that alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the heart, consequence from normal aging and/or from the menopausal process, result in decreased fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the cardiomyocyte cytosol, resulting in lipotoxicity and increasing the cardiovascular risk in the menopausal women.

  19. Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Home For Patients Search FAQs Perimenopausal Bleeding and ... 2011 PDF Format Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Gynecologic Problems What are menopause and perimenopause? What ...

  20. Diabetes and Menopause: A Twin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and menopause: A twin challenge Diabetes and menopause may team up for varied effects on your body. Here's what to ... to stay in control. By Mayo Clinic Staff Menopause — and the years leading up to it — may ...

  1. Menopause 101: A Primer for the Perimenopausal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abstracts Media Award Recipients Media Policy Media Requests Menopause 101: A primer for the perimenopausal The information ... about 2 years earlier. Common Body Changes at Menopause Each woman’s experience of menopause is different. Many ...

  2. The menopausal experience among indigenous women of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Alwi, S A R; Lee, P Y; Awi, I; Mallik, P S; Md Haizal, M N

    2009-12-01

    To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia. A face-to-face interview using the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire was conducted with 276 indigenous Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years to determine the mean age of menopause and common symptoms (divided into vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual domains) associated with menopause. The mean age at menopause of postmenopausal women was 50.78 +/- 2.47 years (range 47.3-58.2 years). The most common symptoms reported were aching in muscles and joints (82.6%), lack of energy (77.5%) and low backache (77.2%). The typical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, night sweats, sweating and vaginal dryness were experienced by 42.4%, 34.8%, 29.7% and 49.3%, respectively of the women studied. Perimenopausal women (n = 114) experienced the most physical and psychosocial symptoms, while postmenopausal women (n = 102) experienced most sexual symptoms. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were reported to suffer more than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) within the four domains of symptoms (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual). The menopausal symptoms in this study correspond to those in other studies on Asian women but the prevalence of typical and classical menopausal symptoms was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. The perimenopausal women had the most significant decrease in quality of life, followed by postmenopausal women and premenopausal women. Vasomotor symptoms had a predominant influence on the quality of life.

  3. ANTHROPOMETRICAL STATUS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES AT 12 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Gllareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm

  4. Comparative study of the quality of life associated with menopause in Tunisia and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Farida; Hajri, Selma; Benzineb, Sarah; Draoui, Dorra Mahfoudh; Hassoun, Danielle; Delanoë, Daniel; Zins, Marie; Ringa, Virginie

    2013-06-01

    Because the experience of menopause varies by ethnic group, society, and social class, we sought to compare quality of life (QoL) at menopause between Tunisian and French women. This secondary analysis of existing data collected in two independent, cross-sectional surveys (the French GAZEL cohort and a representative sample of Tunisian women) compared both samples for six dimensions of the Women's Health Questionnaire while taking into account social and demographic characteristics and menopause status with multivariate logistic models. Comparison of 1,040 Tunisian women aged 45 to 64 years with 774 French women aged 48 to 53 years showed that Tunisian women had a significantly lower QoL than the French women in every dimension (low QoL for Tunisian vs French, odds ratio [95% CI]: somatic symptoms, 2.1 [1.6-2.7]; depressed mood, 3.6 [2.8-4.7]; anxiety, 2.4 [1.8-3.3]; vasomotor symptoms, 1.7 [1.3-2.3]). QoL was also lower for working-class women, but associations were weaker than for country (low QoL for working class vs middle class, odds ratio [95% CI]: somatic symptoms: 1.9 [1.5-2.4]; depressed mood, 1.5 [1.2-1.8]; anxiety, 1.8 [1.5-2.3]; vasomotor symptoms, 1.7 [1.4-2.2]). Associations between country and QoL were stronger in the working class than in the middle class. This epidemiological study comparing France and a North African country sheds light on the major role of country of residence, social class, and their interaction in the experience of menopause. Levels of national wealth, human development, cultural constraints, and social and gender inequality are likely to explain how country and class affect QoL.

  5. Relationship between delivery history and health-related quality of life in menopausal South Korean women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Jae Eun; Lee, Hae Nam

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the association between childbirth history and health-related quality of life (QOL) in menopausal South Korean women. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) for 4277 menopausal women aged over 50. We used the EuroQol index to measure health-related QOL. The relationship between delivery history and health-related QOL in menopausal South Korean women was analyzed. After adjustment for age (model 1), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities and pain or discomfort; the risk of anxiety or depression was not increased. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, use of alcohol, exercise, income, education, marital status, metabolic syndrome and stress (model 2), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care and pain or discomfort. Age at last delivery was not significantly associated with health-related QOL in either model. South Korean women who were younger at their first delivery and who had more deliveries appear to be at increased risk of health-related QOL problems after menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Women's experience of menopause: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoga, Luiza; Rodolpho, Juliana; Gonçalves, Bruna; Quirino, Bruna

    2015-09-16

    Evidence shows than an estimated one billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach changes in this phase of life. Independently of the circumstances involved, women experiencing menopause need to have their care needs and corresponding support identified based on their personal and contextual perspectives. Although it is essential to provide appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide. The objective of this review is to identify the best available evidence related to how women experience menopause worldwide. This review considered studies that included menopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years, who have lived the transition from reproductive years through menopause and beyond. This review included only studies whose participants have lived the experience of natural menopause. Women who have had induced menopause, or with premature menopause were excluded from this review. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: This review considered studies that investigate women's experiences of natural menopause under the scope of different social and cultural settings. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered studies that have a descriptive and interpretive approach, conducted using qualitative methodology. Qualitative studies that focus on program evaluation were excluded from this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered for inclusion in this review. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that include the following outcome measures: all aspects related both directly and indirectly to the experience of menopause, as concretely lived

  7. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  8. Menopause: Salient Issues for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Marilyn M.; Lynch, Ann Q.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding menopause, with the idea that counselors are in an ideal position to help change attitudes toward viewing menopause as a time of positive change rather than a time of psychological distress. Reviews historical, sociological, psychological, and attitudinal factors that account for negative responses associated with…

  9. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  10. MENOPAUSE AND NATURAL HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Vrabič Dežman

    2008-12-01

    The studies could not decisively confirm the effectiveness of various phytoestrogens inamelioration of climacteric symptoms. Most studies have proven the effectiveness of thenatural medication made of Cimicifuga racemosa and its safe short-term use. Gynecologists should be familiar with the basics of phytotherapy and the results of clinical studiesin this field in order to confidently advise women to use the natural medications in caseswhere despite the climacteric symptoms they cannot or will not use HRT, consequentlygreatly reducing the quality of their lives. In cases where climacteric symptoms are mild tomoderate, some menopausal societies around the globe suggest trying natural medicationfirst, and only later implementing HRT

  11. Self-Reported Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment Compared with Cognitive Complaints following Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N; Dumas, Julie; Newhouse, Paul

    2018-06-15

    Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of cancer treatment. Current longitudinal studies, primarily in women with breast cancer, suggest that up to 35%-60% of patients exhibit persistent CRCI (pCRCI) following completion of chemotherapy. Complaints of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are also commonly reported by women during and following the menopause transition in non-cancer patients. Although the majority of evidence for cognitive difficulties in cancer patients and survivors is attributed to chemotherapy, there is growing evidence to suggest that menopausal status can also influence cognitive function in cancer patients. Given that menopausal status may be contributing to pCRCI, we compared a group of primarily post-menopausal women with pCRCI to two groups of post-menopausal women: women who endorse menopause-associated SCD (maSCD+) and women who do not (maSCD-) to explore the similarities/differences between maSCD and pCRCI and the potential role of menopause in pCRCI. pCRCI participants report more severe SCD symptoms than women after natural menopause, despite being on average 2.5-years post-chemotherapy, supporting previous findings that CRCI can persist for months to years after completing treatment. pCRCI participants not only endorsed greater SCD, but also exhibited objective performance differences. In addition, pCRCI participants endorsed significantly greater menopausal symptoms compared to either maSCD group. Results were not related to menopausal status prior to chemotherapy or current endocrine therapy use. These results suggest that while menopausal symptoms may contribute to SCD experienced by cancer patients after chemotherapy, they do not fully account for pCRCI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Hamish B Wallace

    Full Text Available The human ovary contains a fixed number of non-growing follicles (NGFs established before birth that decline with increasing age culminating in the menopause at 50-51 years. The objective of this study is to model the age-related population of NGFs in the human ovary from conception to menopause. Data were taken from eight separate quantitative histological studies (n = 325 in which NGF populations at known ages from seven weeks post conception to 51 years (median 32 years were calculated. The data set was fitted to 20 peak function models, with the results ranked by obtained r2 correlation coefficient. The highest ranked model was chosen. Our model matches the log-adjusted NGF population from conception to menopause to a five-parameter asymmetric double Gaussian cumulative (ADC curve (r2 = 0.81. When restricted to ages up to 25 years, the ADC curve has r2 = 0.95. We estimate that for 95% of women by the age of 30 years only 12% of their maximum pre-birth NGF population is present and by the age of 40 years only 3% remains. Furthermore, we found that the rate of NGF recruitment towards maturation for most women increases from birth until approximately age 14 years then decreases towards the menopause. To our knowledge, this is the first model of ovarian reserve from conception to menopause. This model allows us to estimate the number of NGFs present in the ovary at any given age, suggests that 81% of the variance in NGF populations is due to age alone, and shows for the first time, to our knowledge, that the rate of NGF recruitment increases from birth to age 14 years then declines with age until menopause. An increased understanding of the dynamics of human ovarian reserve will provide a more scientific basis for fertility counselling for both healthy women and those who have survived gonadotoxic cancer treatments.

  13. Comparison of the effects of surgical and natural menopause on carotid intima media thickness, osteoporosis, and homocysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Enis; Cakir, Evrim; Okuyan, Erhan; Cakir, Caner; Ustün, Gülnihal; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors. We designed this study to compare common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and homocysteine level between women who had natural menopause and those who had surgical menopause and to correlate IMT, bone mineral density (BMD), and homocysteine level with time since menopause. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women aged 50 to 78 years who were not on hormone therapy (45 women who did not have a prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy and 45 women who had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy) were included in the study. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid artery, BMD, and serum homocysteine level analysis were completed to evaluate the relationship between type of menopause, time since menopause, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Mean ± SD carotid artery IMT measurements were 0.72 ± 0.002 mm among women experiencing natural menopause and 0.88 ± 0.003 mm among women having bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.002). After adjusting for time since menopause and age, the mean IMT also differed between the two groups: 0.76 ± 0.003 mm in the natural menopause group and 0.84 ± 0.003 mm in the bilateral oophorectomy group (P = 0.038). The age-adjusted carotid IMT was significantly positively associated with years since menopause (P = 0.001). Mean homocysteine measurements were 10.3 ± 5 μmol/L among women experiencing natural menopause and 9.1 ± 4 μmol/L among women who had bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.216). Age-adjusted femur total, trochanter, and shaft BMDs were significantly lower in the surgical menopause group (P = 0.041, P = 0.034, and P = 0.046, respectively). Oophorectomy before natural menopause increases IMT but not homocysteine levels independent of age and time since menopause and is associated with lower BMD values after adjustment for age.

  14. Comparing the Pattern of Menopausal Symptoms, Concern and Attitudes in Urban and Rural Postmenopausal Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Haggi, Hurieh Badali; Shojai, Shayan Kamali; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Farhan, Faranak

    2018-04-01

    Although hormonal changes during menopause are inevitable in this period, the severity of the menopausal symptoms can be controlled. Accepting menopause and having a positive attitude toward it can also help. Given the results of previous studies, and since environmental factors affect the pattern of menopausal symptoms the present study was conducted to compare the pattern of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes in urban and rural postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on urban and rural postmenopausal women residing in and around Tabriz, Iran. Cluster sampling was used to select the subjects. The data collection tools used included a demographic questionnaire to assess women's experiences during menopause. This study examined 544 urban and rural postmenopausal women between March and September 2015. The women had a mean age of 51.8 ± 3.1. After adjusting the basic variables, the mean scores of menopausal symptoms and their subscales showed significantly higher scores in the physical and psychological subscales in the urban women, while the rural women had significantly higher scores in the concern subscale. Rural women were significantly different from urban women in terms of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes. Hot flushes, a common menopausal symptom, and decreased sexual desire were more common in the urban women; in contrast, the rural women experienced more concern about menopause and its consequences.

  15. Increased menopausal symptoms among Afro-Colombian women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Alvaro; Blumel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter

    2008-02-20

    Increased frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms have been associated to black race. However, this situation has not been described in any Latin American population. Compare frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms among Afro and non-Afro Hispanic Colombian climacteric women. In this cross-sectional study, healthy Afro and non-Afro-Colombian women aged 40-59 years were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) questionnaire in order to compare symptom frequency and intensity. A total of 578 women were surveyed (201 Afro-Colombian and 377 non-Afro-Colombian). Mean age of the whole sample was 47.9+/-5.9 years (median 47), with no differences among studied groups in terms of age, parity, and hormone therapy (HT) use. Intensity of menopausal symptoms, assessed with the total MRS score, was found to be significantly higher among Afro-Colombian women (10.6+/-6.7 vs. 7.5+/-5.7, p=0.0001), which was due to higher somatic and psychological subscale scores. In this group, the frequency of somatic symptoms, heart discomfort and muscle and joint problems, was found to be higher than in non-Afro-Colombian women (38.8% vs. 26.8% and 77.1% vs. 43.5%, respectively, pColombian ones presented more bladder problems (24.9% vs. 14.9%, p=0.005). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis determined that black race increased the risk for presenting higher total MRS scorings (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.55-3.45, p=0.0001). Despite the limitations of this study, as determined with the MRS Afro-Colombian women exhibited more impaired quality of life (QoL) when compared to non-Afro-Colombian ones, due to a higher rate and severity of menopausal somatic and psychological symptoms.

  16. Sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional de mulheres na pós-menopausa usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal Climacteric symptoms and nutritional status of women in post-menopause users and non-users of hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Andréia França Gravena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os sintomas climatéricos e estado nutricional em mulheres na pós-menopausa, usuárias e não usuárias de terapia hormonal (TH. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico, exploratório, tipo inquérito populacional domiciliar, realizado na área urbana do município de Maringá, Paraná, incluindo 456 mulheres com idade entre 45 e 69 anos, no período pós-menopausa. A coleta teve como base de referência os setores censitários urbanizados (368 do município, de acordo com o Censo Demográfico Brasileiro. Foi utilizada amostra aleatória simples proporcional às mulheres residentes em cada setor censitário e, por meio de visita domiciliar, aplicou-se um questionário e verificaram-se as medidas antropométricas e pressão arterial. Para avaliação dos sintomas climatéricos, foi utilizado o Índice Menopausal de Blatt e Kupperman. A variável desfecho foi o uso de TH. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 58,7 anos. O excesso de peso esteve presente em 72,6% das mulheres e a obesidade abdominal em 81,4% delas. Sintomas climatéricos de intensidade leve foram evidenciados em 69,5% das mulheres. Apenas 18,4% das mulheres faziam uso de TH e eram, na sua maioria, brancas, não fumantes, sem comorbidades e sem companheiro. Usuárias de TH apresentaram menor frequência de excesso de peso e obesidade abdominal e tiveram menor prevalência de sintomas climatéricos de intensidade severa. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal foram prevalentes na amostra estudada. Embora em menor número, as usuárias de TH apresentaram uma frequência menor de excesso de peso e sintomas climatéricos leves e intensos na pós-menopausa.PURPOSE: To analyze the climacteric symptoms, nutritional status and distribution of abdominal fat in postmenopausal women using or not hormone therapy. METHODS: exploratory analytical study of the population survey type in the urban area of Maringa, Parana, conducted on 456 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 69

  17. Association of the Joint Effect of Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer in African American Women: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sarpong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the US and in Mississippi. Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women, and the underlying pathophysiology remains unknown, especially among African American (AA women. The study purpose was to examine the joint effect of menopause status (MS and hormone replacement therapy (HRT on the association with cancers, particularly BC using data from the Jackson Heart Study. The analytic sample consisted of 3202 women between 35 and 84 years of which 73.7% and 22.6% were postmenopausal and on HRT, respectively. There were a total of 190 prevalent cancer cases (5.9% in the sample with 22.6% breast cancer cases. Menopause (p < 0.0001, but not HRT (p = 0.6402, was independently associated with cancer. Similar results were obtained for BC. BC, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prevalent cardiovascular disease, physical activity and certain dietary practices were all significantly associated with the joint effect of menopause and HRT in the unadjusted analyses. The family history of cancer was the only covariate that was significantly associated with cancer in the age-adjusted models. In examining the association of cancer and the joint effect of menopause and HRT, AA women who were menopausal and were not on HRT had a 1.97 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.38 times odds of having cancer compared to pre-menopausal women after adjusting for age; which was attenuated after further adjusting for family history of cancer. Given that the cancer and BC cases were small and key significant associations were attenuated after adjusting for the above mentioned covariates, these findings warrant further investigation in studies with larger sample sizes of cancer (and BC cases.

  18. Type and Timing of Menopause and Later Life Mortality Among Women in the Iowa Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between menopausal characteristics and later life mortality is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that women with surgical menopause would have increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with women with natural menopause, and that women with earlier ages at natural or surgical menopause would have greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than women with later ages at menopause. Methods Women who participated in the Iowa cohort of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (n=1684) reported menopausal characteristics and potential confounding variables at baseline and were followed up for up to 24 years. Participants were aged 65 years or older at baseline and lived in rural areas. We used survival analysis to examine the relationships between menopausal characteristics and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results A total of 1477 women (87.7% of respondents) died during the study interval. Women with an age at natural menopause ≥55 years had increased all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared with women who had natural menopause at younger ages. Type of menopause and age at surgical menopause were not related to mortality. These patterns persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Among an older group of women from a rural area of the United States, later age at natural menopause was related to increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Monitoring the cardiovascular health of this group of older women may contribute to improved survival times. PMID:21970557

  19. Sleep and menopause: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Joan L; Woods, Nancy F

    2015-08-01

    Our overall aim-through a narrative review-is to critically profile key extant evidence of menopause-related sleep, mostly from studies published in the last decade. We searched the database PubMed using selected Medical Subject Headings for sleep and menopause (n = 588 articles). Using similar headings, we also searched the Cochrane Library (n = 1), Embase (n = 449), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (n = 163), Web of Science (n = 506), and PsycINFO (n = 58). Articles deemed most related to the purpose were reviewed. Results were articulated with interpretive comments according to evidence of sleep quality (self-reported) and sleep patterns (polysomnography and actigraphy) impact as related to reproductive aging and in the context of vasomotor symptoms (VMS; self-reported), vasomotor activity (VMA) events (recorded skin conductance), depressed mood, and ovarian hormones. Predominantly, the menopausal transition conveys poor sleep beyond anticipated age effects. Perceptions of sleep are not necessarily translatable from detectable physical sleep changes and are probably affected by an emotional overlay on symptoms reporting. Sleep quality and pattern changes are mostly manifest in wakefulness indicators, but sleep pattern changes are not striking. Likely contributing are VMS of sufficient frequency/severity and bothersomeness, probably with a sweating component. VMA events influence physical sleep fragmentation but not necessarily extensive sleep loss or sleep architecture changes. Lack of robust connections between perceived and recorded sleep (and VMA) could be influenced by inadequate detection. There is a need for studies of women in well-defined menopausal transition stages who have no sleep problems, accounting for sleep-related disorders, mood, and other symptoms, with attention to VMS dimensions, distribution of VMS during night and day, and advanced measurement of symptoms and physiologic manifestations.

  20. Effectiveness of coaching for enhancing the health of menopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    We conducted and evaluated a coaching intervention aimed at encouraging menopausal women's engagement in goal-oriented actions, self-efficacy enhancement, menopausal symptom alleviation, and quality of life improvement. The study was a randomized controlled trial comprising women aged 40-60 who were not receiving hormone therapy. The intervention group received leaflets and three monthly coaching sessions. Instruments included the Simplified Menopausal Index, Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and goal achievement scale. Participants were measured preintervention, immediately postintervention, and three months postintervention. A 3-month coaching intervention to enhance menopausal women's health increased their self-efficacy. This effect was not maintained 3 months postintervention.

  1. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P -trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P -trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  2. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  3. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause. Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method. Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet. Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  4. Web-based interventions for menopause: A systematic integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2017-01-01

    Advances in computer and Internet technologies have allowed health care providers to develop, use, and test various types of Web-based interventions for their practice and research. Indeed, an increasing number of Web-based interventions have recently been developed and tested in health care fields. Despite the great potential for Web-based interventions to improve practice and research, little is known about the current status of Web-based interventions, especially those related to menopause. To identify the current status of Web-based interventions used in the field of menopause, a literature review was conducted using multiple databases, with the keywords "online," "Internet," "Web," "intervention," and "menopause." Using these keywords, a total of 18 eligible articles were analyzed to identify the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause. Six themes reflecting the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause were identified: (a) there existed few Web-based intervention studies on menopause; (b) Web-based decision support systems were mainly used; (c) there was a lack of detail on the interventions; (d) there was a lack of guidance on the use of Web-based interventions; (e) counselling was frequently combined with Web-based interventions; and (f) the pros and cons were similar to those of Web-based methods in general. Based on these findings, directions for future Web-based interventions for menopause are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 1–3 YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Subarkah; Nursalam Nursalam; Praba Diyan Rachmawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%). Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan d...

  6. It is not just menopause: symptom clustering in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Siobán D; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Elliott, Michael R; Bondarenko, Irina; Avis, Nancy E; Bromberger, Joyce T; Brooks, Maria Mori; Miller, Janis M; Reed, Barbara D

    2017-01-01

    Patterns of symptom clustering in midlife women may suggest common underlying mechanisms or may identify women at risk of adverse health outcomes or, conversely, likely to experience healthy aging. This paper assesses symptom clustering in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) longitudinally by stage of reproductive aging and estimates the probability of women experiencing specific symptom clusters. We also evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of specific symptom clusters and assess whether symptom clustering is associated with women's self-reported health status. This analysis includes 3289 participants in the multiethnic SWAN cohort who provided information on 58 symptoms reflecting a broad range of physical, psychological and menopausal symptoms at baseline and 7 follow-up visits over 16 years. We conducted latent transition analyses to assess symptom clustering and to model symptomatology across the menopausal transition (pre, early peri-, late peri- and post-menopausal). Joint multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify demographic characteristics associated with premenopausal latent class membership. A partial proportional odds regression model was used to assess the association between latent class membership and self-reported health status. We identified six latent classes that ranged from highly symptomatic (LC1) across most measured symptoms, to moderately symptomatic across most measured symptoms (LC2), to moderately symptomatic for a subset of symptoms (vasomotor symptoms, pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances and physical health symptoms) (LC3 and LC5) with one class (LC3) including interference in life activities because of physical health symptoms, to numerous milder symptoms, dominated by fatigue and psychological symptoms (LC4), to relatively asymptomatic (LC6). In pre-menopause, 10% of women were classified in LC1, 16% in LC2, 14% in LC3 and LC4, 26% in LC5, and 20% in LC6. Intensity of vasomotor and

  7. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  8. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Broekmans, Frank J; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H; Mooij, Thea M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Verhoef, Senno; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Adank, Muriel A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Doorn, Helena C; van Os, Theo A; Bos, Anna M; Rookus, Matti A; Ausems, Margreet G

    2016-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.

  9. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study may also apply to younger women. However, women in the study were not using MHT to relieve symptoms of menopause. In addition, the WHI trials tested single-dose strengths of one estrogen-only medication (Premarin) ...

  10. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  11. The association between early menopause and risk of ischaemic heart disease: Influence of Hormone Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials find no protection against development of ischaemic heart disease by use of Hormone Therapy (HT) after the age of 50 years. Observational studies suggest that early menopause is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. Yet, a clinical very relevant question is whether...... HT reduces this risk associated with early menopause....

  12. Longitudinal Changes in Sexual Functioning as Women Transition Through Menopause: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F.; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S.; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sexual functioning is an important component of women’s lives. The extent to which the menopause transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopause transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. Design A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at 7 US sites (N=3302) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause, but declined during postmenopause. Menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Conclusions Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. Adjusting for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional satisfaction with

  13. Burning mouth syndrome and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS, which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder.

  14. Burning Mouth Syndrome and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Kumar, Mukesh; Niti; Gupta, Rajan; Chaudhary, Karun

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process typically occurring in the fifth decade of life. One of the most annoying oral symptoms in this age group is the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), which may be defined as an intraoral burning sensation occurring in the absence of identifiable oral lesion or laboratory findings. Pain in burning mouth syndrome may be described as burning, tender, tingling, hot, scalding, and numb sensation in the oral mucosa. Multiple oral sites may be involved, but the anterior two-third part and the tip of tongue are most commonly affected site. There is no definite etiology for BMS other than the precipitating causative factors, and it is still considered idiopathic. Various treatment options like use of benzodiazepine, anti-depressants, analgesics, capsaicin, alpha lipoic acids, and cognitive behavioral therapy are found to be effective, but definite treatment is still unknown. The present article discusses some of the recent concepts of etiopathogenesis of BMS as well as the role of pharmacotherapeutic management in this disorder. PMID:23411996

  15. The 2017 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The 2017 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) updates the 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society and identifies future research needs. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health and menopause was recruited by NAMS to review the 2012 Position Statement, evaluate new literature, assess the evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations, using the level of evidence to identify the strength of recommendations and the quality of the evidence. The Panel's recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees.Hormone therapy (HT) remains the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and has been shown to prevent bone loss and fracture. The risks of HT differ depending on type, dose, duration of use, route of administration, timing of initiation, and whether a progestogen is used. Treatment should be individualized to identify the most appropriate HT type, dose, formulation, route of administration, and duration of use, using the best available evidence to maximize benefits and minimize risks, with periodic reevaluation of the benefits and risks of continuing or discontinuing HT.For women aged younger than 60 years or who are within 10 years of menopause onset and have no contraindications, the benefit-risk ratio is most favorable for treatment of bothersome VMS and for those at elevated risk for bone loss or fracture. For women who initiate HT more than 10 or 20 years from menopause onset or are aged 60 years or older, the benefit-risk ratio appears less favorable because of the greater absolute risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and dementia. Longer durations of therapy should be for documented indications such as persistent VMS or bone loss, with shared decision making and periodic reevaluation. For bothersome GSM symptoms not

  16. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  17. Sleep During Menopausal Transition: A 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Kurki, Samu; Huupponen, Eero; Engblom, Janne; Heinonen, Olli J; Polo, Olli; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    Menopausal transition is associated with increased dissatisfaction with sleep, but the effects on sleep architecture are conflicting. This prospective 6-year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the changes in sleep stages and sleep continuity that occur in women during menopausal transition. Sixty women (mean age 46.0 years, SD 0.9) participated. All women were premenopausal at baseline, and at the 6-year follow-up, women were in different stages of menopausal transition. Polysomnography was used to study sleep architecture at baseline and follow-up. The effects of aging and menopause (assessed as change in serum follicle-stimulating hormone [S-FSH]) on sleep architecture were evaluated using linear regression models. After controlling for body mass index, vasomotor, and depressive symptoms, aging of 6 years resulted in shorter total sleep time (B -37.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -71.5 to (-3.3)), lower sleep efficiency (B -6.5, 95%CI -12.7 to (-0.2)), as well as in increased transitions from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to wakefulness (B 1.0, 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9), wake after sleep onset (B 37.7, 95%CI 12.5 to 63.0), awakenings per hour (B 1.8, 95%CI 0.8 to 2.8), and arousal index (B 2.3, 95%CI 0.1 to 4.4). Higher S-FSH concentration in menopausal transition was associated with increased SWS (B 0.09, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.16) after controlling for confounding factors. A significant deterioration in sleep continuity occurs when women age from 46 to 52 years, but change from premenopausal to menopausal state restores some SWS. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Menopause is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtiaghi, Radina; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2010-03-01

    Gender differences in prevalence and consequences of the metabolic syndrome as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), are challenging problems. Postmenopausal status may explain in part the cause of acceleration of CVD with aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of menopause and metabolic syndrome independent of aging among Iranian women. On the basis of consecutive recruitment, 940 women between 20 and 76 years old participated in the study. Anthropometric indices, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile were measured, Framingham risk score and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were calculated for all participants. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We used IDF definition for metabolic syndrome modified by our recent local data as an alternative measurements. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 26.4%. Its prevalence was 53.5% in postmenopausal versus 18.3% in premenopausal women. On binary logistic regression analysis, HOMA index, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, family history of diabetes and hypertension had an independent and significant effect on metabolic syndrome. Age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of postmenopausal status for metabolic syndrome was 2.85 (95%CI: 1.31-6.20) (Pmenopause had metabolic syndrome versus 24% in age-matched group and Framingham risk score was significantly higher than normal cases 5.4+/-4.9 versus 2.0+/-2.3 (PMenopausal status can be a predictor of metabolic syndrome independent of age in Iranian women. Menopause is a process closely related to insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Phytoestrogens in the treatment of menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remport, Júlia; Blázovics, Anna

    2017-08-01

    In previous centuries many women did not even live until their menopause years due to poor economic conditions, deficiencies of medicine, epidemics and wars. Nowadays in the developed countries, people live until they are 75-80 years old, and with the expansion of average age, the number of people affected by menopause and the years spent in that state increase. Nowadays women spend one third of their lives in the menopausal stage. The only effective way to treat unpleasant symptoms for centuries was with the use of herbs, and the knowledge about them spread through oral tradition. In the 20th century, this therapeutic form was pushed into the background by the development of synthetic drug production and the introduction of hormone replacement therapy. Thanks to the influence of media in the 20th century, women began to have the social need for preserving their beauty and youth for as long as they could. Hormone replacement therapy enjoyed great popularity because women were temporarily relieved of their life quality-impairing menopausal symptoms, but years later it turned out that hormone replacement therapy could pose serious risks. A distinct advantage of herbal therapy is the more advantageous side-effect-profile opposite the used synthetics in hormone replacement therapy. Women are therefore happy to turn to valuable and well-tried natural therapies, which have been used for thousands of years. There is growing interest in herbal remedies. Studying the effects of phytoestrogens has now become an active area for research. However, the results of studies in animals and humans are controversial, some sources suggest that phytoestrogens are effective and safe, other authors claim that they are ineffective in menopause or they have particularly dangerous properties, and cannot be recommended to everyone. It is important to address this issue for the sake of health, mental health and safety of women, and so it is necessary to assess the benefits and the risks

  20. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin...... secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. METHODS: In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid...... by mathematical modeling. RESULTS: CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P menopausal women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid...

  1. Deconstructing the cultural confinement of the Western menopausal women towards a spirituality of liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Meletiou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the ages, menstruation and menopause have posed unique challenges in the life of women. In Biblical times, much was said about the impurity of a menstruating woman. In the past century, however, the focus gradually shifted to menopause and the effect thereof on a woman�s body, both aesthetically and physiologically. Freud went so far as to argue that menopausal women are neurotic and that an oophorectomy (the surgical removal of the female ovaries should be a standard procedure for a menopausal woman. Unfortunately, this Freudian theory has not yet been completely demolished in our contemporary society. Hysterectomies (the surgical removal of the uterus are still frequently performed on menopausal women, and all too often, antidepressants are included in menopausal women� medical regimes. The question remains: Can hysterectomy, hormone replacement therapy and antidepressants �erase� the challenges that Western menopausal women face?Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Western menopausal women are under tremendous social pressure to preserve their youthfulness. Many middle-aged women live with the fear that their declining sexual appeal may result in rejection, both personally and professionally. Unfortunately, the intellectual value of these women is seldom acknowledged.�

  2. The impact of menopausal symptoms on quality of life, productivity, and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose; Shah, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of menopausal symptoms and menopausal symptom severity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), work impairment, healthcare utilization, and costs. Data from the 2005 United States National Health and Wellness Survey were used, with only women 40-64 years without a history of cancer included in the analyses (N=8,811). Women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms (n=4,116) were compared with women not experiencing menopausal symptoms (n=4,695) on HRQoL, work impairment, and healthcare utilization using regression modeling (and controlling for demographics and health characteristic differences). Additionally, individual menopausal symptoms were used as predictors of outcomes in a separate set of regression models. The mean age of women in the analysis was 49.8 years (standard deviation,±5.9). Women experiencing menopausal symptoms reported significantly lower levels of HRQoL and significantly higher work impairment, and healthcare utilization than women without menopausal symptoms. Depression, anxiety, and joint stiffness were symptoms with the strongest associations with health outcomes. Menopausal symptoms can be a significant humanistic and economic burden on women in middle age.

  3. Aromatherapy for managing menopausal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiae; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Ju Ah; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aromatherapy is often used as a complementary therapy for women's health. This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of aromatherapy as a management for menopausal symptoms. Methods: Eleven electronic databases will be searched from inception to February 2018. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated any type of aromatherapy against any type of control in individuals with menopausal symptoms will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and risk of bias and to extract data. Results: This study will provide a high quality synthesis of current evidence of aromatherapy for menopausal symptoms measured with Menopause Rating Scale, the Kupperman Index, the Greene Climacteric Scale, or other validated questionnaires. Conclusions: The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether aromatherapy is an effective intervention for patient with menopausal women. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval will not be required, given that this protocol is for a systematic review. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017079191. PMID:29419673

  4. The impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.

  5. A Theory for the Origin of Human Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mike; Singh, Rama S; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    A complete and compelling evolutionary explanation for the origin of human menopause is wanting. Menopause onset is defined clinically as the final menses, confirmed after 1 year without menstruation. The theory proposed herein explains at multiple levels - ultimately genetic but involving (1) behavioral, (2) life history, and (3) social changes - the origin and evolution of menopause in women. Individuals in Lower Paleolithic human populations were characterized by short lifespans with diminished late-age survival and fertility, similar to contemporary chimpanzees, and thence were subject to three changes. (1) A mating behavior change was established in which only young women reproduced, thereby rendering as effectively neutral female-specific late-onset fertility-diminishing mutations, which accumulated subsequently. (2) A lifespan increase was manifested adaptively, revealing the reproductive senescence phenotype encoded in late-onset fertility-diminishing mutation genotypes, which, heretofore, had been unexpressed in the shorter lifespan. (3) A social interaction change emerged exaptively, when older non-reproductive women exclusively started assisting in rearing grandchildren rather than giving birth to and caring for their own children, ultimately leading to menstrual cycle cessation. The changes associate in a one-to-one manner with existing, non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of human menopause. Evidence for each hypothesis and its associated change having occurred are reviewed, and the hypotheses are combined in a synthetic theory for the origin of human menopause. The new theory simultaneously addresses the main theoretical problem with each hypothesis and yields predictions for future testing.

  6. Identifying the educational needs of menopausal women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Ainscough, Jessica L; Trant, Meredith; Starker, Joan; Cousineau, Tara M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the educational needs of menopausal women and test the feasibility of an online self management program based on social learning theory. The four stages included 1) a needs assessment using a) focus groups with 24 women ages 40 to 55 and b) phone interviews with eight health experts; 2) the use of concept mapping methodology for quantifying qualitative data from stage 1 to identify the core programmatic concepts; 3) development of a demonstration program; and 4) a pilot study with 35 women and 9 health experts to assess knowledge gained and program satisfaction. Results show that women desire more information about normalcy of menopause and symptom management and found the program to meet a need for menopausal education otherwise perceived as unavailable. The women significantly increased their menopausal knowledge after brief exposure (t(34) = 3.64; p = .001). This project provides support for an online health education program for menopausal women and content ideas for inclusion in women's health education curriculum. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What Are the Symptoms of Menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pinterest Email Print What are the symptoms of menopause? Perimenopause begins with a change in a woman's ... longer than a week. A common symptom of menopause is the appearance of hot flashes (sometimes called ...

  8. Menopause in the workplace: What employers should be doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Gavin; Riach, Kathleen; Bariola, Emily; Pitts, Marian; Schapper, Jan; Sarrel, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Large numbers of women transition through menopause whilst in paid employment. Symptoms associated with menopause may cause difficulties for working women, especially if untreated, yet employers are practically silent on this potentially costly issue. This review summarises existing research on the underexplored topic of menopause in the workplace, and synthesises recommendations for employers. Longstanding scholarly interest in the relationship between employment status and symptom reporting typically (but not consistently) shows that women in paid employment (and in specific occupations) report fewer and less severe symptoms than those who are unemployed. Recent studies more systematically focused on the effects of menopausal symptoms on work are typically cross-sectional self-report surveys, with a small number of qualitative studies. Though several papers established that vasomotor (and associated) symptoms have a negative impact on women's productivity, capacity to work and work experience, this is not a uniform finding. Psychological and other somatic symptoms associated with menopause can have a relatively greater negative influence. Physical (e.g., workplace temperature and design) and psychosocial (e.g., work stress, perceptions of control/autonomy) workplace factors have been found to influence the relationship between symptoms and work. Principal recommendations for employers to best support menopausal women as part of a holistic approach to employee health and well-being include risk assessments to make suitable adjustments to the physical and psychosocial work environment, provision of information and support, and training for line managers. Limitations of prior studies, and directions for future research are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The menopause transition experiences of Chinese Singaporean women: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui-Koon; Mackey, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Menopause, a developmental occurrence that takes place in midlife, marks the end of a woman's fertile phase. Cultural norms, social influences, and personal perceptions related to menopause may influence its meaning and how each woman experiences this transition. Little is known about the menopausal experiences of Asian women. This study explores the menopause transition experiences of ethnic Chinese women in Singapore. Using a qualitative design, the researchers conducted audio-taped interviews in 2010 with 14 menopausal and postmenopausal Chinese Singaporean women aged 40-60 years. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interviews. Two main themes were identified: (a) experiencing symptoms and (b) managing symptoms during menopause transition. The most commonly reported symptoms were abnormal bleeding, hot flushes, and emotional changes. Most participants described their transition to be uneventful and ordinary and reported two significant symptoms at most. The strategies women used to manage their transition included using Western and traditional Chinese medical interventions and seeking support from family and friends. This study provides new insights into how ethnic Chinese women in Singapore experience menopause transition. Findings can assist nurses and healthcare workers in the local context to better understand menopausal women's needs and guide nurses to implement suitable health promotional strategies for women under their care in both hospital and community settings. Although ethnicity is not necessarily a determinant of symptom experience during menopause transition, health education for menopausal women should be based on knowledge of culture-specific practices. Nurses caring for menopausal women in hospital and community settings in Singapore should evaluate the use of medications prescribed by Western and Chinese herbal medical professionals as well as those that are self-prescribed.

  10. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  11. Insulin-resistance and lipids metabolism in women at menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dmitrуina Gresko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes lipid metabolism in women during premenopausal and considered their relationship with the level of insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity. Examined 20 women aged 46-48 years, with fixed transition to pre-menopause on the bases of menstrual cycle dysfunction or amenorrhea during a year as well as a decrease of visualized follicular reserve according to the results of ultrasonic examination of the organs of the small pelvis, were involved into investigation. Body mass increase with abdominal obese formation and disorders of the lipid metabolism against a background of insulin resistance is observed in women during pre-menopause against a background of sexual hormones deficiency.

  12. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  13. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  14. Association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ju; Cho, Juhee; Ahn, Younjhin; Yim, Gyeyoon; Park, Hyun-Young

    2014-10-03

    Physical activity may be an effective way of preventing or attenuating menopause-related symptoms, and it has been shown to improve quality of life in menopausal women. However, there have been some inconsistencies regarding between exercise and menopausal symptoms, and study investigating this association has been scarce in Korea. In this study, the association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women in Korea was assessed. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between November 2012 and March 2013. In total, 2,204 healthy women aged 44-56 years were recruited from a healthcare center at the Kangbuk Samsung hospitals for investigating women's attitudes towards menopause. To investigate the influence of physical activity on perimenopause-associated symptoms, 631 perimenopausal women were selected for this study. Their physical activity levels were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. The Menopause-specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used to assess menopause-related symptoms. The study participants were, on average, 48.5 ± 2.7 years old and had a mean body mass index of 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2. The total MENQOL score and the psychosocial and physical subscores exhibited U-shaped trends in relation to the level of physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables showed that perimenopausal women who performed moderate physical activity reported significantly lower psychosocial (β = -0.413, P = 0.012) and physical symptoms (β = -0.445, P = 0.002) than women who performed low physical activity. By contrast, a high level of physical activity did not influence the MENQOL total score and subscores relative to the low activity group. In addition, no associations were observed between physical activity and the vasomotor and sexual symptoms in any group. Moderate level of physical activity was associated

  15. Morpho-physiological features associated with menopause: recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian follicular activity which happens as a result of depletion of primary follicles which is basically an aging effect. Depletion of ovarian follicles is reflected as declined production of oestradiol which is currently known to be central to the ...

  16. Menopausal challenges as perceived by women in rural villages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the challenges of menopause as perceived by participants in rural villages of Vhembe District. A cross-sectional study involved a sample of 500 women between the ages of 40 years and above. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and was analysed descriptively. The results indicated that ...

  17. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary habits and nutritional status of children in preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Dzidrova, Violeta; Nikolovska, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is the most important for the overall development of the personality. During this period, each child realizes that it is an independent entity, and it expresses certain requirements, desires, actions, proceedings and behaviour. Our research aims to display nutritional status and degree of obesity among preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia and nutritional quality of their diet. Because of the increasing incidence of obesity in childhood and it...

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Tribulus Terrestris on Sexual Function of Menopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Sóstenes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Yamada, Silvia Saito; dos Reis, Benedito Fabiano; da Silva, Gustavo Maximiliano Dutra; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of Tribulus terrestris on sexual function in menopausal women. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that included 60 postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. The women were divided into two groups, placebo group and Tribulus group, and evaluated by using the Sexual Quotient-female version (SQ-F) and Female Intervention Efficacy Index (FIEI) questionnaires. There was no significant difference between the groups in age, age at menopause, civil status, race, and religion. In the evaluation with the SQ-F questionnaire, there were significant differences between the placebo (7.6 ± 3.2) and Tribulus (10.2 ± 3.2) groups in the domains of desire and sexual interest (p ≤ 0.001), foreplay (3.3 ± 1.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.0) (p ≤ 0.01), arousal and harmonious interaction with the partner (5.7 ± 2.1 versus 7.2 ± 2.6) (p ≤ 0.01), and comfort in sexual intercourse (6.5 ± 2.4 versus 8.0 ± 1.9) (p ≤ 0.01). There was no significant difference between the placebo and Tribulus groups in the domains of orgasm and sexual satisfaction (p = 0.28). In the FIEI questionnaire, there was a significant improvement (p Tribulus terrestris to be effective in treating sexual problems among menopausal women. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Study on the serum prolactin (PRL) level in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen; Zhou Zhengli

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of determination of serum PRL levels inpost-menopausal women. Methods: Serum PRL levels were determined with RIA in 596 post-menopausal women (age 45-59, mean 55). Results: The normal range of serum PRL level in this laboratory was 0-30 ng/ml. Among the 596 women tested, 77(13%) had their PRL levels above 30 ng/ml. Further investigation with CT and/or MRI revealed presence of micro-pituitary-adenoma in 31 of the Symptoms of menopausal syndrome and osteoporosis were much more severe in women with hyperprolactinemia then in those without. Conclusion: As hyperprolactinemia might be a high risk factor for development of breast cancer, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopausal women with hyperprolactinemia should be applied very cautiously, even withheld at all. Determination of serum prolactin levels in post-menopausal women is of practical clinical value. (authors)

  1. Clinical study on osteopenia, serum sexual hormones and BGP level in the menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Guo Hui; Duan Liusheng

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of osteogenesis and osteopenia of the menopausal women, serum [Ca 2+ ], [P 3+ ], AKP, sexual hormones and BGP level were investigated. The blood samples were taken from 177 female individuals who were divided into 5 groups based on different ages of menopause. Serum estradiol, testosterone and BGP were measured by RIA. Serum LH, FSH and PRL were determined by IRMA. Serum [Ca 2+ ], [P 3+ ], AKP were determined by biochemistry analytical methods. Results showed that serum E 2 and T levels in the menopausal women were lower than those in the normal, E 2 decreased significantly. Meanwhile, serum PRL level was only a little lower, but the menopausal female had the higher levels of LH and FSH. Conclusion: the most important cause of osteopenia for the menopausal women is the deficiency of estrogen and degeneration of ovarian function

  2. Masturbation frequency and sexual function domains are associated with serum reproductive hormone levels across the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, John F; Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E; Greendale, Gail A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42-52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance.

  3. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI. We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL. Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32 and 11.8% (45. Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 was present in 27.9% (80 of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.

  4. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400 0 C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not α'. An FCC phase, similar to the M 23 C 6 precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  5. Ageing and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, François J; Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    The risk of severe altitude-induced diseases is related to ventilatory and cardiac responses to hypoxia and is dependent on sex, age and exercise training status. However, it remains unclear how ageing modifies these physiological adaptations to hypoxia. We assessed the physiological responses to hypoxia with ageing through a cross-sectional 20 year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 years old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4 year interval. The influence of sex, training status and menopause was evaluated. The hypoxia-induced desaturation and the ventilatory and cardiac responses to hypoxia at rest and exercise were measured. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased (P ageing. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with ageing in both sexes (P ageing. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal women (P ageing in men while cardiac response is blunted with ageing in both sexes. Training aggravates desaturation at exercise in hypoxia, improves the ventilatory response and limits the ageing-induced blunting of cardiac response to hypoxia. Training limits the negative effects of menopause in cardiorespiratory adaptations to hypoxia.

  6. Hubungan Pengetahuan dengan Sikap Ibu Tentang Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopi Anggista Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Menopause merupakan fase dalam kehidupan seorang wanita yang ditandai dengan berhentinya masa subur. Menopause diikuti dengan gejala yang sering timbul pada tiga hingga sepuluh tahun sebelum datangnya menopause dengan berbagai keluhan, baik keluhan fisik maupun psikologis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan dengan sikap ibu tentang menopause di Desa Tambahrejo Kecamatan Gadingrejo Kabupaten Pringsewu. Desain penelitian ini adalah penelitian survey analitik. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh ibu menopause yang ada di Desa Tambahrejo yang berjumlah 148 orang, dengan sampel berjumlah 60 orang. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisis uji chi-square. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah Ada hubungan yang bermakna antara pengetahuan dengan sikap ibu tentang menopause. Kata Kunci: pengetahuan, sikap, menopause   CORRELATION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE WITH THE ATTITUDE OF MOTHER ABOUT MENOPAUSE Abstract: Menopause is a phase in the life a woman that is marked with the stopping the fertile. Menopause is followed by symptoms that often arise on three up to ten years before the arrival of menopause with a variety complaints, either physical or psychological complaints. This research aims to know the relationship of knowledge with the attitude of mothers about menopause in the village of Tambahrejo sub-district og Gadingrejo Regency Pringsewu. Design research is survey analytical research. The population in this research is the mother of menopause in the village Tambahrejo totalled 148 people with a sample 60 people. Data analysis inthis study uses chi-square formula. Conclusion this study is there is a meaningful relationship between maternal attitudes kowledge about menopause. Keyword: knowledge, attitude, menopause

  7. Is there an independent effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and menopause on the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in middle aged women?

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn O Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Judy Rager; Juley R Stragand

    2008-01-01

    Evelyn O Talbott, Jeanne Zborowski, Judy Rager, Juley R StragandDepartment of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common reproductive endocrine condition manifests at puberty, and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and obesity. PCOS cases exhibit an adverse coronary heart disease (CHD) profile at an early age, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased c...

  8. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  9. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  10. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05). The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05), whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001). Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  11. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Acer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1. From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2, 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3, and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and oxidative stress index (OSI measurements of the crystalline lenses were analyzed. Results: The mean OSI was the lowest in group 1 and highest in group 4. Nevertheless, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in terms of OSI (p >0.05. The mean TOS values were similar between the groups (p >0.05, whereas the mean TAC of group 1 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (p <0.001. Conclusions: Our results indicate that menopause may not promote cataract formation.

  12. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool

  13. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Menarcheal age and nutritional status among school girls' in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is a significant indicator of maturity and puberty in adolescent girls. There has been a decline in menarcheal ago over the years with many factors including nutrition having an influence on it. The aim of this study is to determine the age at menarche and its relationship with anthropometric ...

  15. What do working menopausal women want? A qualitative investigation into women’s perspectives on employer and line manager support

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Hunter, Myra S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore women’s perspectives on what employers and managers should, and should not do in relation to women going through the menopause at work.\\ud Methods: An online questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data in a cross-sectional study of working women. Three open-ended questions asked peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 45-65 years: (i) what they thought employers could do, or should do, to help menopausal women who may be experiencing difficult menopausal symptoms a...

  16. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  17. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  18. Prognostic effect of estrogen receptor status across age in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, N.; During, M.; Rasmussen, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    prognostic factor over all age groups. This effect was limited to the first 5 years after diagnosis, RR: 2.08 (95% CI: 1.95-2.22, p ER negative tumors, RR of death: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79-1.00, p = 0.049). Results were......Estrogen receptor (ER) status is considered as an important prognostic factor as well as a predictive factor for endocrine responsiveness in breast cancer. We analyzed the distribution of ER status across age and estimated variations in the prognostic impact of ER status related to patients' age...... and time since diagnosis. Overall, 26,944 patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed from 1989 to 2004 were included. The proportion of ER positive tumors increased over age from 51 to 82%. In multivariate analysis of overall survival, ER positive status was found to be a significantly positive...

  19. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machi JF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Freire Machi,1,2 Danielle da Silva Dias,3 Sarah Cristina Freitas,3 Oscar Albuquerque de Moraes,1 Maikon Barbosa da Silva,1 Paula Lázara Cruz,1 Cristiano Mostarda,4 Vera M C Salemi,1 Mariana Morris,2 Kátia De Angelis,3 Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen1 1Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Neuro-Immune Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Laboratory of Translational Physiology, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, 4Health Adult and Child, Federal University of Maranhao (UFMA, São Luiz, Maranhão, Brazil Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX. Methods: Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal. After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results: Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized

  20. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  1. Vitamin D levels and menopause-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Erin S; Desai, Manisha; Perrin, Nancy; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Manson, JoAnn E; Cauley, Jane A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tang, Jean; Womack, Catherine; Song, Yiqing; Johnson, Karen C; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Woods, Nancy; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women. A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial of postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [6.8] y) were included in these analyses. Borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms were observed (with P values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. No associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue were observed (P's > 0.10 for fully adjusted models). There is no evidence for a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  2. Treatment-related risk factors for premature menopause following Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Huisbrink, Jeannine; Hauptmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cohort-study among 518 female 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, aged 14 to 40 years (median: 25 years) at treatment (1965-1995). Multivariable Cox regression was used to quantify treatment effects on risk of premature menopause, defined as cessation of menses before age 40...... years. After a median follow up of 9.4 years, 97 women had reached menopause before age 40 years. Chemotherapy was associated with a 12.3-fold increased risk of premature menopause compared with radiotherapy alone. Treatment with MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone......)/ABV (doxorubicine, bleomycine, vinblastine) significantly increased the risk of premature menopause (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.9), although to a lesser extent than MOPP treatment (HR: 5.7). Alkylating agents, especially procarbazine (HR: 8.1) and cyclophosphamide (HR: 3.5), showed the strongest associations. Ten years...

  3. The perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause in Mamelodi, Tshwane district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria N. Makuwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of South African aging population are women, who spend late adulthood experiencing natural menopause. Despite the government spending billions of rand on different services for ageing women, menopausal challenges to African women still receive little attention. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of African women regarding natural menopause, in order to propose recommendations for health and social support systems for women in Mamelodi, Tshwane district. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the study. The population of the study consisted of menopausal women, between the ages 45 and 60 years or more, visiting the clinics for collection of chronic medication and othe rhealth assessment. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a semi-structured interview guide to collect data. Tesch’s method of qualitative data analysis was used in the study. Results: The main theme that emerged from the study was ‘attitude toward menopause’, which was supported by cultural beliefs and experience. The African menopausal women expressed the importance of health support systems that will meet their needs within their context. Conclusion: Women’s health programs and educational health information at facilities should include menopausal education to promote and improve health of all African menopausal women during their adulthood. There is a need to establish a women’s health support group network within communities to share menopausal experiences with peers. The training and education curriculum of healthcare providers should include detailed menopause in order to provide comprehensive, congruent care.

  4. It is not just menopause: symptom clustering in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Siobán D.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Elliott, Michael R.; Bondarenko, Irina; Avis, Nancy E.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Miller, Janis M.; Reed, Barbara D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patterns of symptom clustering in midlife women may suggest common underlying mechanisms or may identify women at risk of adverse health outcomes or, conversely, likely to experience healthy aging. This paper assesses symptom clustering in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) longitudinally by stage of reproductive aging and estimates the probability of women experiencing specific symptom clusters. We also evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of specific symptom clusters and assess whether symptom clustering is associated with women’s self-reported health status. Methods This analysis includes 3289 participants in the multiethnic SWAN cohort who provided information on 58 symptoms reflecting a broad range of physical, psychological and menopausal symptoms at baseline and 7 follow-up visits over 16 years. We conducted latent transition analyses to assess symptom clustering and to model symptomatology across the menopausal transition (pre, early peri-, late peri- and post-menopausal). Joint multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify demographic characteristics associated with premenopausal latent class membership. A partial proportional odds regression model was used to assess the association between latent class membership and self-reported health status. Results We identified six latent classes that ranged from highly symptomatic (LC1) across most measured symptoms, to moderately symptomatic across most measured symptoms (LC2), to moderately symptomatic for a subset of symptoms (vasomotor symptoms, pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances and physical health symptoms) (LC3 and LC5) with one class (LC3) including interference in life activities because of physical health symptoms, to numerous milder symptoms, dominated by fatigue and psychological symptoms (LC4), to relatively asymptomatic (LC6). In pre-menopause, 10% of women were classified in LC1, 16% in LC2, 14% in LC3 and LC4, 26% in LC5, and 20% in LC6

  5. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  6. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant tendency...... for back-feather iridescence to be of shorter reflectance wavelength spectra in mated than in unmated males, which, when combined with acoustic variables, improves prediction of age class and mating status....

  7. The evolution of human phenotypic plasticity: age and nutritional status at maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B

    2003-08-01

    Several evolutionary optimal models of human plasticity in age and nutritional status at reproductive maturation are proposed and their dynamics examined. These models differ from previously published models because fertility is not assumed to be a function of body size or nutritional status. Further, the models are based on explicitly human demographic patterns, that is, model human life-tables, model human fertility tables, and, a nutrient flow-based model of maternal nutritional status. Infant survival (instead of fertility as in previous models) is assumed to be a function of maternal nutritional status. Two basic models are examined. In the first the cost of reproduction is assumed to be a constant proportion of total nutrient flow. In the second the cost of reproduction is constant for each birth. The constant proportion model predicts a negative slope of age and nutritional status at maturation. The constant cost per birth model predicts a positive slope of age and nutritional status at maturation. Either model can account for the secular decline in menarche observed over the last several centuries in Europe. A search of the growth literature failed to find definitive empirical documentation of human phenotypic plasticity in age and nutritional status at maturation. Most research strategies confound genetics with phenotypic plasticity. The one study that reports secular trends suggests a marginally insignificant, but positive slope. This view tends to support the constant cost per birth model.

  8. Age as a determinant of nutritional status: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undenutrition is known to be prevalent and largely unrecognised in older patients; however, aberrations in indicators of nutritional status may simply reflect effects of age and/or functional disability. Objective The aim of this study was to measure the effect, if any of age on nutritional status in older patients. Design 445 randomly selected hospitalised patients consented to nutritional status assessment derived from anthropometric, haematological, and biochemical data within 72 hours of admission. Nutritional status was compared between those age Results Body weight, body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, haemoglobin, serum albumin and plasma ascorbic acid were all significantly lower in people aged ≥ 75 years compared with those 3, red-cell folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were lower in those aged ≥ 75 years, differences were not statistically significant. After adjusting for disability and co-morbidity in a multivariate analysis, age alone had a significant and independent effect on important anthropometric and biochemical nutritional assessment variables. Conclusion Increasing age is independently associated with poor nutritional status. This may partly explain the poor clinical outcome in older patients.

  9. Assessment of Alveolar Bone Status in Middle Aged Chinese (40-59 Years with Chronic Periodontitis--Using CBCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiao Zhao

    Full Text Available This study used con-beam computed tomography (CBCT to investigate the prevalence and severity of alveolar bone loss in middle-aged (40-59 years Chinese with chronic periodontitis.The study group comprised 145 dentate individuals aged 40 to 59 years residing in China who suffered from chronic periodontitis. CBCT and the application of NNT software were used to examine the level and location of alveolar bone loss.The study revealed that 40-59 year old patients with chronic periodontitis had severe bone loss. At 5,286 sites (34.7%, alveolar bone loss was mild; severe alveolar bone loss was found at 5,978 sites (39.2%. A comparison of bone loss in different jaws revealed that the area with the highest degree of bone loss was on the lingual side of the maxillary molar (56.3 ± 7.2%, and that the area with the lowest degree was primarily on the lingual side of the mandibular canine (27.5 ± 6.3%. There was a lower degree of alveolar bone loss in males than females. Differences were observed when comparing the incidence of bone loss between males and females (P < 0.05. Menopause in females and smoking in both genders may affect the level of bone loss. Male smokers experienced a greater degree of bone loss (41.67 ± 5.76% than male non-smokers (32.95 ± 4.31%. A 42.23 ± 6.34% bone loss was found in menopausal females versus 31.35 ± 3.62% in non-menopausal females.The study revealed that different sites and teeth exhibited a diverse degree of bone loss. In middle-aged patients with chronic periodontitis, the highest degrees of bone loss in the incisors, premolars, and molars were on the lingual side, mesial side and lingual side, respectively. Menopause in females and smoking may affect the level of bone loss.

  10. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  11. FEEDING PATTERN TOWARD THE INCREASING OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CHILDREN AGED 1–3 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Subarkah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of nutritional status problems with underweight in Indonesia at the moments is (19,6%. Data showed that children with less nutritional status aged 1-3 years in Kalijudan, Surabaya are existed. Provide feeding pattern properly is one effort to improve the nutritional status by fulfilling the needs of the child nutrition. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationship of feeding pattern and nutritional status in children aged 1-3 years in the Kalijudan district, Surabaya. Methods: The research design used was cross-sectional study with dietary habit as the independent variable and nutritional status as dependent variable. The sample was taken from 154 mothers and children. Consecutive sampling was deployed. Data collection by questionnaires, and then data analysis using the Spearman’s Rho in level  of significance α≤0.05. Result and Analysis: There was strong relationship between feeding pattern and nutritional status (r=0.640. The result showed that inappropriate feeding patterns with nutritional status is very thin (44.4% a proper feeding patterns with normal nutritional status (89.7%.  Discussion and Conclussion: The efforts to improve nutritional status of children aged 1-3 years related to feeding patterns should be improved in order to achieve a normal nutritional status. Further research may explore on the feeding patterns based on dietary allowances. Keywords: feeding pattern, nutritional status, 1-3 years old children

  12. Changes in Australian women's perception of the menopause and menopausal symptoms before and after the climacteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Perz, J

    1994-12-01

    The symptoms and perceptions of menopause of 60 Australian women were studied, by questionnaire, when they were premenopausal and 10 years later when they were postmenopausal. Menopausal symptoms expected and experienced by the women were compared, fewer women experiencing hot flushes, headache, depression and nervousness and more experiencing insomnia, increase in appetite, abdominal fullness, numbness and muscular problems. The symptoms women thought were due to hormonal changes at menopause were compared. In 1993 more women cited osteoporosis, insomnia, loss of libido, obesity and loss of muscle tone as due to hormone change while fewer cited depression. The premenstrual symptoms and their severity experienced by a woman when she was premenopausal significantly predicts the type and severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced by the woman. The expected menopausal symptoms and their severity cited by a woman also significantly predicts the type of severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced. More premenstrual symptoms predict the menopausal symptoms than those menopausal symptoms the women expected. The expectation menopause will be 'a relief' or 'a nuisance' significantly predicted the overall menopause experience described by the women. Their negative attitudes about doctors' understanding and information available about menopause remained unchanged but they forget menstrual cycle problems over the 10 years. The results suggest a possible physiological basis for premenstrual and menopausal symptoms. Assistance for women with their premenstrual and menstrual cycle symptoms may improve their quality of life at menopause.

  13. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  14. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    ) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either RPACA or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of RPACA were all negative; i.e., an increase in RPAC is associated with lower BMD, consistent......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...... for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (RPACA) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO...

  15. Association of alcohol consumption with the onset of natural menopause : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneri, Petek Eylul; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Bramer, Wichor M.; Daan, Nadine M P; Franco, Oscar H.; Muka, Taulant

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early onset of menopause is associated with long-term health risks, including cardiovascular disease and premature death. Although alcohol intake has been suggested to affect the age at which natural menopause occurs, results from observational studies are not consistent. Objective and

  16. Menopause is associated with articular cartilage degeneration: a clinical study of knee joint in 860 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chao; Xiang, Guangheng; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Deheng; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Bin; He, Dengwei; Chen, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between menopause and severity of knee joint cartilage degeneration using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system, with six cartilage surfaces, the medial and lateral femoral condyle, the femoral trochlea, the medial and lateral tibia plateau, and the patella. The study cohort comprised 860 healthy women (age 36-83 y), and 5,160 cartilage surfaces were analyzed. Age, weight, height, age at natural menopause, and years since menopause (YSM) were obtained. Cartilage degeneration was assessed using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system. After removing the age, height, and weight effects, postmenopausal women had more severe cartilage degeneration than pre- and perimenopausal women (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lateral tibia plateau and lateral femoral condyle in postmenopausal women. Menopause is associated with cartilage degeneration of knee joint. After menopause, cartilage showed progressive severe degeneration that occurred in the first 25 YSM, suggesting estrogen deficiency might be a risk factor of cartilage degeneration of the knee joint. Further studies are needed to investigate whether age or menopause plays a more important role in the progression of cartilage degeneration in the knee joint.

  17. Impact of hormone therapy on quality of life after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utian, Wulf H; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2013-10-01

    Given the complexity of the literature on quality of life (QOL) and hormone therapy (HT) among women in the menopausal transition and postmenopause, the purposes of this integrative review were to (1) define QOL as a multidimensional construct; (2) review validated instruments for measurement of QOL; (3) review results of HT and QOL clinical trials that have used validated instruments; and (4) assess the effectiveness of HT on QOL, including health-related QOL (HRQOL), menopause-specific QOL (MSQOL), and global QOL (GQOL). The literature on HT and QOL was searched for definitions of QOL and validated instruments for measuring QOL, and the results were summarized. The purposes of this integrative review were to evaluate the effects of HT on HRQOL, differentiating the effects of HT on GQOL, HRQOL, and MSQOL. As a basis for this review, we searched for published controlled clinical trials in which the effects of HT on QOL were studied using validated QOL instruments, in particular menopause-specific validated instruments. Clear definitions are elucidated. Validated instruments for the measurements of HRQOL, GQOL, and MSQOL are summarized, and the necessity of their incorporation into future research and clinical practice is emphasized. The published effects on QOL of estrogens and progestogens administered to symptomatic and nonsymptomatic women in the menopausal transition and beyond are reviewed. The impact of various health state-related symptoms on HRQOL and GQOL is now an integral component of contemporary health care. Effects of HT include GQOL and HRQOL and should be menopause-specific. There is clearly a need for further studies on menopause and menopause-related therapies using appropriate and validated instruments. Literature review shows that HT provides a significant benefit for MSQOL in midlife women, mainly through relief of symptoms, but treatment also may result in a global increase in sense of well-being (GQOL). HRQOL benefits are contingent on

  18. Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Anderson, Debra; Kuh, Diana; Sandin, Sven; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Lee, Jung Su; Mizunuma, Hideki; Cade, Janet E; Burley, Victoria; Greenwood, Darren C; Goodman, Alissa; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Adami, Hans-Olov; Demakakos, Panayotes; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2017-03-01

    Are parity and the timing of menarche associated with premature and early natural menopause? Early menarche (≤11 years) is a risk factor for both premature menopause (final menstrual period, FMP menopause (FMP 40-44 years), a risk that is amplified for nulliparous women. Women with either premature or early menopause face an increased risk of chronic conditions in later life and of early death. Findings from some studies suggest that early menarche and nulliparity are associated with early menopause, however overall the evidence is mixed. Much of the evidence for a direct relationship is hampered by a lack of comparability across studies, failure to adjust for confounding factors and inadequate statistical power. This pooled study comprises 51 450 postmenopausal women from nine observational studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years) and parity (categorized as no children, one child and two or more children) were exposures of interest. Age at FMP was confirmed by at least 12 months of cessation of menses where this was not the result of an intervention (such as surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy) and categorized as premature menopause (FMP before age 40), early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), 45-49 years, 50-51 years, 52-53 years and 54 or more years. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to estimate relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% CI for associations between menarche, parity and age at FMP adjusting for within-study correlation. The median age at FMP was 50 years (interquartile range 48-53 years), with 2% of the women experiencing premature menopause and 7.6% early menopause. Women with early menarche (≤11 years, compared with 12-13 years) were at higher risk of premature menopause (RRR 1

  19. The mental status examination in the age of the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has grown increasingly relevant in the practice of forensic psychiatry. To a psychiatrist conducting a forensic evaluation, the evaluee's Internet use can be relevant in nearly all aspects of the analysis. An evaluee's Internet presence may help to confirm, corroborate, refute, or elaborate on the psychiatrist's general impression of the person. Questions about the individual's choice of screen names, activities, images, and phrases can be valuable conversational tools to increase candor and self-disclosure, even among less cooperative evaluees. Difficulties in mood or affect regulation, problems with thought process or content, and impaired impulse control may be apparent in the evaluee's behavior in various Internet forums-for example, hostile or provocative behavior in social forums or excessive use of gaming or shopping websites. Discussions about the evaluee's behavior on the Internet can help the psychiatrist to assess for impaired insight and judgment. Perceptual disturbances, such as derealization and depersonalization, may be related to an evaluee's overidentification with the virtual world to the neglect of real-life needs and responsibilities. Furthermore, digital evidence can be especially useful in assessments of impairment, credibility, and dangerousness or risk, particularly when the evaluee is uncooperative or unreliable in the face-to-face psychiatric examination. This discussion will provide illustrative examples and suggestions for questions and topics the forensic psychiatrist may find helpful in conducting a thorough evaluation in this new age of the Internet.

  20. Effect of a Soy Dietary Supplement on Menopausal Symptoms and Hormones in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Margo

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of a dietary soy supplement resulting in an intake of 45 mg/day of phytoestrogens, was tested in a randomized cross-over design in menopausal women aged 45-58 years of age who reported...

  1. There is a Positive Correlation Between Socioeconomic Status and Ovarian Reserve in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Mert Ulas; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 101 married women between 20-35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3-6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2-10 mm in diameter. RESULTS Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients.

  2. Severity of menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular and osteoporosis risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, J A; Palacios, S; Chavida, F; Pérez, M

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the severity of menopausal symptoms is related to increased cardiovascular and osteoporosis risk factors, and to determine whether women with more severe menopausal symptoms present a greater percentage of osteoporosis disease. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study encompassing women aged 45-65 years in the whole Spanish territory. The study population sample was collected through random sampling. A total of 10 514 women were included. Their sociodemographic, medical history and lifestyle data were assessed by means of a survey. The Kupperman Index was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. Bone mineral density was measured by the dual X-ray absorptiometry method. The prevalences of risk factors for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were 67.6% and 74.8%, respectively. Women with a higher intensity of symptoms also had a greater percentage of cardiovascular (p osteoporosis (p osteoporosis disease (p obesity (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.55-2.91; p osteoporosis disease (OR 3.71; 95% CI 2.9-4.52; p osteoporosis disease risk factors and suffered more from osteoporosis disease compared to those who had milder or no menopausal symptoms.

  3. Menopause: developing a rational treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Danielle; Naftolin, Frederick; Naftoilin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, growing importance has been afforded to assisting women in coping with the menopausal transition. Menopause is a normal stage of development and a woman's attitude toward this transition embodies biological, psychological and social influences. An enlarging body of conflicting data concerning menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) demands reassessment of established paradigms of disease prevention and menopausal health. Currently, a woman's decision to participate in or abstain from menopausal HT is personal. It involves not only consideration of risk stratification of potential harm and benefit, but also involves her expectations and attitudes toward perceived physical and emotional changes associated with this change. Through the use of extensive patient history, quality-of-life questionnaires and powerful biological profiling, we may be able to develop a rational approach to menopausal HT that safely guides our patients through this transition.

  4. Effect of lavender aromatherapy on menopause hot flushing: A crossover randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Rafat; Nikjou, Roya; Rostamnegad, Masoumeh; Norouzi, Hosein

    2016-09-01

    Flushing is generally considered to be the primary symptom of menopause and is typically the most common complaint in menopausal women. Although flushing poses no danger to a woman's health, it decreases the quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy on menopause flushing. This double-blinded crossover clinical trial included 100 menopausal women 45-55 years of age who were referred to various health centers in Ardabil, Iran in 2013-2014. Samples were blocked randomly and divided into two intervention (lavender) and control (diluted milk) groups. Lavender aroma was smelled for 20 minutes twice a day, over a 12-week period. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, and flushing numbers were duly recorded. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using the Chi-square and t test. The results of our investigation showed that both groups had no significant difference according to demographic characteristics (p > 0.05). Additionally, the flushing number significantly decreased in the intervention group than in the control group (p aromatherapy reduced menopause flushing. Given the impact of stress on flushing and the undesirable effects of menopause symptoms on the quality of life, it would appear that this simple, noninvasive, safe, and effective method can be used by menopausal women with noticeable benefits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  5. Physical activity, evaluation of menopause, life satisfaction and influence tactics in marriage of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Domination of the biomedical approach to menopause may imply creation of negative attitudes to the phenomenon, and at the same time negatively affect women’s life satisfaction and behaviour in the family. It is assumed that physical activity may be a defensive factor, as this type of activity may reduce the intensity of menopause symptoms. The aim of the research was to determine the relation between menopause evaluation, life satisfaction and tactics of influence employed in marriage by women who differ in involvement in physical exercise. Participants and procedure The research was conducted among 90 women, at the age of 45-55: 45 physically active women and 45 women who do not engage in any physical activity. The following research methods were used: the Menopause Evaluation Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS and the Questionnaire of Influence in Close Relations of Women and Men. Results Positive evaluation of menopause was related to involvement in physical exercise as well as to a stronger tendency to use positive strategies of exerting influence on one’s spouse. The research also showed a slight correlation between life satisfaction and involvement in physical exercise. Negative evaluation of menopause was related to avoiding physical activity. Conclusions Physical activity is more frequently related to a positive attitude towards menopause and the use of more positive tactics of exerting influence on one’s spouse, and slightly positively conducive to one’s life satisfaction level.

  6. Carotid artery distensibility and hormone therapy and menopause: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies have suggested that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, its relationship with hormone therapy use remains controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use at different menopause stages. One hundred sixty-one women (aged between 42 and 61 y) without cardiovascular disease underwent carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Across 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning (defined as change from premenopausal to perimenopausal, from premenopausal to postmenopausal, from perimenopausal to perimenopausal, or from perimenopausal to postmenopausal). Distensibility declined across time at all menopause stages (P menopausal transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during the menopausal transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether hormone therapy use beyond the menopausal transition is related to distensibility.

  7. Correlation among periodontal health status, maternal age and pre-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Francesca; Vozza, Iole; Capuccio, Veronica; Vestri, Anna Rita; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2016-08-01

    To assess correlations between periodontal status, maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-term and low birth weight in a sample of pregnant women. Study population was represented by outpatient pregnant women, gestational age > 26 weeks. Medical history questionnaires were administered to all participants who underwent clinical evaluation; clinical obstetric outcome records were collected after delivery. A questionnaire was administered regarding personal information, socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and oral health conditions. A clinical oral examination was performed to collect Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Pregnancy outcome records included: delivery week, kind and causes of delivery, any relevant complications, and birth weight. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the data from the questionnaire while the relationship between delivery week, birth weight, maternal age and periodontal status was evaluated through multivariate tests of significance. 88 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation (Pperiodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No statistical correlation was found among pre-term and low birth weight, smoking, ethnicity and educational level of mothers. The results highlight the importance of including a routine oral and periodontal health examination in pregnant women older than 40 years of age. The correlation between periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in older mothers indicates the need for routine oral health examination and periodontal status assessment and care in pregnant women older than 40 years of age.

  8. An overview of menopause associated Vaso Motor Symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Vasomotor Symptoms are the most common and distressing menopausal complaint, for which women seek advice from their physician. OBJECTIVE: To review menopausal associated vasomotor symptoms and options available in its management. METHODS: Pertinent literature on menopause associated ...

  9. Menopause Treatments | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Menopause: A Woman's Change of Life Menopause Treatments Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents ... you should use hormones to help relieve some menopause symptoms. It's hard to know what to do, ...

  10. Prognostic effect of estrogen receptor status across age in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Niels; Düring, Maria; Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) status is considered as an important prognostic factor as well as a predictive factor for endocrine responsiveness in breast cancer. We analyzed the distribution of ER status across age and estimated variations in the prognostic impact of ER status related to patients' age...... unchanged in patients who did not receive adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 6,272). Thus, positive ER status does not confer a negative impact on survival in young women as has been previously reported. The inferior prognosis for ER negative patients during the first 5 years after diagnosis changes...... into a slightly superior residual prognosis compared to ER positive patients independent of use of adjuvant systemic therapy. This may have an impact on future designing of guidelines for adjuvant endocrine therapy beyond 5 years....

  11. Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Paulino ANDRÉ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age, and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin, considering α=0.05 as the significance level. Results The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34 9.52% and (11 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk. Conclusion The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

  12. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundby Johanne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause. Methods The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940–41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors. Results Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.28. Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.33. Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12–3.30. These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72 and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39–0.98 were negatively associated with early menopause. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive

  13. Women’s health in menopause with a focus on hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Franke, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    In menopause transition many women have vasomotor symptoms which may affect their normal daily activities. With the decline in oestrogen levels, risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) become more apparent, especially hypertension. The onset of hypertension can cause a variety of complaints that are often attributed to the menopause. Risk factor identification is poorly managed in middle-aged women and should be the first step in the evaluation and treatment of women with perimenopausal...

  14. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N; Crawford, S L; Lasley, W L; Luborsky, J L; Matthews, K A; McConnell, D; Randolph, J F; Gold, E B; Greendale, G A; Korenman, S G; Powell, L; Sowers, M F; Weiss, G

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive hormones are incompletely characterized during the menopause transition (MT). Increased anovulation and decreased progesterone accompany progress through the MT. The Daily Hormone Study (DHS) of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) included 848 women aged 43-53 yr at baseline who collected daily urine for one cycle or up to 50 d annually for 3 yr. LH, FSH, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide levels were assessed. Cycles were classified by presumed luteal (ovulatory) status and bleeding. Hormones were related to time in study, age, menopausal status, and selected variables. Ovulatory-appearing cycles declined from 80.9% at baseline to 64.7% by the third assessment (H3). Cycles presumed anovulatory and not ending with bleeding by 50 d (anovulatory/nonbleeding) increased from 8.4 to 24% by H3 and were associated with progress to early perimenopause [odds ratio (OR) = 2.66; confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-6.04] or late perimenopause (OR = 56.21; CI = 18.79-168.12; P school education (OR = 3.51; CI = 1.62-7.62). Anovulatory cycles ending with bleeding remained at about 10% from baseline to H3; compared with ovulatory cycles, they were associated with obesity (OR = 4.68; CI = 1.33-16.52) and more than high school education (OR = 2.12; CI = 1.22-3.69; P = 0.02). Serum estradiol in both the highest and lowest categories was associated with anovulatory/nonbleeding collections. Pregnanediol glucuronide decreased 6.6% for each year on study. Insulin sensitivity measures did not relate strongly to menstrual cycle hormones. Anovulation without bleeding represents progression of the MT. A small but detectable decrease in luteal progesterone excretion occurs as women progress through the MT.

  15. Rate and Time of Ovarian Function Restoration in Menopausal Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Letrozole Following Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Omidvari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to investigate the rate and time of ovarian function restoration in breast cancer patients between 40 and 60 years of age who were in menopause (biochemically documented and received letrozole after chemotherapy. We intended to further clarify the management strategy for breast cancer patients with different menopausal status. Methods: We prospectively measured the effects of replacing tamoxifen with letrozole on ovarian function recovery in 90 women from two age groups (40-50 and 51-60 years. All had breast cancer and were treated by chemotherapy. Patients had laboratory documentation of menopause (FSH >40 mIU/ml and estradiol <20 pg/mL. Patients did not have menstruation for at least one year. Study patients received letrozole. At three month intervals, we checked their FSH and estradiol levels. Results:At three months after beginning letrozole, 12 patients in the younger age group had laboratory ovarian function restoration, among which three had vaginal bleeding. In the older group, 8 patients had increased estradiol levels; however, there was no evidence of vaginal bleeding in this group. At 6, 9 and 12 months, no ovarian function restoration was seen in the older group. However in younger patients, 4 had laboratory evidence of ovarian function restoration at 6 months, 2 at 9 months and 1 patient showed laboratory ovarian function restoration at 12 months of follow-up. Totally, there was a significant difference in the occurrence of ovarian function restoration between the two groups (P=0.03. Conclusion: A remarkable portion of women with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea may develop ovarian function restoration. Therefore, endocrine therapy using aromatase inhibitors in patients with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea should be followed by a regular hormonal study.

  16. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status.

  17. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Porter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD, cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications.

  18. Anti-Müllerian hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, antral follicle count, and risk of menopause within 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Erica T; Appiah, Duke; Schreiner, Pamela; Leader, Benjamin; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Sternfeld, Barbara; Siscovick, David; Wellons, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to predict the onset of menopause. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) Women's Study was an ancillary study to CARDIA, a population-based study of adults aged 18-30 years followed for 3 decades. For this report, participants were women (n=426) who had attended the CARDIA year 15-16 (2000-2001) examination, had at least one ovary, were not pregnant, and underwent serum AMH and FSH measurement and transvaginal ultrasonography in 2002-2003. The probability of menopause in 5 years based upon AMH, FSH, and AFC. The mean age of the women at the time of AMH, FSH, and AFC assessment was 43 years. The cumulative incidence of menopause at 25 years (or follow-up) was 27% (n=426), and the incidence within 5 years was 13% (n=55). Among women aged 45-49 years, undetectable AMH concentrations were associated with a greater than 60% probability of menopause within 5 years, whereas approximately 1/3 of women with no or just one antral follicle experienced menopause within 5 years. Both low and high concentrations of FSH were associated with greater odds of menopause than intermediate concentrations. Models with multiple markers did not improve the prediction of menopause over that afforded by models with single markers. The ability to predict onset of menopause was improved with any of the three menopausal markers in addition to age. AMH concentrations were more closely associated with menopause than AFC or FSH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease Events in Men Compared to Women by Menopause Type and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Cushman, Mary; Khodneva, Yulia; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Judd, Suzanne; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether type of menopause affects sex differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) events and whether the impact is similar in blacks and whites. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort between 2003 and 2007 without CHD at baseline (n=23 086). Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard of incident nonfatal CHD (definite or probable myocardial infarction) and acute CHD death, adjusting for age, age at last menstrual period menopause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31, 0.66) and surgical menopause (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42, 0.99) had a reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to white men. Black women in natural menopause (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47, 1.03), but not surgical menopause (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.51, 1.29), had a marginally reduced hazard of nonfatal events, compared to black men. Women had lower risk of acute CHD death than men regardless of their menopause type and race. Conclusions Sex differences in the risk of incident CHD events were larger among whites than blacks and varied by type of menopause. Women consistently had a lower risk of incident CHD death than men, but the magnitude of sex differences was greater in whites than blacks for nonfatal events, regardless of menopause type. PMID:26133958

  20. Effect of estrogen deficiency on the lipid profile in women in different age periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyfeld I.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate influence of estrogen deficiency on lipid profile in women of different age. Material and Methods. 189 women with normal body weight: 44 women with premature menopause (aged <40 years, 69 women with early menopause (aged 40-45 years, and 76 women with natural menopause (aged 46-55 years have been studied. In all women identification of clinical status has been performed during clinical examination. Results. It is shown that increasing age associated with increasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL (p<0.05. We have not observed a significant association between age and level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL (p=0.117. According with increased age, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP increases from initial -0.17±0.09 (M±o to 0.09±0.47 (p<0.05 in women with premature menopause, and to 0.14±0.21 (p<0.05 in other women. Final level of AIP was similar between women aged 40-45 years and women aged 46-55 years (p=0.084. Conclusion. Lipid metabolism disorders were assessed in 73.5% of women with estrogen deficiency. According to the age factor the rate of women with normal lipid metabolism decreases (x2=10,165, p=0.026.

  1. The elderly health status and its correlation with ageing biomarkers: the European Project Mark-Age

    OpenAIRE

    Pini, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    According to the latest statistics projections formulated by Eurostat, the proportion of elderly EU-27’s population aged over 65 years old is predicted to increase from 17.5 % in 2011 to 29.5 % by 2060. This "population explosion" makes extremely important to identify the different genetic and molecular mechanisms which underpin the morbidity and mortality along with new strategies able to counteract or slow down its progress. In this scenario fits the European Project MARK-AGE who...

  2. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  3. [Assessment of comprehensive nutritional status and eating behavior among 311 middle aged and aged women with osteoporosis in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R P; Wang, W Z; Cheng, G P; Zhang, H J; Zhou, F M; Li, Y Y; Wu, C; Yang, L Q; Zeng, G

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the comprehensive nutritional status and diet behavior of middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis, and thereby to explore the relationship between diet behavior and comprehensive nutritional status. Methods: 311 middle-aged and elderly women with osteoporosis in Chengdu were included in this study. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was applied to assess their comprehensive nutritional status. Information of social-demographic characteristics and diet behavior (about meals, snacks and water drinking, etc.) of the subjects was collected by questionnaire. Chi square test was used to assess the differences in nutritional status among patients who have different eating behaviors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between diet behaviors and comprehensive nutritional status. Results: The mean MNA score of subjects was 25.8±2.5. 20.3% (63/311) of the subjets were at risk of potential malnutrition, but there was no malnourished subjects found. 46.9% (46/311) of the subjects were in good appetite. 95.2% (296/311) of them had a fixed food intake each meal. 65.8% (198/311) of them had snacks every day, and the most common choice was fruit (86.4% (248/287)). 54.8% (165/311) of them had initiative drinking water habits, and the most common choice was plain boiled water (79.9%, 246/308). 76.5% (238/311) of them had daily portable water less than 1 500 ml. After adjusting the effects of age, occupation and education level, bad appetite ( OR= 3.50, 95% CI: 1.18-10.62), unfixed food intake ( OR= 7.27, 95% CI: 1.40-35.83), and seldom or never intake of snack ( OR= 3.71, 95% CI: 1.42-9.72) were risk factors for malnutrition risk, while tea drinking was protective factor( OR= 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.93). Conclusion: Risk of potential malnutrition and unhealthy diet behavior among the middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis should be paid more attention. Unhealtghy diet behavior has a negative effect on their

  4. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment Needs of Menopausal Women | Dimkpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment needs of menopausal women. The population of the study consisted of 623 menopausal women who were out-patients in Federal Medical Centre and a private hospital in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State of. Nigeria. The sample ...

  6. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  7. Influence of menopausal symptoms on perceived work ability among women in a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajubu, A O; Olowokere, A E; Amujo, D O; Olajubu, T O

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the menopausal symptoms experienced by women of menopausal age in Ekiti State, Nigeria and the influence on their perceived work ability. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was employed and the study was conducted among 200 working-class women aged 45 years and above who had experienced at least 12 continuous months of amenorrhea in Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the Greene Climacteric Scale and the work ability index was used to assess menopausal symptoms and work ability, respectively. The prevalence of menopausal symptoms in this study was 96.5%. The commonest menopausal symptom experienced by the respondents was muscle pain (81.5%), followed by sweating at night (80%), while spells of crying were the least (27.5%). Out of the symptoms, hot flushes were rated most severe followed by sweating at night, while crying spells were also the least severe symptom. Only 27% expressed excellent work ability. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a negative significant relationship (r = -0.311, p work ability. The study concluded that menopausal symptoms had a negative influence on work ability of the respondents.

  8. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante,Denise Petrucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. METHODS: The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the...

  9. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.
DESIGN—Time series study
METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.
MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much sm...

  10. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  11. Quality of life Among Women who were Attending to Trakya University Hospital Menopause clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tokuç

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the menopause symptoms and the impact of menopause and some socio-demographic variables and the hormon replacement therapy on quality of life among women who were attending to a menopause\tMatreial and METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional and descriptive study which was conducted on 299 women who were\tattending to Trakya University Hospital Menopause Clinic, between February –September 2005. After applying a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS, SF-36 Health Survey and Hospital\tAnxiety and Depression Scale were applied by trained interns respectively.\tRESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 52.07±6.12 r(36.0 – 76.0. The mean age of menopause was 45.8±5.1 (26.0 – 56.0. 18.9 % of women were still using HRT, 37.0% have used in the past and 44.1% of them have never used HRT. Women who were stil using HRT, who were stil working, who were educated more than 8 years and who have had no problems in the family have had significantly lower MRS scores and significantly higher SF-36 scores than the others. While MRS scores and SF-36 scores were increasing, the HAD scores were decreasing significantly.\tCONCLUSION: We could say that the menopause symptoms effected the women’s health and quality of life, negatively. But it was\tnot the only determinant of health perception and quality of life. The socio-economic, environmental and cultural factors and life style were also effective in menopause period like the other periods of life.

  12. Effects of age, sex, and university status on life-satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S M; Giannakopoulos, E

    1994-02-01

    Diener, et al.'s 1985 Satisfaction With Life Scale was administered to 1749 adult Australians to examine differences between men and women, university students and nonuniversity students, and among 17- to 22-, 23- to 29-, and 30- to 40-yr.-olds. No significant differences in life-satisfaction emerged in relation to sex or university status, but age showed a significant effect as higher life-satisfaction characterized older subjects. No interactions were found for any combination of the three variables. The results are interpreted in terms of egalitarian sex-role ideologies regarding sex, status-specific criteria in the assessment and conceptualisation of life-satisfaction for university status, and maturity trends in viewing life events concerning age.

  13. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  15. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  16. Childcare practices and nutritional status of children aged 6-36 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out to compare childcare practices and nutritional status of children aged 6–36 months in Mwembesongo and Mjimpya wards that had long and short experiences respectively with the Child Survival, Protection and Development (CSPD) programme. The purpose of the study ...

  17. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  18. Impact of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of job burnout, age and marital status on job involvement among banking personnel. The sample consists of 100 employees working in banks of Eritrea, Asmara, North East Africa, selected randomly. Job involvement scale developed by Lodhal and Kejner (1965) and ...

  19. The relationship of reports of aches and joint pains to the menopausal transition: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoeke, C E; Cicuttini, F M; Guthrie, J R; Dennerstein, L

    2008-02-01

    OBJECTIVES Part I: To determine factors associated with reported joint symptoms across the menopausal transition. Part II: To investigate the relationship between symptom reporting and radiological arthritis in postmenopausal women. DESIGN Part I: The Melbourne Women's Mid-life Health Project, commenced in 1991, is a population-based prospective study of 438 Australian-born women, aged 45-55 years and menstruating at baseline; they were interviewed annually over 8 years. The retention rate was 88% (n = 387). Part II: After 12 years of follow-up, 257 (57%) women returned for assessment and 224 agreed to undergo X-rays of their hands and knees. METHODS Part I: Annual fasting blood collection, physical measurements, and interviews including questions about bothersome aches or stiff joints in the previous 2 weeks. A score for this symptom was calculated from the product of the severity and frequency data. These data were analyzed using random-effects time-series regression models. Part II: X-rays were scored for evidence of osteoarthritis using a validated scale, by two investigators who were blinded to questionnaire results. RESULTS Part I: 'Aches and stiff joints' were the most commonly reported symptom and reporting increased over time in the longitudinal study. Variables significantly associated with reporting bothersome aches and stiff joints were high body mass index (BMI) (p Part II: The relationship between radiological osteoarthritis and symptom reports approached statistical significance (p = 0.06). Knee osteoarthritis was significantly associated with symptom reports (p = 0.008) but not hand osteoarthritis (p = 0.2). Menopausal status, BMI, employment status and depressed mood were all associated with the experience of bothersome aches and stiff joints. Aches and stiff joints, common in postmenopausal women, are not necessarily indicative of radiological osteoarthritis.

  20. Menopausa, hormônios, envelhecimento: discursos de mulheres que vivem em um bairro na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brasil Menopause, hormones, aging: the discourse of women living on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Trench

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar os discursos de mulheres usuárias de unidade básica de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brazil, sobre a menopausa para compreender os sentidos que elas atribuem a este evento. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas oito mulheres entre 44 e 75 anos, empregando-se a metodologia qualitativa na perspectiva do construcionismo social, de modo que os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante, história de vida e entrevistas. RESULTADOs: nas mulheres estudadas, a menopausa é vivida de modo geral como um acontecimento inevitável, relacionado ao corpo e à vida, e é considerada uma entidade estranha, ou inimiga, que ataca as mulheres de maneira inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: nas mulheres estudadas os resultados indicam que este período deve ser percebido em seu caráter particular e relativo, não como sendo da ordem do universal ou como algo padronizado.OBJECTIVES: to analize the discourse regarding the menopause in women attending a health service unit on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to understand the meaning they attribute to this event. METHODS: eight women aged between 44 and 75 years were interviewed using qualitative methods and a social constructionist approach. The data were collected using participant observation, life histories and interviews. RESULTS: in the group of study the menopause is experienced by these women as an inevitable occurrence related to their bodies and lives and is also considered a strange inimical event that afflicts them unexpectedly. CONCLUSIONS: in ghe group of study the results indicate how important it is to approach the menopause is such a way that is viewed as something relative and particular to each individual, not as something universal and standardized.

  1. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  2. Working women and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopenhager, T; Guidozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    Women are living longer, working more and retiring later. About 45% of the over 50-year-old workforce in virtually all forms of employment are women, all of whom will experience the menopause and its symptoms, which in some women will be mild to moderate, whilst in others they may be severe and debilitating. About half of these women will find it somewhat, or fairly difficult, to cope with their work, about half will not be affected and only about 5% will be severely compromised. Poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory, depression, feeling low, lowered confidence, sleepiness and particularly hot flushes are all cited as contributing factors. As with any longstanding health-related condition, the need for support and understanding from line management is crucial and can make a major difference to how a woman will deal with the adverse impact the menopausal symptoms may have on her productivity, her job satisfaction and her efficiency. A number of plausible strategies have been proposed that can be realistically implemented in the workplace and which could certainly make a significant difference. Careful thought, planning, consideration and effort may be required but, if instituted, they will, in the final analysis, benefit both employer and employee.

  3. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  4. Early menopause and other gynecologic risk indicators for chronic fatigue syndrome in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Roumiana S.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine whether gynecologic conditions are associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods This study includes a subset of 157 women from a population-based case-control study in Georgia, United States, conducted in 2004-2009. Gynecologic history was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs and ORs adjusted for body mass index and other covariates, where relevant, were estimated for gynecologic conditions between 84 CFS cases and 73 healthy controls. Results Cases and controls were of similar age. Women with CFS reported significantly more gynecologic conditions and surgical operations than controls: menopause status (61.9% vs 37.0%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.21-4.66), earlier mean age at menopause onset (37.6 vs 48.6 y; adjusted OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), excessive menstrual bleeding (73.8% vs 42.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.70), bleeding between periods (48.8% vs 23.3%; adjusted OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.60-6.86), endometriosis (29.8% vs 12.3%; adjusted OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53-8.84), use of noncontraceptive hormonal preparations (57.1% vs 26.0%; adjusted OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.36-6.38), nonmenstrual pelvic pain (26.2% vs 2.7%; adjusted OR, 11.98; 95% CI, 2.57-55.81), and gynecologic surgical operation (65.5% vs 31.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.67), especially hysterectomy (54.8% vs 19.2%; adjusted OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.46-7.17). Hysterectomy and oophorectomy occurred at a significantly younger mean age in the CFS group than in controls and occurred before CFS onset in 71% of women with records of date of surgical operation and date of CFS onset. Conclusions Menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis, pelvic pain, hysterectomy, and early/surgical menopause are all associated with CFS. Clinicians should be aware of the association between common gynecologic problems and CFS in women. Further work is warranted to determine whether these conditions contribute to the development and

  5. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were mea