WorldWideScience

Sample records for age laws personal

  1. Personal Law and Consumer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, David

    1972-01-01

    There is little doubt at Minnetonka High School that the integrated personal law and consumer problems course is effective. The areas studied promote variety, concentration on vital matters, and student interest in the business department as a source of general education. (Author)

  2. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  3. Personality Plasticity After Age 30

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing t...

  4. Personality Plasticity After Age 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory over periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a non-zero asymptote with increasing time-interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, was also unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305

  5. Personality plasticity after age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T; McCrae, Robert R

    2006-08-01

    Rank-order consistency of personality traits increases from childhood to age 30. After that, different summaries of the literature predict a plateau at age 30, or at age 50, or a curvilinear peak in consistency at age 50. These predictions were evaluated at group and individual levels using longitudinal data from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for periods of up to 42 years. Consistency declined toward a nonzero asymptote with increasing time interval. Although some scales showed increasing stability after age 30, the rank-order consistencies of the major dimensions and most facets of the Five-Factor Model were unrelated to age. Ipsative stability, assessed with the California Adult Q-Set, also was unrelated to age. These data strengthen claims of predominant personality stability after age 30. PMID:16861305

  6. Gompertz law and aging as exclusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Anund

    2007-10-01

    The exponential increase with age in mortality rate, the Gompertz law, indicates that the decrease in vitality and viability linked to aging depends on phenomena with exponential or logarithmic dynamics. Gompertz slope (alpha) is assumed to be a measure of aging rate, provided the studied cohort is homogeneous and in a supporting environment. The law provides no clue about the cause of aging, but may be formally correlated with various physical or mathematical functions. A possible correlation between the Ogston-Laurent exclusion equation and human aging is examined. An increase with age of an inert cross-linked insoluble protein network is assumed to result in a logarithmic decrease in water volume available to colloidal macromolecules. In this model, alpha is assumed to be a measure of the rate of accumulation of the polypeptide network.

  7. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Joanna N

    2010-11-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation.

  8. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...

  9. Natural persons (individuals and legal persons (entities in Serbian medieval law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarkić Srđan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is exposing the concept of natural persons (individuals and legal persons (entities in Serbian mediaeval law. The terms glava (head, caput, kephalē, or sometimes kapa (cap, hood are used in Serbian legal sources to designate natural persons (individuals. In Serbian mediaeval law, it was mostly churches and monasteries that had the trait of legal persons (entities. Beside them, towns, villages, counties and districts, had some characteristics of legal persons.

  10. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 1996 Constitution, and in particular the Bill of Rights as contained in chapter 2 of the 1996 Constitution, is applicable to "non-recognised" Muslim personal law. The answer to this question depends to a large extent on the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution.When the viewpoint of academic writers and the courts are evaluated it seems as if the meaning of law in South Africa is restricted to the common law, customary law and legislation. If such a viewpoint is to be followed, Muslim personal law is excluded from the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. It is, however, inconceivable that there might be certain areas of "law" that are not subject to the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. In this note it will be argued that Muslim personal law should be regarded as law in terms of the 1996 Constitution, or in the alternative, that Muslim personal law (or at least Muslim marriages should be recognised in terms of section 15 of the 1996 Constitution.Due to the historical resemblance between South Africa and India the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution will be compared with the meaning of "law" as contained in the Constitution of India. Although the Constitution of India indirectly gives recognition to various personal laws in India, these personal laws are not subject to the provisions of the Constitution of India. Therefore, it would be argued that one should approach the Constitution of India with caution when its provisions are

  11. FORMS OF MANIFESTATION OF PLURALITY OF PERSONS IN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyushnikov S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have investigated the multiplicity of civil law. The author distinguishes different types of plurality of persons and presents a detailed analysis of the stops on the relations arising from a simple partner-ship agreement as a form of plurality of persons

  12. Age, Personality, and the Holtzman Inkblot Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated age changes and differences in personality as measured by the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). Concluded that the HIT measures perceptual-cognitive variables that are moderately stable in adulthood. (Author/ABB)

  13. Archetypes and person-organization fit in law firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.M. de Haas; W. van Eerde

    2015-01-01

    We investigated Person-Organization (P-O) Fit specific for professional services firms, based on archetype theory. To do so, we first established the applicability of archetype theory for the big law firms in The Netherlands. Subsequently, we developed a measure to investigate P-O fit between early

  14. Person and Property: Conceptualising Intangible Cultural Heritage in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Vaivade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualisation of culture in international law has been rooted in two main conceptual poles: persons – protection of cultural rights of individuals, groups and communities, and property – protection of cultural goods. This finds an explanation within the subject and object dichotomy that is fundamental in law but seems to be insufficient for the interpretation of ‘intangible cultural heritage’. The article analyses whether ‘intangible cultural heritage’ can be interpreted as being linked to the one, the other or both of the named poles of conceptualising culture in international law. The purpose of the article is to seek a conceptual sequence that in the history of international law has lead to an existing network of legal concepts and the ‘intangible cultural heritage’ therein.

  15. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  16. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototyp

  17. The New Insolvency Law and Governance of Corporate Legal Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Start of the insolvency proceedings influences the two basic problems of corporate governance:restriction about the "soft budget" of corporation and "information asymmetry"between the interior and exterior person.In fact,the insolvency law is a mechanism of the potential exterior supervision.In the insolvency proceedings,most of the information is open to the creditor and to the superintendent,who is liable for protecting the interest of the creditor.The key problems of corporate governance are transparency and information disclosure.The insolvency law provides the power of supervision to the creditor when corporation insolvency.Of importance is that power is conducted by collectivity and supported by judicatory and professional organization.In June 2004,the finance committee submitted the new draft of the insolvency law to the standing committee of the national people's congress.There are many articles about corporate governance.These articles are generally divided into two kinds,one is restriction on conduct of the supervisors in the period of the insolvency proceedings,and the other is examination of the conduct before the start of the insolvency proceedings.

  18. [Concept of personal data relating to health in the law of personal data protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jesús Rubí

    2006-01-01

    The Law on the Protection of Data states that health data are sensible data and therefore subject to a strengthened system of guarantees. In order to apply this, the information must make reference to physical persons and must be susceptible of being included within the concept of health data. The resolutions of the Spanish Agency for Data Protection and the rulings of the Courts provide very valuable elements to clarify both concepts.

  19. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Arthur A; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-05-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototypical subject, provided minimal (or no) external causes of death (i.e. fatal infections, starvation, accidents). Our approach deviates from the traditional (exponential) Gompertz' hazard function. For instance, the here formulated Gompertz' law accurately describes old-age deceleration of both all-cause mortality and the incidence of some ageing-associated cancers, as illustrated for the Dutch population. We consider the possibility that the old-age expression and progression of cancer and other pathologies becomes suppressed, because of random (and exponential) accumulation of damage during life. Gompertz' law may trigger new concepts and models describing life-spanning physiological and pathological processes of aging. We discuss (and reject) various aging models (e.g. a predominant role of individual variations at birth; reliability theory) and point to the explanatory potential of network models and systemic regulatory models.

  20. The Relationship between Personality Characteristics and Academic Success in Law School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Ron; Squitiera, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the personality characteristics of entering law students and academic success in law school. The subjects (137) were entering law school students at Pepperdine University School of Law. Students were administered the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) as a measure of their temperament and…

  1. Age Differences in Personality Structure: A Cluster Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented at the 81st APA Convention, Montreal, 1973, this study showed how a cluster analytic approach was used to determine age differences in personality measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Subjects were 969 adult male volunteers, 25 to 34, 35 to 54, and 55 to 82. Openness to experience showed age-related…

  2. Growth, ageing and scaling laws of coronary arterial trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Niu, Pei; Niu, Xiaolong; Shen, Wenzeng; Duan, Fei; Ding, Liang; Wei, Xiliang; Gong, Yanjun; Huo, Yong; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-known design principles of vascular systems, it is unclear whether the vascular arterial tree obeys some scaling constraints during normal growth and ageing in a given species. Based on the micro-computed tomography measurements of coronary arterial trees in mice at different ages (one week to more than eight months), we show a constant exponent of 3/4, but age-dependent scaling coefficients in a length-volume scaling law (Lc=K(length-volume) · Vc³/⁴; Lc is the crown length, Vc is the crown volume, K(length-volume) is the age-dependent scaling coefficient) during normal growth and ageing. The constant 3/4 exponent represents the self-similar fractal-like branching pattern (i.e. basic mechanism to regulate the development of vascular trees within a species), whereas the age-dependent scaling coefficients characterize the structural growth or resorption of vascular trees during normal growth or ageing, respectively. This study enhances the understanding of age-associated changes in vascular structure and function. PMID:26701881

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  4. Intra-individual Change in Personality Stability and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, education, and secular trends), nor the standing on the five major dimensions of personality, were predictors of change in trait stability. Contrary to results from studies of adolescents, personality “maturity” was unrelated to personality stability in adulthood. These findings support the notion that personality stability plateaus early in adulthood. PMID:20305728

  5. How Does Personal Bankruptcy Law Affect Start-ups?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of changes in U.S. state personal exemptions on the financing structure and performance of a representative sample of start-ups. An increase in the amount of borrower’s personal wealth protected in bankruptcy reduces the availability of bank credit to all start-ups. Owners of u

  6. Personality-situation transactions from adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-05-01

    People presumably choose and create their daily environments according to their personality. Prior research shows that, for example, more extraverted people engage more often in social situations, and more conscientious people engage more often in work-related activities compared with less extraverted or less conscientious people, respectively. The current study examined such personality-situation transactions in people's daily life. Based on the assumption that older people know themselves and their personality better than younger people, we investigated whether momentary and proximate personality-situation associations (i.e., changing from 1 type of situation into another) increase with older age. Three-hundred and 78 people aged 14 to 82 years described their Big Five traits and took part in a 3-week experience-sampling phase. Using mobile-phone based assessments in daily life, participants reported on average 55 times on their momentary situation. Multilevel modeling results showed that personality-situation associations varied with the age of participants. Some of the "established" personality-situation associations, such as for extraversion and time spent with friends or conscientiousness and time spent with work activities, were only observed in adolescence and young adulthood. In contrast, other personality-situation associations appeared only in late adulthood, such as for openness and time spent with friends. Yet most personality-situation associations did not vary significantly with people's age. In addition, personality traits predicted maintaining or entering personality-congruent situations. The latter results point to the active role of personality in shaping one's environment. The findings imply that some personality-situation transactions may be largely similarly across the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167797

  7. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  8. Intra-individual Change in Personality Stability and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of individual differences in personality traits is typically examined at the group level with test-retest correlations across two assessments. For 684 subjects (age range 17–76) we computed individual coefficients from three sequential assessments to evaluate intra-individual (i.e., within-person) change in stability over time. For both trait and profile (ipsative) stability, results indicate that intra-individual stability increases up to age 30 and then plateaus. Neither demog...

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  10. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224

  12. Constitutional Requirements Regarding the Law on Local Elected Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gradinaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The provisions of the Law no 249/2006 for the amending and completion of Law no 393/2004 onthe Statute of the local elected include a new issue of cessation de jure of the mandate as a local or countycouncilor and mayor, before the expiry of its normal duration, reasoned by the resignation of the politicalparty or of the organization of the national minorities on whose list he was elected. The Constitutionalprovisions enhance the representativeness of the local elected mandate, as with the parliamentary one, in thesense of an implied prohibition of any interference in the work of the elected that would come from voters,political parties, state authorities, NGOs. The independent status of the local elected receives extensiveconnotations if we relate up to their moving from one political party to another, and in the context in whichthis is sanctioned by law we face the restrictions of the representative mandate.

  13. Personality disorders at the interface of psychiatry and the law: legal use and clinical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C; Elbogen, Eric B

    2013-06-01

    Personality disorders have a complex relationship with the law that in many ways reflects their complexity within the clinical and research communities. This paper addresses expert testimony about personality disorders, outlines how personality disorders are assessed in forensic cases, and describes how personality disorders are viewed in different legal contexts. Reasons are identified why personality disorders are not generally accepted as significant mental illness within the legal system, including high incidence of personality dysfunction in criminal populations, frequent comorbidity of personality disorders making it difficult to determine direct causation, and difficulty determining where on a continuum personality traits should be defined as illness (or not). In summary, the legal system, to a significant degree, mirrors the clinical conception of personality disorders as not severe mental diseases or defects, not likely to change, and most often, under volitional control.

  14. The abolition of 'the person' as a legal category in nazi philosophy of law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2007-01-01

    The abolition of 'the person' as a legal category in Nazi philosophy of law - the career of Karl Larenz as an episode in the history of civil identity (Abstract) This paper discusses 'civil identity' as an aspect of the philosophy of the person. It presents an episode in the development of legal...... philosophy, the work of philosopher and professor of law, Karl Larenz (1903-1993), during the Nazi regime in Germany (1933-1945). Larenz and others strove to reform private law (Zivilrecht or bürgeriches Recht) in conformity with National Socialism. Central to that - racist, to be sure - project...

  15. [FROM THE LAW "RELATED TO ABNORMAL AND HABITUAL OFFENDERS" TO THE LAW OF INTERNMENT OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcet, S

    2015-12-01

    The Belgian forensic system for offenders with mental disorders is organized according to a principle of social defense. It is characterized, on the one hand, by the protection of the society and neutralization of risks and, on the other hand, by the requirements of mental care for the internee. The evolution of the legal framework from the 1930 law related to "abnormal and habitual offenders" to the law about "internment of persons with mental disorder" voted in 2014 reflects the vicissitudes born of the tension between these two pillars. In this difficult balance between medical and judicial issues, although published, but not yet effective, the 2014 version of the law is, in many ways, a positive development in the integration of internees and their needs.

  16. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300

  17. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  18. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  19. Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

  20. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  1. 27 CFR 20.31 - Applicable laws and regulations; persons liable for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; persons liable for tax. 20.31 Section 20.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Administrative Provisions Liability for Tax § 20.31 Applicable laws and regulations;...

  2. [Personality development as a lifelong process and consequences for promoting personality development in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E

    1987-01-01

    The paper explains the fact, that personality development mainly depends on the requirements of life activity and derives possibilities for promoting development in old age. These possibilities are primarily seen in forming such life conditions and requirements of activity, which grant latitude for autonomous acting and deciding to the aged as much and as long as possible as well as encourage them to use it, thereby helping them to maintain or regain every kind of autonomy and activity still possible.

  3. Personality Assessment Through Internet: Factor Analyses By Age Group Of The Zka Personality Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the psychometric properties of an on-line version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ by sex and age. The questionnaire was responded by 1598 people, 474 males and 1124 females, with a mean age of 32.57 (SD = 11.72. Males and females differed in their responses to all personality dimensions evaluated by this instrument, in a similar way as that reported in past research. In addition, younger people scored higher in the Aggressiveness factor, especially concerning the Physical Aggression facet, whereas older people scored higher in the Activity factor. Besides, younger people scored higher in the Neuroticism and the Sensation Seeking factors, even though there were no age differences in the Extraversion factor. The ZKA-PQ five-factor structure was clear and yielded high congruence coefficients with the original Spanish validation sample. Altogether, the findings support the validity of the online version of this instrument. The ZKAPQ online version is therefore helpful in both, basic and applied research settings about human personality and individual differences.

  4. PECULIARITIES OF THE CEREBELLUM NUCLEI IN AGED PERSONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyian, D; Galata, D; Potapov, S; Gargin, V

    2016-04-01

    The study of the clinical anatomy and functional features of the cortex, subcortical and conductive pathways of the cerebellum is necessary for clinicians for elaboration rational surgical approaches to these formations, for determination the localization of pathological processes associated with these formations. Cerebellar nucleus neurons are crucial to the olivo-cerebellar circuit as they provide the sole output of the entire cerebellum. The relationship between mobility and cognition in aging is well established, but the relationship between mobility and the structure and function of the aging brain is relatively unknown. In connection with the above, the purpose of our study was detection of the morphological characteristics of the cerebellum nuclei in aged persons. Study was performed on 48 specimens of the cerebellum from people (24 male and 24 female), who died at the age from 75 to 99 years due to diseases, which were not related to the central nervous system damaging. Formalin-fixed human hemispheres were dissected with the Ludwig and Klingler fiber dissection technique under x6 to x40 magnifications of binocular microscope Olympus BX41 (Japan). The morphological features of the human cerebellar nuclei were established. Namely, on the series of sections of the cerebellum in the horizontal, frontal and sagittal planes, as well as on the macro-microscopic preparations of the cerebellar nuclei location, their relative position, shape, linear dimensions, weight and volume were described. The features of macro-microscopic and histological structure of the nuclei of the cerebellum were made own classification of the gyri and teeth of the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum was offered. Macro-microscopic dissection of persons died after 75 years old show no significant variability of linear dimensions of cerebellar nuclei with their specific location and options. Simultaneously, reliable reducing of cellular density was detected for Purkinje, granule and basket

  5. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active. PMID:10553493

  6. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Eileen K.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associ...

  7. Medical experiments on persons with special needs, a comparative study of Islamic jurisprudence vs. Arab laws: UAE law as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Al-Karim

    2014-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of medical experiments on persons with special needs in Islamic jurisprudence and Arab laws; United Arab Emirates (UAE) law as case study. The current study adopts a comparative analytical and descriptive approach. The conclusion of this study points out that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Special Needs, ratified by a number of Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, approves conducting medical experiments on persons with special needs, subject to their free consent. As a result of ratifying this Convention, a number of special laws were enacted to be enforced in the United Arab Emirates. On the other hand, this issue is controversial from an Islamic jurisprudence point of view. One group of jurisprudents permits conducting these experimentations if they are designed to treat the person involved, and prohibits such experimentations for scientific advancement. Other jurisprudents permit conducting medical experimentations on persons with special needs, whether the purpose of such experimentations is treatment of the disabled or achieving scientific advancement. The opinion of this group is consistent with the International Convention and the Arab laws in this respect. However, neither the Convention nor the Arab laws regulate this matter by specific and comprehensive conditions, as addressed by some contemporary scholars. It is recommended that the Convention and the Arab laws adopt these conditions. Additionally, the Convention does not state whether the experimentations may be conducted for the interest of the person with disability or for the purpose of scientific advancement. The text of the Convention is unclear and therefore requires further illumination.

  8. Age effects in Okun's law within the Eurozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutengs, O.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate Okun's coefficients for five different age cohorts for several Eurozone countries. We find a stable pattern for all countries: the relationship between business cycle fluctuations and the unemployment rate is the strongest for the youngest cohort and gets smaller for the elderly cohorts....

  9. Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Antidepressant Use in Persons Aged 12 and Over: United ... in 10 Americans aged 12 and over takes antidepressant medication. 1 Significantly different from age group 18– ...

  10. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  11. Social Perception of Middle-Aged Persons Varying in Physical Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gerald R.; Huston, Ted L.

    1975-01-01

    This study indicates that more socially desirable characteristics are attributed to physically attractive than unattractive middle-aged persons. It is suggested that this difference in social desirability is greater for female than male stimuli and that elderly persons stereotype middle-aged persons more favorably than young adults do. (JMB)

  12. Access to Fertility Treatments for Homosexual and Unmarried Persons, through Iranian Law and Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A family traditionally consisted of a married man, his wife, and their children. The new reproductive technologies including use of the third party as egg, sperm and embryo donation and also surrogacy have changed the traditional meanings of lineage, ancestry and family. The increasing number of lesbians and gays in addition to single women requesting fertility treatment from IVF centers in the world has brought a debate: “Can fertility treatment be offered to single persons or homosexuals?” According to ASRM and ESHRE taskforces, there is no such limitation, but as legislations and law, also ethical and social considerations depending on the culture, believes and religion of societies must be considered as limitations in some contexts like Iran.Materials and Methods: In this study we review the Iran law and also some Islamic resources about offering the fertility treatment to single mothers or homosexuals.Results: Homosexuality is not accepted in Islamic contexts and is considered as a crime. Children should have a family with both mother and father, unless they lose one of them or both. In the latter situation Islamic court will hand over the custody of the child to someone else like uncle or grandfather.Conclusion: We concluded that according to Islam and Iran’s law, fertility treatment cannot be offered to single mothers and homosexuals mostly because of welfare of the child.

  13. Search and seizure law; practical advice and interpretation for nuclear protective force persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent Supreme Court decisions, which interpret the 200-year-old Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution, are used to provide a brief overview of some search and seizure subjects important to management and officers responsible for physical protection of nuclear facilities. The overview is framed in practical terms in order to make the comments applicable to the everyday activity of nuclear-protective-force persons. The Supreme Court has described several exceptions where searches and seizures (arrests) are permitted without a warrant, despite the Fourth Amendment which states that warrants are always required. The seven exceptions briefly discussed are search incidents to a lawful arrest, the automobile-search exception, the suitcase or container exception, the hot-pursuit or emergency exception, the stop-and-frisk exception, the plain-view exception, and consent to be searched

  14. The process of personal status, Iranian human rights law in schema Imamiye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Suleimani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious minorities, refers to a population of less than the rest of the country, and members of different features strong, religious, or linguistic position. Typical sense of unity and solidarity of interests, in order to preserve the culture, traditions, religion or language of their own. In various international instruments, and most constitutions, religious minorities are recognized, also in the constitution of Iran, on several principles, a religious minority or religious groups are recognized. One of the major problems in minority, is the governing law of personal status, primarily in different countries, two factors (residence, nationality will be considered. Noting the developments in international relations, the practical issues of minorities in local and international peace and security, practical and effective protection of human rights, and evolution at the United Nations, the constructive approach, a positive and peaceful, rights minorities as a key factor in the direction of government policy, national and international dimensions accordingly.

  15. Nonlinear blood pressure effects on cognition in old age: separating between-person and within-person associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Ostling, Svante; Sacuiu, Simona; Johansson, Boo

    2012-06-01

    Midlife hypertension is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment in later life. The association between blood pressure (BP) in older ages and cognition is less clear. In this study we provide estimates of between-person and within-person associations of BP and cognition in a population-based sample (N = 382) followed from age 70 across 12 occasions over 30 years. Between-person associations refer to how individual differences in BP relates to individual differences in cognition. Within-person associations refer to how individual and time specific changes in BP relate to variation in cognition. Hierarchical linear models were fitted to data from three cognitive measurements (verbal ability, spatial ability, and perceptual speed) while accounting for demographic and health-related covariates. We found consistent nonlinear between-person associations between diastolic BP (DBP) and cognition, such that both low (95 mmHg) pressure were associated with poorer cognition. Within-person decreases in systolic BP (SBP) and DBP were associated with decreases in perceptual speed. Notably, between-person and within-person estimates did not reveal similar associations, suggesting the need to separate the two effects in the analysis of associations between BP and cognition in old age.

  16. HIV transmission law in the age of treatment-as-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Bridget; Kaldor, John

    2015-12-01

    Evidence that treating people with HIV early in infection prevents transmission to sexual partners has reframed HIV prevention paradigms. The resulting emphasis on HIV testing as part of prevention strategies has rekindled the debate as to whether laws that criminalise HIV transmission are counterproductive to the human rights-based public health response. It also raises normative questions about what constitutes 'safe(r) sex' if a person with HIV has undetectable viral load, which has significant implications for sexual practice and health promotion. This paper discusses a recent high-profile Australian case where HIV transmission or exposure has been prosecuted, and considers how the interpretation of law in these instances impacts on HIV prevention paradigms. In addition, we consider the implications of an evolving medical understanding of HIV transmission, and particularly the ability to determine infectiousness through viral load tests, for laws that relate to HIV exposure (as distinct from transmission) offences. We conclude that defensible laws must relate to appreciable risk. Given the evidence that the transmissibility of HIV is reduced to negligible level where viral load is suppressed, this needs to be recognised in the framing, implementation and enforcement of the law. In addition, normative concepts of 'safe(r) sex' need to be expanded to include sex that is 'protected' by means of the positive person being virally suppressed. In jurisdictions where use of a condom has previously mitigated the duty of the person with HIV to disclose to a partner, this might logically also apply to sex that is 'protected' by undetectable viral load.

  17. Involving private persons and corporations in the planning process according to paragraph 9b German nuclear law - practicability and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The Nuclear Law states that the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig is responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar. (orig./HP)

  18. The Middle Ages: Change in Women's Personalities and Social Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that the predominant focus of midlife personality development is generativity; other research has found that social roles influence both its onset and its expression. In this article, we examine women's midlife personality development and its relationship to career and family commitments. Results for a sample of 90 women…

  19. Physical complaints in ageing persons with spinal muscular atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, I.J.M. de; Witte, L.P de

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While life expectancy is improving for persons with spinal muscular atrophy, new physical complaints may arise. To investigate this, we studied persons with a long duration and severe course (high functional limitations) of the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SUBJECTS/

  20. Physical fitness related to age and physical activity in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness compo

  1. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  2. Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential Trade Agreements: From Co-Existence to Coherence.

  3. Despair and Personal Power in the Nuclear Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Joanna Rogers

    This guide to personal empowerment provides 47 exercises for dealing with feelings of despair, isolation, and powerlessness associated with the growing threat of nuclear war, progressive destruction of the environment, and unprecedented human misery. The first of eight chapters describes psychological responses. to planetary perils and discusses…

  4. Managing the diversity: board age diversity, directors’ personal values, and bank performance

    OpenAIRE

    Talavera, Oleksandr; Yin, Shuxing; Zhang, Mao

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of board age diversity on bank performance. Using a sample of 97 Chinese banks, we document a negative and significant relationship between age diversity and bank performance. To further investigate the negative link between age diversity and bank performance, we decompose age diversity into personal value diversities. In particular, a variety of directors’ views with respect to work, prudence, and wealth harm bank performance. This indicates that age diversity am...

  5. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  6. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  7. 著作人身权性质辨析%Analysis on the Personal Right of Author and the Personal Right of Civil Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贻珍

    2014-01-01

    There are two wrong opinions on personal right of an author :one insists on that personal right of an author is the right of identity ,the other considers it as property right .The former view only sees the phenomenon of personal right of an author but ignores its essence ,and the latter view misunder-stands its essential characteristic .It is arguable that personal right of an author is a special social personal right w hich shouldn't be merged into the personal right of civil law ,and that personal right of an author should adhere to its primary meaning and be improved in details .%认为著作人身权是身份权的观点,只看到现象而忽视了著作人身权本质;认为著作人身权是财产权的观点,是对人格权的本质属性存在误解,没有看到社会人格权能够转让的属性。著作人身权是特殊的人格权,取缔或者合并到民法中的人格权中都是不可取的,而应该在现有基础上对著作人身权的内容加以完善。

  8. Burden of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the burden and causes of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is sparse in persons aged... artery disease was the most common cause of death and was found in 158 (36%) autopsied cases, followed by 135 (31%) cases of sudden unexplained death. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide cohort of persons aged... in persons aged 1 to 35 years. Notably, coronary artery disease was the most common cause of SCD, followed by unexplained deaths. These findings may help in developing strategies to prevent SCD in the future....

  9. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming

    1987-01-01

    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  10. Health Profile Of Aged Persons In Urban & Rural Field Practice Areas Of Medical College, Amrisar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padda A.S

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the health status of aged persons in urban and rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the socio-demographic profile. 2. To study the health status of aged persons in urban and rural areas and factors associated with it. Study design: Cross-sectional Participants: Persons aged 60 years and above. Sample size: 698 (423 males and 275 females Study variables: Age, Sex, marital status, occupation, literacy status, addition, morbidity pattern and disability. Results: Among 698 aged persons, 423(60.60% were males and 275(39.40% were females, 393(56.3% were in the age group of 60-65 years while only 34(4.8% were more than 80 years. Majority (58.45% belonged to Sikh community followed by Hindus (39.9%. 61.37% aged persons were literate and 38.63% were illiterate. 73.74% of all aged were living in joint families. 68.39% aged persons were engaged in one or other works while 31.61% were dependent on other family members. It was observed that 46.08% of rural aged and 32.97% of urban aged persons were going for morning/evening walk. 33.69% of urban aged and 20.69% of rural aged were reading newspapers or books. Out of total 423 males, 363(85.81% were addicted to one or the other intoxicants. 374(53.58% were feeling satisfactory at this age while 324(46.42% were not feeling so. Majority of them were ill at the time of survey. Arthritis (60.60% being the commonest cause of illness followed by cataract or visual impairment (54.01%. 16.62% of the aged were hypertensive, it was more (19.35% in urban aged as compared to rural aged (13.79%. Diabetes mellitus was observed in 5.3% aged persons and it was more commonly seen in urban area (6.81% than in rural area (2.51%. Prevalence of peptic ulcers/chromic gastritis was found to be 5.87% (6.09% in urban area (6.27% in rural area aged. The problems due to socio-psychology causes were minimal, probably because majority (73.74% of them were residing with their families

  11. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  12. Conscientiousness, health, and aging: the life course of personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Michael J; Hill, Patrick L; Roberts, Brent W; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these associations are moderated by factors that are not well understood. We propose the Life Course of Personality Model (LCP Model), which comprises a series of hypotheses that suggest how such mediational chains are subject to 2 sources of contingency. First, the mechanisms by which C translates into health and the avoidance of risk change from early childhood to late adulthood, involving processes that are specific to phases of the life course; also, however, C influences health by way of continuous processes extending over many decades of life. Second, C may be more consequential in some social contexts than in others, and when accompanied by some constellations of personality characteristics than by others. That is, the mediational processes by which C translates into health and the avoidance of disease are likely moderated by timing, social context (including the C of others), and other aspects of the individual's personality. We consider methodological implications of the LCP Model. PMID:23244406

  13. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  14. Person, personality, responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE MIHAI; EMILIA MIHAI

    2005-01-01

    Modern times consider as a person the individual man being endowed with reason and conscience; this man cannot be but person because he shows so many persons. According to the positive law the human individual is considered a person: natural person in civil relations; criminal in criminal relations; public officer in administrative relations, etc. “Natural person”, “criminal”, “public officer” are terms from legal terminology of different branches of law that define the individual in the law,...

  15. Aging in Persons with Rett Syndrome: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Lotan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurological disease affecting mainly females, characterized by an arrest of brain development caused by an X-linked mutation. Rett syndrome is the first human disease found to be caused by defects in a protein involved in regulating gene expression through its interaction with methylated DNA. The disease has been traced to a defective gene called MECP2. The case stories presented here and recent findings show that females with RS are able to live into old age. Due to the observed longevity of individuals with RS, and the fact that individuals with RS present the therapist/physician with specific clinical challenges, it is suggested that proper, long-term, and individually tailored, intensive care should be provided at all ages in the hope to prevent or at least reduce the age-related deterioration that is typical of this population.

  16. The effect of age and role information on expectations for big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin; Roberts, Brent W

    2006-11-01

    In four studies, the authors investigated the extent to which expectations for personality traits in age-graded roles correspond to patterns of personality trait change across the life course. In Studies 1 (N = 43) and 2 (N = 126), the authors examined the age-graded roles of high school student, college student, parent, and grandparent and found that expectations for how people behave in these age-graded roles showed strong parallels to the documented pattern of personality trait development and that this pattern of expectations was largely shared by younger and older participants. In Studies 3 (N = 252) and 4 (N = 123), the authors separated age and role information (e.g., marital, parental, and employment status) and found that people use both sources of information independently in forming expectations of others. The implications for understanding the interplay of expectations and personality trait development are discussed.

  17. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  18. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  19. Personality in old and very old age: stability but also change

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Personality development in old age is a largely underexplored area, especially in the ninth decade of life. Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal stability and change of Five-Factor Model personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort stability and mean-level differences between ages 69 and 81 years. Measurements within the FFM framework appeared to be adequately stable both within and across cohorts, and high rank-...

  20. [Caring for the aging and institutionalized disabled person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trungel-Legay, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The French national group of public social and medical-social institutions (GEPSO) has for several years been studying the issue of the ageing of disabled people. These people need more complex care and can present a loss of autonomy requiring changes to their day-to-day life.

  1. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben C Arslan; Lars Penke; Wendy Johnson; Iacono, William G.; Matt McGue

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  2. The Age of Criminal Responsibility from the Perspective of Malaysian Shariah Law

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa Binti Yusof; Anita Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The non-conformity in the use of the terms concerning children and their age in the Shariah criminal legal system in the states in Malaysia has given rise to legal conflict as well as causing difficulties in terms of the execution and enforcement of shariah legal crime and its procedures in each of the afore stated states. The existing laws show that there exists non-dissidence in determining the position of children which conflicts with syariah crime. The term young offender was duly provide...

  3. Up or out? Archetypes and person-organization fit in Dutch law firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.O.M. de Haas

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the conditions and mechanisms of fit between lawyers’ values and ambitions, on the one hand, and law firms’ values and other characteristics on the other hand. The big law firms in The Netherlands are distinguished according to their configuration as a professional partnershi

  4. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: A population based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.Y. Hoogendam (Jory); F. van der Lijn (Fedde); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A. Hofman (Albert); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.N. van der Geest (Jos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Particip

  5. Age Differences in Personality Across the Adult Life Span: Parallels in Five Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Administered translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to adults in Germany, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, and South Korea. Found declines in neuroticism, extraversion and openness, and increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness age for both men and women. Results support hypothesis that age differences reflect universal maturational…

  6. Influence of social desirability on age differences in self-reports of mood and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-08-01

    ABSTRACT Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in affect and personality that have been interpreted in terms of better emotional regulation and increased maturity. However, these findings have largely been based on self-report data, and the primary goal of the current research was to investigate the hypothesis that age-related differences in affect and in certain desirable personality traits might, at least partially, reflect age differences in social desirability. As expected, increased age was associated with lower levels of negative affect and Neuroticism and higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and scores on the social desirability scale were positively related to age and to desirable self-report characteristics but negatively related to undesirable self-report characteristics. Importantly, controlling for the variance in the social desirability measure resulted in less positive age trends in both types of self-report measures.

  7. [The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, A G

    2009-01-01

    Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.

  8. Psychological-Educational Research of Professionally Essential Characteristics of Law Students’ Personalities, Studying at Bachelor Level

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina A. Polyanskaya; Irina V. Ganusenko

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training

  9. Personalized nutrigenomics: tailoring the diet to the aging diabesity population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Ruden

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas M Ruden1, Xiangyi Lu21Wayne State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 190 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is estimated to double by the year 2025. Diabetes is especially prominent in the elderly population because the IDF indicates age above 45 years as a major risk factor for diabetes. The most common trials for controlling diabetes focus on tighter glucose control as a means to reduce the long-term complications. However, whether tight blood sugar control or other dietary or pharmaceutical interventions in the elderly are more appropriate is not known. Major changes have taken place in our diet over the past 10,000 years since the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution, but our genes have not changed. Furthermore, the large numbers of diabetic elderly in the population are a recent phenomenon, because those with diabetes have historically died young. Genetically speaking, humans today live in a nutritional environment that differs from that for which our genetic constitution was selected. For example a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Knowing who is at risk would be useful if it meant that one could avoid the environmental triggers that convert susceptibility to disease. The prospect of targeting specific dietary treatments at the elderly, who are predicted to gain the most therapeutic benefits, clearly has important clinical and economic consequences. In this review, we will discuss modern molecular genetic and epidemiological techniques which are now, or soon will

  10. Investigating the early stages of person perception: the asymmetry of social categorization by sex vs. age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Cloutier

    Full Text Available Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimensions, the relative influence that sex and age have on each other during categorization of infant, younger adult, and older adult faces was investigated. Results of these experiments demonstrate that when sex and age dimensions are simultaneously categorized, only for infant faces does age influence sex categorization. In contrast, the sex of both young and older adults was shown to influence age categorization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed in light of previous person perception research.

  11. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  12. Adult age differences in personality traits in the United States and the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1998-11-01

    Life experiences for corresponding age cohorts in the United States (US) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) have been dramatically different. If cohort effects account for cross-sectional age differences in mean levels of personality traits, different patterns of age differences should be seen in samples from the US and the PRC. The present study examined scores on scales from the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1987) in US (N = 348, age = 19-92 years) and PRC (N = 2,093, age = 18-67 years) samples. Very similar patterns of age correlations were seen. To compare results to other cross-cultural studies, CPI scales were interpreted in terms of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality; an FFM Age-Relatedness Index based on American data accurately predicted CPI age correlations not only in the US but also in the PRC sample. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are universal intrinsic maturational changes in personality. PMID:9826970

  13. Quality in rehabilitation after a working age person has sustained a fracture: Partnership contributes to continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne Pia; Hvalsøe*, Berit; Rosengaard, Jeppe;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research in quality of rehabilitation has mostly concerned patients with chronic diseases, but the aim of the present study was to investigate what constitutes good quality in rehabilitation after a person has sustained a fracture at working age, from both patients' and therapists...... need partnership, respect, and understanding through the rehabilitation course. Personal relations were important for continuity of rehabilitation (i.e. that organizational quality depended more on therapists' efforts to promote continuity for the patient than organizational tools)....

  14. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fisher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A previous study on university students reported that personal, communal, and environmental spiritual well-being contributed to happiness over and above personality but that relating with God did not. In this study, happiness was assessed using a modified Oxford Happiness Inventory. Personality scores were obtained using forms of Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. Four domains of spiritual well-being were determined using Fisher’s Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Relationship with God was reflected by the Transcendental domain of spiritual well-being in this instrument. Studies with 466 university students from Australia, Northern Ireland, and England, 494 people attending churches in Ballarat, and 1002 secondary school students in Victoria showed that relating with God accounts for variance on happiness, over and above personality, and age.

  15. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey, 1991), are…

  16. Assessment of borderline personality features in population samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale measurement invariant across sex and age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, de M.H.M.; Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderl

  17. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome (DS is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years, from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy.

  18. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study...

  19. Legal status of the mentally disabled person in South African law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, H; Fick, G; Els, C

    1995-01-01

    Mental illness or insanity has a dramatic influence on a person's legal status. A person's status determines his or her competencies such as legal capacity, capacity to act, accountability and capacity to litigate. A mentally ill person is incapable of performing juristic acts; he or she is not capable of becoming a party to legal proceedings; is virtually incapable of committing a crime or being liable for a delict; etc. However, not all mentally ill persons are precluded from performing legal acts or, for that matter, giving valid consent to medical treatment. The reason being that status is factually determined according to the degree to which the mental illness is present at the time when the mentally ill person participates in the legal traffic. The measure of capability depends on the patient's intellectual and volitional capacities that will decide whether the patient can validly contract, litigate or consent to medical treatment. More specifically medical research of a non-therapeutic nature can only be carried out on mental patients who are capable of consenting thereto. This article endeavours to touch upon the different aspects of the mentally ill person's legal status. PMID:8668008

  20. Psychological-Educational Research of Professionally Essential Characteristics of Law Students’ Personalities, Studying at Bachelor Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Polyanskaya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training

  1. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, L.M.; Price, S. A.; Freeman, H.D.; Lambeth, S.P.; SCHAPIRO, S. J.; Kendal, R L

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different ...

  2. Genetic polymorphisms and skin aging: the identification of population genotypic groups holds potential for personalized treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Naval,1 Vicente Alonso,1,2 Miquel Angel Herranz11Genocosmetics Lab, Barcelona, Spain; 2Dermatology Unit, Hospital Nisa 9 de Octubre, Valencia, SpainIntroduction: Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Skin properties such as hydration, elasticity, and antioxidant capacity play a key role in the skin aging process. Skin aging is a complex process influenced by heritable and environmental factors. Recent studies on twins have revealed that up to 60% of the skin aging variation between individuals can be attributed to genetic factors, while the remaining 40% is due to non-genetic factors. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics approaches have led to the association of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to skin properties. Our aim was to classify individuals based on an ensemble of multiple polymorphisms associated with certain properties of the skin for providing personalized skin care and anti-aging therapies.Methods and results: We identified the key proteins and SNPs associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to skin aging. We selected a set of 13 SNPs in gene coding for these proteins which are potentially associated with skin aging. Finally, we classified a sample of 120 female volunteers into ten clusters exhibiting different skin properties according to their genotypic signature.Conclusion: This is the first study that describes the actual frequency of genetic polymorphisms and their distribution in clusters involved in skin aging in a Caucasian population. Individuals can be divided into genetic clusters defined by genotypic variables. These genotypic variables are linked with polymorphisms in one or more genes associated with certain properties of the skin that contribute to a person's perceived age. Therefore, by using this classification, it is possible to characterize human skin care and anti-aging needs on the basis of an individual's genetic signature, thus opening the door

  3. Personality traits in old age: Measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, Rene; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts...

  4. Return migration to region of birth among retirement-age persons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A

    1990-05-01

    This study addresses some of the methodological difficulties one encounters in assessing the question of whether older persons display an increasing tendency to return to their state of birth after reaching retirement age. It reanalyzes previously studied data on the question and concludes that there is no indication that elderly people are more prone than nonelderly to "return home" to their native state.

  5. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) genotype and cognitive function in persons aged 35 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene may predict lower risk of cognitive decline. We investigated the association of cognitive function with CETP genotype in a population-based cohort of 4135 persons aged 35-82 years. Cognitive function was measured with the Ruff

  6. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Beatrice van der; Vuuren, Tinka van; Kooij, Dorien; Lange, Annet de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aim

  7. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: the role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, Beatrice van der; Vuuren, Tinka van; Kooij, Dorien; Lange, Annet de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  8. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vuuren, T. van; Kooij, D.; Lange, A.H. de

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper ai

  9. Quality in rehabilitation after a working age person has sustained a fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Marianne; Hvalsoe, Berit; Poulsen, Jeppe Rosengaard;

    2013-01-01

    Research in quality of rehabilitation has mostly concerned patients with chronic diseases, but the aim of the present study was to investigate what constitutes good quality in rehabilitation after a person has sustained a fracture at working age, from both patients' and therapists' perspectives....

  10. Plasticity, Person-Context Relations, and Cognitive Training in the Aged Years: A Developmental Contextual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Developmental contextualism focuses on changes in fused relations between developing people and their changing contexts. Research on cognitive training in the aged years provides evidence about plasticity throughout life because it alters developmental trajectories through revised person-context relations. The studies in the current issue support…

  11. Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

  12. CIVIL LAW AND THE DISREGARD OF THE LEGAL PERSONALITY OF COMPANIES LTDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. T. Macarenhas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the importance that the legal person has the right to and for society, the legal system itself has instruments to protect such institute, correcting fraud and abuse in its exercise. Through the theory of piercing the corporate veil, the distinctive personality and patrimonial autonomy are removed temporarily, making partners and managers are held accountable, as if the entity does not exist. The integration of theory disregard the Civil Code of 2002 is not about real innovation, because its application was already a reality in the Brazilian courts, even if the regulatory provisions dealing hitherto disregard of the doctrine were so confused and often sometimes even erroneous.

  13. High Court Rules that Law Bars Bias against Persons with Contagious Ills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1987-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which protects disabled people from discrimination, covers persons with contagious diseases. This decision is seen as strengthening the rights of people suffering from AIDS as well as other diseases. (MSE)

  14. Persons without an heir in his will or judgment without an heir, from the perspective of jurisprudence and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wills, legal matters and legal ordinances, which were subject to the death of the testator. Will, from the perspective of jurists and lawyers, is divided into two categories ( Directive Possession - Abide . Unlike contract law, on behalf of the client 's life is a runner, of wills after the testator 's death. Examples of wills. Wills persons without heirs, or the judge has no heir. That is, with respect to personal property, which, while being the heirs of the deceased. Part or all of his property, the judgment is yours without an heir. Among jurists and lawyers about wills surplus to third parties without heirs, or the heirs there is no judgment. It seems that five major, there is separation. Noting the authors believe that the rule will, is applicable only to the third property, and on its surplus, subject to the permission of the heirs, in default of any person without testamentary heir or no heir rule, the rule Shedding person in life can any property be seized, and a will debate and process testator 's death, the heirs causal albeit limited to one person, it seems, in excess of one-third of wills is not right because it would infringe upon the rights of third parties, and Meanwhile Gradation rule sequence and confirm the story, which is primarily wills, inheritance and wills after the third Tuesday in the process of inheritance, the disorder is caused, therefore, it seems, wills Noting that the rules of jus conges, and the public order is this consistent with the norms and legal principles, and governed solely operate the public order.

  15. The Canadian Criminal Code Offence of Trafficking in Persons: Challenges from the Field and within the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kaye

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite early ratification of the United Nations Trafficking in Persons Protocol, the Criminal Code offence of trafficking in persons in Canada has received little analytical or interpretive attention to date. Adopted in 2005, this offence has resulted in successful convictions in a limited number of cases and criminal justice authorities have continued to rely on alternate or complementary charges in cases of human trafficking. In particular, prosecutions for cases involving non-sexual labour trafficking remain extremely low. This article provides a socio-legal examination of why the offence of trafficking in persons in Canada is under-utilized in labour trafficking cases. Based on an analysis of data generated from 56 one-on-one interviews gathered from a variety of actors involved in counter trafficking response mechanisms and a legal examination of the key components of the offence, we argue that definitional challenges have resulted in narrow understandings and problematic interpretations of the Criminal Code offence. Such narrow interpretations have resulted in restricted applicability, particularly in cases of labour trafficking. More broadly, the article points to the need to address the limitations of the Criminal Code while formulating responses to trafficking that are not dependent on criminal law.

  16. Legal or business personality of the commercial companies according to business law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Companies are founded by two or more physic persons or entities that are awarded for the achievement of common objectives in business, making contributions to society, as defined in its charter that in essence is a general term that means a society - society trading. As such the company has an identity apart from the legal authentic it is clearly separate from its members or shareholders. In this segment Kosovo has an interesting and intense legislative history. The transformation of the Comp...

  17. Personality Traits and Successful Aging: Findings From the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2016-09-01

    The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work. PMID:27298487

  18. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span. PMID:11404047

  19. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1203 - Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Ages 1 and Older 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1203—Location of Tesr Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Ages 1 and Older...

  20. Age- and Gender-Specific Unemployment in Scandinavian Countries: An Analysis based on Okun’s Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Hutengs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates Scandinavian countries and their male and female unemployment rates. Okun’s law is used to estimate age cohort and gender-specific Okun coefficients to make inference about the business-cycle dependence of young peoples’ unemployment across Scandinavian countries. Results...

  1. A MENTAL CHALLENGE New law in the works to improve care for mentally ill persons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    Xu Wu,a former firefighter with the Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Corp.(WISCO),a state-owned steelmaker in central China's Hubei Province,finally returned to his family in early June.The 43-year-old claimed he had been incorrectly diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder and kept in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility for more than four years.He insisted he had beer sent to the facility because his employer wanted to punish him for his longstanding petitioning over a wage dispute.

  2. The right to the protection of personal data between law and constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervi...

  3. On Private Regulation of Personal Information Right in Information Age%论信息时代个人信息权的私法规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项定宜

    2015-01-01

    In information age, personal information torts increase rapidly, affecting personal peaceful life, harmful to personal dignity, affecting so-cial stability and national security.Legislators should promote smooth flow of the information resources through legal configuration , not violating per-sonal dignity of the subject, to meet the needs of information society reasonably.Although the personal information carries the public interests and public safety, but it is a private interest in nature.Public interests are protected fundamentally, only to provide full privacy protection of personal information.Private regulation of the right of personal information is realized through the completion of personality right law , tort law, and contract law.The personality right law recognizes the right of personal information , and tort law and contract law protects the personal information right. On-ly in this way, it is helpful to the protection of the rights of the individual , in favor of sharing and free flow of information , promoting the benign de-velopment of the e-commerce and e-government, establishing a good international image, and promoting the development of International trade.%信息时代个人信息侵权行为迅速增加,影响个人生活安宁,损害个人人格尊严,影响社会安定和国家安全。立法者应当通过法律配置,在不侵犯信息主体人格尊严的前提下,促进信息资源的合理、畅通的流动,以合理回应信息社会的需求。虽然个人信息也承载着公共利益和公共安全,但其主要还是一种私益,只有对个人信息提供充分的私权保护,才有利于从根本上保护公共利益。个人信息权的私法规制通过人格权法、侵权责任法、合同法完成。通过人格权法确认个人信息权,侵权责任法和合同法保护个人信息权,有利于保护个人权利,同时促进信息的共享与自由流通,推进电子商务和电子政务的良性

  4. Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Catherine E; Warnock, Neil D; Garbett, Amy P; Cotter, Sheena C

    2015-10-01

    How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in "staying alive" in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual. PMID:26664685

  5. Probabilistic graphical models to deal with age estimation of living persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Emanuele; Gallidabino, Matteo; Weyermann, Céline; Taroni, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Due to the rise of criminal, civil and administrative judicial situations involving people lacking valid identity documents, age estimation of living persons has become an important operational procedure for numerous forensic and medicolegal services worldwide. The chronological age of a given person is generally estimated from the observed degree of maturity of some selected physical attributes by means of statistical methods. However, their application in the forensic framework suffers from some conceptual and practical drawbacks, as recently claimed in the specialised literature. The aim of this paper is therefore to offer an alternative solution for overcoming these limits, by reiterating the utility of a probabilistic Bayesian approach for age estimation. This approach allows one to deal in a transparent way with the uncertainty surrounding the age estimation process and to produce all the relevant information in the form of posterior probability distribution about the chronological age of the person under investigation. Furthermore, this probability distribution can also be used for evaluating in a coherent way the possibility that the examined individual is younger or older than a given legal age threshold having a particular legal interest. The main novelty introduced by this work is the development of a probabilistic graphical model, i.e. a Bayesian network, for dealing with the problem at hand. The use of this kind of probabilistic tool can significantly facilitate the application of the proposed methodology: examples are presented based on data related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis. The reliability and the advantages of this probabilistic tool are presented and discussed. PMID:25794687

  6. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane;

    2011-01-01

    % of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during......Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included....... Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10...

  7. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D;

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... foraging puzzles. We included both female (N=24) and male (N=12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14-47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females' estrous state-a potential influence on cognitive reasoning-by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated...

  8. Investigating the Early Stages of Person Perception: The Asymmetry of Social Categorization by Sex vs. Age

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin Cloutier; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Nalini Ambady

    2014-01-01

    Early perceptual operations are central components of the dynamics of social categorization. The wealth of information provided by facial cues presents challenges to our understanding of these early stages of person perception. The current study aimed to uncover the dynamics of processing multiply categorizable faces, notably as a function of their gender and age. Using a modified four-choice version of a mouse-tracking paradigm (which assesses the relative dominance of two categorical dimens...

  9. Is the relationship between BMI and mortality increasingly U-shaped with advancing age? A 10-year follow-up of persons aged 70-95 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; Jacobsen, Rune; Jeune, Bernard;

    2010-01-01

    . The information in both surveys included self-reported weight and height. With virtually no loss to follow-up, survival was assessed through a 10-year follow-up period, during which 4,664 (72%) of the persons died. RESULTS: The association between BMI and mortality is changing with advancing age for people aged...... (BMI [kilogram per square meter]) and mortality becomes increasingly U-shaped with advancing age. The aim of this study is to examine the association between BMI and mortality and to test whether the association is changing with advancing age for persons aged 70-95 years in Denmark. METHODS: The study...

  10. Experiences of identification and differentiation as functions of leprosy, personality and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N S; Dhar, U; Singh, Y

    1984-01-01

    It is a study of sociogenic need satisfactions that determines the homeostasis of 'being' by remaining contingent conditions of perpetuation or debasement of the social 'self'. The paper has a focus on identification satisfaction and differentiation experience of patients of the highly stigmatized leprosy. The study proceeds with an 'Experimental Group--Control-Group' randomized design. Experimental Groups are two, viz., those of Lepromatous and Non-lepromatous patients. 'Control Group' consists of 'disease-free' normal people. The three independent variables are disease types, age, personality factors. The dependent variables are two, viz., score of identification satisfaction and differentiation experience, measured by standardized tools. Each dependent variable has four '3 X 3 X 2' factorial experiments to test 56 'Null Hypotheses'. The sample consists of 360 elements for each one of the eight experiments. Leprosy elements are drawn from the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy and the 'Kushta Seva Sadan' (Agra). The 'F' test is run for statistical verification of 'Null hypotheses'. Results show presence of 'role-reversion' and 'role negation' of age and personality factors. The disease possesses 'anti-roles'. It does not allow age and personality factors to promote identification satisfaction and to demote differentiation and experience. The disease actively promotes differentiation and demotes identification through its own 'alien system'. The senescents are the greatest sufferers. 'Social Stigma' works a 'social thanatos' and exposes senescents to substantial 'self-erosion'. PMID:6548499

  11. The Rights of Persons Charged with Penal Offences to Access to Lawyers——A comparison between international and domestic laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIMING

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Getting help from lawyers and its realization according to international standards The right to defense for a person involving in a law suit is a universal human right. Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides: "Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence."

  12. Efficiency Modalities in Internal Plan of Decisions Isued by International Jurisdictions that Regulated the Situation of Private Law Persons in National Judicial Order

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Andritoi

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the article are represented by the prove of the fact that the decisions of the courtgive birth to rights and obligations in natural persons and judicial persons’ patrimonies, in internal law, sothat the problem if these can prevail from the authority of the thing judged is posed? Besides this situation,the rules of international law are applied by national courts according to national constitutions and fordomestic purposes. According to the theory of the act of state, even i...

  13. The right to the protection of personal data between law and constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervision of work performance, is resolved by the Constitutional Court in the light of the principles of proportionality, suitability and necessity. The outcome of the balancing leads the Constitutional Court to establish the prevalence of the entrepreneurial freedom on the right to privacy of the employee.

  14. Informed consent from cognitively impaired persons participating in research trials: comparative law observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the ethical requirements to be considered when conducting clinical trials involving human subjects whose mental condition limits their ability to understand the information and to express fully autonomous and informed consent. It does not address other categories of vulnerable persons, such as children, or advanced directives concerning end-of-life care. There are many ethical issues entailed in clinical trials involving subjects with mental disabilities: how to obtain informed consent, balancing risks and benefits, balancing individual benefits with collective scientific and social interests, legal representation and many more. This article focuses on the issues surrounding the concept of minimal risk and the relationship between informed consent and risk. These issues are addressed with particular emphasis on the regulations adopted by the European Union and the federal government of the United States of America. The conclusion proposes a list of working criteria.

  15. Should it be illegal for HIV-positive persons to have unprotected sex without disclosure? An examination of attitudes among US men who have sex with men and the impact of state law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Weinmeyer, Richard; Rosser, Simon

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the overall pattern and predictors of attitudes toward criminalizing unprotected sex without disclosure by persons living with HIV among a broad sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the USA, and to examine whether attitudes and sexual risk behavior differ by states with HIV-specific laws or no such laws. Participants (n=1725) were recruited in a 3.5 month period to complete a cross-sectional 70-minute online survey assessing attitudes and high risk sexual behavior. Participants self-identified as male, 18 years of age or older, a US resident, and having ever had sex with a man. In addition, participants were coded as residing in a state with HIV-specific laws or not. Results showed that most (65%) respondents believed it should be illegal for persons living with HIV to have unprotected sex without disclosure. However, among the total sample and HIV-positive MSM, attitudes and unprotected sex with recent partners did not vary by state law. Believing that it should not be illegal for persons living with HIV to have unprotected sex without disclosure was associated with HIV-positive status (OR=0.33), higher education (ORs=0.42-0.64), gay orientation (non-gay orientation: OR=1.54), perceptions that state residents were somewhat or very accepting toward homosexuality (OR=0.75), unprotected anal intercourse with two or more recent sexual partners (OR=0.72), and lower perceptions of responsibility (OR=0.75). The results did not support the proposition that HIV-specific laws deter high-risk sexual behavior, however further research is needed to examine whether they act as a barrier for MSM at highest risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV. PMID:20635241

  16. Personal responsibility or shared responsibility: What is the appropriate role of the law in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Sensitive to allegations of "nanny state" paternalism, Australian governments support the doctrine that combating obesity is a matter of personal responsibility. Policy-makers endorse the "holistic" approach to obesity prevention, with a view to managing both sides of the nutritional energy equation. This paradigm allows the food and drinks industry to deflect its contributory responsibility for the epidemic and to avoid more stringent regulatory intervention beyond existing self-regulatory and corporate social responsibility regimes. This article argues that the industry must bear shared responsibility for the extent of the obesity crisis, although it cannot bear sole responsibility It defends the public interest case for more invasive, government-led regulation, reframing the crisis as one of public not individual burdens. Mindful of the political risk associated with unfocused calls for regulatory intervention, it articulates a set of regulatory principles to ensure that the interests of consumers and industry are properly acknowledged prior to further regulatory intervention. Finally, the article clarifies the subject, object and content of possible regulatory initiatives, offering an evaluation of their efficacy, practicality and fairness. PMID:26554202

  17. Enhancing the Personal Narrative Skills of Elementary School-Aged Students Who Use AAC: The Effectiveness of Personal Narrative Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Solomon-Rice, Patti; Caputo, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Children who use augmentative and alternative communication have been found to experience significant difficulties in the production of fictional and personal narratives. The important role of personal narratives in establishing personal and social identity has received substantial attention in developmental psychology but little attention in the…

  18. Circadian typology, age, and the alternative five-factor personality model in an adult women sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana; Cladellas, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    Research on personality and circadian typology indicates evening-type women are more impulsive and novelty seeking, neither types are more anxious, and morning types tend to be more active, conscientious, and persistent. The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between circadian typologies in the light of the Zuckerman's Alternative Five-Factor Model (AFFM) of personality, which has a strong biological basis, in an adult sample of 412 women 18 to 55 yrs of age. The authors found morning-type women had significant higher scores than evening-type and neither-type women on Activity, and its subscales General Activity and Work Activity. In contrast, evening-type women scored significantly higher than morning-type women on Aggression-Hostility, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and its subscale Sensation Seeking. In all groups, results were independent of age. These findings are in accordance with those previously obtained in female student samples and add new data on the AFFM. The need of using personality models that are biologically based in the study of circadian rhythms is discussed.

  19. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  20. Possession Is Not Always the Law: With Age, Preschoolers Increasingly Use Verbal Information to Identify Who Owns What

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R.; Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Children can identify owners either by seeing a person in possession of an object (a visual cue) and inferring that they are the owner or by hearing testimony about a claim of ownership (a verbal cue). A total of 391 children between 2.5 and 6 years of age were tested in three experiments assessing how children identify owners when these two cues…

  1. Googling your genes: personal genomics and the discourse of citizen bioscience in the network age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Levina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I argue that the rise of personal genomics is technologically, economically, and most importantly, discursively tied to the rise of network subjectivity, an imperative of which is an understanding of self as always already a subject in the network. I illustrate how personal genomics takes full advantage of social media technology and network subjectivity to advertise a new way of doing research that emphasizes collaboration between researchers and its members. Sharing one’s genetic information is considered to be an act of citizenship, precisely because it is good for the network. Here members are encouraged to think of themselves as dividuals, or nodes, in the network and their actions acquire value based on that imperative. Therefore, citizen bioscience is intricately tied, both in discourse and practices, to the growth of the network in the age of new media.

  2. Social relations as determinants of oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether social relations during a 7-year follow-up influence oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHOD: The present investigation is based on a subsample of 129 dentate community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen...... Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS), which included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social relations were measured in terms of marital status, living alone, frequency of contacts, number of confidants, and satisfaction with social contacts and with the frequency of contacts. Oral health.......4, 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) than those who continually lived with others, and that persons who were continuously dissatisfied with the frequency of their social contacts were more likely to have root caries than those who reported a sustained satisfaction with the frequency of their social contacts (OR: 2.9, 95...

  3. Book review: Everyday law on the street: city governance in an age of diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Melina

    2013-01-01

    Toronto prides itself on being “the world’s most diverse city,” and its officials seek to support this diversity through programs and policies designed to promote social inclusion. Yet this progressive vision of law often falls short in practice, limited by problems inherent in the political culture itself. In Everyday Law on the Street, Mariana Valverde brings to light the often unexpected ways that the development and implementation of policies shape everyday urban life. Meli...

  4. (InSecutiry Regime among African Youth: The Age and Law Curfew Aumenta dimensioni testoDiminuisci dimensioni testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper[1] this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the youth in Africa and may not suffice in championing policy course for a secured African youth. [Un]employment are only symptoms of asymmetrical laws governing many African states. The principal problems are the constitution, and age limitations respectively (Ombagi 2012. In this guide, the instrument valid for testing and indeed, observing the true condition of young Africans are: the roles of state’s constitution; and the Age Grade limitation factors. These, are critical in the development and security of the youth. George McGovern cited in Jeanette Rankin (2012 noted that he [was] fed up to the ears with old men dreaming up wars for young people to die. Two salient factors, rudimentary to youth insecurity in the region in McGovern’s assertions are the law which authorises war and the age grade legally targeted in the war. In assortment of ways, constitutions provide the basis for definition, qualification and categorisation of the youth, who in turn are the direct sufferers of numerous human and state insecurity conditions forced on them by law. Constitution, therefore, plays exclusivist roles and enables the central authority to enforce rules on, and dictate norms for the youth. Despite the need for the state to adjust its behavior to reflect the actual or anticipated preferences of all citizens through a process of policy coordination, laws deprive the youth.

  5. User-centric design of a personal assistance robot (FRASIER) for active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padir, Taşkin; Skorinko, Jeanine; Dimitrov, Velin

    2015-01-01

    We present our preliminary results from the design process for developing the Worcester Polytechnic Institute's personal assistance robot, FRASIER, as an intelligent service robot for enabling active aging. The robot capabilities include vision-based object detection, tracking the user and help with carrying heavy items such as grocery bags or cafeteria trays. This work-in-progress report outlines our motivation and approach to developing the next generation of service robots for the elderly. Our main contribution in this paper is the development of a set of specifications based on the adopted user-centered design process, and realization of the prototype system designed to meet these specifications. PMID:26737419

  6. User-centric design of a personal assistance robot (FRASIER) for active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padir, Taşkin; Skorinko, Jeanine; Dimitrov, Velin

    2015-01-01

    We present our preliminary results from the design process for developing the Worcester Polytechnic Institute's personal assistance robot, FRASIER, as an intelligent service robot for enabling active aging. The robot capabilities include vision-based object detection, tracking the user and help with carrying heavy items such as grocery bags or cafeteria trays. This work-in-progress report outlines our motivation and approach to developing the next generation of service robots for the elderly. Our main contribution in this paper is the development of a set of specifications based on the adopted user-centered design process, and realization of the prototype system designed to meet these specifications.

  7. An investigation of five types of personality trait continuity: A two-wave longitudinal study of Spanish adolescents from age 12 to age 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234. Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to age 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.

  8. Padova Charter on personal injury and damage under civil-tort law : Medico-legal guidelines on methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Santo Davide; Baccino, Eric; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Comandè, Giovanni; Domenici, Ranieri; Hernandez-Cueto, Claudio; Gulmen, Mete Korkut; Mendelson, George; Montisci, Massimo; Norelli, Gian Aristide; Pinchi, Vilma; Ranavaya, Mohammed; Shokry, Dina A; Sterzik, Vera; Vermylen, Yvo; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Viel, Guido; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Compensation for personal damage, defined as any pecuniary or non-pecuniary loss causally related to a personal injury under civil-tort law, is strictly based on the local jurisdiction and therefore varies significantly across the world. This manuscript presents the first "International Guidelines on Medico-Legal Methods of Ascertainment and Criteria of Evaluation of Personal Injury and Damage under Civil-Tort Law". This consensus document, which includes a step-by-step illustrated explanation of flow charts articulated in eight sequential steps and a comprehensive description of the ascertainment methodology and the criteria of evaluation, has been developed by an International Working Group composed of juridical and medico-legal experts and adopted as Guidelines by the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM).

  9. The influence of the levels of personality traits on the quality of life of late reproductive age women

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Jurczak; Krzysztof Safranow; Elżbieta Grochans

    2016-01-01

    Background . The topic that is increasingly discussed is the contribution of personality traits to many aspects of life, including maintenance and restoration of health. Since health status is an essential element of quality of life, the latter may be significantly influenced by personality. Objectives . The aim of this study was to determine how personality traits influence the quality of life of late reproductive age women. Material and methods . The study included 345 late reprod...

  10. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated.

  11. Personality traits in old age: measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2012-03-01

    Lothian Birth Cohorts, 1936 and 1921 were used to study the longitudinal comparability of Five-Factor Model (McCrae & John, 1992) personality traits from ages 69 to 72 years and from ages 81 to 87 years, and cross-cohort comparability between ages 69 and 81 years. Personality was measured using the 50-item International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). Satisfactory measurement invariance was established across time and cohorts. High rank-order stability was observed in both cohorts. Almost no mean-level change was observed in the younger cohort, whereas Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect declined significantly in the older cohort. The older cohort scored higher on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. In these cohorts, individual differences in personality traits continued to be stable even in very old age, mean-level changes accelerated. PMID:21604884

  12. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana Ivanus

    2013-01-01

    The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, fo...

  13. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  14. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  15. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Andrew Schwartz

    Full Text Available We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains, tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed', suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability, and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'. To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality.

  16. China's Marriage Law: a model for family responsibilities and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, R T

    1982-12-01

    China's Marriage Law of 1981 is presented with a brief commentary. The law encompasses the responsibilities of spouses, parents, children, grandparents, and siblings to one another. The new law is contrasted with the 1950 Marriage Law, which prohibited such feudal practices of former times as arranged marriages and child betrothals. The 1981 law is concerned with equality and the lawful needs of women, children, and the aged. Family planning is encouraged. Divorce is made easier to obtain. Adoptees and stepchildren are provided for. The law provides a legislative model for personal relationships.

  17. From inflammaging to healthy aging by dietary lifestyle choices: is epigenetics the key to personalized nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Declerck, Ken; Vidaković, Melita; Vanden Berghe, Wim

    2015-01-01

    dietary constituents. Here, we will summarize the epigenetic actions of dietary components, including phytochemicals, and macro- and micronutrients as well as metabolites, that can attenuate inflammaging. We will discuss the challenges facing personalized nutrition to translate highly variable interindividual epigenetic diet responses to potential individual health benefits/risks related to aging disease.

  18. Impact of age and basic heart rate on heart rate turbulence in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jörg Otto; Eichner, Gerrit; Shlevkov, Nikolay; Schrickel, Jan; Yang, Alexander; Balta, Osman; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2005-01-01

    Postextrasystolic acceleration of heart rate (HR), known as HR turbulence (HRT) is attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease at increased risk of adverse events. The influence of age and basic HR on HRT have not been evaluated in a large cohort of persons. In 95 healthy individuals, HRT onset (TO) and slope (TS) were calculated from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms, as well as the turbulence timing (TT). Gender specific differences in TO and TS were compared in simple, linear, weighted regression model. The influence of age and the basic HR preceding ventricular premature contractions on HRT were examined. We found that, in men and women, TO decreases as basic HR increases (P men, TS decreased as basic HR increases, whereas in women, basic HR influenced TS only slightly (P linear regression model revealed a decrease in HRT with increasing age in men. In conclusion, physiological acceleration of the HR within the first 11 beats after premature ventricular complex (VPC) was observed in >75% of healthy individuals. An accelerating HR preceding the VPC influenced HRT in men. An increasing age was associated with a decrease in HRT in men and a decrease in TO in women. These results illustrate the importance of physiological modulations of HRT when used for risk stratification, especially in older populations.

  19. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a new approach to decision-making in mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires us to engage in new approaches to decision-making in mental health law. The reclassification of mental health rights to the realm of disability rights is an important step towards equal treatment for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Law reformers worldwide are beginning to consider the implications of the provisions. Legislators will be required to understand the underlying philosophy of the CRPD to realise the rights set out in it. The CRPD possesses a number of innovative provisions which can transform decision-making in the mental health context. Article 12 provides a new conceptualisation of persons with disabilities and their capacity to participate by requiring support to exercise legal capacity. While good practice exists, the provision has yet to be fully implemented by many State Parties. This article discusses the impact of the CRPD on mental health law, legal capacity law and describes examples of supported decision-making models for mental health care.

  20. Predicting relatedness and self-definition depressive experiences in aging women based on personality traits: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood.

  1. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121

  2. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121

  3. Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: Genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences was examined in initial level and change in psychopathic personality from ages 9 to 18 years. A piecewise growth curve model, in which the first change score (G1) influenced all ages (9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years) and the second change score (G2) only influenced ages 14-15 and 16-18 years, fit the data better did than the standard single slope model, suggesting a turning point from childhood to adolescence. The results indicated that variations in levels and both change scores were mainly due to genetic (A) and nonshared environmental (E) influences (i.e., AE structure for G0, G1, and G2). No sex differences were found except on the mean values of level and change scores. Based on caregiver ratings, about 81% of variance in G0, 89% of variance in G1, and 94% of variance in G2 were explained by genetic factors, whereas for youth self-reports, these three proportions were 94%, 71%, and 66%, respectively. The larger contribution of genetic variance and covariance in caregiver ratings than in youth self-reports may suggest that caregivers considered the changes in their children to be more similar as compared to how the children viewed themselves.

  4. A co-original approach towards law-making in the internet age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chi Shing

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in incorporating significant citizen participation into the law-making process by developing the use of the internet in the public sphere. However, no well-accepted e-participation model has prevailed. This article points out that, to be successful, we need critical reflection of legal theory and we also need further institutional construction based on the theoretical reflection. Contemporary dominant legal theories demonstrate too strong an internal legal p...

  5. 民法中的独立人格与平等原则%Independent Personality and Principle of Equality in Civil Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷

    2013-01-01

      民法的基本价值取向是平等与自由,对独立法律人格的承认是平等价值得以实现的前提,也是民事主体获得彼此平等地位并正常开展民事活动、合法取得财产的重要前提。民法独立人格及平等原则的内涵是一个动态发展的过程,从罗马法到近代民法再到现代民法,人们对民法独立人格和平等价值的追求从未停止。良好的法律必须是全面肯定民事主体的独立法律人格并妥当贯彻平等价值之内涵的法律。在疑难民事案件裁判过程中,民法平等原则仍然可以起到司法准则的裁判功能。%The most basic value orientation of civil law is equality and liberty.Equality depends on independent legal personality, from the premise of which start civil subjects'civil activities and legitimate properties.From Roman law to modern civil law, the intension of independent personality and equality develops dynamically and the pursuit of them never stops.Good law must affirm independent personality of civil subject and carry out equality appropriately.In difficult civil law cases, equality can play a role of adjudication norm.

  6. Guarantee of the accused person's right to defense counsel. A comparative study of Vietnamese, German and American criminal procedure law

    OpenAIRE

    Luong Thi, My Quynh

    2011-01-01

    In Vietnam, practical settlement of criminal cases tends to indicate that incorrect judgments still exist that naturally prejudices the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, including the right to have defense counsel. This results from various causes, of which the overlapping and contradictory nature of the laws is one. This dissertation focuses on examining the contents of the applicable provisions of international law and the laws of Vietnam, Germany and the United States on ...

  7. 一人有限责任公司的法经济分析%Analysis of one-person limitedliability company in economic law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲

    2016-01-01

    The company law established one-person company with general limited liability by legislation. It does chalenge the traditional theory of the company law, but the traditional method has been difficult to interpret the legitimacy and rationality of one-person company convictively. Using the method of economic analysis of law, it can wel explain the legislative legitimacy and how to regulate the operation of the one-person company. One-person company promotes the prosperity of the economy by cutting the capital costs for investors, and decreasing the trading costs between shareholders and creditors. That is consistent with the legislative intent of the company law.%从传统公司法的基本理论来看,从立法的层面肯定一人公司的有限责任显然是对公司法法理基础的冲击,然而传统的价值分析确实已难以对一人公司的合法合理性进行有说服力的阐释。采用法律经济分析的手法,对一人公司有限责任的立法正当性、以及我国公司法如何规范其合理运行可以进行强有力的解释。从经济学的角度来讲,一人有限责任公司的合法化无疑可以以其低成本高效率的优点吸引更多有投资意向的人进行实际的投资活动,从而促进经济的繁荣,这也符合公司法的立法本意。

  8. Some Common Issues and the Application of more Favorable Criminal Law for Crimes against the Person according to the New Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the main common issues of crimes against the person, and some other situations of more favorable criminal law enforcement. The innovations consist in the conducted examination and the views expressed on some situations in which the more favorable criminal law should be applied. The main change with a strong preventive feature is to introduce the two institutions, namely, the renunciation of applying the punishment and postponing the punishment, which generally is given a favoring regime to physical or legal entities being at their first conflict with the law or in the case of committing crimes whose seriousness is reduced. The paper continues other papers published in the field, and it can be useful both to academics and practitioners in the domain of preventing and combating crime of this kind.

  9. App Law Within:Rights and Regulation in the Smartphone Age

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Sithigh, Daithi

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the regulation of smartphone ‘app stores’. At the outset, the significance of smartphones and apps to the debate on Internet regulation is considered, and places in the context of the adoption of smartphones and apps. The importance (commercially and as a study in governance and control) of the iOS App Store (Apple) is highlighted, as is the need to explore forms of regulation that are not linked with a violation of competition law. Section ‘Developer-focused issues’ dea...

  10. 浅析法治文化下法治人格的塑造%On the Shaping of Legal Personality under the Rule of Law Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申唯佳

    2014-01-01

    Construction of socialist rule of law has become the focus of work in our country.Facing the new development situation and the social environment, if we want to develop in an all-around way and to build a socialist country under the rule of law,we must shape a sound personality.Generation of legal personality is a process of internalization to externalized.The value connotation of rule of law culture is also the spiritual pursuit of legal personality,and can provide motivation for it.%社会主义法治建设已经成为我国的重点工作。面对新的发展形势和社会环境,想要得到自身全面的发展从而更好地建设社会主义法治国家必须塑造健全的法治人格。法治人格的生成是一个由内化到外化的过程,法治文化的价值内涵同是法治人格所要达到的精神追求,也为其提供了内在动力。

  11. From Sin to Crime: Laws on Infanticide in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. It compares the efforts of various states to protect the newborn infant between 534 and 1532 CE. When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the jurisdiction of infanticide was relegated to the church, which regarded carnal delicts a sin rather than a crime. The punishment - public penance of the mother for 7-15 years - was milder than that which the murder of an adult would incur. The Council of Florence decreed in 1439 that the souls of children who died without having been baptized descend to hell. This turned infanticide from a penitential sin to the most heinous of all crimes. The states passed laws that abominated infanticide even more than the murder of older humans and punished women with ever more cruel forms of execution. Towards the men, however, who usually abandoned the women they had impregnated, the laws were lenient. Churches and society continued to vilify illegitimate birth, thus enhancing rather than preventing infanticide. The Habsburg-German legislation of 1532 ordained to torture any woman who had concealed pregnancy and birth and claimed the infant was stillborn. Legislation developed similarly in other countries, albeit at a different speed. French (1556) and British (1623) legislation reversed the burden of proof and demanded the death penalty for concealing pregnancy and birth when a dead infant was found. PMID:26583381

  12. From Sin to Crime: Laws on Infanticide in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. It compares the efforts of various states to protect the newborn infant between 534 and 1532 CE. When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the jurisdiction of infanticide was relegated to the church, which regarded carnal delicts a sin rather than a crime. The punishment - public penance of the mother for 7-15 years - was milder than that which the murder of an adult would incur. The Council of Florence decreed in 1439 that the souls of children who died without having been baptized descend to hell. This turned infanticide from a penitential sin to the most heinous of all crimes. The states passed laws that abominated infanticide even more than the murder of older humans and punished women with ever more cruel forms of execution. Towards the men, however, who usually abandoned the women they had impregnated, the laws were lenient. Churches and society continued to vilify illegitimate birth, thus enhancing rather than preventing infanticide. The Habsburg-German legislation of 1532 ordained to torture any woman who had concealed pregnancy and birth and claimed the infant was stillborn. Legislation developed similarly in other countries, albeit at a different speed. French (1556) and British (1623) legislation reversed the burden of proof and demanded the death penalty for concealing pregnancy and birth when a dead infant was found.

  13. Health, disability, and life insurance experiences of working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, L I; Ngo, L

    2007-05-01

    Working-age Americans with multiple sclerosis (MS) may face considerable financial insecurities when they become unable to work and lack the health, disability, and life insurance typically offered through employers. In order to estimate the rates of having these insurance policies, as well as how insurance status affects reports of financial stress, we conducted half-hour telephone interviews with 983 working-age persons across the US, who reported being diagnosed with MS. The interviews occurred from May through November 2005, and among the sampled individuals contacted and confirmed eligible, 93.2% completed the interview. The study population was largely female (78.9%), Caucasian (86.4%), married (68.6%), with at least some college education (71.5%), and unemployed (60.2%). Overall, 96.3% had some health insurance (40.3% with public health insurance, primarily Medicare), 56.7% had long-term disability insurance (36.4% with public programs), and 68.3% had life insurance. Notably, 27.4% indicated that, since being diagnosed with MS, health insurance concerns had significantly affected employment decisions. In addition, 16.4% reported considerable difficulty paying for health care, 27.4% put off or postponed seeking needed health care because of costs, and 22.3% delayed filling prescriptions, skipped medication doses, or split pills because of costs. Overall, 26.6% reported considerable worries about affording even basic necessities, such as food, utilities, and housing.

  14. Legal protection of private persons in the case of acts of foreign states contrary to international law - with special reference to international environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the basis for claims following to international law for a case like Chernobyl. He examines possibilities of enforcement of private claims, regarding legal protection in courts of the state where the incident occurred, and of the state where the damage was suffered, of the International Court of Justice, and by way of diplomatic protection. Individual guarantees of procedure still can be improved at present. (CW)

  15. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  16. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: a population-based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, Y.Y.; Van der Lijn, F.; Vernooij, M.W.; Hofman, A.; Niessen, W.J.; Van der Lugt, A.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Van der Geest, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were

  17. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27227275

  18. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia.

  20. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. PMID:24495576

  1. Personality traits and association with depression in the elderly: The AGES-Reykjavík Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elísabet Þórðardóttir 1965

    2015-01-01

    Background: Personality is associated with various mental disorders. The personality factor of neuroticism is a risk factor for developing depression; extraversion and conscientiousness can also have an impact on depression. Few studies have looked at the elderly population in relation to personality and depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Big Five personality factors of neuroticism, extroversion and conscientiousness and symptoms of depression and dep...

  2. The ARSQ 2.0 reveals age and personality effects on mind-wandering experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander Diaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human brain frequently generates thoughts and feelings detached from environmental demands. Investigating the rich repertoire of these mind-wandering experiences is challenging, as it depends on introspection and mapping its content requires an unknown number of dimensions. We recently developed a retrospective self-report questionnaire—the Amsterdam Resting-State questionnaire (ARSQ—which quantifies mind wandering along seven dimensions: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Here, we show using confirmatory factor analysis that the ARSQ can be simplified by standardizing the number of items per factor and extending it to a 10-dimensional model, adding Health Concern, Visual Thought and Verbal Thought. We will refer to this extended ARSQ as the ARSQ 2.0. Testing for effects of age and gender revealed no main effect for gender, yet a moderate and significant negative effect for age on the dimensions of Self, Planning and Visual Thought. Interestingly, we observed stable and significant test-retest correlations across measurement intervals of 3 to 32 months except for Sleepiness and Health Concern. To investigate whether this stability could be related to personality traits, we correlated ARSQ scores to proxy measures of Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory, revealing multiple significant associations for the trait Self-Directedness. Other traits correlated to specific ARSQ dimensions, e.g., a negative association between Harm Avoidance and Comfort. Together, our results suggest that the ARSQ 2.0 is a promising instrument for quantitative studies on mind wandering and its relation to other psychological or physiological phenomena.

  3. Efficiency Modalities in Internal Plan of Decisions Isued by International Jurisdictions that Regulated the Situation of Private Law Persons in National Judicial Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andritoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article are represented by the prove of the fact that the decisions of the courtgive birth to rights and obligations in natural persons and judicial persons’ patrimonies, in internal law, sothat the problem if these can prevail from the authority of the thing judged is posed? Besides this situation,the rules of international law are applied by national courts according to national constitutions and fordomestic purposes. According to the theory of the act of state, even if it would seem that, at least internal actsof implementation of international rules are subjected to internal jurisdictions, the resolutions implementedoften touch the problem of security and public order which escapes the judicial competency. In order torealize this study the systemic method, the comparative method and the logical method were used, but a tightcollaboration, a combination of research methods are imposed, so that each has the vocation to seize theuniverse, thus it is proper to mention the contribution of epistemology as a reflection on sciences, bringinginto discussion a normative discourse in systems of descriptive texts. In conclusion, the national judge is freeto ignore the decisions of ICJ or to keep in mind these decisions in interpreting an internal law norm, aninternational law rule or to avoid the reexamining of problems already presented in these decisions. It isimportant to also realized an approach of the image of the law and of its meanings, beyond the clichés we gotused to, observing that, due to its complexity, law can not be reduced to one and unique representation.

  4. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  5. Dental caries in persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Holm-Pedersen, Jytte;

    2002-01-01

    The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 living in Kungsholmen, an area in central Stockholm. This paper reports findings regarding the prevalence and severity of dental caries among the d...

  6. Trajectories and Personality Correlates of Change in Perceptions of Physical and Mental Health across Adulthood and Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morack, Jennifer; Infurna, Frank J.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Subjective health is known to predict later outcomes, including survival. However, less is known about subjective health changes across adulthood, how personality moderates those changes, and whether such associations differ with age. We applied growth models to 10 waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey…

  7. Age-Related Differences in Altruism across Adulthood: Making Personal Financial Gain versus Contributing to the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alexandra M.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2014-01-01

    Four studies utilizing different methodological approaches investigated adult age-related differences in altruism (i.e., contributions to the public good) and the self-centered value of increasing personal wealth. In Study 1, data from the World Values Survey (World Values Survey Association, 2009) provided 1st evidence of a negative association…

  8. Gender-specific impact of personal health parameters on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function. Personal health markers and modifiable lifestyle factors are related to individual brain aging as well as to the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This study uses a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker to assess the effects of 17 health markers on individual brain aging in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for developing AD. Within this cross-sectional, multi-center study 228 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects (118 males completed an MRI at 1.5T, physiological and blood parameter assessments. The multivariate regression model combining all measured parameters was capable of explaining 39% of BrainAGE variance in males (p < 0.001 and 32% in females (p < 0.01. Furthermore, markers of the metabolic syndrome as well as markers of liver and kidney functions were profoundly related to BrainAGE scores in males (p < 0.05. In females, markers of liver and kidney functions as well as supply of vitamin B12 were significantly related to BrainAGE (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects several clinical markers of poor health were associated with subtle structural changes in the brain that reflect accelerated aging, whereas protective effects on brain aging were observed for markers of good health. Additionally, the relations between individual brain aging and miscellaneous health markers show gender-specific patterns. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of subtly abnormal patterns of brain aging probably preceding cognitive decline and development of AD.

  9. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick; Chauvin, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings. As others, forensic sciences will face the issues specific related to an evergrowing quantity of data to be integrated. Age estimation in living persons, an unsolved problem so far, could benefit from the integration of various sources of data, e.g., clinical, dental and radiological data. We present here novel multivariate techniques (nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, NLDR), applied to a theoretical example. Results were compared to those of PCA. NLDR techniques were then applied to clinical, dental and radiological data (13 variables) used for age estimation. The correlation dimension of these data was estimated. NLDR techniques outperformed PCA results. They showed that two living persons sharing similar characteristics may present rather different estimated ages. Moreover, data presented a very high informational redundancy, i.e., a correlation dimension of 2. NLDR techniques should be used with or preferred to PCA techniques to analyze complex and big data. Data routinely used for age estimation may not be considered suitable for this purpose. How integrating other data or approaches could improve age estimation in living persons is still uncertain.

  10. Picnic in the Park--Humanizing an Aging Unit in a Personal Health Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Michael J.

    1979-01-01

    The unit on an aging program described is designed to provide students with an accurate knowledge base of the biological, psychological, and sociological aspects of aging as well as with experiences to sensitize them to the realities of aging. (JMF)

  11. Happy aged people are all alike, while every unhappy aged person is unhappy in its own way.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available Aging of the world's population represents one of the most remarkable success stories of medicine and of humankind, but it is also a source of various challenges. The aim of the collaborative cross-cultural European study of adult well being (ESAW is to frame the concept of aging successfully within a causal model that embraces physical health and functional status, cognitive efficacy, material security, social support resources, and life activity. Within the framework of this project, we show here that the degree of heterogeneity among people who view aging in a positive light is significantly lower than the degree of heterogeneity of those who hold a negative perception of aging. We base this conclusion on our analysis of a survey involving 12,478 people aged 50 to 90 from six West European countries. We treat the survey database as a bipartite network in which individual respondents are linked to the actual answers they provide. Taking this perspective allows us to construct a projected network of respondents in which each link indicates a statistically validated similarity of answers profile between the connected respondents, and to identify clusters of individuals independently of demographics. We show that mental and physical well-being are key factors determining a positive perception of aging. We further observe that psychological aspects, like self-esteem and resilience, and the nationality of respondents are relevant aspects to discriminate among participants who indicate positive perception of aging.

  12. Effects of person-centered care on residents and staff in aged-care facilities: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownie S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonya Brownie, Susan NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Several residential aged-care facilities have replaced the institutional model of care to one that accepts person-centered care as the guiding standard of practice. This culture change is impacting the provision of aged-care services around the world. This systematic review evaluates the evidence for an impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and nursing staff.Methods: We searched Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Proquest, and Expanded Academic ASAP databases for studies published between January 1995 and October 2012, using subject headings and free-text search terms (in UK and US English spelling including person-centered care, patient-centered care, resident-oriented care, Eden Alternative, Green House model, Wellspring model, long-term care, and nursing homes.Results: The search identified 323 potentially relevant articles. Once duplicates were removed, 146 were screened for inclusion in this review; 21 were assessed for methodological quality, resulting in nine articles (seven studies that met our inclusion criteria. There was only one randomized, controlled trial. The majority of studies were quasi-experimental pre-post test designs, with a control group (n = 4. The studies in this review incorporated a range of different outcome measures (ie, dependent variables to evaluate the impact of person-centered interventions on aged-care residents and staff. One person-centered intervention, ie, the Eden Alternative, was associated with significant improvements in residents' levels of boredom and helplessness. In contrast, facility-specific person-centered interventions were found to impact nurses' sense of job satisfaction and their capacity to meet the individual needs of residents in a positive way. Two studies found that person-centered care was actually associated with an

  13. Cognitive Aging in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Within-Person Associations of Primary Mental Abilities with Psychomotor Speed and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Hülür

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been proposed that cognitive aging in fluid abilities is driven by age-related declines of processing speed. Although study of between-person associations generally supports this view, accumulating longitudinal between-person and within-person evidence indicates less strong associations between speed and fluid cognitive performance. Initial evidence also suggests that cognitive flexibility may explain within-person variability in cognitive performance. In the present study, we used up to nine waves of data over 56 years from a subsample of 582 participants of the Seattle Longitudinal Study to examine (a within-person associations of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility with cognitive aging in primary mental abilities (including inductive reasoning, number ability, verbal meaning, spatial orientation, and word fluency; and (b how these within-person associations change with age. In line with the processing speed theory, results revealed that within persons, primary mental abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and visualization measures were indeed associated with psychomotor speed. We also observed age-related increases in within-person couplings between primary mental abilities and psychomotor speed. While the processing speed theory focuses primarily on associations with fluid abilities, age-related increases in coupling were found for a variety of ability domains. Within-person associations between primary mental abilities and cognitive flexibility were weaker and relatively stable with age. We discuss the role of speed and flexibility for cognitive aging.

  14. The histotopography of leucocytes in the mucose layer of the cheek in person of old and senile age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilash S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to determine the representation of different types of leucocytes in the mucosal layer of the cheek in person of old and senile age. The mucosal layer of the maxillary, mandibulary and intermediate zones on the cheek of 12 persons from 40 till 80 years died from reasons not connected with diseases or damage of the head were used. The serial thin sections were stained by toluidin blue and polychrome. Additionally the thickness of the mucosal layer, the sizes of the cells and vessels diameters were measured. The amount and representation of immune cells showed the dynamic changes in persons of old age, and the plasmocytes undergo the most changes. The amount of plasmocytes in this group was more than in the senile group. In our opinion, it is a result of depress of humoral immunity and processes of antibodies secretion which inactivate of antigens. We conclude that the compensate mechanisms of the immune defenсe in the mucosal layer of old person take place by the participation of histiocytes and free macrophages of connective tissue. The defence function in the mucose layer of the senile persons carry out by neutrophills and free macrophages.

  15. Older age relates to worsening of fine motor skills: a population-based study of middle-aged and elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo Young eHoogendam; Fedde evan der Lijn; Meike W eVernooij; Albert eHofman; Wiro J eNiessen; Aad evan der Lugt; M Arfan eIkram; Jos N evan der Geest

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively dete...

  16. Reforms in triple talaq in the personal laws of Muslim states and the Pakistani legal system: Continuity versus change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the reforms carried out in some of the Muslim states regarding the issue of triple divorce in one session. According to a majority of Sunni jurists, pronouncing the word ‘talaq’ three times in succession, equates with three ‘talaqs’. On the contrary, according to Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn al-Qiyam, and the Shi‘a Imamiyah, three pronouncements of the word talaq in one session equals only one talaq. Most Arab, as well as many Muslim states such as Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, Kuwait, Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, have, while formulating their own laws, followed Ibn Taimiyah’s and Ibn al-Qiyam’s positions on this issue. In this regard, Sri Lanka’s Marriage and Divorce (Muslim Act, 1951, as amended up to 2006, seems to be the most ideal legislation on triple talaq. In Pakistan, the Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961, has abolished triple talaq, as the procedure laid down in section 7 is largely applicable to one or two pronouncements only and excludes three pronouncements. Furthermore, some portions of section 7 are in clear contravention of the dictates of Islamic law, which adds to this precarious section’s peculiarity. The superior courts in Pakistan and Bangladesh have not been consistent in interpreting the law on this important subject, while on the other hand, some Indian High Courts have treated triple talaq as invalid.

  17. [Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeham law in association with the Strehler-Mildwan correlation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, A G

    2004-01-01

    The Gompertz-Makeham law (-dn/dt x l/n(t)=C+lambdae(gammat)) so as other genuine laws of Nature is strictly applicable only to ideal objects (populations and cohorts) analogously to laws of mechanics or thermodynamics, which are exactly true only for such physical abstractions as mass points or ideal gases. Therefore, a biologically meaningful interpretation of the parameters of this law is likely to be more important for understanding the aging process than devising of alternative analytical descriptions of biodemographic processes for the sake of a better fit only. Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeha law makes it possible to differentiate possible real and apparent changes in mortality patterns that occur in human history and in evolution and are observed in gerontological experiments and to demonstratively show such effects as the dependency of longevity upon population size, the evolutionarily important possibility of reciprocal changes in the mean and maximal longevity, or detection of apparent changes in negatively correlated aging rate and vitality when the Makeham term is ignored, which is usual in demography. The basic difference between the Makeham term Cand Gompertz term lambdae(gammat) is suggested to be not that the former is constant, whereas the latter is age-dependent, but that the former comprises the contributions of inherently irresistible stresses to mortality, whereas the latter comprises the contributions of resistible stresses to mortality and shows how changes in the ability to resist them is translated into changes in mortality.

  18. Asteroid Impacts, Crater Scaling Laws, and a Proposed Younger Age for Venus's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William; Ghent, Rebecca; Mazrouei, Sara; Robbins, Stuart; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2015-11-01

    rate as Earth. Fitting model craters to observations, we estimate Venus’ average surface age as ~130 Myr, a lower value than previous predictions. This result, if true, has interesting implications for Venus’s evolutionary history.

  19. Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, pHR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, pHR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization. PMID:27281475

  20. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  1. 公司法人格否认制度的实践和完善%Practice and Perfect Company Law Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程颖; 佴澎

    2014-01-01

    Company as a legal person has the independent personality and shareholders limited liability, which is one of the important systems of company law. At first, but the limited liability of shareholders is the purpose of in order to protect the shareholders, but tend to damage the interests of others. This paper discusses the relevant theories of disregard of corporation law, and put forward its imperfections, and on this basis puts forward his own idea.%公司作为法人,具有独立的人格,股东承担有限责任,这是公司法的重要制度。但是股东有限责任起初的目的是为了保护股东,但是往往会损害其他人的利益。本文探讨了公司法人格否认制度的相关理论,提出了它的不完善之处,并在此基础上提出自己的构想。

  2. Age-Related Change of the Mean Level and Intraindividual Variability of Saccadic Reaction Time Performance in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined age-related change of saccadic reaction time (SRT) in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 29 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 14 and 34 years whose IQs were between 14 and 70. Participants were divided into Group I (IQ greater than or equal to 35) and Group II (IQ less than…

  3. Choosing among possible persons: The ethics of prenatal selection in the postgenomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauron, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The "spectre of eugenics" is often raised about various current reproductive practices that imply a form of choice between future possible persons. Some of these practices are linked to genetic technologies such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, others merely entail the choice of a procreator having specific traits, such as in artificial insemination with donor. The weight and limits of this reproof of eugenics are examined, with special attention to the conceptual problems resulting from confusing choices involving virtual persons with the selection of existing persons. PMID:26228932

  4. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  5. The State non-contractual liability because of forced displacement of persons (Setting up a line of case law in State council decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Yáñez Meza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially the theory of repairing the damage caused by act or omission attributable to the state as a subject faced the dogma of irresponsibility. This was a paradigm that in the context of the new constitutional law should not be allowed any validity because it is not a case of the exercise of a divine power or Leviathan because of its superiority over the inhabitants, as institutionalist theses of yore held. However, as it will be evident, there is some jurisprudence position that reminds us of those theses concerning the state responsibility because of the case of displaced persons and there are doctrinal realities that pose their attenuated return since the law of non-contractual liability appears as an option which is ill-suited for the victims. Hence the need to determine the pattern of resolution to the legal problem posed by the Administrative Justice in order to identify its characteristics and to establish the road map drawn to repair one of the most flagrant violations of human rights and humanitarian international law.

  6. ENFORCED DISAPPEARANCE OF PERSONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW: THE CASE “GUERRILHA DO ARAGUAIA” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pires Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case “Guerrilha do Araguaia” is well known in Brazil in the view of the disappearances of opponents to the military regime occurred between 1972 and 1974, in the region known as Araguaia. Despite the efforts made by the families of the victims to seek responsibility and redress, few progress has been done. In 1995, Brazil recognized its responsibilities for the deaths and established a Commission to provide compensation to the families of the victims. The Amnesty Law prevented the State to initiate the criminal proceedings related to the responsibilities of those involved in the disappearances, torture and killings. On December 2010, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights decided that Brazil is responsible for the enforced disappearances in the Araguaia's region and, following its previous jurisprudence, determined that the State initiate adequate investigation and criminal proceedings related to the facts that amount to crimes against the humanity. In the view of the determination of criminal responsibilities on the “Guerrilha do Araguaia”'s case, this article will examine the grounds of criminal liability of the alleged offenders under the international criminal law as well as under the Brazilian domestic law, analysing the limitations that arise from both jurisdictions.

  7. The strength of two indicators of social position on oral health among persons over the age of 80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze how two dimensions of social position, education and social class, are associated with oral health among generally healthy, community-dwelling persons over the age of 80 years. METHODS: The present investigation is based on a sample of 157...... community-dwelling individuals from The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study (KEOHS) and included data from interviews and oral examinations. Social position was measured by education and social class. Oral health was measured by active coronal caries, active root caries, edentulism and use of dental...... of being edentulous. Further, persons with elementary/ medium education tended to forego regular dental services more than persons with high education. CONCLUSION: The study identified social inequalities in oral health even in a population of independently living, generally healthy very old Swedes...

  8. Human Rights Law for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific: The Need for a Disability Rights Tribunal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Human rights are arguably the most significant political force shaping the life experience of people with disability. The "United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities" sets the standard at an international level, creating both positive and negative rights, and calls upon member states of the United Nations (UN)…

  9. Non-state actors and the international rule of law: revisiting the 'realist theory' of international legal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Nijman

    2010-01-01

    The present paper argues the inclusion of powerful, international NSAs in the category of 'international legal persons.' The argument builds on the generally accepted idea that for the purpose of both the protection and the accountability of entities within the international legal system, these shou

  10. In our civil law defined benefit of personality mark%人格标识利益在我国民法上的界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李希

    2013-01-01

    A natural person, especially celebrities for their own talent, virtue, skills and achievements have a certain influence in the society.So businesses use this effect in a particular product or service is, to meet business objectives.The celebrity to achieve through the certain carrier. The businessman is to realize its commercial sales by this external carrier,So these are commercial use of the carrier's mark of personality.The benefits of personality identification using this legal phenomenon description,Chinese scholars use the concepts of "merchandising right","Public right", "right of publicity", "commercial rights of personality" etc.The concept of variety, extremely messy. Whether it is from the concept intension and extension are a far cry from the it concept which are across three completely different rights category these are the personality right, property right, intellectual property rights. The paper put this legal phenomenon attributed to the concept of personality interests.definite the concept from the concept and attribute in order to protect the civil law on the legal interest.Personality forms the object should include the identification performance characteristic such as name,the sound and the other personality with identification and individual identification.%我国学者使用了“商品化权”“、公开权”“、形象权”、“商事人格权”等概念,来描述人格标识利益。不管是从概念内涵还是外延上都相去甚远,跨越了人格权、财产权、知识产权三个完全不同的权利类别。对这种法律现象归于人格标识利益这一概念,从概念加属性对此概念进行界定,以期对该种法益进行民法上的保护,其客体的人格标识表现形式应当包括能够表现其识别性特点的姓名、声音和其他具有识别性和个性化的标识。

  11. Physiological and psychosocial age-related changes associated with reduced food intake in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Antina; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake changes during the course of aging. Normally an increase in food intake is observed around 55 years of age, which is followed by a reduction in food intake in individuals over 65 years of age. This reduction in dietary intake results in lowered levels of body fat and body weight, a ph

  12. [Living the aging in Senegal Perceptions/representations and coping strategies of persons of age three: results of investigations retrospective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kâ, Ousseynou; Faye, Atoumane; Mbaye, El Hadji; Tall, Alioune Badara; Gaye, Awa; Sow, Papa Gallo; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane

    2016-03-01

    In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition. PMID:26852947

  13. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  14. The Study of Military Personal Insurance Law System Construction in China%我国军人社会保险法律制度建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓琳

    2012-01-01

    随着我国社会保险制度改革的不断深化,原有的军人社会保险法律制度暴露出不足,已不适应新形势的需要。文章在分析我国军人社会保险法律制度存在问题的基础上,充分借鉴国外军人保险制度的有益经验,结合商业保险制度的优势,推进军人保险与商业保险相结合,提出要通过提升军人保险的立法级次,确保保险法规的统一性;将军人保险业务纳入社会化运作,引入竞争机制;增设新的险种,规范军人保险基金的管理等措施建立和完善军人社会保险法律制度,从而有效保障军人的切身利益。%With the deepening of reform of our country's insurance regulations,the original military personal social insurance regulations expose their insufficient and can't suit the needs of new environment.Based on analysis of the problems of the military personal social insurance regulation,using the social insurance experience of other countries for reference,combining the superiority of business insurance and improving the combination of the military personal social insurance and business insurance,the article aims to perfect the military personal social insurance law through proposing some suggestions.We should ensure integration of the insurance regulation through promoting legislative level of the military personal insurance,bring the military personal insurance business into social operation and introduce a competitive mechanism,establish some new insurance types,standardize management of the military personal insurance fund so as to safeguard the interests of soldiers.

  15. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  16. "They arrested me for loving a schoolgirl": ethnography, HIV, and a feminist assessment of the age of consent law as a gender-based structural intervention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Shanti A

    2012-06-01

    In 1990 women's rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. While the intention of the law and aggressive campaign was to prosecute "sugar daddies" and "pedophiles," the average age of men charged with defilement was twenty-one years old and many were believe to be "boyfriends" in consensual sexual liaisons with the alleged victims. This article uses court records, case studies, and longitudinal ethnographic data gathered in east-central Uganda to examine the impact of the age of consent law at national and local levels, and specifically what the disjunctures between national intentions and local uses reveal about conflicting views about sexual privilege and rights. I argue that existing class, gender, and age hierarchies have shaped how the Defilement Law has been applied locally, such that despite the stated aim of "protecting" young women, the law reinstates patriarchal privilege (especially against men of lower social class) while simultaneously increasing the regulation of adolescent female sexuality and undermining their autonomy. This paper demonstrates how ethnography and critical gender theory-which emphasizes the intersectionality of gender, age, and class in the (re)production of inequalities-can be used to examine consequences of macro-level interventions in ways that may be undetected in conventional public health evaluation techniques but that are crucial for designing and modifying effective interventions.

  17. Perspectives of aging among persons living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Gail; Ross, Carolyn; Stickland, Michael; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Among pulmonary rehabilitation attendees, we explored their tendency to downplay versus acknowledge physical and psychosocial health limitations, and the subsequent impact either strategy had on how they perceive their own aging process. Participants (N = 87) were 44 to 82 years of age, and diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire measured their health limitations. The Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire captured their perspectives of aging. Participants downplayed their symptoms and psychosocial impact, and remained most positive about psychosocial loss and carefully reserved about psychological growth. Acknowledged activity impairment had negative consequences, however, for their perspectives of physical change. These findings signify a balanced identity and perspective of aging that supports the Identity Process Theory. We encourage nurses and other practitioners, and researchers in pulmonary rehabilitation setting, to use this theory to better understand how people with COPD adapt to aging.

  18. Personal Digital Branding as a Professional Asset in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppinger, Courtney A; Cain, Jeff

    2015-08-25

    In recent years, society's rapid adoption of social media has made the boundary between professional and private life nearly indistinguishable. The literature provides guidance on how to demonstrate professionalism via social media platforms. Social media policies within health professions education tend to be legalistic in nature, serving primarily to highlight behaviors students should avoid. One missing element in social media literature is the concept of online invisibility. In this paper, we define personal digital branding, discuss the professional implications of choosing to abstain from social media use, and urge educators to recognize that the personal digital branding may be an emerging asset for young professionals in the twenty-first century.

  19. Personal Digital Branding as a Professional Asset in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppinger, Courtney A; Cain, Jeff

    2015-08-25

    In recent years, society's rapid adoption of social media has made the boundary between professional and private life nearly indistinguishable. The literature provides guidance on how to demonstrate professionalism via social media platforms. Social media policies within health professions education tend to be legalistic in nature, serving primarily to highlight behaviors students should avoid. One missing element in social media literature is the concept of online invisibility. In this paper, we define personal digital branding, discuss the professional implications of choosing to abstain from social media use, and urge educators to recognize that the personal digital branding may be an emerging asset for young professionals in the twenty-first century. PMID:26430266

  20. Older Age Relates to Worsening of Fine Motor Skills: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendam, Yoo Young; van der Lijn, Fedde; Vernooij, Meike W.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan; Van Der Geest, Jos N

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a population-based study of 1,912 community-dwelling persons of 45 years and older, we investigated the relation between age and fine motor skills using the Archimedes spiral-drawing test. Also, we studied the effect of brain volume on fine motor skills. Methods: Participants were required to trace a template of a spiral on an electronic drawing board. Clinical scores from this test were obtained by visual assessment of the drawings. Quantitative measures were objectively ...

  1. Age Differences in Personality Structure Revisited: Studies in Validity, Stability, and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    Construct validity and longitudinal stability evidence for three cluster dimensions of personality identified as Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness is examined in a sample of adult males. Correlations with Allport-Vernon-Lindsay Value scales, Cornell Medical Index scores, Eysenck E and N scales, and factors from the SVIB are presented. (Author)

  2. Age Changes in Personality and Their Origins: Comment on Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents comments on the original article "Patterns of Mean-Level Change in Personality Traits Across the Life Course: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies," by B. W. Roberts, K. W. Walton, and W. Viechtbauer. Although Roberts et al depicted the present authors as proponents of the immutability of traits, in fact we have always…

  3. [The availability of particular types of medical social care to persons of elderly and senile age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigabutdinov, A F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of sociological survey of respondents of elderly and senile age living with their families or in senior centers. The comparative analysis was applied to availability of particular types of medical social care of contingent of interest depending on place of its residence. The age and ability of self-support of respondents were taken into account.

  4. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  5. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  6. Subjective Age in the Transition to Adulthood for Persons with and without Motor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Darrah, Johanna; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined subjective age (how old one feels) and associated variables in 148 emerging adults, ages 20-30 years. Seventy-six participants had a motor disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida) and 72 had no motor disability. Participants completed questionnaires and were interviewed. There was no significant difference in subjective age…

  7. Variations in radiographic appearance of articular cartilage of knee joints in persons of 35 to 65 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Pulivarthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive degenerative disease characterized by gradual loss of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis is not a normal process of ageing processes. Age related changes are distinct from osteoarthritic changes but when coupled with certain precipitating factors like obesity, muscle weakness and neurological dysfunction may play an important role in the causation of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis occurrence appears to increase with patient's age in a non-linear fashion. The prevalence of disease increases dramatically after the age of 50 years, likely because of age related alterations in collagen and proteoglycan synthesis coupled with diminished nutrient supply to the cartilage. Methods: In this paper presenting the naked eye assessment of radiographic appearance of articular cartilage of knee joints of 100 persons (both men and women of 35 to 65 years of age with symptoms like pain and stiffness of the joint. Results: Parameters like changes in the joint space width, the presence or absence of osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis and cysts were noted. The correlation between the patient's age, sex, symptoms and radiological appearance were observed. Conclusion: Osteoarthritis has a higher prevalence and more often generalized in women than in men. Before the age of 50 years, the incidence of osteoarthritis is low and men have a slightly higher prevalence than women, but after the age of 50 years, the disease becomes more frequent and women have a much higher prevalence with a female to male ration of about 12:1. The reason for this is sex difference in cartilage volume. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 22-26

  8. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752

  9. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association.

  10. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people.

  11. Unmasking the 'elderly mystique': Why it is time to make the personal political in ageing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Gemma M; Gray, Mia

    2015-12-01

    This article uses feminist scholarship to investigate 'the elderly mystique'-which contends that the potential of old age is masked by a set of false beliefs about ageing (i.e. ageism) which permeate social, economic, and political life (Cohen, 1988). The article presents a theoretical model which explores the extent to which institutionalised ageism shapes the trajectory of life after 60.(1) The hypothesis underpinning the model is simple: The challenge for ageing societies is not the average age of a given population, but rather, how age is used to structure economic, social and political life. An inter-disciplinary framework is used to examine how biological facts about ageing are used to segregate older from younger people, giving older people the status of 'other'; economically through retirement, politically through assumptions about 'the grey vote,' and socially through ageist stereotyping in the media and through denial and ridicule of the sexuality of older people. Each domain is informed by the achievements of feminist theory and research on sexism and how its successes and failures can inform critical investigations of ageism. The paper recognises the role of ageism in de-politicising the lived experience of ageing. The paper concludes that feminist scholarship, particularly work by feminists in their seventies, eighties, and nineties, has much to offer in terms of re-framing gerontology as an emancipatory project for current and future cohorts of older people. PMID:26568222

  12. Researching the Relationships Between Law-Discipline Rites and Scholars' Personalities in Liu Song Dynasty%礼法兼治与刘宋士人人格建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝

    2012-01-01

    刘宋时期儒学复振的核心是礼法兼治。在崇礼重法的背景下,士人地位提高,礼学著述的数量增加,以儒立身、以札持家的名门不断涌现。与此同时,玄学学术化,众多文士与名僧大德结交,佛教也日渐强调礼法的普世性、合理性。刘宋士人大多囿于门阀利益,移忠作孝,强调对儒家礼法传统的灵活继承,在进退出处之中呈现出多元化的人格特征。%The law-discipline rites was the core of the renaissance of Confucianism in Liu Song Dynasty. Under the background of law - discipline rites being strengthened, the scholar's status was enhanced and the quantities of Confucian works were increased and the famed families performing law-discipline rites sprang up gradually. Meanwhile, metaphysics took on academic feature, many scholars and writers made friends with the famous monks, and the latter admitted the rationality and universality of Confucianism step by step. However, the scholars in Liu Song Dynasty were limited usually in their own family benefits and transfered the loyahy to the piety, so their personalities presented multitraits.

  13. The effectiveness of discourse-based intervention on personal narrative of school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghis Rovshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discourse-based interventions were studied less in speech therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of discourse-based intervention on language disabilities in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ.Methods: In an experimental study, 33 students at the age of 6-13 years with borderline intelligence quotient (17 students for intervention and 16 students for control group were selected with available sampling. The intervention lasted 14 sessions (every session: 45 minutes that focused on the structure and content of discourse. Personal narrative was elicited with explanation of the same topic (go to a trip for pre- and post-test.Results: Mean scores of intelligence quotient, age and education had no difference between the two groups. The intervention caused the increase of compound sentences (p=0.038, types of cohesive conjunctions (p=0.003, and related information (p=0.008 and decrease of ungrammatical sentences (p=0.031.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program has a clinically significant effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narrative.

  14. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  15. DOES AGE AND GENDER INFLUENCE THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR ISCED 5 UNEMPLOYED PERSONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică; ANA-GABRIELA BABUCEA; Doru Cîrnu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of age and gender for the duration of unemployment for the ISCED 5 subjects registered as unemployed on the labor market of Gorj County. The obtained results show that age has a significant negative impact for the duration of unemployment, while gender doesn’t have a significant impact for the duration of unemployment of analyzed ISCED 5 subjects.

  16. Diabetes and pre-diabetes among persons aged 35 to 60 years in eastern Uganda: prevalence and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy William Mayega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR (i.e. diabetes and pre-diabetes and its associated factors among people aged 35-60 years so as to clarify the relevance of targeted screening in rural Africa. METHODS: A population-based survey of 1,497 people (786 women and 711 men aged 35-60 years was conducted in a predominantly rural Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. Participants responded to a lifestyle questionnaire, following which their Body Mass Index (BMI and Blood Pressure (BP were measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured from capillary blood using On-Call® Plus (Acon rapid glucose meters, following overnight fasting. AGR was defined as FPG ≥6.1 mmol L⁻¹ (World Health Organization (WHO criteria or ≥5.6 mmol L⁻¹ (American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Diabetes was defined as FPG >6.9 mmol L⁻¹, or being on diabetes treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 45 years for men and 44 for women. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.4% (95%CI 6.1-8.8, while prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.6% (95%CI 7.3-10.2 using WHO criteria and 20.2% (95%CI 17.5-22.9 with ADA criteria. Using WHO cut-offs, the prevalence of AGR was 2 times higher among obese persons compared with normal BMI persons (Adjusted Prevalence Rate Ratio (APRR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8. Occupation as a mechanic, achieving the WHO recommended physical activity threshold, and higher dietary diversity were associated with lower likelihood of AGR (APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9; APRR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.8; APRR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.9 respectively. The direct medical cost of detecting one person with AGR was two US dollars with ADA and three point seven dollars with WHO cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of AGR among people aged 35-60 years in this setting. Screening for high risk persons and targeted health education to address obesity, insufficient physical activity and non-diverse diets are necessary.

  17. Rhesus factor modulation of effects of smoking and age on psychomotor performance, intelligence, personality profile, and health in Czech soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in

  18. Rhesus Factor Modulation of Effects of Smoking and Age on Psychomotor Performance, Intelligence, Personality Profile, and Health in Czech Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Geryk, Jan; Volný, Jindra; Klose, Jiří; Černochová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH3 or CO2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E), radicalism (Q1), self-sentiment integration (Q3), and ergic tension (Q4), and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD) was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year) was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in future studies. PMID

  19. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  20. Assessment of vaccine candidates for persons aged 50 and older : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilers, Renske; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; van Essen, Ted G. A.; Suijkerbuijk, Anita; van Lier, Alies; de Melker, Hester E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing life expectancy in most European countries has resulted in growth of the population 50 and older. This population is more susceptible to infectious diseases because of immunosenescence, comorbidity and general frailty. Thus, to promote healthy aging, vaccination against va

  1. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  2. Study and Comparison Between Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Among Opium Addicts (within the age of 30-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.

  3. Learning Multiple Band-Pass Filters for Sleep Stage Estimation: Towards Care Support for Aged Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takadama, Keiki; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Matsushima, Hiroyasu; Hattori, Kiyohiko; Nakajima, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the sleep stage estimation method that can provide an accurate estimation for each person without connecting any devices to human's body. In particular, our method learns the appropriate multiple band-pass filters to extract the specific wave pattern of heartbeat, which is required to estimate the sleep stage. For an accurate estimation, this paper employs Learning Classifier System (LCS) as the data-mining techniques and extends it to estimate the sleep stage. Extensive experiments on five subjects in mixed health confirm the following implications: (1) the proposed method can provide more accurate sleep stage estimation than the conventional method, and (2) the sleep stage estimation calculated by the proposed method is robust regardless of the physical condition of the subject.

  4. Core vocabulary in written personal narratives of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla; Appleget, Allyssa; Hart, Sara

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to describe core words of written personal narratives to inform the implementation of AAC supports for literacy instruction. Investigators analyzed lexical diversity, frequency of specific word use and types of words that made up 70% of the total words used in 211 written narrative samples from children in first grade (n = 94) and fourth grade (n = 117). Across grades, 191 different words made up 70% of the total words used in the 211 written narrative samples. The top 50 words were comprised of content words (64%) and function words (36%). Grade differences were noted in diversity and types of words, including differences in the number of words comprising the core (132 words for children in first grade and 207 for fourth grade) and a higher proportion of abstract nouns for children in fourth grade based on the 200 most frequently occurring words for each grade.

  5. Age-Diversity and Inclusion at the Workplace: Implicit and Explicit Attitudes, Personality and Fit

    OpenAIRE

    Kmicinska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The world’s population is changing rapidly. At the same time older workers are encouraged to continue being professionally active and younger workers face postponed and precarious entry to the world of work. Moreover, there is a growing problem of generational division (e.g., Shore, 2008) and skills shortage (Hertel, van der Heijden, de Lange, & Deller, 2013). Therefore, contemporary policy makers, companies and workers are facing a challenge of building a long-term productive and engaged age...

  6. Toward Independence: An Assessment of Federal Laws and Programs Affecting Persons with Disabilities--with Legislative Recommendations. A Report to the President and to the Congress of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    This report reviews federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities and assesses the extent to which they: provide incentives or disincentives to the establishment of community-based services for handicapped individuals; promote the full integration of such individuals in the community, in schools, and in the workplace; and…

  7. Electrocardiographic Changes Improve Risk Prediction in Asymptomatic Persons Age 65 Years or Above Without Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan S; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk prediction in elderly patients is increasingly relevant due to longer life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) changes provide prognostic information incremental to current risk models and to the conventional risk factors. METHODS......: In all, 6,991 participants from the Copenhagen Heart Study attending an examination at age ≥65 years were included. ECG changes were defined as Q waves, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, ventricular conduction defects, and left ventricular hypertrophy based on the Minnesota code. The primary...

  8. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 through 18 Years--United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report QuickGuide. Volume 58, Number 51 & 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) annually publishes an immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years that summarizes recommendations for currently licensed vaccines for children aged 18 years and younger and includes recommendations in effect as of December 15, 2009. The changes to the previous schedule are…

  9. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...

  10. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Petrie, S. R.; Hayes, A. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A diary-like instrument to measure lifestyle regularity (the 'Social Rhythm Metric'-SRM) was given to 96 subjects (48 women, 48 men), 39 of whom repeated the study after at least one year, with additional objective measures of rest/activity. Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism. Statistically significant test-retest correlations of about 0.4 emerged for SRM scores over the 12-30 month delay. Diary-based estimates of bedtime and waketime appeared fairly reliable. In a further study of healthy young men, 4 high SRM scorers ('regular') had a deeper nocturnal body temperature trough than 5 low SRM scorers ('irregular'), suggesting a better functioning circadian system in the 'regular' group.

  11. Morphological aspect of voice disturbances of aged persons coexisting hypopharynx cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rogowski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality in prebysphonia is conditioned by morphological changes in the vocal folds mucosa. The studies including light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed changes within the basal membrane epithelium and the stroma of the vocal folds mucosa. Age-related changes in thickness of the epithelium and direction of the basal membrane, increased number of collagenous fibres (C and fibroblasts and chronic inflammatory process in the stroma were found. Vacuolated and keratinised epithelial cells, enlarged extracellular spaces and numerous blood vessels confirm the edematous form of prebysphonia. Thinned epithelium with signs of hyalinization, inflammatory infiltrations in the stroma with numerous collagenous fibres and small number of blood vessels indicate atrophy of the vocal folds mucosa. Edematous and atrophic changes in the vocal folds mucosa are most frequently reported form of prebysphonia.

  12. System of physical training of persons of age mature and old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the results of the development of exercise for people of mature-aged and elderly, which contains three lines. The first trend is associated with the use of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. The second direction is connected with employment in some kind of sport, including - in the veteran sports. The third area involves the use of special exercises. There are some exercises improving the system owned by the school Huashanskoy dao. A variant of autogenic training, which is to render natural images that promote relaxation and recovery is introduced in the article. Theoretically justified, that the use of exercise activates the sense of youth, is of great importance for increasing vitality, health and working capacity of older and mature.

  13. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Jalali, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Since the elderly population is increasing rapidly in developing countries which may decrease the physical activity and exercise and in turn could affect the elderly's quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the elderly's quality of life in Iran. In a randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. For the intervention group, muscular progressive relaxation was run three days per week for three months (totally 36 sessions). In relaxation, a patient contract a group of his/her muscles in each step and relaxes them after five seconds and finally loosens all muscles and takes five deep breaths. Each session lasts for 45 minutes. The instrument of data gathering consisted of questionnaires on individual's demographic data and quality of life SF-36. After intervention, quality of life increased significantly in the patients undergoing muscular progressive relaxation and fatigue severity decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to prior to intervention. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of physical performance, restricted activity after physical problem, energy, socially function, physical pain, overall hygiene, and quality of life between intervention and control groups. By implementing regular and continuous progressive muscle relaxation, quality of life could be increased in different dimensions in the elderly and the context could be provided to age healthily and enjoy higher health and autonomy. Therefore, all of the therapeutic staffs are recommended to implement this plan to promote the elderly's quality of life. PMID:27424013

  14. Association between muscular strength and inflammatory markers among elderly persons with cardiac disease: results from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volaklis, K A; Halle, M; Koenig, W; Oberhoffer, R; Grill, E; Peters, A; Strasser, B; Heier, M; Emeny, R; Schulz, H; Ladwig, K H; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the association between muscle strength and inflammation in diseased individuals and particularly in cardiac patients. Thus, our purpose was to examine the association of muscular strength with the inflammatory status in older adults with and without cardiac disease. The cross-sectional analysis was based on 1079 adults aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent an interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of diseases and drug intake, determination of health-related behaviors, collection of blood samples for measurements of interleukin-6 and hs-CRP and muscle strength measurement using hand-grip dynamometry. Cardiac patients (n = 323) had higher levels of IL-6 and poorer muscle strength compared with older adults without cardiac disease. Among persons with cardiac diseases, muscle strength in the lower tertile compared to the upper tertile was significantly associated with increased odds of having elevated IL-6 levels (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 1.18-10.50, p = 0.024) after controlling for age, gender, body fat, alcohol intake, smoking status, diseases, medications and physical activity, whereas the association between muscle strength and hs-CRP remained borderline significant (OR 2.80, 95 % CI 0.85-9.24, p = 0.092). The same trends, with slightly lower odds ratios, were also observed in older adults without cardiac disease. Lower levels of muscular strength are associated with higher concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP in elderly individuals with and without cardiac disease suggesting a significant contribution of the muscular system in reducing low-grade inflammation that accompanies cardiac disease and aging.

  15. 浅析西欧中世纪的罗马法复兴运动%Roman law Renaissance movement in the middle ages of Western Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2015-01-01

    With the Roman Empire decay, brilliant western civilization ushered in the dark ages, the Roman law also decline. Barbarian rule, western European countries the political and economic development, as the superstructure of the law can not adapt to the development of social economy. 12th-century Italy's university of the theory of compiling "found that triggered a" revival of Roman law ". The revival of Roman law adapted to the need to strengthen despotism centralization, also to meet the demand of the emerging bourgeois economic development. Roman law in Western Europe Renaissance, and continues today.%随着伟大的罗马帝国衰亡,灿烂的西方古文明迎来了黑暗时代,罗马法也日渐衰落.蛮族统治下,西欧各国政治经济不断发展,作为上层建筑的法律已不能适应社会经济的发展.12世纪意大利伯伦纳大学《学说编篡》发现引发了一场"罗马法复兴运动".罗马法的复兴适应了加强君主专制集权的需要,也迎合了新兴市民阶级经济发展的需求.罗马法在西欧各国得以复兴,并不断延续至今.

  16. Should it be illegal for HIV-positive persons to have unprotected sex without disclosure?: An examination of attitudes among US men who have sex with men and the impact of state law

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, K.J.; Weinmeyer, R.M.; Rosser, B.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the overall pattern and predictors of attitudes toward criminalizing unprotected sex without disclosure by persons living with HIV among a broad sample of MSM living in the US, and to examine whether attitudes and sexual risk behavior differ by states with HIV-specific laws or no such laws. Participants (n=1,725) were recruited in a 3.5 month period to complete a cross-sectional 70-minute online survey assessing attitudes and high risk sexual behavior. ...

  17. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  18. Role of novelty seeking personality traits as mediator of the association between COMT and onset age of drug use in Chinese heroin dependent patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Personality traits such as novelty seeking (NS are associated with substance dependence but the mechanism underlying this association remains uncertain. Previous studies have focused on the role of the dopamine pathway. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationships between allelic variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, NS personality traits, and age of onset of drug use in heroin-dependent subjects in China. METHODS: The 478 heroin dependent subjects from four drug rehabilitation centers in Shanghai who were genotyped for eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP on the COMT gene completed the NS subscale from the Temperament and Character Inventory. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the potential mediating role of NS personality traits in the association between COMT gene variants and the age of onset of heroin use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the univariate analysis the COMT rs737866 gene variants were independently associated with both NS and age of onset of drug use: those with the TT genotype had higher NS subscale scores and an earlier onset age of heroin use than individuals with CT or CC genotypes. In the multivariate analysis the inclusion of the NS subscore variable weakened the relationship between the COMT rs737866 TT genotype and an earlier age of onset of drug use. Our findings that COMT is associated with both NS personality traits and with the age of onset of heroin use helps to clarify the complex relationship between genetic and psychological factors in the development of substance abuse.

  19. Personal Privacy Explore in the Internet Age%网络时代个人隐私权保护探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of the Internet age has become increasingly compromised privacy seriously, how to protect Inter-net privacy once again attracted wide attention. Briefly introduces the concept and content network privacy were elaborated network service providers, hardware and software vendors, commercial companies,“human flesh search”, hacker attacks a-gainst the government on the status of network users privacy is proposed to protect online privacy the right to control not only the need to strengthen technical, moral constraints, but also the need to strengthen self-discipline, formulate and improve laws and regulations and other measures.%网络时代个人隐私权受到侵害的现象日趋严重,如何保护网络隐私权再度引起广泛关注。简要介绍了网络隐私权的概念和内涵,分别阐述了网络服务商、软硬件设备供应商、商业公司、“人肉搜索”、黑客攻击、政府对网络用户隐私权的侵害现状,提出了保护网络隐私权不仅需要加强技术控制、道德约束,还需要加强行业自律、制定完善法律法规等措施。

  20. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  1. New Personal Income Tax Law on Adjusting the Influence of Income Distribution%新个税法对调节收入分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖琼琚

    2012-01-01

    Personal income tax is an important means of the modern government organization financial income and adjusting income distribution. A new individual income tax has been implemented from September 1,2011. The new tax law drastically reduces the tax burden on middle income group,conform to the trend and public opinion. However, due to the current tax system itself,a flaw and a tax in the proportion of low tax structure,its function of adjusting income distribution gap is still very weak. Therefore,we must speed up tax system reform, 'improve the tax adjustment function,make it play in constructing the fair income distribution relationship in an important role.%个人所得税是现代政府组织财政收入、调节收入分配的重要手段。我国1980年开始征收个人所得税.2011年9月1日起实施新个税法。新个税法大幅度减轻了中低收入纳税群体的负担,顺应了时势和民意。但是,由于现行个税制度自身的缺陷以及个税在税收结构中的比重偏低,其调节收入分配差距的功能仍十分弱小。因此,必须加快个税制度改革,完善个税调节功能,使其真正发挥在构建公平收入分配关系中的重要作用。

  2. Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition.

  3. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  4. A Dance or a Marriage? The Relationship between Education and the Law in South Africa Some Personal Observations from Two Vantage Points

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Beckmann

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the debate in education and law circles about the convergence of the two fields of knowledge in an area conveniently called education law. It recognises that there is no universal acknowledgement of the existence of such a discipline. Although the article does not present a full scale analysis of the relationship between education and law, it does present some views emerging from the existence and functioning of two organisations in South Africa namely the Sou...

  5. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  6. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; HAY, ELIZABETH L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years, range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience factors (i.e., age, perceived personal control). Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individ...

  7. The enduring impact of borderline personality pathology: risk for threatening life events in later middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Marci E J; Powers, Abigail D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-05-01

    Both neuroticism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are associated with increased frequency of stressful life events in young adults. It is not clear, however, whether this effect extends to later life because BPD is apparently diminished in frequency and severity when people reach middle adulthood. This issue was examined in a representative, community sample of men and women between the ages of 55 and 64 (N = 1,234). Ten DSM-IV PDs and neuroticism were assessed at baseline using a semistructured interview (SIDP-IV) and questionnaire (NEO-PI-R). Life events were measured 6 months later with a self-report questionnaire (LTE-Q) followed by a telephone interview. BPD features and neuroticism predicted increased frequency of life events, based on both self and interviewer-adjusted reports of negative life events. Avoidant and paranoid PD features predicted decreased frequency of negative life events. Approximately 42% of events reported on the LTE-Q were discounted following the telephone interview; higher scores on BPD symptoms were associated with more adjustments to self-report of threatening experiences. These findings indicate that symptoms of BPD and neuroticism continue to have a harmful impact on the lives of older adults.

  8. [Reliability of the PRISCUS-PAQ. Questionnaire to assess physical activity of persons aged 70 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampisch, U; Platen, P; Burghaus, I; Moschny, A; Wilm, S; Thiem, U; Hinrichs, T

    2010-12-01

    A questionnaire (Q) to measure physical activity (PA) of persons ≥70 years for epidemiological research is lacking. The aim was to develop the PRISCUS-PAQ and test the reliability in community-dwelling people (≥70 years). Validated PA questionnaires were translated and adapted to design the PRISCUS-PAQ. Its test-retest reliability for 91 randomly selected people (36% men) aged 70-98 (76±5) years ranged from 0.47 (walking) to 0.82 (riding a bicycle). The overall activity score was 0.59 as determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Recording of general activities, e.g., housework (ICC=0.59), was in general less reliable than athletic activities, e.g., gymnastics (ICC=0.76). The PRISCUS-PAQ, which is a short instrument with acceptable reliability to collect the physical activity of the elderly in a telephone interview, will be used to collect data in a large cohort of older people in the German research consortium PRISCUS.

  9. (In)Secutiry Regime among African Youth: The Age and Law Curfew Aumenta dimensioni testoDiminuisci dimensioni testo

    OpenAIRE

    Chinedu Thomas Ekwealor

    2015-01-01

    this paper purports to present the account of twin phenomena of age and constitution that anointed the relegation of African youth to the wastebasket of oppression. African youth have been studied by various scholars; and social, economic, and political statistical analyses of the youth were habitually deduced from [un]employment quotient. According to National Treasury discussion paper[1] this instrument may not be a reliable tool in either understanding insecurity regimes threatening the yo...

  10. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil. PMID:27011997

  11. Vulnerability to health problems in female informal caregivers of persons with HIV/AIDS and age-related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaskerud, J H; Lee, P

    2001-01-01

    The health of informal caregivers is often studied from the perspective of caregivers' and care receivers' personal and interpersonal characteristics. This study offers an alternative explanation based on a vulnerable populations framework and considers the role of resource availability to the health status of informal caregivers (n=76). Caregivers in a convenience sample were females of diverse ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and care recipients were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) or age-related dementias (ARD). Personal interviews using structured instruments were conducted with caregivers who were attending outpatient clinics at a public hospital and a VA hospital. Instruments included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-Scale (CES-D), the Global Health Assessment (GHA), the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) and items from the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) measuring anger, anxiety and loneliness. Caregivers were experiencing both physical and mental health problems. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among resources available to caregivers, conditions that put caregivers at risk for poorer health, and health status itself. Analyses were conducted for each group of caregivers separately (HIV and ARD) and for the total group, using depressive symptoms and perception of physical health as dependent variables. In caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS (PWHIV), caregiver distress over care recipient symptoms, anxiety and education were related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, anger and functional status of the PWHIV were related to caregivers' perception of poorer physical health. In caregivers of people with ARD, there were no significant predictors for depressive symptoms or perception of physical health. In the total group of caregivers, lower income and more anger were related to depressive symptom

  12. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  13. Levy stable law of intermittency and multifractal spectrum in {sup 28}Si-AgBr collisions at 14.6AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Islam, Saiful [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Mohib-ul Haq, M. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India)

    2005-09-01

    The scaled factorial moments F{sub q} are studied for {sup 28}Si-AgBr collisions at 14.6AGeV. These moments follow the generalized power law {proportional_to}[g(M)]{sup {phi}{sub q}}. The values of {phi}{sub q}/{phi}{sub 2} obtained from the linear fits of ln versus ln graphs are found to obey the Brax-Peschanski formula with Levy index {mu}=1.635+/-0.012 for {eta} space and {mu}=1.801+/-0.003 for {phi} space. These values lie within the Levy stable region 0=<{mu}=<2. An analytical continuation of the Brax-Peschanski formula has been used to obtain the multifractal spectra f({alpha}{sub q}) in negative q region.

  14. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  15. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

  16. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  17. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST)

  19. Dental caries, periodontal disease, and cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 and older: is there a link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Morse, Douglas E;

    2005-01-01

    lesions had 2.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval=1.1-7.0) of arrhythmia than persons without active coronal caries, but there was no greater risk for persons with three or more coronal caries lesions. There was no association between periodontal disease and arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: The findings......OBJECTIVES: To examine whether caries or periodontitis is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling people aged 80 and older. SETTING: Urban, community-based population in Stockholm, Sweden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible persons were identified through...... by a physician or the Stockholm Inpatient Register. Active root caries, active coronal caries, and periodontitis were assessed using previously defined National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The primary finding of the multivariate logistic regression analysis...

  20. Low-Magnitude Mechanical Stimulation to Improve Bone Density in Persons of Advanced Age: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian T; Barton, Bruce A; Bouxsein, Mary L; Sisson, Emily; Lang, Thomas; Allaire, Brett; Dewkett, Dawn; Carroll, Danette; Magaziner, Jay; Shane, Elizabeth; Leary, Elizabeth Teng; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Rubin, Clinton T

    2015-07-01

    Nonpharmacologic approaches to preserve or increase bone mineral density (BMD) include whole-body vibration (WBV), but its efficacy in elderly persons is not clear. Therefore, we conducted the Vibration to Improve Bone in Elderly Subjects (VIBES) trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 10 minutes of daily WBV (0.3g at 37 Hz) in seniors recruited from 16 independent living communities. The primary outcomes were volumetric BMD of the hip and spine measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. We randomized 174 men and women (89 active, 85 placebo) with T-scores -1 to -2.5 who were not taking bone active drugs and had no diseases affecting the skeleton (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65 to 102). Participants received daily calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Study platforms were activated using radio frequency ID cards providing electronic adherence monitoring; placebo platforms resembled the active platforms. In total, 61% of participants in the active arm and 73% in the placebo arm completed 24 months. The primary outcomes, median percent changes (interquartile range [IQR]) in total volumetric femoral trabecular BMD (active group (2.2% [-0.8%, 5.2%]) versus placebo 0.4% [-4.8%, 5.0%]) and in mid-vertebral trabecular BMD of L1 and L2 (active group (5.3% [-6.9%, 13.3%]) versus placebo (2.4% [-4.4%, 11.1%]), did not differ between groups (all p values > 0.1). Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (P1NP and sCTX) also were not different between groups (p = 0.19 and p = 0.97, respectively). In conclusion, this placebo-controlled randomized trial of daily WBV in older adults did not demonstrate evidence of significant beneficial effects on volumetric BMD or bone biomarkers; however, the high variability in vBMD changes limited our power to detect small treatment effects. The beneficial effects of WBV observed in previous studies of younger women may not occur to the same extent in

  1. 德国《基本法》“第三人效力”的成因分析%Analysis of Causes of the "Third-Person Effect" of the German Basic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛广林

    2012-01-01

    The theory and practice of the "third-person effect" of German Basic Law indicate that it was formed under the special historical background after World War II on the basis of strong civil law' s traditions of the German Basic Law, in answer to the internal social demands of a welfare country and through the promotion of the German theoretical circles and the judicial prejudication of the court. The analysis of causes of the third-person effect of the German Basic Law can be useful to our theory and practice.%德国《基本法》“第三人效力”的理论与实践表明,它是在德国二战后特殊的历史背景下,在德国《基本法》浓厚的民法典传统的基础上,基于“福利国家”之特定时期的内在社会需求,通过德国理论界和宪法法院司法判例的双重推动下逐步形成的。对德国《基本法》“第三人效力”的成因分析,有助于我们进一步深化对“宪法私法化”的了解,以期对我国“宪法私法化”的理论与实践有所助益。

  2. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  3. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS IN THE INITIATION OF ASTHMA IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN: MICA STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental and personal factors have already been associated with the development and exacerbation of childhood asthma, but many aspects of this association require further research. The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) is an epidemiologic study t...

  4. Understanding the “black box” of a health-promotion program: Keys to enable health among older persons aging in the context of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelie Barenfeld

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the need to make health services more accessible to persons who have migrated has been identified, knowledge about health-promotion programs (HPPs from the perspective of older persons born abroad is lacking. This study explores the design experiences and content implemented in an adapted version of a group-based HPP developed in a researcher–community partnership. Fourteen persons aged 70–83 years or older who had migrated to Sweden from Finland or the Balkan Peninsula were included. A grounded theory approach guided the data collection and analysis. The findings showed how participants and personnel jointly helped raise awareness. The participants experienced three key processes that could open doors to awareness: enabling community, providing opportunities to understand and be understood, and confirming human values and abilities. Depending on how the HPP content and design are being shaped by the group, the key processes could both inhibit or encourage opening doors to awareness. Therefore, this study provides key insights into how to enable health by deepening the understanding of how the exchange of health-promoting messages is experienced to be facilitated or hindered. This study adds to the scientific knowledge base of how the design and content of HPP may support and recognize the capabilities of persons aging in the context of migration.

  5. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness... disability benefits even though you were doing substantial gainful activity because you are blind and age...

  6. Profiles of ageing in the South of Portugal: education and cognitive functioning in elderly persons living in institutionalized and community contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudêncio, Jacinto; Silva, Maria Eugénia Duarte

    2011-01-01

    The region of the Algarve shows huge differences between the coastline where population in the urban areas grows, and the inland rural areas, in some cases very isolated, which frequently have high ageing indexes. This general scenario, with an elderly population with very different economic and social conditions, frames the ongoing PhD research designed as a cross-sectional study of an intentional sample of elderly persons. The basic theoretical framework departs from the perspective of deve...

  7. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  8. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  9. Comparing Efficacy of Online and In-person Versions of a Training on U.S. Federal Wage and Hour, Child Labor Laws and Hazardous Occupations Orders for Secondary School Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The New Jersey Safe Schools Program (NJSS offers courses required for secondary school vocational-career-technical education teachers to become school-sponsored structured learning experience supervisors. The Federal Wage and Hour and Child Labor Laws, Regulations and Hazardous Order Course (FWH was originally conducted in-person by U.S. Department of Labor-Wage and Hour Division from 2005-summer 2013, at which time NJSS began conducting this course in-person (October 2013-April 2015. Beginning March 2015, this course was conducted online; beta-/pilot tests were conducted winter 2014-15. Starting in May 2015, this course was offered exclusively online. This paper analyzes data from the in-person and online versions of the FWH, including overall course evaluation data comparing two versions with similar questions/constructs.Methods: NJSS modifications to FWH included adding information regarding the Fair Labor Standards Act’s Section 14(c and supplemental case studies. The online version included information/resources provided during the in-person training plus assessments to supplement each module; the online version was split into modules to allow participants scheduling flexibility. Participants were allowed multiple possible attempts to achieve a minimum passing grade of 70%, excluding two ungraded activities (crossword puzzles simply completed. Descriptive statistics evaluated user satisfaction with the online compared to the in-person version of FWH, and performance on aforementioned online assessments replacing in-person discussions/interactions.Results: Between October 2013-April 2015, 160 participants completed the training in-person; 156 had complete data. Between April-November 2015, 78 participants completed the training online; 74 participants had complete data. Other enrolled participants were in progress (not done as of 12/23/2015. Overall satisfaction was similarly high for in-person and online versions of FWH; over

  10. The rule of law

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Murati; Elmi Morina

    2015-01-01

    The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment...

  11. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIETARY AND EXERCISE HABITS AS CO-RELATES OF HYPERTENSION IN PERSON AGED 45 AND ABOVE IN AGRA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to changing lifestyle in Indian population prevalence of hypertension is increasing which needs modification in dietary and exercise habit of the general population. Objective: A study was designed to correlate dietary and exercise habits with hypertension in general population. Material and methods: Present study is a community based cross sectional study among persons aged more than 45 years in Agra district using PPS multi stage simple random sampling technique with a sample size of 553, which includes 260 persons from urban and 293 persons from rural area. Results: Out of 544 persons studied, overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 36.21% which was 41.47% in urban and 31.47% in rural areas. Prevalence decreases significantly in person engaged in heavy physical activity (14.54%. Hypertension is more prevalent in non vegetarian diet (44.26% as compared to vegetarian (33.88% and very high in population consuming extra salt (73.77%. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension in this study is 36.21% and increases with lack of exercise and yoga, non vegetarian diet and consumption of extra salt in diet.

  12. EARLY DETECTION OF LAW VISION WITH PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN TRHOUG SYSTEMATIC CHECK-UPS AT THE AGE OF 3 AND 5 IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SOTIROVSKA-SIRVINI

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of the law vision of pre-school children has been carried out through systematic check-ups by an ophthalmologist sent by the Department for preventive protection-Advisory Division at the Medical Center since 1977.The children are invited by the Advisory Center and during the systematic check-ups they are sent to the Cabinet for orthoptics and pleoptics for the ophthamologic check-up.The parents are motivated for the check-up and are explained how to prepare the child for cooperation during the examination. The findings are recorded in the child record card in the Advisory Center together with the findings of the psychologist, blood test, urine, faecal test of parasites and some other necessary tests.The records of the examination were obtained from the evidence on systematic check-ups at the Cabinet for orthoptics and pleoptics.From 1987 till August this year, 5.414 children-3.609 at the age of 3 and 1.805 at the age of 5 came for systematic check-ups at the Cabinet.Among the examined children, 5.7% were with echophobia, 2.3% were with astigmatism, 1.6% with amblyopia, 1.4% with hypermetropia, 0.9% with strabismus and 0.2% with miopia.Among the children with sight problems, the echophobia is present with 47.3%, astigmatism with 18.8%, amblyopia with 13.2%, hypermetropia with 11.9%, strabism with 7.2% and miopia with 1.8%.Children whose parents, brothers and sisters wear glasses were sent for check-ups at the age of 18 to 3 years. The earliest findings of sight difficulties are obtained with children who cooperate during the check-ups.As soon as the low vision is discovered, the defectologist-orthoptic therapist starts the necessary exercises and the sight is corrected with the glasses.At this age, children easily adapt to wearing glasses and they do not oppose them as the children whose sight correction started at the school age.

  13. Directly replaces of a minors and “exemplary” of a disability person: The patrimony of a persons with disability or minors 14 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Fernanda Moretón Sanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study the law, the jurisprudence and the law literatury of aspects of replaces of a minors and “exemplary” of a disability persons. It is fact that used by the testator, have different impact about the patrimony of de minors and persons whit disability. In the substitution or replaces, the object will depend on the means the testator deciding on the disposal heritage. Specifically, despite certain resistance from legal thought and case-law, in the substitution of a minor and in exemplary replace, the substitute (parent or legal representative may dispose of all the of the person substituted (child under 14 years of age or legal incapacitated person. Therefore, both types of substitution affect to the persons substituted and the patrimony of them

  14. Hippocampal Sclerosis but Not Normal Aging or Alzheimer Disease Is Associated With TDP-43 Pathology in the Basal Forebrain of Aged Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Takei, Hidehiro; Van Eldik, Linda J; Schmitt, Frederick A; Jicha, Gregory A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-05-01

    Transactivating responsive sequence (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43-kDa (TDP-43) pathology has been described in various brain diseases, but the full anatomical distribution and clinical and biological implications of that pathology are incompletely characterized. Here, we describe TDP-43 neuropathology in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and adjacent nuclei in 98 individuals (mean age, 86 years; median final mini-mental state examination score, 27). On examination blinded to clinical and pathologic diagnoses, we identified TDP-43 pathology that most frequently involved the ventromedial basal forebrain in 19 individuals (19.4%). As expected, many of these brains had comorbid pathologies including those of Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and/or hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging). The basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology was strongly associated with comorbid HS-Aging (odds ratio = 6.8, p = 0.001), whereas there was no significant association between basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology and either AD or LBD neuropathology. In this sample, there were some cases with apparent preclinical TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain that may indicate that this is an early affected area in HS-Aging. We conclude that TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain is strongly associated with HS-Aging. These results raise questions about a specific pathogenetic relationship between basal forebrain TDP-43 and non-HS-Aging comorbid diseases (AD and LBD).

  15. 宪法“人格尊严”条款的规范地位之辨%Debates on the Normative Status of the"Personal Dignity" Clause under Constitutional Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤君

    2012-01-01

    规范地位是指某一条款在基本权利内部乃至宪法规范体系中的效力,取决于该条款在特定宪法秩序中的法律属性。尊严条款因其法理基础、宪法文本表述及宪法解释实践的差异在各国宪法上享有不同的地位,归纳起来可分为宪法原则、基础价值、规定功能的宪法概念。我国宪法第38条人格尊严的哲学基础不同于其他国家的人是目的、人格发展、交往理论,而是着重于个人的名誉与荣誉保护;宪法文本表述并非人的尊严、人性尊严,而是人格尊严,且该条既未规定在总纲中,亦未置于"公民的基本权利和义务"一章之首,即使与"国家尊重与保护人权"一款结合起来阅读,亦无法取得与其它国家宪法上的规范地位。人格尊严在我国宪法上属于独立条款,也是公民的一项基本权利,具有具体的法律内容,在宪法解释过程中可作为规范与特定宪法事实相涵摄,证明公民的人格尊严受到了侵犯。%The normative status refers to the effect of a clause in the internal part of basic rights and even in the constitutional normative system,which depends on its legal nature in the certain constitutional order.Dignity clause has different statuses in different countries' constitutional laws due to the differences in its basis of legal theory,text expression of constitutional law and the interpretation practice of constitutional law.To summarize,the statuses can be divided into constitutional principle,basic value and constitutional concept defining functions.The philosophic basis of the article 38 concerning personal dignity under the Chinese Constitution,different from human is objective,the development of personality,communication theory in other countries,attaches great importance on protection of personal reputation and honor;its written expression in constitutional law is personal dignity instead of human's dignity or humanity dignity and it is not

  16. The “Apocryphal” Inscription from Mangup, Crimea, and Rituals of “Exposing the Thief”: Magic and Law from Antiquity to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Vinogradov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a Byzantine bread stamp inscribed with the text of Ps 29:8 in the ruins of Mangup Basilica in Crimea allows the authors of this article to revise the entire tradition of the Byzantine magical and folk “recipes” for revealing a thief; it is this context in which this verse is used in combination with a special bread. Prototypes of these recipes and procedures are attested in the late antique syncretic (pagan-Judeo-Christian magical papyri, in which private persons are advised to detect thieves by means of special spells, used either on their own or in combination with bread and cheese, an image of an eye, birds, bowls of water, and laurel leaves. In middle- and late-Byzantine manuscripts, these procedures are still present but in “Christianized” forms, even to the extent that a bread-and-cheese (or just bread procedure is sometimes described as a regular liturgical rite, performed in a church. In the meantime, there is evidence indicating that the Byzantine hierarchy had been struggling with this and other instances of using magical procedures under the cloak of the Christian liturgy, and, in particular, bishops had been expelling priests who used bread sortilege to determine guilt. However, in Western Europe, especially in Germany and England, where spells against thieves had also been known since antiquity, the bread ordeal (English: Corsnaed, German: Bissprobe became an accepted judicial practice, and even found its way into the official law codes of 11th-century England. Quite surprisingly, a similar phenomenon is attested in Russia (Novgorod in the early 15th century. Taking into account the Crimean bread stamp studied in this article, one can conclude that bread ordeals, prohibited in Constantinople, could have been tolerated in the Byzantine periphery, including Crimea, and that it is from these areas that this practice could have come to some Russian regions as well.

  17. Problems experienced by nurses in relation to disclosure of patient data immediately after enforcement of the personal information protection law in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Yuko; Yamanouchi, Kazushi; Sasaki, Noriko; Hosogoe, Sachiko

    2006-01-01

    An extension course for nurses providing details about the Act on the Protection of Personal Information was offered using a remote conferencing system. Experiences or problems related to disclosure of patient data were collected from the participants using a questionnaire. Most of the problems were placed in the category of disclosure of personal data to a third party, followed by those related to security safeguards and administration of employees. It is necessary for the JMHLW to gather more cases in order to expand the number of items in the Casebook by JMHLW. Also, systematic on-the-job education will be needed for nurses.

  18. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  19. Commenting on Enterprise Legal Person and the Object of Study of International Migration Law%刍议企业法人与国际移民法学的研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁里; 杨洋

    2011-01-01

    With the development of the politic,economic,culture,international migration is increasingly becoming the academic research of international law."People's Republic of Immigration Law" will be introduced this year.Because the object of study of international migration law is limited in the past years,for example,cross-border movement of person,the author thinks that the object of study of international migration law may be expanded and "corporate" should also be included.%随着世界政治、经济、文化的交融与发展,国际移民问题日益成为国际法学界关注的对象。鉴于国际移民法学的研究对象以往都局限于自然人的跨国流动,本文认为,国际移民法学的研究范畴还应扩大,应探讨将"企业法人"纳入国际移民法规范的对象之列。

  20. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  1. A STUDY OF DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN RELATION TO PERSONAL HYGIENE AND NUTRITIONAL INDICATORS AMONG GOVT. HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 11 - 16 YRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin disorders affect 20 - 30% of the general population at any one time. Personal hygiene, nutrition and Socio demographic factors play pivotal roles in determining the pattern of skin disease. Very few studies provide information on the prevalence and det erminants of skin disease among children of school going age group in India There are hardly any studies focusing on children of Hyderabad. Hence, the following study was carried out to determine the prevalence of dermatological disorders among school chil dren of age group 11 - 16 yrs . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the prevalence of dermatological disorders among Govt. high school children in relation with personal hygiene, nutritional status and socio demographic indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted and the study subjects included students of Govt. high school located at Musheerabad, belonging to class VI to IX. A total of 100 students have been studied and the study period was from 19 th Nov to 25 th Nov 2011.the sample size was calculated from prevalence shown in various studies (50% skin disorders, with an allowable error of 20% of P. Data collection included personal hygiene questionnaire, clinical examination, magnifying lens, measuring tape and a weighing machine. Prevalence of common skin diseases was calculated and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS : The proportion of skin disorders is seen to be 77% of the total study. The proportion of skin disorders is higher in females (p<0.05, mid ado lescent age (p<0.05, fathers being heavy workers and working mothers, hostel residence (p<0.05 and infrequent head bath. The proportion of skin disorders is not seen to be influenced by BMI - for - age and bathing frequency. Common dermatological disorders e licited were Pytiriasis simplex capillitii (27%, Acne vulgaris (22%, Pediculosis capitis (18%, Pytiriasis alba (14% and Scabies (11%. CONCLUSION : Skin disease constitutes a public

  2. Aging Research across Disciplines: A Student-Mentor Partnership Using the United Nations Principles for Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Kate; Kousaie, Shanna; Wittich, Walter; Spadafora, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for training on communication and social interaction in healthy aging was used to support the collaboration of three students and one program mentor from various age-related backgrounds (e.g., vision, hearing, cognition, and social work) to develop a transdisciplinary and interinstitutional…

  3. (The right to) personal autonomy in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (nota opgesteld ten behoeve van de Staatscommissie Grondwet)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of how the principle of personal autonomy has taken shape in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). As the separate sections of this study will show, the principle or right in fact can be said to exist of several elements, like gender

  4. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zeitler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age.

  5. U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: Fiscal Year 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  6. The PRO-AGE study: an international randomised controlled study of health risk appraisal for older persons based in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Martin D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices project. Methods/Design A group of general practitioners (GPs in London (U.K., Hamburg (Germany and Solothurn (Switzerland were trained in risk identification, health promotion, and prevention in older people. Their non-disabled older patients were invited to participate in a randomised controlled study. Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O instrument with a site-specific method for reinforcement (London: physician reminders in electronic medical record; Hamburg: one group session or two preventive home visits; Solothurn: six-monthly preventive home visits over a two-year period. Participants allocated to the control group received usual care. At each site, an additional group of GPs did not receive the training, and their eligible patients were invited to participate in a concurrent comparison group. Primary outcomes are self-reported health behaviour and preventative care use at one-year follow-up. In Solothurn, an additional follow-up was conducted at two years. The number of older persons agreeing to participate (% of eligible persons in the randomised controlled study was 2503 (66.0% in London, 2580 (53.6% in Hamburg, and 2284 (67.5% in Solothurn. Base-line findings confirm that randomisation of participants was successful, with comparable characteristics between intervention and control groups. The number of persons (% of eligible enrolled in the concurrent comparison group was 636 (48.8% in London, 746 (35.7% in Hamburg, and 1171 (63.0% in Solothurn. Discussion PRO-AGE is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal for older people in Europe. Its results will inform about the effects of implementing HRA-O with

  7. The Structure of Reflective Development of a Person in the Age Dynamics as the Basis of Psycho-pedagogical Design

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliev V.G; Yudina Yu.G.,

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to construct and justify a working hypothesis of the structure of the “reflection” concept in the age dynamics of human development. This is the foundation for understanding the content of developmental education and the creation of new modern educational technologies. The main task is developing a theoretical construct of the research object – the structure of reflective human development in the age dynamics. The main criteria are the logic and results of ...

  8. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Zeitler; Laurie Buys; Rosemary Aird; Evonne Miller

    2012-01-01

    Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel di...

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH)

  10. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  11. The cognitive conception of human being – with reference to social rehabilitation, how to change the under age crimminal into independent person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Siemionow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social rehabilitation has been changed for many years; it has become a dynamic science. The educators are still looking for new methods and techniques. They put purposes and they are going to achieve them within individual plan of resocialization. But they are agree that the most effective way of changing the bad behavior is to change the cognitive structures. The main purpose of social rehabilitation is to make an independent person. It is necessary to help under age criminals to make their new identity. They have to participate and act in new situations which can supply them new information and knowledge.

  12. The Structure of Reflective Development of a Person in the Age Dynamics as the Basis of Psycho-pedagogical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev V.G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to construct and justify a working hypothesis of the structure of the “reflection” concept in the age dynamics of human development. This is the foundation for understanding the content of developmental education and the creation of new modern educational technologies. The main task is developing a theoretical construct of the research object – the structure of reflective human development in the age dynamics. The main criteria are the logic and results of studies by leading psychologists, educators, philosophers. The first step for us is experimentally proven framework of the reflective development in middle childhood of V.I. Slobodchikov and G.A. Zuckerman, named as “defining reflection”. We build such structures for other ages: teen, youth, student age, as forerunners of adulthood. We use the established structure of the reflective development in student's age is used in experiments during developmental education teachers’ training in elementary school, which may be useful also for other psychological and pedagogical development practices.

  13. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law. (fast track communication)

  14. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness... that you are eligible for disability insurance benefits even though you are still engaging in... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we determine disability for blind...

  15. Adjusting to personal and organisational change: views and experiences of female nurses aged 40-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Sarah; Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The Australian nursing workforce is ageing and there is a well-documented shortage of nurses. This global phenomenon means that retaining nurses in the workforce is gaining in importance as older nurses retire and leave nursing. The existing literature reveals deficiencies in knowledge about older nurses as they adapt to ageing often within stressful work environments. The aim of this narrative-based study, informed by feminist principles, was to explore the views and experiences of female registered nurses aged 40-60 years, in acute hospital and community health care settings. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 h duration were gathered during late 2004. The transcribed narratives were subjected to thematic analysis. Two major themes were identified. The first theme: "Feeling uncared for" contained three sub-themes--Unsupportive work relationships: "We should be helping each other"; Workplace bullying: "It hurts me and I feel really bad"; and, Stress and burnout: "It's just like being in a pressure cooker all the time". The second major theme identified was "Adapting to ageing: my nursing career". Findings of this research suggest some unmet support needs for older nurses in the workforce which could discourage them from remaining in nursing. The findings highlight a need for further research into the support needs of older nurses. PMID:18780674

  16. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  17. Privacy as Personality Right: Why the ECtHR’s Focus on Ulterior Interests Might Prove Indispensable in the Age of “Big Data”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart van der Sloot

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Article 8 ECHR was adopted as a classic negative right, which provides the citizen protection from unlawful and arbitrary interference by the state with his private and family life, home and communication. The ECtHR, however, has gradually broadened its scope so that the right to privacy encroaches upon other provisions embodied in the Convention, includes rights and freedoms explicitly left out of the ECHR by the drafters of the Convention and functions as the main pillar on which the Court has built its practice of opening up the Convention for new rights and freedoms. Consequently, Article 8 ECHR has been transformed from a classic privacy right to a personality right, providing protection to the personal development of individuals. Apart from its theoretical significance, this shift might prove indispensable in the age of Big Data, as personality rights protect a different type of interest, which is far more easy to substantiate in the new technological paradigm than those associated with the right to privacy.

  18. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  19. The stability of externalizing behavior in boys from preschool age to adolescence: A person-oriented analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Stemmler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and hyperactivity has been noted by many researchers. There is also increasing knowledge on different developmental subtypes of problem behavior. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys (Stemmler et al., 2005, 2008; Stemmler & Lösel, 2010. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems. The present study addressed these two groups in an extended prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the groups remained stable over time and whether the two types of antisociality were related to offending in adolescence. The sample consisted of 295 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Lösel et al., 2009. Social behavior was rated by mothers, kindergarten educators, and school teachers; offending was self-reported by the adolescents. The time lag between the first and last data assessment was more than eight years.Approximately nine percent of the boys revealed stable externalizing behavior problems over the entire assessment period. Criminal behavior correlated positively with externalizing problems and negatively with internalizing problems. In a person-oriented Prediction-Configural Frequency Analysis (P-CFA; von Eye, 2002 the ‘externalizing only’ pattern could be replicated and suggested high stability over time. Moreover, this pattern was clearly related to self-reported delinquent behavior. In contrast to our previous studies with shorter follow up periods, the ‘combined externalizing and internalizing’ pattern did not appear as a type. It was also not significantly related to juvenile offending. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  20. Population Ageing and Socially Assistive Robots for Elderly Persons: The Importance of Sociodemographic Factors for User Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Flandorfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.

  1. Do Differences in Personality and Emotional Intelligence Affect The Ability to Recognize Negative Emotions in Cognitive Ageing?

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherston, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the ability to accurately identify emotional expressions diminishes with age. Older adults have a particular deficit in recognizing negative emotions. However, emotion recognition is somewhat preserved when emotion is expressed through more than one sensory modality. This study compared 29 younger (18 – 29 years) and 30 older adults’ (60 – 85 years) ability to identify emotions of a negative affect (angry, fearful, sad) in faces, voices and bodies in a forc...

  2. THE VALUE OF A PERSONAL BRAND IN THE ELECTIONS. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR ELECTION LAWS APPLIED IN LOCAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIUȚĂ OVIDIU-AUREL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the concepts of brand equity and brand value as found in the professional scientific literature and proposes an innovative research approach of the brand value of uninominal candidates running in the local elections in Romania in 2012 or of any other candidates that run in similar elections in terms of voting procedures. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that we have created a formula that will be used to measure the brand equity of these candidates depending on the results obtained by the party whose candidate is running in the elections, as compared to the other candidates and the other parties. This paper presents the methodology used to validate these formulae for measuring the theoretical score that should have been reached by a party’s candidate whose brand equals zero. In order to identify the contribution of the candidate’s brand to the respective result in our future research, we will make the difference and calculate the ratio between the real score and this theoretical score for a null personal brand. The present research, conducted from a positive perspective, resorts to a behavioural approach that allowsfor the measurement of the personal brand of candidates running for elections in certain electoral systems. This research is valuable for professionals as well as one can identify the candidates that are unsuitable for future elections, since a negative brand equity, accompanied by increased awareness (reached during the most recent elections, at the latest can hardly be turned into a positive image. Moreover, this analysis can be used in the internal assessments conducted by each political party after elections.

  3. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST)

  4. Physical Activity Types and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Persons: The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Chantal M; Dhana, Klodian; Golubic, Rajna; Schoufour, Josje D; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-04-15

    Physical activity is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The specific physical activity types that provide beneficial effects in an older population remain unclear. We assessed the association of total physical activity, walking, cycling, domestic work, sports, and gardening with CHD by using Cox proportional hazard models among 5,901 participants aged >55 (median age, 67) years from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, enrolled between 1997 and 2001. Activities were categorized into tertiles, and the lowest tertiles were used as reference. In the multivariable model, we adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, diet, and other physical activity types. During 15 years of follow-up (median, 10.3 (interquartile range, 8.0-11.8) years), 642 participants (10.9%) experienced a CHD event. In the multivariable model, the respective hazard ratios for the medium and high categories compared with the low category were 0.79 (95% confidence interval CI): 0.66, 0.96) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) for total physical activity, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92) and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.88) for cycling, and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.98) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.90) for domestic work. Walking, sports, and gardening were not associated with CHD. In conclusion, in this long-term follow-up study of older adults, domestic work and cycling were associated with reduced CHD risk. Physical activity should be promoted in this population with the aim to prevent CHD. PMID:27022033

  5. Applications of a hologram watermarking protocol: aging-aware biometric signature verification and time validity check with personal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Croce Ferri, Lucilla

    2003-06-01

    Our paper addresses two issues of a biometric authentication algorithm for ID cardholders previously presented namely the security of the embedded reference data and the aging process of the biometric data. We describe a protocol that allows two levels of verification, combining a biometric hash technique based on handwritten signature and hologram watermarks with cryptographic signatures in a verification infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of a Trusted Central Public Authority (TCPA), which serves numerous Enrollment Stations (ES) in a secure environment. Each individual performs an enrollment at an ES, which provides the TCPA with the full biometric reference data and a document hash. The TCPA then calculates the authentication record (AR) with the biometric hash, a validity timestamp, and a document hash provided by the ES. The AR is then signed with a cryptographic signature function, initialized with the TCPA's private key and embedded in the ID card as a watermark. Authentication is performed at Verification Stations (VS), where the ID card will be scanned and the signed AR is retrieved from the watermark. Due to the timestamp mechanism and a two level biometric verification technique based on offline and online features, the AR can deal with the aging process of the biometric feature by forcing a re-enrollment of the user after expiry, making use of the ES infrastructure. We describe some attack scenarios and we illustrate the watermarking embedding, retrieval and dispute protocols, analyzing their requisites, advantages and disadvantages in relation to security requirements.

  6. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the eff

  7. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  8. Laws Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O. Gostin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available My life’s work has positioned me in two diverse worlds’ one in science and one in law [1]. I publish in both fields, and the traditions are very different. Law journals typically have narrow readerships, principally those in the legal academy. The law review tradition, particularly in North America, is student edited, non-peer reviewed, and characteristically long and detailed. Law libraries often spend large portions of their budgets on journal subscriptions, which they store in scarce space. [...

  9. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  10. Stability and change of personality across the life course: the impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2011-10-01

    Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences.

  11. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  12. Laws for children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余生泽

    2002-01-01

    Laws(法律)for children are good things one hundred years ago in some countries,children worked eighteen hours a day in a factory_____age seven the factory owner could beat a child_____fell asleep or was not fast enough______parents add teacher could do the same.

  13. The effects of technological advances on outcomes for elderly persons with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Hanrahan, Brian W

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the major cause of blindness among US elderly. Developing effective therapies for this disease has been difficult. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of introducing new therapies for treating exudative ARMD on vision of the affected population and other outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having ARMD. DESIGN The study used data from a 5% sample of Medicare claims and enrollment data with a combination of a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching to assess the effects on the introduction or receipt of new technologies on study outcomes during a 2-year follow-up period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The analysis was based on longitudinal data for the United States, January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2011, for Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service coverage. The sample was limited to beneficiaries 68 years or older newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD as indicated by beneficiaries having no claims with this diagnosis in a 3-year look-back period. EXPOSURES The comparisons with vision outcomes were after vs before the introduction of photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The comparisons for depression and long-term care facility admission were between beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD who received photodynamic therapy or anti-VEGF therapy compared with beneficiaries having the diagnosis who received no therapy for this disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Onset of decrease in vision, vision loss or blindness, depression, and admission to a long-term care facility. RESULTS Among beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD, the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy reduced vision loss by 41% (95% CI, 52%-68%) and onset of severe vision loss and blindness by 46% (95% CI, 47%-63%). Such beneficiaries who received anti-VEGF therapy and were not admitted to a long-term care facility during the look

  14. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use. PMID:27154769

  15. Moving Beyond Drinking to Have a Good Time: a Person-Centered Approach to Identifying Reason Typologies in Legal-Aged College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Brittany R; Beckmeyer, Jonathon; Bumpus, Matthew F; Hill, Laura G; Agley, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use, reasons for use, and consequences of use continue to be a major concern in college student populations. This is especially true for students of legal drinking age who may experience different reasons for and greater negative consequences of alcohol use than students under 21 years old. Although multiple studies have used person-centered approaches to understand motivations for and ultimately prevent alcohol use, few have identified multiple typologies of reasons for alcohol use. The current study used latent class analysis to identify homogeneous subtypes of reasons for alcohol use and how classification was associated with alcohol-related consequences in college students aged 21 years old and older (N = 2300) from the 2013 Indiana College Substance Use Survey. Four profiles of reasons for alcohol use emerged across males and females: social drinkers, feel good drinkers, relaxed escaping drinkers, and emotion coping drinkers. Although the likelihood of consequences differed across gender, the emotion coping drinkers were more likely to experience all negative consequences, suggesting that it was a high-risk class. In general, this pattern of risk continued with the feel good drinkers and female relaxed escaping drinkers. These results can help optimize college substance use prevention and intervention efforts to (1) identify and understand characteristics of high- and low-risk student drinkers and (2) tailor the content of interventions to those specific profiles resulting in more effective approaches to reducing alcohol use.

  16. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  17. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meister H

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Sebastian Rählmann,1 Martin Walger,2 Sabine Margolf-Hackl,3 Jürgen Kießling3 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT-Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Department of Othorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Purpose: To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons.Methods: Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated.Results: Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered.Conclusion: The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive

  18. 新个税法下高校教师个人所得税纳税筹划探索%Personal Income Tax Planning of Teachers in Colleges and Universities under New Tax Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小花

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of the number of income - producing project in colleges and universities and the in- crease of teacher' s income, it has become an important task for the finance department to carry on the reasonable tax planning and rational tax avoidance. This essay discusses two issues: one is how to carry on the reasonable tax planning in compliance with the tax law based on the present universities to deduct tax situation; the other is how to reduce the staff's personal income tax burden and improve the teachers' actual income.%随着学校创收项目的增多和教师收入的提高,如何进行合理的纳税筹划,合理避税,成为高校财务部门的重要任务。结合高校代扣代缴个人所得税的现状,对实施新个税法后的纳税筹划等问题进行讨论,在遵守税法的情况下,争取减轻个人所得税税负,提高教师的实际收入。

  19. 自然法的理智主义与意志主义之争--中世纪晚期自然法思想研究%The Controversy between Naturalism and Voluntarism on Natural Law---Studies on the Natural Law in the Late Middle Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟磊; 李小龙

    2014-01-01

    The late middle ages was a transition period which the ideas of natural law were transformed from ancient to modern and the sacred to the secular. Different factors such as religious, political, economic and cultural together caused the vicissitude of ideas of natural law, among these the conflict between revelation and philosophy, sacred and secular constitute the fundamental force. On this basis, natural law theories developed Naturalism and Voluntarism as two different systems, they hassled on all questions concerning the natural law, this controversy not only determines the subsequent natural law 'development but also our judgment upon current situations.%中世纪晚期是自然法思想由古代向近现代、由神圣向世俗转变的重要过渡期。宗教、政治、经济和文化等方面的因素程度不同的作用于自然法观念的变迁。其中,启示信仰与哲学、宗教神圣与世俗之间的矛盾冲突构成了其根本的动力。在此基础上,自然法理论的发展呈现为理智主义与意志主义两条不同的进路,它们在有关自然法问题的各个方面展开了激烈的争论,不仅决定了其后自然法理论的走向,也影响着我们当下的选择判断。

  20. Markers of Mineral Metabolism Are Not Associated With Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Community-Living Elderly Persons: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Wassel, Christina L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Najjar, Samer S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Fried, Linda F.; de Boer, Ian H.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Newman, Anne B.; Hausman, Dorothy; Sarnak, Mark J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disorders in mineral metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with kidney disease as well as in the general population. This risk is thought to be mediated, in part, through the mechanism of stiffening of the arteries. METHODS The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and arterial pulse wave velocity (aPWV) among 2,229 community-dwelling elderly persons participating in the Health Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 72 years; 52% were woman, 39% were black, and 17% had chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). In parallel unadjusted analyses, the following associations were observed: 2.86% greater aPWV per 12 ng/ml (s.d.) lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (95% confidence interval −4.38%, −1.31%), 3.04% greater aPWV per 28 pg/ml (s.d.) higher iPTH (95% confidence interval 1.42–4.68%), and 2.37% lower aPWV per 0.5 mg/dl (s.d.) higher phosphorus (95% confidence interval −3.90% to − 0.81%). Except for phosphorus, these associations were attenuated and rendered no longer statistically significant after adjustment for demographic risk factors, clinical site, season, medications and other CVD risk factors. The results were similar in men and women and were not dependent on the presence of CKD. CONCLUSIONS Among well-functioning community-dwelling elderly persons, only serum phosphorus was associated with aPWV; and this association was in the opposite direction of the one hypothesized. Factors other than vascular stiffening may mediate the relationship between disordered mineral metabolism and CVD events in community-living elders. PMID:21436791

  1. Age Prejudice of 'Act Your Age.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, Zander

    1978-01-01

    Many life-style decisions are often adversely influenced by prejudicial attitudes, norms, and laws about age. The relationship between ways of thinking about developmental tasks and age prejudice is discussed. (Author)

  2. Embassies and Personal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2011-01-01

    of personal data from the embassy to the home country. Although an embassy may represent an unsafe area for the personal integrity of citizens, this topic has not been considered in data protection law and for this reason there are no references ind the article.......The article considers how data protection rules in Directive 95/46 EC and in national law apply to data processing carried out by an embassy. Three situations are discussed: processing inside and from the embassy, processing in the recieving country on behalf of an embassy, and transference...

  3. Happy Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秉中

    2009-01-01

    Aging is a normal physiological process in human life.The decline in the ability to repair and regenerate predisposes the aging person to develop disabling problems in the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.Full awareness of aging problems and advocations on the means to prevent their occurrence are mounting.European and US groups rely on scientific,target-oriented means to treat aging manifestations. Oriental medicine aims at prevention,using nutrition and exercise to maintain internal harmony.

  4. Population Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  5. Taking older people's rights seriously: the role of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kwong-leung

    2008-01-01

    Older people face many difficult challenges that amount to a deplorable violation of their basic human rights (poverty, discrimination, denial of social services, etc.). However, the world has been slow to react. Factors that limit global responses to the challenges of aging include: limited political will, the prevalence of neo-liberalism, and NGOs' longstanding advocacy for other seemingly "more" disadvantaged groups. Such oppression of and discrimination against older people require a concerted world-wide response. We contend that the introduction of an international convention on the human rights of older people is most relevant. Reinforced by a potent international monitoring system, the convention should contain comprehensive and legally binding provisions that require participating states to promote older people's rights. It is argued that international law would be a powerful force in defending and protecting older persons, operating as a baseline for establishing underlying values for national aging policies and linking older persons' concerns with other segments of society.

  6. Taking older people's rights seriously: the role of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kwong-leung

    2008-01-01

    Older people face many difficult challenges that amount to a deplorable violation of their basic human rights (poverty, discrimination, denial of social services, etc.). However, the world has been slow to react. Factors that limit global responses to the challenges of aging include: limited political will, the prevalence of neo-liberalism, and NGOs' longstanding advocacy for other seemingly "more" disadvantaged groups. Such oppression of and discrimination against older people require a concerted world-wide response. We contend that the introduction of an international convention on the human rights of older people is most relevant. Reinforced by a potent international monitoring system, the convention should contain comprehensive and legally binding provisions that require participating states to promote older people's rights. It is argued that international law would be a powerful force in defending and protecting older persons, operating as a baseline for establishing underlying values for national aging policies and linking older persons' concerns with other segments of society. PMID:18198162

  7. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  8. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  9. Effects of Activity-Based Personalized Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Blood Parameters in Middle-Aged and Older Type 2 Diabetes Korean Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of activity-based personalized nutrition education (APNE) with a general instruction for diabetes (control, CTRL) in middle-aged and older Korean outpatients with type 2 diabetes. After an initial screening, 70 subjects were randomly assigned to APNE (n = 37) or CTRL (n = 33) group. APNE considered each patient’s anthropometry, blood chemistry data, and dietary habits in addition to planning meal choices with the aid of registered dietitians. After 3 months, dietary behavior, food intake, and anthropometric and blood measurement results were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels decreased in the APNE group (n = 33) but not in the CTRL group (n = 23). In the APNE group, the meal intervals and number of days of consuming high-fat food were decreased, while the number of days following a meal plan and balanced diet that entailed consuming fruits, vegetables, and healthy food was increased. A lower consumption of carbohydrates, saccharides, grains, and tuber crops and a higher protein, pulses, and fat-derived calorie intake compared with the initial values were observed in the APNE group. In contrast, only the number of days following the meal plan and balanced diet was increased in the CRTL group, without significantly changing the individual macronutrient-derived calorie intake. The APNE approach appeared to effectively educate outpatients with type 2 diabetes about changing their dietary behavior and food intake and improving the clinical parameters related to diabetic conditions. PMID:27812513

  10. Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM): The Design of a Four-year Longitudinal Cohort Study among 15,118 Persons Aged 45 to 64 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, Jan F.; Geuskens, Goedele A.; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna R M; Joling, Catelijne I.; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in em

  11. Study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM): the design of a four-year longitudinal cohort study among 15,118 persons aged 45 to 64 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Geuskens, G.A.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, F.R.M.; Jolings, C.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of transitions in employment and work productivity among persons aged 45-64 years. Research Framework: A research framework was developed, in which transitions in employme

  12. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event...

  13. Patterns of Multimorbidity in an Older Population of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: Results from the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (IDS-TILDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Mary; Swinburne, Janet; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; Carroll, Rachael; McCallion, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Multimorbidity (2 or more chronic conditions) is being widely studied in older populations and this study explores both the relevance of emerging conceptualizations and the extent to which multimorbidity is a feature of aging in persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: Data was generated from wave one of the intellectual disability…

  14. Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) for the Learner-Centered Information-Age Paradigm of Education: A Study to Improve the Design of the Functions and Features of PIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Pratima

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Integrated Educational System (PIES) design theory is a design recommendation regarding the function and features of Learning Managements Systems (LMS) that can support the information-age learner-centered paradigm of education. The purpose of this study was to improve the proposed functions and features of the PIES design theory…

  15. 49 CFR 511.75 - Persons not attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons not attorneys. 511.75 Section 511.75... Persons not attorneys. (a) Any person who is not an attorney at law may be admitted to appear in an.... An application by a person not an attorney at law to appear in a proceeding shall be submitted...

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  17. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP)

  18. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.)

  19. 20 CFR 404.411 - How are benefits reduced for age when a person is entitled to two or more benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... old-age benefit would be reduced under § 404.410 if she or he attained full retirement age in the... benefit) before full retirement age, the disability benefit is reduced by the larger of: (A) The amount... provisions of § 404.410 if full retirement age for unreduced benefits were age 62 plus the amount by...

  20. On the power of Money and the King of Spain's son in law: Spanish Golden Age satire models on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rodríguez Pérez

    2015-01-01

    The greatest Spanish satirist lived in the Golden Age: Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645). His satirical poetry has become national common knowledge for most Spaniards. The power of his satire is such that it has been able to cross temporal borders and still serves in the 21st century as a

  1. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  2. Violence or law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloody demonstrations, occupations of houses and airports, violence against things and persons make the citizens feel that the protection of life and property is no longer in a good state in the F.R. of Germany. How can a further erosion of the sense of justice be met. What can the citizens do to strengthen the sense of justice and to help making the respect of law grow again as a condition for the peaceful coexistence of people. The contributions from a meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Bad Herrenalb deal with these problems. (orig./HP)

  3. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  4. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  5. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.)

  6. Analysis On the Personality Of Zero-man Who Live In the Age Of Cultral Transformation%文化转型中的“零余者”的人格特质探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟来娣

    2012-01-01

    Zero-men are true portrayal of awakened intellectuals whose paths of life be thwarted by things who lived in the age of the May 4th Movement with cultral transformation between the new and the old.Zero-men's bodies mingled with contradictions between traditional personality and modern personality,ideal personality and realistic personality,municipal personality and rural personality,which embodys their courage to challenge the mainstream of values,also embodies their attachment to the aspect of tender sentiments of tradition,and refracts the twists and turns of the modernization process of China.%"零余者"形象是处于"五四"新旧文化转型期觉醒了却无路可走的知识分子的真实写照。他们身上交织着传统人格和现代人格、理想人格和现实人格、都市人格和乡村人格的矛盾,体现了他们向主流价值观念挑战的勇气和对传统中温情一面的依恋,也折射出中国社会现代化进程的艰难曲折性。

  7. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  8. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  9. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  10. Labour's law?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cross section analysis of 23 OECD members shows that there is an „antagonistic” relationship between the legal protection of investor interests on the one hand and labour interests on the other: the stronger the legal protection of investor rights in a country, the less developed are the individual and collective rights of labour and vice versa. A main cause for a country's position with respect to this trade off is its type of legal system, specifically whether it belongs to the common law...

  11. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  12. How to Definite the Persons Liable for Product Defect--with the Object of American Law principally%产品缺陷责任主体的确定——以美国法为主要考察对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏渭

    2012-01-01

    产品缺陷责任主体,是指当缺陷产品致人损害时,应承担相应的民事责任的主体。美国法对产品责任主体的规定着眼于“商业性的销售者”,通过《侵权法重述》和判例,逐步扩展了商业性销售者的范围。而产品缺陷责任主体正是以营利为目的从事营利性行为的商主体,确认产品责任之责任主体的依据恰是商法效益至上与民法追求公平这二者之间的博弈。%The persons liable for product defect are those who should bear their respective civil liability if a defective product causes property damage or physical injury to others. According to law in American, the persons liable for product defect refer to any sellers in the business whose scope was gradually expanded by Restatement of the Tort Law and prejudicatian. If we view the issue from a different perspective, the persons liable for product defect are just commercial subjects who are undertaking profit - making activities? in order to seek profits, and the very foundation as which regarded product liability is the game playing between supremacy of benefit in business law and following fairness in Civil law.

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  14. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza Amestejani; Mohammad Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali Nikibakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The su...

  15. 高校中年体育人口健身运动处方的应用研究%Study on the Application of the Fitness Sports Prescription Suitable for Middle-aged Sports Persons in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宁

    2011-01-01

    This study intents to make fitness sports prescription in order to develop the physical and mental health of the middle-aged sports persons in universities,carry out experiments of sports prescription exercise,and to investigate the possibility of guiding the middle-aged sports persons in universities to keep fit with sports prescription.The experiment result shows that doing fitness sports prescription exercise could improve the health of middle-aged sports persons in universities effectively;besides,organizing fitness exercises according to the sports prescription among middle-aged sports persons in universities is welcome,scientific and effective making use of the fitness sports prescription%本研究制定以发展高校中年体育人口的身心健康为主要内容的健身运动处方,并在中年人的健身运动中进行运动处方锻炼实验,探讨健身运动处方对高校中年体育人口进行健身锻炼指导的可行性.结果表明:进行健身运动处方锻炼能有效的改善高校中年体育人口的身体机能,增进身心健康.运用健身运动处方组织高校中年体育人口进行健身锻炼是受欢迎的、科学的、行之有效的.

  16. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  17. The Value-added Management of the Basic Old-age Insurance Personal Account for Urban enterprise Workers%城镇企业职工基本养老保险个人账户的增值管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓丽

    2012-01-01

    着我国城镇企业职工基本养老保险个人账户“实账化”改革的不断深入,个人账户基金积累的规模越来越大。养老保险基金贬值风险的影响,使个人账户增值成为保障个人养老水平的重要问题。针对个人账户基金的管理模式和操作细节,国内学者分别提出不同甚至相反的意见。结合国际经验,实行“三权分立”的个人账户管理体制在理论上能够保证个人账户增值的实现。%With the deepening of the reform of the basic old-age insurance personal accounts of China's urban enterprise workers "Real Account" personal account funds accumulated increasing scale. The impact of the devaluation of the pension fund risk, personal accounts add value to the important issue of the protection of personal pension level. Management model and operational details of the funds for personal accounts, domestic scholars proposed a different and even opposite opinions. In theory, the personal account management system combined with international experience in the implementation of the " separation of powers" can ensure that the value-added implementation of personal accounts.

  18. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-01-01

    Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the la...

  19. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  20. 《侵权责任法》视角下未成年学生人身损害侵权责任问题研究%Research on the Personal Injury Tort Liability of Minor Students from the Perspective of The Tort Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦保宁

    2012-01-01

    Our national law for minor students about personal injury law tort liability legislation exist some problems such as low effective force, unclear responsibility, the disunity of attribution and exemptions. The introduction of The Tort Law provides the highest legal basis for such tort liability. It also defines clear principles for responsibility identification, attribution principle, additional responsibilities and other issues. Dealing with the personal injury of minor students should identify the duties of protection and fault exemption of education management and the legal exemptions. Relevant local legislation should be modified and perfected.%我国有关未成年学生人身损害侵权责任的立法存在法律效力较低、责任不明确、免责事由和归责原则不统一等问题。《侵权责任法》的出台为此种侵权责任的承担提供了最高法律依据,并对责任确定、归责原则、补充责任等问题进行了明确的规定。未成年学生人身损害的处理应明确教育管理保护的职责和过错原则以及法定的免责事由,有关的地方性立法应作修改和完善。

  1. The Distinction between Civil and Criminal Law: A Lesson Plan for High School Law-Related Educators To Support "Understanding the Federal Courts."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Washington, DC.

    The O. J. Simpson trials taught much of the United States a basic lesson in the difference between criminal law and civil law. Many students learn in their government classes that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime. A person found innocent in a criminal trial, however, can be sued under civil law procedures for damages. It is…

  2. 12 CFR 34.4 - Applicability of state law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legitimate power to define and punish crimes by general laws applicable to all persons within its... authorized real estate lending powers do not apply to national banks. Specifically, a national bank may make... law. See 12 U.S.C. 85 and 1735f-7a; 12 CFR 7.4001. State laws purporting to regulate national...

  3. 31 CFR 10.32 - Practice of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law. 10.32 Section 10.32... of law. Nothing in the regulations in this part may be construed as authorizing persons not members of the bar to practice law....

  4. 31 CFR 800.102 - Effect on other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on other law. 800.102 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS General § 800.102 Effect on other law. Nothing in this part shall be construed..., or review provided by or established under any other provision of federal law, including...

  5. Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    General ProvisionsChapter I General PrinciplesArticle 1 This Law is enacted to protect the lawful rights andinterests of the contracting parties,to maintain social andeconomic order and to promote socialist modernization.Article 2 A contract referred to in this Law is an agreementamong natural persons,legal persons and/or other organizationsas equal parties for the establishment,modification or termination

  6. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  7. Universal mortality law and immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  8. Construct validity of the Groningen Frailty Indicator established in a large sample of home-dwelling elderly persons : Evidence of stability across age and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, L. L.; Boter, H.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Slaets, J. P. J.; Buskens, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Groningen frailty Indicator (GFI) in a sample of Dutch elderly persons participating in LifeLines, a large population-based cohort study. Additional aims were to assess differences between frail and non-frail

  9. Trauma-Informed Response in the Age of Title IX: Considerations for College Counselors Working with Survivors of Power-Based Personal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Abigail H.; Griffith, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking are pervasive in the United States, and college women are disproportionately affected by this power-based personal violence (PBPV). Title IX mandates that colleges and universities offer support services to trauma survivors, and college counselors should be prepared to meet this need.…

  10. Web2.0时代的PLE建构初探%The Primary Research of Personal Learning Environment in the Age of Web2.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚佳

    2008-01-01

    本文介绍了PLE(Personal Learning Enviornment)及其特征,并介绍了构建个人学习环境常用的社会性软件,通过分析知识学习和教学主要观点的变化归纳出构建PLE的方法和意义.

  11. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  14. European Economic Law: A Seminar

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Alexandre Libório Dias

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the legal framework of the internal market of the European Community, in special economic freedoms (free movement of goods, persons, services and capital) and their exceptions, as well as competition law concerns such as antitrust and cartels (the elimination of agreements which restrict competition - e.g. pricefixing agreements, or cartels, between competitors -, and of abuses by firms who hold a dominant position on the market), merger control (the control of mergers...

  15. 人格特质与认知能力的关系及其年龄差异%Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability:Age Differences in Their Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇晗; 余林

    2014-01-01

    Personality has an important influence on cognitive ability. The relations between different personality traits and cognitive ability are distinct, and there are age differences in their relations. Current research is mainly about three aspects: the relations between personality traits and cognitive ability; the impact of different personality traits on cognitive ability; the comparison of the relations in different ages. The results of the impact of different personality traits on cognitive ability become clear, but there still is lots of controversy in current research. In order to get more scientific conclusion of the research problem, the future research can be further deepened in the following aspects: the stability of personality and the influence on cognitive ability; the mechanisms of the impact of personality on cognitive ability and the influencing factors;cross-cultural research;research paradigm.%人格是影响认知能力的重要因素,不同的人格特质与认知能力的关系不同,人格与认知能力的关系在不同年龄阶段也有所不同。当前的研究主要探讨了人格特质与认知能力之间的关系以及不同人格特质对不同认知能力的影响,并在不同的年龄阶段进行比较。有关不同人格特质对认知能力的影响结果逐渐清晰,但现有的研究结果存在很多争议。未来可以在人格的稳定性及其对认知能力的影响、人格对认知能力影响的作用机制及其相关影响因素、跨文化研究和研究范式等方面继续深化,以获取对该研究问题更科学的研究结论。

  16. Exact law of live nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  17. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP)

  18. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  19. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  1. 论人格权的财产利益及其私法保护%Study on the Interest and Protection of Personality Rights and Property under the Private Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航; 郭志慧

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous economic and social development, commercialization increasingly common use of personality factors, personality rights have property interests is the consensus of scholars. Binary division of personality rights and property rights are also being scholars re-examined. Certainly the right personality and spiritual interests include both property interests and give more personality rights initiative power, draw on relevant experience extraterritorial legislation, the establishment of China ’s moral rights protection system is to protect the interests of effective path to personal property rights.%随着经济社会的不断发展,人格要素的商业化利用日益普遍,人格权具有财产利益已是广大学者共识。人格权与财产权的二元划分也正得到学者们的重新审视。肯定人格权同时包含精神利益与财产利益,赋予人格权更多的主动性权能,并借鉴相关的域外立法经验,建立我国的人格权保护制度,这是保护人格权财产利益的有效路径。

  2. Structural-functional organization of multilayered squamous epithelium of vocal сords of larynx at the persons of mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasyuk Y.А.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the conducted morphological researches it is set, that in cellular elements of multilayered squamous epithelium of vocal cords of larynx is observed layer stage of processes of keratinization, therefore even in a norm it has a tendency to the cornification. It physiological regeneration takes a place due to the proliferation of cells of basale layer and parallel tearing away of grainy cells. On logarithms of volume of nucleus of cellular elements of different layers of multilayered squamous epithelium make the row of differentiation: 0,75; 0,95; 1,45; 1,15 and 0,85, which corresponds the nuclearmetrical laws.

  3. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    1999-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  4. Caring for people with dementia in residential aged care: successes with a composite person-centered care model featuring Montessori-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gail; Morley, Catherine; Walters, Wendy; Malta, Sue; Doyle, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Person-centered models of dementia care commonly merge aspects of existing models with additional influences from published and unpublished evidence and existing government policy. This study reports on the development and evaluation of one such composite model of person-centered dementia care, the ABLE model. The model was based on building the capacity and ability of residents living with dementia, using environmental changes, staff education and organizational and community engagement. Montessori principles were also used. The evaluation of the model employed mixed methods. Significant behavior changes were evident among residents of the dementia care Unit after the model was introduced, as were reductions in anti-psychotic and sedative medication. Staff reported increased knowledge about meeting the needs of people with dementia, and experienced organizational culture change that supported the ABLE model of care. Families were very satisfied with the changes. PMID:25499658

  5. Ajustamento psicológico e perspectiva de velhice pessoal em adultos com deficiência física Ajuste psicológico e la perspectiva percibida del envejecimiento personal en adulto y adultos moyores con discapacidad física Psychological adjustment and personal aging perspective in adults and older adults with physical disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineia Crosara de Resende

    2009-12-01

    exige capacidad adaptante, y resistencia para hacer frente a acontecimientos de vida y a los desafíos personales, sociales y ambientales producidos por la discapacidad.We carried out an investigation to analyze the relationships between perceived psychological adjustment and perspective of personal aging in adult and aged people with physical disability. Materials and Method: 90 participants, both genders, aged 25 to 84 , answered questionnaires asking for information on socio demographic characteristics and disability; the Sheppard Inventory of attitudes toward own aging; and a scale assessing perceived psychological adjustment. Results: The indexes of personal adjustment were moderate and high. The women had the lowest scores. There were observed positive correlations between positive psychological adjustment and positive attitudes toward own aging. Those that had congenital disability and reported higher psychological adjustment showed more positive perspectives of personal aging. Conclusion: Aging with physical disability is a complex process that demands adaptive competence, and resilience to cope with life events and the personal, social and environmental challenges produced by disability.

  6. 网络时代个人信息保护研究%A Research on Personal Information Protection in Internet Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红平

    2015-01-01

    With the deep-going development of network and society informatization , the research on personal information protection is becoming more and more important.This article summarizes the research status of personal information protection , point out the significance of it, focus on analyzing the solutions to protecting the personal information and explores the application value of the research on it.%随着网络化和社会信息化程度越来越高,个人信息保护的研究越来越重要,文章从个人信息的现状谈起,介绍了目前个人信息保护的研究现状,提出了研究个人信息保护的意义,重点分析了个人信息保护的安全对策,探讨了个人信息保护研究的应用价值。

  7. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  8. Law and Power in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    International konferenceantologi med bidrag fra Gerd Althoff, Dominique Bauer, Bruce C Brasington, Charlotte Christensen-Nugues, Michael H Gelting, John Gillingham, Eldbjørg Haug, John Hudson, Brigitte Meijns, Hans Jacob Orning, Anne Irene Riisøy, Matthew Strickland, Jo Rune Ugulen, og Sally N Va...

  9. 15 CFR 734.12 - Effect on foreign laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect on foreign laws and regulations... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.12 Effect on foreign laws and regulations. Any person... responsibility of complying with applicable foreign laws and regulations. Conversely, any person who...

  10. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  11. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  12. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  13. Contributions to the old-age pension insurance and disability and survivor’s pension insurance for persons taking care of people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Roszewska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The care issue brings together a number of social issues. From the legal classification of care, through the problem how to support, the amount of benefits to the scope of protection of caregivers. One of the most noteworthy problems in care for the disabled persons is the duty of providing social insurance for caregivers. The publication focuses on the issue of payment of contributions. Carers’ insurance status is complex and unstable. The difficulty of evaluation is related to the lack of the final shape of long-term care system in deinstitutionalized conditions.

  14. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  15. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... personality disorder. Personality disorders are usually recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continue throughout adulthood, and become less ...

  16. Personality and oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  17. Features of The Law on Protection of Personal Information of Korea and the Significance to China%韩国《个人信息保护法》的主要特色及对中国的立法启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康贞花

    2012-01-01

    经过8年多的立法历程,韩国于2011年3月29日公布了《个人信息保护法》。韩国《个人信息保护法》对个人信息保护的基本原则、个人信息保护的基准、信息主体的权利保障、个人信息自决权的救济等问题作出了全面的规定。其统一的立法模式,分阶段、全方位的权利保障模式与注重权利救济的立法理念,都为我国正在制定的"个人信息保护法"提供了很多有益的启示,值得我国积极借鉴。%The Law on Protection of Personal Information was finally promulgated on 29th, Mar. 2011 in Korea after a course of legislation of more than 8 years. The Law stipulates comprehensively the basic principles, ground rules, measures to protect the right and relief to the right of self-determination. The u- nified mode of legislation, the phased and all-round mode of right protection as well as the legislative ideol- ogy focusing on the relief to right provide China with useful references to make its "the law on protection of personal information".

  18. Family intentions and personal considerations on postponing childbearing in childless cohabiting and single women aged 35-43 seeking fertility assessment and counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch Petersen, K; Hvidman, H W; Sylvest, R;

    2015-01-01

    , smaller families than desired and declining fertility rates. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION: Baseline data from a cross-sectional cohort study of 340 women aged 35-43 years examined at the Fertility Assessment and Counselling (FAC) Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital from 2011 to 2014. The FAC...

  19. Los Derechos de las Personas Incapacitadas Bajo la Ley Federal. Seccion 504 de la Ley de Rehabilitacion de 1973 (Handicapped Persons's Rights under Federal Law. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish-language pamphlet explains Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which outlaws disability discrimination in programs receiving federal funds and the extensive regulations stemming from Section 504. The rights and responsibilities of handicapped persons are related to the following issues: eligibility for coverage under the…

  20. 29 CFR 18.602 - Lack of personal knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lack of personal knowledge. 18.602 Section 18.602 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.602 Lack of personal knowledge. A... witness has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may, but need...

  1. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  2. AN UNPRECEDENTED LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong’s return to China and the implementation of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Beijing Review reporter Li Li spoke to Professor Xu Chongde from the Law School of Renmin University of China, a Basic Law drafter, about how the law was created and its spirit.

  3. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were...

  4. Childhood Trauma and Personal Mastery: Their Influence on Emotional Reactivity to Everyday Events in a Community Sample of Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Infurna, Frank J.; Rivers, Crystal T.; John Reich; Zautra, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with premature declines in health in midlife and old age. Pathways that have been implicated, but less studied include social-emotional regulation, biological programming, and habitual patterns of thought and action. In this study we focused on childhood trauma's influence via alterations in social-emotional regulation to everyday life events, a pathway that has been linked to subsequent health effects. Data from a 30-day daily diary of community residents who p...

  5. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  6. Proposition of law aiming to the recognition and indemnification of persons victims of nuclear tests or nuclear accident; Proposition de loi visant a la reconnaissance et a l'indemnisation des personnes victimes des essais ou accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    The present proposition of law has for object to establish the presumption of a relationship between on the one hand the nuclear weapons tests and on the other hand the pathologies developed by the civil or military personnel having worked on the concerned sites as well as the populations present in the contaminated areas. the present proposition aims to establish equality between the victims and to create the legal framework that will allow the state to proceed to the just compensations of damages imposed by actions then considered as national interest. (N.C.)

  7. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  8. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  9. Study of age and sex differences of genu and rostrum of corpus callosum by using diffusion tensor imaging of MRI in normal person%正常人胼胝体膝部及嘴部年龄与性别差异的DTI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢姿蓉; 邹松; 李振龙; 赵英杰

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究胼胝体膝部和嘴部的DTI参数ADC值、部分各项异性(FA)值及神经密度在年龄及性别方面的差异,并获取其随年龄增长的变化规律.方法:将247例正常人按照年龄段分为10组,行颅脑DTI,测量胼胝体膝部和嘴部ROI的ADC值、FA值及神经纤维数,并计算神经密度.结果:①男性胼胝体膝部和嘴部的ADC值随年龄增长的差异均具有统计学意义;女性则差异均无统计学意义.②男性及女性胼胝体膝部和嘴部的FA值随年龄增长差异均具有统计学意义,其随年龄增长的变化规律基本上符合升高—相对稳定—下降的趋势.③男性及女性的胼胝体膝部和嘴部神经密度随年龄增长差异均无统计学意义.④在>3~6岁组,女性胼胝体嘴部的ADC值显著高于男性(P<0.01);在40岁以上男性,胼胝体膝部的神经密度显著高于女性(P<0.01);胼胝体膝部的ADC值和FA值、胼胝体嘴部的FA值和神经密度在各个年龄段内的性别差异均无统计学意义.结论:①胼胝体膝部和嘴部的ADC值、FA值随年龄增长的变化规律可以反映胼胝体膝部和嘴部生长发育及老化的整个过程.②本研究所获得的胼胝体膝部和嘴部的ADC值、FA值及神经密度可作为以后进一步研究的参考.%Objective: To research the differences of MRI ADC value, FA value and nerve density of the genu and rostrum of corpus callosum in the aspects of age and sex,and obtain the change laws with age. Method:247 normal persons were classified into ten groups according to their age and their heads were examined with DTI and DTT of MRI. The ADC value,FA value and nerve fiber number of the ROIs of genu and rostrum of corpus callosum were measured,and then the nerve density was calculated. Results;①There were significant differences in the ADC values of genu and rostrum of corpus callosum of males with age. The ADC values of genu and rostrum of corpus callosum of females had no

  10. RÉGIMEN ESPECIAL DE RECONOCIMIENTO DE LA PERSONALIDAD JURÍDICA DE DERECHO PÚBLICO EN LA LEY N19.638: MARCO LEGAL APLICABLE A LAS IGLESIAS CATÓLICA Y ORTODOXA The 19,638 act special regime for the recognition of public law personality: Legal regulation applicable to chatolic and orthodox chruches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Picó Rubic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ley N° 19.638, sobre Constitución Jurídica de las iglesias y Organizaciones Religiosas, reguló civilmente a las organizaciones religiosa chilenas, sobre la base de una distinción fundamental entre aquellas entidades preexistentes en el goce de la personalidad jurídica de derecho público y las que, a partir de la fecha de entrada en vigor de la ley, manifestaran su pretensión de adquirirla. Dicha diferencia, contempló el establecimiento de un régimen general, aplicable a todas las organizaciones y grupos religiosos que no gozaren de dicha personalidad de derecho público al momento de la entrada en vigor de la ley, y un régimen especial, consistente en el reconocimiento de la preexistencia de esta calidad jurídica, en favor de aquellas entidades que, al momento de la entrada en vigencia de la ley, ya gozaban de ella, vale decir, la iglesia Católica, apostólica y romana y a la iglesia Ortodoxa, tributaria del Patriarcado de Antioquia. El propósito del trabajo tiene por objetivo exponer este régimen jurídico especial, precisando el marco normativo aplicable, fijando sus fuentes directas y el contexto material de su producción, determinando sus efectos y anticipando una solución coherente a las cuestiones interpretativas emergentes. En particular, analiza el estatuto de la iglesia católica desde la perspectiva del Derecho eclesiástico del Estado de Chile, proponiendo una lectura actual de su situación jurídica, que intenta resolver una de las cuestiones más debatidas durante la tramitación de este cuerpo normativo y cuyos efectos aún perduran en el presente.The 19,638 Act, which deals with the incorporation of churches and religious organizations, regulated the Chilean religious organizations from a civil law perspective by distinguishing those organizations that already had a public law personality and those that could acquire this personality from there on. This distinction supposed establishing, on the one hand, a

  11. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  12. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  13. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  14. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  15. Analysis on A Teacher's Personality in Teaching the Course of Morals,Ethics and Fundamentals of Law%教师人格魅力在“思想道德修养与法律基础”课教学中的作用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓兰; 车丹; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    提高教育教学质量的一个重要因素在教师,在于教师的人格魅力。"思想道德修养与法律基础"课教师具有"传道授业解惑"的职责,他们在教会学生做人、做事,扮演着"立德""立志""立人"的角色的同时,彰显求真、至善、唯美的统一的人格魅力。在"基础"课的教学中,"基础"课教师的人格魅力有助于提高"基础"课教学实效性,加深学生对"基础"课教学的认同感,对学生人格发展和意志品质的形成起着重要作用。%A crucial factor of the improvement of teaching quality is the teacher,namely his or her personality.Teachers who teach Morals,Ethics and Fundamentals of Law have the duty to transmit wisdom,impart knowledge and resolve doubts.In the process of instructing their students how to conduct and behave,and in the meantime of representing a character that inspires virtue,ambition and dignity,those teachers are destined to demonstrate a personality of seeking truth,goodness and perfection.In the process of teaching the course,a favorable personality demonstrated by the teacher is helpful to further improve the effectiveness of teaching and deepen the recognition of the course for students,and hence plays an important role in the personality development and willpower shaping of students.

  16. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  17. The law of February 19th 2004, No. 40: procreation and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The Parliament of the Italian Republic, on 19 February 2004, has approved Law no. 40 on Medically Assisted Procreation. This law was adopted by the majority of the members of the Chamber, including both catholic as well as non-catholic members. The main opposition comes from the Church, which is against any form of artificial procreation. In spite of this, we must not forget that this law sets numerous limitations to Medically Assisted Procreation, which makes it unique in the matter. Examples are the prohibition to conceive a human being using in vitro fertilisation with sperm that is not from the parents, or the prohibitions of having parents of an advanced age or using the sperm once the donor is dead. Therefore, this article is based on the idea that every regulation on Assisted Procreation must be done from a rational perspective. The article analyses section by section the law emphasizing the importance that the legislator has. Stating that the legislator must take into account the constitutional personal rights (human dignity) and must likewise include punitive sanctions within the framework of the modern penal law.

  18. Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking : The Swedish Prostitution Law

    OpenAIRE

    Waltman, Max

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurispru...

  19. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  20. On the infringement of personality right benefit return ——Concurrently on the "tort liability law" article twentieth applicable%论侵害人格权之获益返还——兼论《侵权责任法》第20条的适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2012-01-01

    侵害他人人格权获得利润,本为现今之普遍现象。但是如何处置此种不当获益,乃民法上之重大课题。我国《侵权责任法》第20条对此设有较为周全之规定,但未言明该请求权之性质,对其适用恐嫌不妥。因此,以批判的观点检讨现行立法及学说的规定,认为其实质上是不法管理制度,并认为其适用范围仅限于人格权受侵害之财产损失,不及于精神损害。同时明确其构成要件和法律效果,明确其与侵权损害赔偿请求权及权益侵害不当得利请求权的关系,至为关键。%Infringes on the personality right a profit, this is the common phenomenon today. But that how to take a benefit in inappropriate is a major subject in civil law. Article 20 the tort law in our country has more comprehensive regulation, but did not tell the nature of the claim, applicable to the terrorists with suspicion. Therefore, in view of the present legislation critical review and the provisions of the theory, the author thinks that the but illegal management system, and that the scope is limited to the personality rights violated the property, inferior to the mental damage and clear its constituents and legal effect, make clear its and infringement claim for damages and rights violations undeserved benefit claims, the relation between the crucial.

  1. [Evaluation of the immunogenic and reactogenic properties of vaccine "Euvax B" in persons aged 16-18 years in different geographical zones of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S N; Zaplatnikov, A L; Ibragimova, F A; Skvortsova, N N; Nechepurenko, L A; Raengulov, B M; Volova, L Iu; Popov, T M; Makarenko, I V; Karpova, T F; Reshetniak, V V; Kerivtsova, G G; Varlamova, I A; Kuzina, L E; Malyshev, N A; Zverev, V V

    2005-01-01

    The comparative evaluation of the reactogenic and immunogenic properties of vaccine "Euvax B" in adolescents aged 16-18 years was carried out in factory housing estate Lvovsky, the Podolsk district, the Moscow region, and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District (AD): in towns Salekhard, Noyabrsk, Muravlenko, in housing estate Tarko-Sale. The evaluation demonstrated that the use of this vaccine in a dose of 20 mg/ml produced no postvaccinal complications and the frequency of postvaccinal reactions was insignificant. Postvaccinal anti-HBs were detected, on the average, in protective concentrations in 98.4 +/- 1.8% of the vaccines (99.0 +/- 1.9% in the Moscow region, 97.7 +/- 3.2% in the Yamalo-Nenets AD). In most of the vaccinated adolescents high concentrations of postvacinal anti-HBs were detected: in 51.4 +/- 9.7% of the vaccinees in the Moscow region and in 89.7 +/- 6.4% in the Yamalo-Nenets AD they exceeded 1,000 I.U./lit. The conclusion was made that in the territories located in subarctic latitudes vaccinal prophylaxis against hepatitis B was safe and highly effective and have no limitations connected with the conditions of the Far North.

  2. The Law's Understanding of Intellectual Disability as a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is differently yet validly described by different professions. Legal professionals find it most useful to consider ID as a disability rather than a disorder. Because the law regulates the actions of individuals in a society and the actions of society on an individual, the law's concern in dealing with a person with ID…

  3. The Power-law Tail Exponent of Income Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, F; Gallegati, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problem of estimating the power-law tail exponent of income distributions by using the Hill's estimator. A subsample semi-parametric bootstrap procedure minimising the mean squared error is used to choose the power-law cutoff value optimally. This technique is applied to personal income data for Australia and Italy.

  4. Biodemography of old-age mortality in humans and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of persons living beyond age 80 underscores the need for accurate measurement of mortality at advanced ages and understanding the old-age mortality trajectories. It is believed that exponential growth of mortality with age (Gompertz law) is followed by a period of deceleration, with slower rates of mortality increase at older ages. This pattern of mortality deceleration is traditionally described by the logistic (Kannisto) model, which is considered as an alternative to the Gompertz model. Mortality deceleration was observed for many invertebrate species, but the evidence for mammals is controversial. We compared the performance (goodness-of-fit) of two competing models-the Gompertz model and the logistic (Kannisto) model using data for three mammalian species: 22 birth cohorts of U.S. men and women, eight cohorts of laboratory mice, and 10 cohorts of laboratory rats. For all three mammalian species, the Gompertz model fits mortality data significantly better than the "mortality deceleration" Kannisto model (according to the Akaike's information criterion as the goodness-of-fit measure). These results suggest that mortality deceleration at advanced ages is not a universal phenomenon, and survival of mammalian species follows the Gompertz law up to very old ages.

  5. Factorisations of distributive laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kraehmer, Ulrich; Slevin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Boehm and Stefan constructed duplicial (paracyclic) objects from distributive laws between (co)monads. Here we define the category of factorisations of a distributive law, show that it acts on this construction, and give some explicit examples.

  6. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  7. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  8. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  9. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  10. Smoking prevalence and views about tobacco law in students of medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baykan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking prevalence among first year students attending Erciyes University Medical School and to evaluate their ideas about the law Prevention and Control of Hazards of Tobacco Products”. Methods:This was a descriptive study conducted in May 2013. The participation rate was 72.5%. A questionnaire including 18 questions was administered to the participants. Socio demographic features, smoking status, addiction perception of smokers and their ideas about the law were asked in the questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. Chi square test was used. Results:Out of 200 students 49.0% had tried smoking and 23. 0% has been smoking. 40,6 % of the male and 6.7% of the female students was smoking. There was statistically significant difference between them (fisher exacttest, p<0.001. Smoking among students, whose family members also smokers, were higher. The mean starting age to smoking was 16.7±2.0 and stress was the first reason. 84.3 % of the students evaluated smoking as an addiction. 79.0% of the students were considering that the law was partially applied. 60.5% said that tobacco use had decreased with the law and 28.3% said that their usage had also been decreased. Only 38.0% believes that this law interfere personal rights. Conclusion:Half of the students had tried smoking at early ages. Parents were important role models. The majority of the students thought that restrictive laws limit smoking.

  11. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  12. Law of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Jerison; John K.-H. Quah

    2006-01-01

    We formulate several laws of individual and market demand and describe their relationship to neoclassical demand theory. The laws have implications for comparative statics and stability of competitive equilibrium. We survey results that offer interpretable sufficient conditions for the laws to hold and we refer to related empirical evidence. The laws for market demand are more likely to be satisfied if commodities are more substitutable. Certain kinds of heterogeneity across individuals make ...

  13. Environmental protection law; Umweltschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the entire environmental protection law in a systematic survey. The book attaches great importance to the presentation of the legal fundaments, the European legal background, to the constitutional law and considers the ministerial draft bill to the environmental law book. The book under consideration is addressed to students of the law as well as junior lawyers. It is suitable for the preparation on the examination.

  14. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  15. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  16. Stochastic Conservation Laws?

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    We examine conservation laws, typically the conservation of linear momentum, in the light of a recent successful formulation of fermions as Kerr-Newman type Black Holes, which are created fluctuationally from a background Zero Point Field. We conclude that these conservation laws are to be taken in the spirit of thermodynamic laws.

  17. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  18. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  19. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  20. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.M. Terra; P.J. Wattel

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  1. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  2. Law of Empires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  3. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  4. Web Accessibility for Older Adults: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Access to the Internet is increasingly critical for health information retrieval, access to certain government benefits and services, connectivity to friends and family members, and an array of commercial and social services that directly affect health. Yet older adults, particularly those with disabilities, are at risk of being left behind in this growing age- and disability-based digital divide. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was designed to guarantee older adults and persons with disabilities equal access to employment, retail, and other places of public accommodation. Yet older Internet users sometimes face challenges when they try to access the Internet because of disabilities associated with age. Current legal interpretations of the ADA, however, do not consider the Internet to be an entity covered by law. In this article, we examine the current state of Internet accessibility protection in the United States through the lens of the ADA, sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, state laws and industry guidelines. We then compare U.S. rules to those of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) countries, notably in the European Union, Canada, Japan, Australia, and the Nordic countries. Our policy recommendations follow from our analyses of these laws and guidelines, and we conclude that the biggest challenge in bridging the age- and disability-based digital divide is the need to extend accessibility requirements to private, not just governmental, entities and organizations. PMID:26156518

  5. The inherent contradictions in data protection law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2012-01-01

    • The purpose of data protection law is to make it possible for controllers to process personal data, and the protection of data subjects is necessary on order to achieve this purpose. • The leading player in data protection law is the controller at the same time as they limit his freedom • However...... data protection law also ought to empower the data subject. It is discussed whether the position of consent should be strengthened and consent be either the exclusive or primary ground for processing. Consent entails risks for the data subject and such a change of the law is not in general advisable....... • Transparency is seen as important and through an information policy, real transparency may be achieved. • Another issue concerns whether it is expedient that the same data protection rules apply to the private and to the public sector. Having separate rules should be considered, as this would give the rules...

  6. The European Court of Justice case of Elgafaji: the interaction between EU law and international humanitarian law

    OpenAIRE

    Ispolinov A. S.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing influence of international court rulings on the development of new concepts within international law, in particular, the concept of subsidiary protection to persons who fall outside the scope of the 1951 Refugee Convention. The author also considers the issues related to the concept of indirect effect in EU law, as well as the interaction between the EU and international law.

  7. On Tax Planning of Individual to Obtain a One-time Annual Bonus under the New Law on Personal Income Tax%在新个人所得税法下对个人取得全年一次性奖金纳税的筹划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩福才

    2012-01-01

    根据新个人所得税法对个人取得全年一次性奖金征收个人所得税的规定,年终奖金在临界点与平衡点之间会出现多发少得的情况,通过了解个人所得税相关政策以及计税办法,对年终奖金进行合理纳税筹划,对于降低个人税收负担具有重要的意义。%To obtains the whole year once only award according to the new individual income tax law to levy the personal income tax, the year end bonus will appear the case of grant more and having less between the critical and equilibrium point, by understanding the individual in come tax policies and tax measures, to plan year-end bonus tax reasonably, and it is an importance for reducing the personal tax burden.

  8. Analysis of Personality Characteristics and Coping Styles of Military Pilots of Different Age Groups%不同年龄军事飞行员个性特征与应对方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠贤; 张佳丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze personality characteristics and coping styles of military pilots in different age groups. Methods A total of 80 battleplane pilots were divided into group A ( 20 -29 years old, n=40 ) , group B (30-39 years old, n=34) and group C (40 years old and over, n=6). The personality characteristics and coping styles of pilots were detected and analyzed with Eysenck personality questionnaire ( EPQ) and simple coping style ques-tionnaire, and the differences among the three groups were also compared. Results ① T introverted and exoscopic scores in group A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P0. 05);the differences in T scores of psychoticism and neuroticism among the three groups were not statistically significant (P>0. 05). ②Positive scores of coping styles in group A and B were signif-icantly lower than those in group C ( P0. 05). ③The age factor of pilots had a significantly positive relationship with neu-roticism T score (r=0. 242, P0. 05). Conclusion Military pi-lots have good personality characteristics and positive coping styles in general which become more and more obvious with the age increase. Health service staff should focus on maintaining the physical and mental health of the pilots according to the characteristics to enhance fighting performance and competence in PLA pilots.%目的:研究不同年龄军事飞行员的性格特征和应对方式。方法选取80名战斗机飞行员,根据年龄划分为20~岁组(40人)、30~岁组(34人)、40~岁组(6人),采用艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)和简易应对方式问卷进行测评分析,比较各组间差异。结果①20~岁组、30~岁组内外向T分显著高于40~岁组( P0.05);3组间精神质、神经质T分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。②20~岁组、30~岁组积极应对得分均明显低于40~岁组(P0.05)。③飞行员年龄与神经质T分呈显著正相关(r=0.242,P0.05)。结论军事飞行员总体具有较良好的人格特质和积极的应对

  9. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  10. Basic Law and Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author avails himself of the by now controversial jurisdiction on partial licences issued for nuclear power plants to argue relevant provisions of the Basic Law and to include facts which are related to the Basic Law. This is also necessary for reasons of social policy, since such a juridicial decision produces an effect which spreads far beyond the litigants. In a constitutional state that has to stand the test in the conflict arising between human rights and technical progress, the controversy on basic rights has to form a part of the trial and of the opinion. There are two sides to the rule of law: The citizen's obligation not to use violence, and his right to be strictly protected by the Basic Law. (HSCH)

  11. The Right to Be Forgotten:Regulating Irrelevant Personal Information in Search Engines by Private Law%被遗忘权:搜索引擎上过时个人信息的私法规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗浏虎

    2016-01-01

    As a new type of information protection right,the right to be forgotten enhances individuals’right to privacy, allowing individuals to apply for deleting the links or indexes concerning de-contextualized information.Through the case of Google v the AEPD and Mario Costeja González,the Court of Justice of the European Union recognised this right and stressed the appropriateness of the processing and spread of personal information.Traditional right to privacy cannot pro-vide sufficient protection for data subjects.Given the differences between the right to information protection and the right to privacy,negative effects of irrelevant personal information,and positive influences of the right to be forgotten on social harmony,the right to be forgotten should be introduced into China.But it is worth noticing that there are possible con-flicts between the right to be forgotten and the public’s right to know and other rights.The principle of proportionality can be used to decide whether to delete irrelevant personal information or not.%作为一种新型个人信息权,被遗忘权的产生是为了调整搜索引擎上的过时个人信息。通过删除或隐匿搜索引擎上脱离情境的个人信息,信息主体的人格权益得以实现。欧盟法院在谷歌诉冈萨雷斯案中确立了被遗忘权,并强调了信息处理和传播行为的适度性和适时性。传统隐私权理论无从应对网络个人信息散播行为,也难以为规范搜索引擎上的过时个人信息提供充分法理支持。鉴于个人信息权与隐私权的差异性、过时个人信息的负面性、以及删除过时个人信息对于社会和解的积极意义,我国有必要在个人信息保护立法中引入被遗忘权。然而,被遗忘权与公众知情权等权利间的潜在冲突也值得注意。在决定是否删除过时个人信息时,比例原则可被用来进行利益衡量。

  12. 123例健康中老年人左心室重量的超声测值%Measurement of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiography in 123 Healthy Middle-aged and Elderly Persons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余荣水; 吾柏铭; 朱瑞珍; 高岚; 薛咏霞

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To establish the normal values of left ventriuclar mass(LVM),LVM index(LVMI)and the relative wall thickness(RWT)m easured by echocardiography in healhty middle-aged and elderly persons.Methods:The thickness of interventricular septum(IVST),l eft ventricular posterior wall(PWT)and the left ventricular internal diameter(LV IDd)were measured at the end of diastole by echocardiography.The LVM,LVMI and RW T were calculated in 123 healthy middle-aged and elderly persons.Results:The LVMI in healhty middle-aged and elderly male and female were (85.60±15.52)g/m2 and (82.53±13.64)g/m2 and the corespondi ng values of the upper 95% confidence limits were≤116.6g/m2 and≤1 09.5g/m2 respectively.The RWT in both male and female were 0.35±0.04,and the upper 95% confidence limits were≤0.43.Conclusions:In healthy middle-aged and elderly persons the no rmal values of LVMI in male and female are≤116.6g/m2 and ≤109.5g/m2 resp ectively,and those of RWT in both male and female are≤0.43.%目的:建立健康中老年人超声心动图测定的 左心室重量(LVM)和左心室重量指数(LVMI)及左心室室壁相对厚度(RWT)的正常值。方法:对123例中老年健康体检者,以超声心动图测定舒张末期室间隔厚度(I VST)、左心室后壁厚度(PWT)及左心室内径(LVIDd),计算LVM、LVMI以及RWT。结果:123例健康中老年人的LVMI男女分别为(85.60±15.52)g/m2和(82 .53±13.64)g/m2,95%可信度上限值,LVMI(男)≤116.6g/m2,LVMI(女)≤109.5g /m2;RWT男女均为0.35±0.04,95%可信度上限值≤0.43。结论:健康中老年人,男性LVMI≤116.6g/m2,女性LVMI≤109.5g/m2 ;男性及女性RWT均≤0.43。

  13. Personalized ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds developm...

  14. Considering personal rights in doping control procedure in terms of Turkish lawTürk hukukunda doping kontrol işlemlerinin kişilik hakları açısından değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Orhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport is one of the most attractive activities of the world. So that, for many people, a match score becomes more important than any other problems of world. Sport becomes an exciting way of make money. Because a doctor, a lawyer or an engineer have to work long years to have money, fame and reputation, that an average sportsman/sportswoman has early in life. In the same way a sports club can earn millions of dollars through his succesful sportmen/sportswomen. But sometimes, with the affect of this potentiality and “desire to win”, athletes, coaches, clubs or States can canalize to a unfair ways. Doping is the most risky way of those. Doping has many dimensions about competition justice, athletes’ health and punishment of this act. One of these dimensions is relationship between doping control and athletes personal rights.Personal (private right is an absolute right over a person’s own personal wealth and assets. As well as tangible values, bodily integrity, health, intangible values privacy, honour and reputation are cases of personal rights. In this article, firstly we’ll inform what the doping is, how a doping control can be done, secondly we’ll study the personel rights in doping control ÖzetSpor günümüz dünyasının en çok ilgi çeken faaliyetlerinden birisidir. Öyle ki çoğu insan için bir sportif faaliyetin sonucu dünyanın geri kalanlarının sorunlarından daha önemlidir.Spor, öyle bir hal almıştır ki, başarılı bir sporcunun doktorluk, avukatlık, mühendislik gibi çoğu diğer meslek sahiplerinin mesleki olgunluk dönemlerinde bile kolay kolay ulaşamayacakları paraya, şana, şöhrete ve karşı cinsin ilgisine henüz genç yaşlarda ulaşma ihtimali oldukça yüksektir. Aynı şekilde sporcuların bağlı oldukları kulüple de, başarılı sporcuları sayesinde milyonlarca dolar kazanabilmektedirler. Ancak bu ihtimal ve kazanma hırsı sporcunun, bazen kendi isteğiyle bazen de antrenörünün ve

  15. Personal & Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederaman, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A group of articles reports on trends in salaries of college presidents. Articles include a summary of federal tax data on executives' pay, discussion of presidents' perceptions of the issues, a report on compliance with federal disclosure laws, and a table detailing results of a national survey of compensation for private college presidents and…

  16. Personality and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  17. Relationship between body mass index and blood lipid among middle-aged and elder persons in Chengdu city%成都市中老年人群体质指数与血脂相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆昆; 易延静; 贾勇; 黄晓波; 曾伟; 刘雅; 欧阳凌云; 张延杰; 徐俊波; 聂晓莉; 赵思勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨中老年人群体质指数(BMI)与血脂水平及脂代谢异常的关系.方法 于2008年采用分层整群抽样的方法,抽取四川省成都地区40~79岁5 175名城乡居民进行身高、体重、血脂等测量,并问卷调查.结果 成都地区中老年居民肥胖患病率为11.03%,其中男性为8.66%,女性为12.6%,超重率为35.07%,其中男性为35.7%,女性为34.7%;随着BMI的增加,中老年人群甘油三酯(TG)水平呈明显上升趋势,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平呈明显下降趋势;中老年男性人群高TG血症患病率随BMI增加呈增高趋势;中老年女性人群高TG血症、高总胆固醇(TC)血症、低HDL-C血症患病率随BMI增加呈增高趋势.结论 中老年人群TG及HDL-C水平、中老年男性高TG血症及女性高TG血症、高TC血症、低HDL-C血症患病率与BMI密切相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index(BMI) and the levels of blood lipid and lipid metabolic disorder among middle-aged and elder people. Methods Stratified cluster sampling method was used and 5 175 persons aged 40 -79 years in Chengdu city were selected for a questionnaire survey and measurements of height,weight, and blood lipid. Results The prevalence of obesity was 11.03 % ( 8. 66% for male and 12. 6% for female) and that of overweight was 35.07% (35.70 for male and 34. 70% for female) among the people. With the increase of BMI,triglyceride(TG) levels in the older aged groups showed an increase trend and high-density lipoprotein-cholesteral(HDL-C) levels showed an obvious decrease. With BMI increase, the middle-aged male showed a trend of high TG hyperlipidemia. The female showed a increase trend of high TG hyperlipidemia, high total cholesterol (TC), and low HDL-C with the increase of BMI. Conclusion BMI is closely corelated with the incidences of high TG,high TC,low HDL-C among middle-aged and elder persons.

  18. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  19. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  20. 16 CFR 1025.65 - Persons not attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons not attorneys. 1025.65 Section 1025... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.65 Persons not attorneys. (a) Filing and approval of proof of qualifications. Any person who is not an attorney at law may be admitted to appear in...

  1. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the labor criminal law, as an interference zone between the criminal law and labor law, has to be regarded from the internal social realities governing the labor aspects, as well from the comparative law's point of view.

  2. Zipf's law in human heartbeat dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kalda, J; Vainu, M; Laan, M

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution of low variability periods in the activity of human heart rate typically follows a multi-scaling Zipf's law. The presence or failure of a power law, as well as the values of the scaling exponents, are personal characteristics depending on the daily habits of the subjects. Meanwhile, the distribution function of the low-variability periods as a whole discriminates efficiently between various heart pathologies. This new technique is also applicable to other non-linear time-series and reflects these aspects of the underlying intermittent dynamics, which are not covered by other methods of linear- and nonlinear analysis.

  3. [Aims and background of the anticorruption law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhausen, H

    2002-01-01

    Corruption not only should be banned sociopolitically, it is a tort of law in Germany. Any employee in public duty has a special responsibility. That is the reason why the law does not tolerate any kind of corruption particularly in the public workplace. On trial the facts have to be established. A medical doctor is liable only if he abused his position to get an advantage. Doctors who are in charge of economic decisional power have to be aware that their responsibility for public money is important and that any personal advantage, which is linked to economic decisions will be problematic. Therefore the principles of transparency and rational economics have to be acknowledged.

  4. Family law in Syria : a plurality of laws, norms, and legal practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Esther van

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine how legal or normative plurality is manifested in Syria’s personal status law on a variety of levels, including statutory, political, communal, and individual. The author believes that this study makes a useful and valuable contribution to understanding the historical, soc

  5. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  6. Statistical laws in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

  7. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  8. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  9. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  10. On Persons with Expertise Attending Criminal Proceedings-Also on the Article 192 of the New Criminal Procedural Law%论“有专门知识的人”参与刑事诉讼--兼论《刑事诉讼法》第192条

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈邦达

    2014-01-01

    “有专门知识的人”参与刑事诉讼的制度具有保障当事人对鉴定意见的质证权、辅助法官对是否采信鉴定意见作出判断、使重新鉴定申请和决定依据更加充分等功能和价值。其积极作用的奏效,亟待解决如下理论问题:“有专门知识的人”的诉讼地位、中立性、意见效力、选任资格及启动程序等。“有专门知识的人”应界定为“专家辅助人”,属于广义的诉讼参与人。他们具有倾向性的问题,要完善启动和选任程序,确保其客观公正地提出意见。可由各省高院牵头成立“专家库”,由法庭根据控辩要求从中择优聘请。“有专门知识的人”出庭的费用由司法经费出资以确保其立场中立。%The New Criminal Procedure Law has established the system regarding persons with expertise ,this system positively helps to enhance the function of cross-examination of forensic appraisals ,fill the knowledge gap between experts and judges ,provide sufficient basis in the application and decision of re-identification . However ,it faces some problems such as the status of “persons with expertise” in litigation is not clear ,nei-ther are its neutral position principle and its qualification .T he determination process of this system and the va-lidity of its testimony need to be further studied .Based on analysis ,it was strongly recommended that “persons with expertise”should be regarded as participants in litigation .It is necessary to emphasize its professional eth-ics so as to guarantee a sound mechanism .It is a wise decision for higher people’s courts to establish “expert database” so as to provide experts for judges according to requirements of both parties .In order to guarantee its neutral position ,the cost for“persons with expertise”appearing in court should be paid by the judicial budget .

  11. First-Person Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  12. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the starting rate of cannabis use, i.e. the transition to first cannabis use. We find that the decriminalization of...

  13. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  14. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  15. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  16. Environmental law: Course

    OpenAIRE

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  17. The Functions of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L

    1998-01-01

    We often think of law as fulfilling certain social functions; for instance, it is said to guide behaviour, maintain order, settle disputes, and provide benefits and services. In the social sciences, more general claims are also made that law stabilizes the dominant mode of production, promotes economic efficiency, secures patriarchy, and so on. 1 What do these claims mean, and what do they contribute to our understanding of law as a social institution? Those are the questions I want to explor...

  18. 20 CFR 405.350 - Presenting evidence at a hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....350 Presenting evidence at a hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) The right to appear and present evidence. You have a right to appear before the administrative law judge, either in person or... representative. (b) Admissible evidence. The administrative law judge may receive any evidence at the...

  19. 21 CFR 1003.5 - Effect of regulations on other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of regulations on other laws. 1003.5... Effect of regulations on other laws. The remedies provided for in this subchapter shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other remedies provided by law and shall not relieve any person...

  20. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...